Business Employment Dynamics

Business Employment Dynamics is a set of statistics generated from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages program. These quarterly data series consist of gross job gains and gross job losses statistics from 1992 forward. These data help to provide a picture of the dynamic state of the labor market.

With the processing of fourth quarter 2014 BED data, BLS implemented a new statistical matching process used in the longitudinal linking of Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) data. Tabulations from this quarter forward will reflect this new methodology. For additional details on this new methodology, please see the article "A Simplified Approach to Administrative Record Linkage in the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages" available at:

Additionally, all historical BED series back to third quarter 1992 have been revised with the release of first quarter 2015 data, for both seasonally adjusted and not seasonally adjusted series, to incorporate an administrative change in scope. These revisions are primarily due to the reclassification of a number of establishments from private households (NAICS 814110) to services for the elderly and persons with disabilities (NAICS 624120). Private households are not within the scope of BED and, as a result, those establishments impacted by this industry reclassification are now within scope.

New data from the Business Employment Dynamics program

NEW Research Data on Business Employment Dynamics by Age and Size

NEW Research Data on the Nonprofit Sector

NEW Entrepreneurship and the U.S. Economy

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Gross job gains 7.3 million and gross job losses 6.9 million in the 3rd quarter of 2015


In the third quarter of 2015, gross job gains from opening and expanding private sector establishments were 7.3 million. Gross job losses from closing and contracting private sector establishments were 6.9 million.



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Frequently Asked Questions

  1. What are Business Employment Dynamics?
  2. How are Business Employment Dynamics data calculated?
  3. What are the sources of Business Employment Dynamics?
  4. What is the scope of Business Employment Dynamics?
  5. What is not included in Business Employment Dynamics?
  6. What are the differences between Business Employment Dynamics data and Current Employment Statistics (CES) and the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), or ES-202, program data?
  7. What is the difference between Business Employment Dynamics and the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS)?
  8. What is the reference period?
  9. How is the net change in employment measured?
  10. How are the rates for gross job gains and losses calculated?
  11. How are establishments linked over time?
  12. What is seasonal adjustment?
  13. How are Business Employment Dynamics seasonally adjusted?
  14. What are openings?
  15. What are expansions?
  16. What are closings?
  17. What are contractions?
  18. Are the Business Employment Dynamics data from a survey?
  19. What are the uses of Business Employment Dynamics data?

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Office of Employment and Unemployment Statistics
Business Employment Dynamics
Suite 4840
2 Massachusetts Ave, NE
Washington, DC 20212-0001

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