Economic News Release

A Profile of the Working Poor, 1999

U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics February 2001 Report 947

In 1999, 32.3 million people, or 11.8 percent of the population, lived at or below the official poverty level-2.2 million fewer than in 1998. While most of these people were children and adults who did not participate in the labor force, some 6.8 million were classified as the "working poor." This was 362,000 fewer than in 1998, continuing a 6-year downtrend. The working poor are individuals who spent at least 27 weeks in the labor force (working or looking for work), but whose incomes fell below the official poverty level. Of all persons who worked 27 weeks or more, 5.1 percent were classified among the working poor in 1999, down 0.3 percentage point from the previous year. (See tables A and 1.)


Table A.  Poverty status of persons and primary families in the labor force 
for 27 weeks or more, 1996-99
(Numbers in thousands)
    Characteristic	           1996        1997       1998        1999
Total persons 1                 128,320     130,047    131,731     133,651
  In poverty		          7,421       7,453      7,158       6,796
  Poverty rate		            5.8         5.7        5.4         5.1
Unrelated individuals	         25,539      26,158     26,971      27,845
  In poverty		          2,423       2,534      2,281       2,272
  Poverty rate		            9.5         9.7        8.5         8.2
Primary families 2	         58,087      58,815     59,621      60,454
  In poverty		          4,084       4,068      4,019       3,755
  Poverty rate		            7.0         6.9        6.7         6.2
  1 Includes persons in families, not shown separately.
  2 Primary families with at least one member in the labor force for more than half of the year.

Working full time substantially lowers a person's probability of being poor. Among persons in the labor force for 27 weeks or more, 3.9 percent of those usually employed full time were in poverty, compared with 10.5 percent for part-time workers. Nonetheless, the majority of the working poor-64.0 percent-were full-time workers. Only a very small proportion of the working poor (3.5 percent) actively sought a job for more than 6 months in 1999 without finding any work, down from 5.1 percent in 1998.

This report presents data on the relationships between labor force activity and poverty in 1999 for individual workers and their families. The data were collected in the work experience and income supplement to the March 2000 Current Population Survey (CPS). For a more detailed description of the source of the data and an explanation of the concepts and definitions used in this report, see the technical note.

For persons living with family members, the earnings thresholds used to determine poverty status are defined in terms of family income, rather than personal income. Thus, for persons living in family situations, earnings from their employment are only one factor in their poverty status. Other important factors include the earnings of others in the family, other sources of income that family members might have, and the size of the family. For persons living alone or with unrelated individuals, personal income data are used in determining poverty status.

Demographic characteristics

Among those who were in the labor force for 27 weeks or more in 1999, the proportion of women classified as working poor (5.9 percent) was higher than that of men (4.4 percent). Both rates have fallen since the early 1990s; they had been as high as 7.3 percent for women and 6.2 percent for men as recently as 1993. As in earlier years, younger workers were most vulnerable to poverty, in part because earnings are lower and unemployment is higher for younger workers than for older workers. Among teenagers who were in the labor force for 27 weeks or more, 10.1 percent were in poverty, as were 10.6 percent of those aged 20 to 24. These rates were roughly double the rate for workers aged 35 to 44 (4.7 percent), and more than triple the rate for workers 45 to 54 years of age (2.8 percent). (See table 2.)

Black and Hispanic workers continued to experience poverty at much higher rates than did whites. In 1999, 4.3 percent of whites who were in the labor force for 27 weeks or more were classified as working poor, compared with 10.2 percent of blacks and 10.7 percent of Hispanics. Nonetheless, the vast majority of the working poor were white (70 percent) . Among whites and Hispanics, rates for men and women were comparable; however, the rate for black women (13.6 percent) was more than twice the rate for black men (6.2 percent). One explanation for this is that a relatively large proportion of black women maintain families. Nearly 30 percent of black women maintained families in 1999, compared with only about 10 percent of white women. As noted below, women maintaining families are far more likely to be among the working poor than are married women.

Working wives were less likely than working husbands to be poor, primarily because working wives were more likely to be in families with a second earner, usually a husband. (See "Family structure" below.) In 1999, 1.8 percent of married women who were in the labor force for 27 weeks or more were in poverty, compared with 3.2 percent of married men. In contrast, 19.2 percent of women who maintained families and who were in the labor force for at least 6 months were in poverty. (See table 5.)

Educational attainment

The risk of being among the working poor declines substantially for workers who complete high school. In 1999, 6.0 percent of workers with a high school diploma were in poverty, considerably lower than the proportion of those who had not completed high school (14.3 percent). Moreover, rates for workers with associate's and bachelor's degrees were even lower. At nearly all major educational attainment levels, women were more likely than men and blacks were more likely than whites to be among the working poor. (See table 3.)

Occupation

The likelihood of being among the working poor continued to vary widely by occupation in 1999. Nearly 11 percent of all workers who were in the labor force for at least 27 weeks and whose longest job over the year was in services were poor. Other occupations with relatively high proportions of workers in poverty included farming, forestry, and fishing (15.7 percent), and operators, fabricators, and laborers (6.9 percent). Rates were lowest for executives, administrators, and managers (1.7 percent) and for those employed as professional specialty workers (1.4 percent). These are occupations in which high earnings and full-time employment are typical. (See table 4.)

Family structure

Among families with at least one member in the labor force for 27 weeks or more, 3.8 million families, or 6.2 percent, had incomes below the poverty line in 1999, down from 6.7 percent in 1998. The poverty threshold for families reflects both the total family income and the number of family members; thus, the larger the family, the higher the level of income needed to keep the family out of poverty. The fact that the presence and number of young children can decrease the overall labor supply of a family also contributes to the relatively high incidence of poverty among families with children. In 1999, families with at least one child under age 18 continued to be much more likely to have incomes below the poverty level than did families without children (9.3 percent and 2.1 percent, respectively).

The more workers a family has, the less likely that family is to be living below the poverty line. For example, only 1.8 percent of families with two labor force participants and 1.1 percent of families with three or more participants were among the working poor. In contrast, 12.8 percent of families with only one member in the labor force for 27 weeks or more were in poverty. (See tables 5 and 6.)

Unrelated individuals

Unrelated individuals are persons who live either alone or with nonrelatives. Of the 27.8 million unrelated individuals who were in the labor force for 27 weeks or more in 1999, 2.3 million, or 8.2 percent, lived below the poverty level. This rate was down slightly from 8.5 percent in 1998. It should be noted that the poverty status of unrelated individuals, unlike that of family members, is determined by their personal incomes.

The living situations of unrelated individuals are characterized in one of two ways: some live by themselves, while some share housing with other, unrelated persons. Of those who were labor force participants for more than 6 months in 1999, persons living with unrelated individuals were twice as likely to be poor (11.3 percent) as were those living alone (5.4 percent). Unrelated individuals with low incomes often live with others in order to share expenses and pool resources. Because their poverty status is not determined by household income, the poverty measure for these unrelated individuals may overstate their actual economic hardship. Conversely, many of those who live alone do so because they have sufficient incomes to support themselves. (See table 7.)

Labor market problems

As noted above, people who usually work full time-that is, 35 hours or more per week-are far less likely to live in poverty than are others. However, there remains a sizable group of full-time workers who live below the poverty threshold. Among those who participated in the labor force for more than half of the year and who usually worked in full-time wage and salary jobs, 3.6 million, or 3.4 percent, were classified as working poor in 1999. The proportion has been on a downward trend since 1994. (See table 8.)

There are three primary labor market problems experienced by these full-time workers: Low earnings, periods of unemployment, and involuntary part-time employment. (See definitions of these problems in the technical note.) About 4 out of 5 of the working poor who usually worked full time experienced at least one of these major labor market problems. Low earnings continued to be the most common problem encountered-68.2 percent faced low earnings, either alone or in conjunction with other labor market problems. Nearly 35 percent of the working poor experienced unemployment, either alone or in conjunction with other problems. Only 4.3 percent experienced all three problems-low earnings, unemployment, and involuntary part-time employment.

Some 606,000, or 16.8 percent, of these working poor did not experience any of the three primary labor market problems in 1999. Their classification as working poor may be explained by other factors, including short-term employment, some weeks of voluntary part-time work, or a family structure that increases the risk of poverty.

Technical Note

Source of data

The primary source of data in this report is the work experience and income supplement (the Annual Demographic Survey) to the March 2000 Current Population Survey (CPS). The CPS is a monthly survey of about 50,000 households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics to collect demographic, social, and economic information about persons 16 years of age and older. Work experience and income information collected in the March supplement refers to activity in the entire prior calendar year.

The estimates in this report are based on a sample and, consequently, may differ from figures that would have been obtained from a complete count using the same questionnaire and procedures. Sampling variability may be relatively large in cases where the numbers are small. Thus, small estimates, or small differences between estimates, should be interpreted with caution. For a detailed explanation of the March supplement to the Current Population Survey, its sampling variability, and more extensive definitions than those provided below, see "Poverty in the United States: 1999-Current Population Reports," series P-60, no. 210 (U.S. Census Bureau, September 2000). This publication also is available on the U.S. Census Bureau website (http://www.census.gov).

Information in this report will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: 1-800-877-8339. This material is in the public domain and, with appropriate credit, may be reproduced without permission.

For more information on the data provided in this report, write to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Division of Labor Force Statistics, Room 4675, 2 Massachusetts Avenue, NE, Washington, DC 20212; e-mail: cpsinfo@bls.gov; or telephone (202) 691-6378.

Concepts and definitions

Poverty classification.

Poverty statistics presented in this report are based on definitions developed by the Social Security Administration in 1964 and revised by Federal interagency committees in 1969 and 1981. These definitions originally were based on the Department of Agriculture's Economy Food Plan and reflected the different consumption requirements of families, based on factors such as family size and the number of children under 18 years of age.

The actual poverty thresholds vary in accordance with the makeup of the family. In 1999, the average poverty threshold for a family of four was $17,029; for a family of nine or more persons, the threshold was $34,417; and for an unrelated individual aged 65 or older, it was $7,990. Poverty thresholds are updated each year to reflect changes in the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U). The thresholds do not vary geographically. For more information, see Poverty in the United States: 1999, cited above.

Low earnings.

The low earnings level, as first developed in 1987, represented the average of the real value of the minimum wage between 1967 and 1987 for a 40-hour workweek. The base year of 1967 was chosen because that was the first year in which minimum-wage legislation covered essentially the same broad group of workers who currently are covered. The low earnings level has subsequently been adjusted each year using the CPI-U, so that the measure maintains the same real value that it held in 1987. In 1999, the low earnings threshold was $245.21 per week. For a more complete definition, see Bruce W. Klein and Philip L. Rones, "A profile of the working poor," Monthly Labor Review, October 1989, pp. 3-13.

Income.

Data on income are limited to money income received in the calendar year preceding the March survey date, before personal income taxes and payroll deductions. They do not include the value of noncash benefits such as Food Stamps, medicare, medicaid, public housing, and employer-provided benefits. For a complete definition of the income concept, see Poverty in the United States: 1999, cited above.

In the labor force.

Persons in the labor force are those who worked or looked for work sometime during the calendar year preceding the March survey date. The number of weeks in the labor force is accumulated over the entire year. The focus in this report is on persons in the labor force for 27 weeks or more.

Involuntary part-time workers.

These are persons who, in at least 1 week of the year, worked fewer than 35 hours because of slack work or business conditions, or because they could not find full-time work. The number of weeks of involuntary part-time work is accumulated over the year.

Occupation.

Refers to the occupation in which a person worked the most weeks during the calendar year.

Unemployed.

Unemployed persons are those who looked for work while not employed or those who were on layoff from a job and expecting recall. The number of weeks unemployed is accumulated over the entire year.

Family.

A family is defined as a group of two or more persons residing together who are related by birth, marriage, or adoption. Persons in related subfamilies-married couples or parent-child groups sharing the living quarters of another family member-are included as members of that family and are not distinct family units. The count of families used in this report does not include unrelated subfamilies, such as lodgers, guests, or resident employees living in a household but not related to the householder (the person in whose name the housing unit is owned or rented). Families are classified either as married-couple families or as those maintained by men or women without spouses present. Family status is determined at the time of the March interview, and thus may be different from that of the previous year.

Unrelated individuals.

These are persons who are not living with any relatives. Such individuals may be living alone, reside in a nonrelated family household, or live in group quarters with other unrelated individuals.

Related children.

Data on related children refer to own children (including sons, daughters, and step- or adopted children) of the husband, wife, or person maintaining the family and all other children related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption.

Race.

White, black, and "other" are terms used to describe the race of workers. Included in the "other" group are American Indians, Alaskan Natives, and Asians and Pacific Islanders. Because of the relatively small sample size, data for this group are not separately tabulated or published.

Hispanic origin.

This term refers to persons who identify themselves in the CPS enumeration process as Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or of some other Hispanic origin or descent. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race; thus, they also are included in both the white and black population groups.

Thomas M. Beers, formerly an economist in the Division of Labor Force Statistics, Bureau of Labor Statistics, prepared this report.


Table 1.  Persons in the labor force: Poverty status and work experience by weeks in the labor force, 1999
(Numbers in thousands)


										27 weeks or more in the labor force
            Poverty status and work experience               Total in the labor
                                                                   force
                                                                                         Total             50 to 52 weeks

                          TOTAL

  Total in labor force....................................        149,042               133,651               119,376
    Did not work during the year..........................          1,503                   547                   476
    Worked during the year................................        147,539               133,104               118,901
      Usual full-time workers.............................        118,368               111,992               103,620
      Usual part-time workers.............................         29,171                21,111                15,281
        Involuntary part-time workers.....................          3,717                 2,956                 2,333
        Voluntary part-time workers.......................         25,454                18,155                12,947

                At or above poverty level

  Total in labor force....................................        139,376               126,855               113,989
    Did not work during the year..........................            940                   311                   273
    Worked during the year................................        138,436               126,544               113,716
      Usual full-time workers.............................        112,692               107,644               100,073
      Usual part-time workers.............................         25,744                18,900                13,643
        Involuntary part-time workers.....................          2,854                 2,333                 1,830
        Voluntary part-time workers.......................         22,890                16,568                11,813

                   Below poverty level

  Total in labor force....................................          9,666                 6,796                 5,387
    Did not work during the year..........................            563                   236                   202
    Worked during the year................................          9,103                 6,559                 5,185
      Usual full-time workers.............................          5,676                 4,348                 3,547
      Usual part-time workers.............................          3,427                 2,211                 1,638
        Involuntary part-time workers.....................            863                   624                   504
        Voluntary part-time workers.......................          2,564                 1,587                 1,134

                     Poverty rate(1)

  Total in labor force....................................           6.5                   5.1                   4.5
    Did not work during the year..........................          37.5                  43.2                  42.5
    Worked during the year................................           6.2                   4.9                   4.4
      Usual full-time workers.............................           4.8                   3.9                   3.4
      Usual part-time workers.............................          11.7                  10.5                  10.7
        Involuntary part-time workers.....................          23.2                  21.1                  21.6
        Voluntary part-time workers.......................          10.1                   8.7                   8.8
  1 Number below the poverty level as a percent of the total in the labor force.
  NOTE:  Data refer to persons 16 years and older.  Data for 1999, which were collected in the March 2000 supplement to the
Current Population Survey, are not strictly comparable with data for 1998 and earlier years because of the introduction in
January 2000 of revised population controls used in the survey. For additional information, see "Revisions in the Current
Population Survey Effective January 2000" in the February 2000 issue of Employment and Earnings.



Table 2.  Persons in the labor force for 27 weeks or more: Poverty status by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin, 1999
(Numbers in thousands)


                                                                      Below poverty level             Poverty rate(1)
                                                        Hispanic
          Age and sex             Total   White   Black  origin
                                                                  Total  White  Black Hispanic  Total  White  Black Hispanic
                                                                                       origin                        origin 
                                                                                                                            
    Total, 16 years and older... 133,651 111,714 15,698   13,971  6,796  4,830  1,596    1,496    5.1    4.3   10.2    10.7
16 to 19 years..................   5,207   4,405    596      622    527    365    127       93   10.1    8.3   21.4    15.0
20 to 24 years..................  12,412  10,240  1,675    1,866  1,312    894    367      253   10.6    8.7   21.9    13.6
25 to 34 years..................  30,695  24,839  4,096    4,178  1,835  1,290    433      486    6.0    5.2   10.6    11.6
35 to 44 years..................  36,945  30,612  4,564    3,917  1,726  1,246    387      417    4.7    4.1    8.5    10.7
45 to 54 years..................  29,965  25,468  3,158    2,255    851    631    165      167    2.8    2.5    5.2     7.4
55 to 64 years..................  14,066  12,240  1,271      938    419    313     89       64    3.0    2.6    7.0     6.8
65 years and older..............   4,361   3,909    338      195    127     91     27       15    2.9    2.3    8.0     7.7

    Men, 16 years and older.....  71,790  61,163  7,260    8,267  3,165  2,526    447      898    4.4    4.1    6.2    10.9
16 to 19 years..................   2,700   2,312    264      383    234    183     29       60    8.7    7.9   10.9    15.6
20 to 24 years..................   6,488   5,487    741    1,152    575    438    115      156    8.9    8.0   15.5    13.5
25 to 34 years..................  16,728  13,865  1,899    2,558    852    707     93      315    5.1    5.1    4.9    12.3
35 to 44 years..................  19,949  16,877  2,153    2,254    833    674    119      243    4.2    4.0    5.5    10.8
45 to 54 years..................  15,764  13,594  1,455    1,253    402    311     52       91    2.5    2.3    3.5     7.3
55 to 64 years..................   7,595   6,704    582      546    200    159     30       28    2.6    2.4    5.2     5.1
65 years and older..............   2,566   2,325    166      122     69     53     10        6    2.7    2.3    5.8     4.9

    Women, 16 years and older...  61,861  50,551  8,438    5,704  3,631  2,303  1,149      598    5.9    4.6   13.6    10.5
16 to 19 years..................   2,507   2,093    332      239    293    181     99       34   11.7    8.7   29.7    14.1
20 to 24 years..................   5,924   4,753    934      714    737    456    252       98   12.4    9.6   27.0    13.7
25 to 34 years..................  13,967  10,975  2,197    1,620    983    582    340      172    7.0    5.3   15.5    10.6
35 to 44 years..................  16,996  13,735  2,411    1,663    893    571    269      174    5.3    4.2   11.1    10.5
45 to 54 years..................  14,201  11,874  1,703    1,002    450    320    114       76    3.2    2.7    6.7     7.6
55 to 64 years..................   6,472   5,537    689      393    219    154     58       36    3.4    2.8    8.5     9.2
65 years and older..............   1,795   1,584    172       73     57     38     17        9    3.2    2.4   10.1    (2)
  1 Number below the poverty level as a percent of the total in the labor force for 27 weeks or more.
  2 Data not shown where base is less than 75,000.
  NOTE: Detail for race and Hispanic-origin groups will not sum to totals because data for the "other races" group are not
presented and Hispanics are included in both the white and black population groups.  Data for 1999, which were collected in
the March 2000 supplement to the Current Population Survey, are not strictly comparable with data for 1998 and earlier years
because of the introduction in January 2000 of revised population controls used in the survey. For additional information,
see "Revisions in the Current Population Survey Effective January 2000" in the February 2000 issue of Employment and
Earnings.



Table 3.  Persons in the labor force for 27 weeks or more: Poverty status by educational attainment, race, and sex, 1999
(Numbers in thousands)


									    Below poverty level	    Poverty rate(1)
       Educational attainment and race		Total	 Men	Women

									 Total	 Men	 Women	 Total	 Men	 Women

    Total, 16 years and older................	133,651	 71,790	 61,861	 6,796	 3,165	 3,631	 5.1	 4.4	 5.9
Less than a high school diploma..............	 15,991	  9,728	  6,263	 2,287	 1,257	 1,030	14.3	12.9	16.4
  Less than 1 year of high school............	  4,589	  2,999	  1,591	   701	   446	   255	15.3	14.9	16.1
  1-3 years of high school...................	  9,914	  5,861	  4,054	 1,412	   720	   692	14.2	12.3	17.1
  4 years of high school, no diploma.........	  1,487	    868	    619	   174	    91	    83	11.7	10.5	13.3
High school graduates, no college............	 42,601	 22,904	 19,697	 2,535	 1,042	 1,493	 6.0	 4.6	 7.6
Some college, no degree......................	 27,294	 13,840	 13,454	 1,192	   486	   706	 4.4	 3.5	 5.2
Associate degree.............................	 11,146	  5,334	  5,812	   319	   122	   196	 2.9	 2.3	 3.4
College graduates............................	 36,619	 19,984  16,635	   463	   257	   206	 1.3	 1.3	 1.2

      White, 16 years and older..............	111,714	 61,163	 50,551	 4,830	 2,526	 2,303	 4.3	 4.1	 4.6
Less than a high school diploma..............	 13,046	  8,160	  4,887	 1,650	 1,019	   632	12.6	12.5	12.9
  Less than 1 year of high school............	  3,967	  2,660	  1,307	   592	   410	   182	14.9	15.4	13.9
  1-3 years of high school...................	  7,954	  4,822	  3,132	   944	   545	   399	11.9	11.3	12.8
  4 years of high school, no diploma.........	  1,126	    678	    448	   114	    64	    50	10.1	 9.4	11.3
High school graduates, no college............	 35,536	 19,448	 16,088	 1,758	   816	   942	 4.9	 4.2	 5.9
Some college, no degree......................	 22,412	 11,605	 10,807	   844	   377	   467	 3.8	 3.2	 4.3
Associate degree.............................	  9,507	  4,646	  4,861	   213	    93	   119	 2.2	 2.0	 2.5
College graduates............................	 31,213	 17,304	 13,908	   365	   222	   143	 1.2	 1.3	 1.0

      Black, 16 years and older..............	 15,698	  7,260	  8,438	 1,596	   447	 1,149	10.2	 6.2	13.6
Less than a high school diploma..............	  2,206	  1,126	  1,080	   517	   168	   349	23.4	14.9	32.3
  Less than 1 year of high school............	    365	    213	    151	    74	    17	    57	20.2	 7.8	37.7
  1-3 years of high school...................	  1,585	    785	    800	   399	   134	   264	25.2	17.1	33.0
  4 years of high school, no diploma.........	    257	    128	    128	    44	    17	    27	17.3	13.5	21.1
High school graduates, no college............	  5,632	  2,733	  2,899	   668	   177	   491	11.9	 6.5	17.0
Some college, no degree......................	  3,790	  1,644	  2,146	   276	    71	   205	 7.3	 4.3	 9.6
Associate degree.............................	  1,172	    457	    715	    81	    14	    67	 6.9	 3.1	 9.4
College graduates............................	  2,898	  1,299	  1,598	    54	    17	    37	 1.9	 1.3	 2.3
  1 Number below the poverty level as a percent of the total in the labor force for 27 weeks or more.
  NOTE: Data for 1999, which were collected in the March 2000 supplement to the Current Population Survey, are not 
strictly comparable with data for 1998 and earlier years because of the introduction in January 2000 of revised 
population controls used in the survey. For additional information, see "Revisions in the Current Population 
Survey Effective January 2000" in the February 2000 issue of Employment and Earnings.



Table 4.  Persons in the labor force for 27 weeks or more who worked during the year: Poverty status by occupation of 
longest job held, race, and sex, 1999
(Numbers in thousands)


									    Below poverty level	    Poverty rate(1)
       Occupation and race		Total	 Men	 Women
 
									 Total	 Men	 Women	 Total	 Men	 Women

    Total, 16 years and older(2)...............	133,104	 71,451	 61,652	 6,559	 3,017	 3,543	 4.9	 4.2	 5.7

Managerial and professional specialty..........	 39,908	 20,235	 19,674	   611	   289	   322	 1.5	 1.4	 1.6
  Executive, administrative, and managerial....	 19,857	 10,917	  8,940	   339	   182	   157	 1.7	 1.7	 1.8
  Professional specialty.......................	 20,051	  9,318	 10,734	   272	   107	   165	 1.4	 1.1	 1.5
Technical, sales, and administrative support...	 38,875	 13,879	 24,996	 1,610	   387	 1,222	 4.1	 2.8	 4.9
  Technicians and related support..............	  4,495	  2,076	  2,419	    79	    43	    36	 1.8	 2.1	 1.5
  Sales occupations............................	 15,969	  8,069	  7,900	   955	   249	   705	 6.0	 3.1	 8.9
  Administrative support, including clerical...	 18,411	  3,735	 14,676	   576	    95	   482	 3.1	 2.5	 3.3
Service occupations............................	 17,928	  7,335	 10,593	 1,937	   570	 1,367	10.8	 7.8	12.9
  Private household............................	    848	     46	    803	   199	     9	   190	23.4	  (3)	23.6
  Protective service...........................	  2,381	  1,964	    417	    76	    47	    29	 3.2	 2.4	 6.9
  Service, except private household and
   protective..................................	 14,699	  5,325	  9,374	 1,662	   514	 1,148	11.3	 9.6	12.3
Precision production, craft, and repair........	 14,543	 13,155	  1,388	   621	   537	    85	 4.3	 4.1	 6.1
Operators, fabricators, and laborers...........	 18,418	 14,090	  4,328	 1,263	   830	   432	 6.9	 5.9	10.0
  Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors	  7,524	  4,811	  2,714	   483	   235	   248	 6.4	 4.9	 9.1
  Transportation and material moving
   occupations.................................	  5,638	  5,059	    579	   278	   228	    50	 4.9	 4.5	 8.6
  Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and
   laborers....................................	  5,256	  4,221	  1,036	   502	   367	   135	 9.5	 8.7	13.0
Farming, forestry, and fishing.................	  3,294	  2,642	    652	   518	   404	   114	15.7	15.3	17.4

      White, 16 years and older(2).............	111,384	 60,949	 50,435	 4,705	 2,438	 2,267	 4.2	 4.0	 4.5

Managerial and professional specialty..........	 34,291	 17,754	 16,537	   494	   257	   236	 1.4	 1.4	 1.4
  Executive, administrative, and managerial....	 17,311	  9,805	  7,505	   283	   164	   118	 1.6	 1.7	 1.6
  Professional specialty.......................	 16,980	  7,948	  9,032	   211	    93	   118	 1.2	 1.2	 1.3
Technical, sales, and administrative support...	 32,774	 11,922	 20,852	 1,061	   318	   743	 3.2	 2.7	 3.6
  Technicians and related support..............	  3,738	  1,743	  1,995	    63	    43	    20	 1.7	 2.5	 1.0
  Sales occupations............................	 13,892	  7,241	  6,651	   618	   206	   412	 4.4	 2.8	 6.2
  Administrative support, including clerical...	 15,144	  2,939	 12,206	   380	    68	   311	 2.5	 2.3	 2.6
Service occupations............................	 13,613	  5,636	  7,977	 1,266	   403	   863	 9.3	 7.1	10.8
  Private household............................	    634	     29	    605	   133	     3	   130	21.0	  (3)	21.5
  Protective service...........................	  1,805	  1,544	    261	    34	    20	    14	 1.9	 1.3	 5.5
  Service, except private household and
   protective..................................	 11,173	  4,062	  7,112	 1,098	    380	   719	 9.8	 9.4	10.1
Precision production, craft, and repair........	 12,845	 11,689	  1,157	   522	    460	    62	 4.1	 3.9	 5.4
Operators, fabricators, and laborers...........	 14,654	 11,381	  3,274	   888	    634	   254	 6.1	 5.6	 7.8
  Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors	  5,971	  3,919	  2,052	   325	    174	   151	 5.4	 4.4	 7.4
  Transportation and material moving
   occupations.................................	  4,551	  4,108	    443	   209	    180	    29	 4.6	 4.4	 6.5
  Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and
   laborers....................................	  4,132	  3,353	    779	   354	    280	    74	 8.6	 8.3	 9.5
Farming, forestry, and fishing.................	  3,098	  2,475	    623	   473	    365	   108	15.3	14.8	17.3

      Black, 16 years and older(2).............	 15,528	  7,165	  8,363	 1,502	    402	 1,100	 9.7	 5.6	13.1

Managerial and professional specialty..........	  3,352	  1,270	  2,082	    76	     17	    59	 2.3	 1.4	 2.8
  Executive, administrative, and managerial....	  1,547	    620	    927	    35	      7	    28	 2.3	 1.1	 3.1
  Professional specialty.......................	  1,805	    650	  1,155	    40	     10	    30	 2.2	 1.6	 2.6
Technical, sales, and administrative support...	  4,401	  1,219	  3,182	   457	     39	   419	10.4	 3.2	13.2
  Technicians and related support..............	    495	    181	    314	    12	      0	    12	 2.3	 0.0	 3.7
  Sales occupations............................	  1,374	    484	    889	   282	     19	   263	20.5	 4.0	29.5
  Administrative support, including clerical...	  2,532	    553	  1,979	   164	     20	   145	 6.5	 3.5	 7.3
Service occupations............................	  3,415	  1,280	  2,135	   577	    126	   451	16.9	 9.8	21.1
  Private household............................	    156	      8	    147	    58	      6	    52	37.2	  (3)	35.2
  Protective service...........................	    508	    360	    148	    38	     24	    14	 7.4	 6.5	 9.5
  Service, except private household and
   protective..................................	  2,751	    912	  1,839	   481	     96	   385	17.5	10.6	20.9
Precision production, craft, and repair........	  1,273	  1,116	    157	    65	     46	    19	 5.1	 4.1	11.9
Operators, fabricators, and laborers...........	  2,930	  2,144	    785	   292	    144	   147	10.0	 6.7	18.8
  Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors	  1,113	    648	    465	   126	     48	    79	11.3	 7.3	16.9
  Transportation and material moving
   occupations.................................	    925	    802	    122	    54	     33	    21	 5.9	 4.1	17.3
  Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and
   laborers....................................	    892	    694	    198	   111	     64	    48	12.5	 9.2	24.0
Farming, forestry, and fishing.................	    132	    117	     15	    35	     30	     5	26.9	25.6	  (3)
  1 Number below the poverty level as a percent of the total in the labor force who worked during the year.
  2 Includes a small number of persons whose last job was in the Armed Forces.
  3 Data not shown where base is less than 75,000.
  NOTE:  Data for 1999, which were collected in the March 2000 supplement to the Current Population Survey, are not 
strictly comparable with data for 1998 and earlier years because of the introduction in January 2000 of revised 
population controls used in the survey. For additional information, see "Revisions in the Current Population 
Survey Effective January 2000" in the February 2000 issue of Employment and Earnings.



Table 5.  Persons in families and unrelated individuals: Poverty status and work experience, 1999
(Numbers in thousands)


					  In married-couple families	 In families maintained  In families maintained
										by women		by men	       Unre-
  Poverty status and work	Total										       lated
    experience			persons										       indi-
					 Hus-		Related  Other   House- Related  Other  House- Related  Other  vi-
					 bands	 Wives  children rela-   holder children rela-  holder children rela-  duals
							under 18 tives          under 18 tives         under 18 tives


             TOTAL

      All persons(1)........... 209,067  54,714  55,247  5,475   17,180  12,669  1,760   9,763  4,003   429     3,832  43,996
  With labor force activity.... 149,042  43,850  36,715  2,576   12,719   9,370    767   6,712  3,224   168     2,740  30,200
    1 to 26 weeks..............  15,391   1,574   3,774  1,560    3,001     941    498   1,104    194    82       308   2,355
    27 weeks or more........... 133,651  42,276  32,941  1,016    9,718   8,429    269   5,607  3,030    87     2,432  27,845
  With no labor force activity.  60,025  10,864  18,532  2,900    4,461   3,298    993   3,051    779   261     1,091  13,796

   At or above poverty level

      All persons(1)........... 187,707  52,059  52,575  5,063   16,402   9,144  1,218   8,289  3,531   371     3,548  35,508
  With labor force activity.... 139,376  42,304  35,842  2,488   12,414   7,153    608   6,087  2,944   152     2,614  26,770
    1 to 26 weeks..............  12,521   1,396   3,493  1,513    2,896     342    380     856    124    73       252   1,197
    27 weeks or more........... 126,855  40,909  32,349    975    9,519   6,811    228   5,231  2,820    79     2,362  25,573
  With no labor force activity.  48,331   9,754  16,733  2,575    3,987   1,991    610   2,202    588   219       934   8,738

      Below poverty level

      All persons(1)...........  21,360   2,655   2,672    413      778   3,525    542   1,474    472    58       284   8,488
  With labor force activity....   9,666   1,546     873     88      305   2,218    159     625    280    16       126   3,430
    1 to 26 weeks..............   2,871     179     282     47      105     599    118     248     70     9        56   1,159
    27 weeks or more...........   6,796   1,367     592     41      200   1,618     41     377    211     7        69   2,272
  With no labor force activity.  11,694   1,110   1,798    325      474   1,307    383     849    191    42       158   5,058

        Poverty rate(2)

      All persons(1)...........    10.2     4.9     4.8    7.5      4.5    27.8   30.8    15.1   11.8  13.5       7.4    19.3
  With labor force activity....     6.5     3.5     2.4    3.4      2.4    23.7   20.7     9.3    8.7   9.5       4.6    11.4
    1 to 26 weeks..............    18.7    11.3     7.5    3.0      3.5    63.7   23.7    22.5   35.9  10.6      18.3    49.2
    27 weeks or more...........     5.1     3.2     1.8    4.1      2.1    19.2   15.3     6.7    7.0   8.4       2.9     8.2
  With no labor force activity.    19.5    10.2     9.7   11.2     10.6    39.6   38.6    27.8   24.6  16.1      14.5    36.7
  1 Data on families include persons in primary families and unrelated subfamilies.
  2 Number below the poverty level as a percent of the total.
  NOTE:  Data refer to persons 16 years and older.  Data for 1999, which were collected in the March 2000 supplement to the
Current Population Survey, are not strictly comparable with data for 1998 and earlier years because of the introduction in 
January 2000 of revised population controls used in the survey. For additional information, see "Revisions in the Current
Population Survey Effective January in the February 2000 issue of Employment and Earnings.



Table 6.  Primary families: Poverty status, presence of related children, and work experience of family members in the
labor force for 27 weeks or more, 1999
(Numbers in thousands)


                      Characteristic                                        At or above   Below poverty     Poverty
                                                           Total families  poverty level      level         rate(1)

        Total primary families............................      60,454         56,699          3,755           6.2

With related children under 18............................      34,542         31,337          3,205           9.3
Without children..........................................      25,912         25,362            550           2.1

With one member in the labor force........................      24,649         21,506          3,143          12.8
With two or more members in the labor force...............      35,805         35,193            612           1.7
  With two members........................................      29,970         29,421            550           1.8
  With three or more members..............................       5,835          5,772             62           1.1

Married-couple families:

  With related children under 18..........................      25,658         24,314          1,343           5.2
  Without children........................................      21,158         20,845            313           1.5

  With one member in the labor force......................      15,285         14,083          1,202           7.9
    Husband...............................................      11,413         10,476            937           8.2
    Wife..................................................       3,175          2,967            207           6.5
    Relative..............................................         698            639             58           8.4
  With two or more members in the labor force.............      31,530         31,076            454           1.4
    With two members......................................      26,518         26,112            406           1.5
    With three or more members............................       5,012          4,964             48           1.0

Families maintained by women:

  With related children under 18..........................       6,920          5,269          1,651          23.9
  Without children........................................       3,154          2,973            181           5.7

  With one member in the labor force......................       7,189          5,498          1,691          23.5
    Householder...........................................       5,870          4,380          1,490          25.4
    Relative..............................................       1,319          1,118            201          15.2
  With two or more members in the labor force.............       2,885          2,744            141           4.9

Families maintained by men:

  With related children under 18..........................       1,965          1,754            211          10.7
  Without children........................................       1,600          1,543             56           3.5

  With one member in the labor force......................       2,175          1,925            250          11.5
    Householder...........................................       1,795          1,602            193          10.8
    Relative..............................................         380            323             57          14.9
  With two or more members in the labor force.............       1,390          1,372             18           1.3
  1 Number below the poverty level as a percent of the total in the labor force for 27 weeks or more.
  NOTE:  Data relate to primary families with at least one member in the labor force for 27 weeks or more.  Data for
1999, which were collected in the March 2000 supplement to the Current Population Survey, are not strictly comparable
with data for 1998 and earlier years because of the introduction in January 2000 of revised population controls used
in the survey. For additional information, see "Revisions in the Current Population Survey Effective January 2000 in
the February 2000 issue of Employment and Earnings.



Table 7.  Unrelated individuals in the labor force for 27 weeks or more: Poverty status by age, sex,
race, Hispanic origin, and living arrangement, 1999
(Numbers in thousands)


             Characteristic                   Total       At or above   Below poverty     Poverty
                                                         poverty level      level         rate(1)


              Age and sex

       Total unrelated individuals......      27,845         25,573          2,272           8.2
16 to 19 years..........................         621            400            221          35.6
20 to 24 years..........................       3,608          2,986            622          17.2
25 to 64 years..........................      22,435         21,069          1,367           6.1
65 years and older......................       1,180          1,118             62           5.3

Men.....................................      15,362         14,214          1,148           7.5
Women...................................      12,483         11,360          1,124           9.0

        Race and Hispanic origin

White...................................      23,069         21,258          1,811           7.8
   Men..................................      12,777         11,823            955           7.5
   Women................................      10,291          9,435            856           8.3

Black...................................       3,642          3,262            381          10.5
   Men..................................       1,930          1,775            155           8.0
   Women................................       1,713          1,487            226          13.2

Hispanic origin.........................       2,283          1,998            286          12.5
   Men..................................       1,521          1,349            172          11.3
   Women................................         762            649            113          14.9

           Living arrangement

Living alone............................      14,765         13,969            796           5.4
Living with others......................      13,080         11,604          1,476          11.3
  1 Number below the poverty level as a percent of the total in the labor force for 27 weeks or
more.
  NOTE: Detail for race and Hispanic-origin groups will not sum to totals because data for the
"other races" group are not presented and Hispanics are included in both the white and black
population groups.  Data for 1999, which were collected in the March 2000 supplement to the Current
Population Survey, are not strictly comparable with data for 1998 and earlier years because of the
introduction in January 2000 of revised population controls used in the survey. For additional
information, see "Revisions in the Current Population Survey Effective January 2000" in the February
2000 issue of Employment and Earnings.



Table 8.  Persons in the labor force for 27 weeks or more: Poverty status and labor market problems of full-time
wage and salary workers, 1999
(Numbers in thousands)


                                                                             At or above     Below       Poverty
           Poverty status and labor market problems                Total       poverty      poverty      rate(1)
                                                                                level        level

     Total, full-time wage and salary workers.................    104,968      101,369        3,599         3.4

No unemployment, involuntary part-time employment, or low
   earnings(2)................................................     86,868       86,262          606          .7

Unemployment only.............................................      5,320        4,907          413         7.8
Involuntary part-time employment only.........................      2,025        1,983           42         2.1
Low earnings only.............................................      7,444        5,939        1,505        20.2

Unemployment and involuntary part-time employment.............        883          800           83         9.4
Unemployment and low earnings.................................      1,426          820          606        42.5
Involuntary part-time employment and low earnings.............        623          435          189        30.3

Unemployment, involuntary part-time employment, and low
   earnings...................................................        377          222          155        41.1
  1 Number below the poverty level as a percent of the total in the labor force for 27 weeks or more
  2 The low earnings threshold in 1999 was $245.21 per week.
  NOTE:  Data refer to persons 16 years and older.  Data for 1999, which were collected in the March 2000
supplement to the Current Population Survey, are not strictly comparable with data for 1998 and earlier years
because of the introduction in January 2000 of revised population controls used in the survey. For additional
information, see "Revisions in the Current Population Survey Effective January 2000" in the February 2000 issue of
Employment and Earnings.

Last Modified Date: August 1, 2008

Recommend this page using: