Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey

Characteristics of Minimum Wage Workers: 2003

Tables 1 - 10

Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage, 2003 annual averages:

  1. by selected characteristics
  2. by census region and division
  3. by State
  4. by major occupation group
  5. by major industry group
  6. by educational attainment
  7. by age and sex
  8. by marital status, age, and sex
  9. by usual hours worked per week
  10. by sex (1979-2003 annual averages)

Table 1. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by selected characteristics, 2003 annual averages
Characteristic Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 At or below $5.15
Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15
AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

72,946 2,100 545 1,555 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.9 0.7 2.1

16 to 24 years

15,871 1,106 330 776 21.8 52.7 60.6 49.9 7.0 2.1 4.9

16 to 19 years

5,412 534 212 322 7.4 25.4 38.9 20.7 9.9 3.9 5.9

25 years and over

57,075 995 215 780 78.2 47.4 39.4 50.2 1.7 0.4 1.4

Men, 16 years and over

35,853 706 213 493 49.2 33.6 39.1 31.7 2.0 0.6 1.4

16 to 24 years

8,031 391 154 237 11.0 18.6 28.3 15.2 4.9 1.9 3.0

16 to 19 years

2,608 205 109 96 3.6 9.8 20.0 6.2 7.9 4.2 3.7

25 years and over

27,823 314 58 256 38.1 15.0 10.6 16.5 1.1 0.2 0.9

Women, 16 years and over

37,093 1,394 332 1,062 50.8 66.4 60.9 68.3 3.8 0.9 2.9

16 to 24 years

7,841 713 175 538 10.7 34.0 32.1 34.6 9.1 2.2 6.9

16 to 19 years

2,804 329 103 226 3.8 15.7 18.9 14.5 11.7 3.7 8.1

25 years and over

29,252 681 157 524 40.1 32.4 28.8 33.7 2.3 0.5 1.8
RACE, SEX, AND HISPANIC OR LATINO ORIGIN

White (1)

59,109 1,746 421 1,325 81.0 83.1 77.2 85.2 3.0 0.7 2.2

Men

29,441 553 163 390 40.4 26.3 29.9 25.1 1.9 0.6 1.3

Women

29,668 1,192 257 935 40.7 56.8 47.2 60.1 4.0 0.9 3.2

Black (1)

9,419 250 105 145 12.9 11.9 19.3 9.3 2.7 1.1 1.5

Men

4,246 112 41 71 5.8 5.3 7.5 4.6 2.6 1.0 1.7

Women

5,173 138 64 74 7.1 6.6 11.7 4.8 2.7 1.2 1.4

Asian (1)

2,528 51 5 46 3.5 2.4 0.9 3.0 2.0 0.2 1.8

Men

1,208 22 2 20 1.7 1.0 0.4 1.3 1.8 0.2 1.7

Women

1,320 29 3 26 1.8 1.4 0.6 1.7 2.2 0.2 2.0

Hispanic or Latino (1)

11,462 308 94 214 15.7 14.7 17.2 13.8 2.7 0.8 1.9

Men

6,775 128 39 89 9.3 6.1 7.2 5.7 1.9 0.6 1.3

Women

4,687 180 55 125 6.4 8.6 10.1 8.0 3.8 1.2 2.7
FULL- AND PART-TIME STATUS AND SEX

Full-time workers (2)

54,887 795 156 639 75.2 37.9 28.6 41.1 1.4 0.3 1.2

Men

30,141 303 60 243 41.3 14.4 11.0 15.6 1.0 0.2 0.8

Women

24,745 493 97 396 33.9 23.5 17.8 25.5 2.0 0.4 1.6

Part-time workers (2)

17,932 1,298 388 910 24.6 61.8 71.2 58.5 7.2 2.2 5.1

Men

5,651 402 153 249 7.7 19.1 28.1 16.0 7.1 2.7 4.4

Women

12,282 896 235 661 16.8 42.7 43.1 42.5 7.3 1.9 5.4

NOTE: Data exclude all the self employed, both unincorporated and incorporated.

1 Beginning in 2003, the race categories include persons who selected one race only; persons who selected more than one race group are not included. Detail for the race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) will not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. In addition, persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race and, therefore, are classified by ethnicity as well as race.

2 The distinction between full- and part-time workers is based on hours usually worked. These data will not sum to totals because full- or part-time status on the principal job is not identifiable for a small number of multiple jobholders.

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Table 2. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by census region and division, 2003 annual averages
Region and division Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 At or below $5.15
Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15

Total, 16 years and over

72,946 2,100 545 1,555 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.9 0.7 2.1

Northeast

12,876 412 82 330 17.7 19.6 15.0 21.2 3.2 0.6 2.6

New England

3,745 82 10 72 5.1 3.9 1.8 4.6 2.2 0.3 1.9

Middle Atlantic

9,131 330 72 258 12.5 15.7 13.2 16.6 3.6 0.8 2.8

Midwest

18,623 546 127 419 25.5 26.0 23.3 26.9 2.9 0.7 2.2

East North Central

12,875 376 77 299 17.7 17.9 14.1 19.2 2.9 0.6 2.3

West North Central

5,748 170 50 120 7.9 8.1 9.2 7.7 3.0 0.9 2.1

South

24,875 889 270 619 34.1 42.3 49.5 39.8 3.6 1.1 2.5

South Atlantic

12,668 399 102 297 17.4 19.0 18.7 19.1 3.1 0.8 2.3

East South Central

4,362 142 47 95 6.0 6.8 8.6 6.1 3.3 1.1 2.2

West South Central

7,845 347 120 227 10.8 16.5 22.0 14.6 4.4 1.5 2.9

West

16,572 254 67 187 22.7 12.1 12.3 12.0 1.5 0.4 1.1

Mountain

4,942 163 57 106 6.8 7.8 10.5 6.8 3.3 1.2 2.1

Pacific

11,631 91 10 81 15.9 4.3 1.8 5.2 0.8 0.1 0.7

NOTE: Data exclude the incorporated self employed. The four major regions and nine census divisions of the United States are as follows:

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Table 3. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by State, 2003 annual averages
State Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 At or below $5.15
Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15

Total, 16 years and over

72,946 2,100 545 1,555 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.9 0.7 2.1

Alabama

1,112 30 11 19 1.5 1.4 2.0 1.2 2.7 1.0 1.7

Alaska

191 1 - 1 0.3 0.0 - 0.1 0.5 - 0.5

Arizona

1,320 48 13 35 1.8 2.3 2.4 2.3 3.6 1.0 2.7

Arkansas

644 23 11 12 0.9 1.1 2.0 0.8 3.6 1.7 1.9

California

8,537 59 5 54 11.7 2.8 0.9 3.5 0.7 0.1 0.6

Colorado

1,139 32 5 27 1.6 1.5 0.9 1.7 2.8 0.4 2.4

Connecticut

840 17 1 16 1.2 0.8 0.2 1.0 2.0 0.1 1.9

Delaware

206 5 1 4 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 2.4 0.5 1.9

District of Columbia

116 4 2 2 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.1 3.4 1.7 1.7

Florida

3,886 133 33 100 5.3 6.3 6.1 6.4 3.4 0.8 2.6

Georgia

1,921 55 16 39 2.6 2.6 2.9 2.5 2.9 0.8 2.0

Hawaii

309 4 1 3 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.2 1.3 0.3 1.0

Idaho

368 11 2 9 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.6 3.0 0.5 2.4

Illinois

3,111 71 19 52 4.3 3.4 3.5 3.3 2.3 0.6 1.7

Indiana

1,787 46 6 40 2.4 2.2 1.1 2.6 2.6 0.3 2.2

Iowa

890 23 8 15 1.2 1.1 1.5 1.0 2.6 0.9 1.7

Kansas

761 23 5 18 1.0 1.1 0.9 1.2 3.0 0.7 2.4

Kentucky

1,103 36 10 26 1.5 1.7 1.8 1.7 3.3 0.9 2.4

Louisiana

1,083 48 20 28 1.5 2.3 3.7 1.8 4.4 1.8 2.6

Maine

392 9 2 7 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5 2.3 0.5 1.8

Maryland

1,334 28 6 22 1.8 1.3 1.1 1.4 2.1 0.4 1.6

Massachusetts

1,661 37 4 33 2.3 1.8 0.7 2.1 2.2 0.2 2.0

Michigan

2,842 95 13 82 3.9 4.5 2.4 5.3 3.3 0.5 2.9

Minnesota

1,553 32 10 22 2.1 1.5 1.8 1.4 2.1 0.6 1.4

Mississippi

702 28 13 15 1.0 1.3 2.4 1.0 4.0 1.9 2.1

Missouri

1,586 58 13 45 2.2 2.8 2.4 2.9 3.7 0.8 2.8

Montana

252 10 6 4 0.3 0.5 1.1 0.3 4.0 2.4 1.6

Nebraska

533 18 9 9 0.7 0.9 1.7 0.6 3.4 1.7 1.7

Nevada

580 12 8 4 0.8 0.6 1.5 0.3 2.1 1.4 0.7

New Hampshire

367 7 2 5 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.3 1.9 0.5 1.4

New Jersey

1,810 75 11 64 2.5 3.6 2.0 4.1 4.1 0.6 3.5

New Mexico

471 25 13 12 0.6 1.2 2.4 0.8 5.3 2.8 2.5

New York

4,077 164 40 124 5.6 7.8 7.3 8.0 4.0 1.0 3.0

North Carolina

2,086 70 19 51 2.9 3.3 3.5 3.3 3.4 0.9 2.4

North Dakota

192 7 3 4 0.3 0.3 0.6 0.3 3.6 1.6 2.1

Ohio

3,306 113 28 85 4.5 5.4 5.1 5.5 3.4 0.8 2.6

Oklahoma

860 41 15 26 1.2 2.0 2.8 1.7 4.8 1.7 3.0

Oregon

947 11 1 10 1.3 0.5 0.2 0.6 1.2 0.1 1.1

Pennsylvania

3,243 91 21 70 4.4 4.3 3.9 4.5 2.8 0.6 2.2

Rhode Island

310 7 - 7 0.4 0.3 - 0.5 2.3 - 2.3

South Carolina

980 39 14 25 1.3 1.9 2.6 1.6 4.0 1.4 2.6

South Dakota

232 8 2 6 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 3.4 0.9 2.6

Tennesee

1,445 47 12 35 2.0 2.2 2.2 2.3 3.3 0.8 2.4

Texas

5,258 235 74 161 7.2 11.2 13.6 10.4 4.5 1.4 3.1

Utah

664 19 8 11 0.9 0.9 1.5 0.7 2.9 1.2 1.7

Vermont

175 5 1 4 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 2.9 0.6 2.3

Virginia

1,688 47 2 45 2.3 2.2 0.4 2.9 2.8 0.1 2.7

Washington

1,646 14 2 12 2.3 0.7 0.4 0.8 0.9 0.1 0.7

West Virginia

452 19 10 9 0.6 0.9 1.8 0.6 4.2 2.2 2.0

Wisconsin

1,829 50 11 39 2.5 2.4 2.0 2.5 2.7 0.6 2.1

Wyoming

148 6 3 3 0.2 0.3 0.6 0.2 4.1 2.0 2.0

NOTE: Data exclude all the self employed, both unincorporated and incorporated. Users are reminded that these data are based on a sample and are therefore subject to sampling error; the degree of error may be quite large for less populous States. It is not possible to clearly determine whether workers surveyed in the CPS are actually covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) or by individual State minimum wage laws. Thus, some workers reported as earning an hourly wage of $5.15 may not in fact be covered by Federal or State minimum wage laws. At the same time, the presence of a sizable number of workers with wages below the prevailing Federal minimum wage does not necessarily indicate violations of the FLSA or applicable State laws, because there are numerous exclusions and exemptions to these minimum wage statutes. Dash represents zero.

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Table 4. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by major occupation group, 2003 annual averages
Occupation (1) Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 At or below $5.15
Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15

Total, 16 years and over

72,946 2,100 545 1,555 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.9 0.7 2.1

Management, professional, and related occupations

13,588 95 33 62 18.6 4.5 6.1 4.0 0.7 0.2 0.5

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

3,640 26 7 19 5.0 1.2 1.3 1.2 0.7 0.2 0.5

Professional and related occupations

9,949 69 26 43 13.6 3.3 4.8 2.8 0.7 0.3 0.4

Service occupations

15,887 1,521 277 1,244 21.8 72.4 50.8 80.0 9.6 1.7 7.8

Healthcare support occupations

2,431 59 18 41 3.3 2.8 3.3 2.6 2.4 0.7 1.7

Protective service occupations

1,688 30 5 25 2.3 1.4 0.9 1.6 1.8 0.3 1.5

Food preparation and serving related occupations

6,247 1,158 159 999 8.6 55.1 29.2 64.2 18.5 2.5 16.0

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3,445 111 48 63 4.7 5.3 8.8 4.1 3.2 1.4 1.8

Personal care and service occupations

2,076 162 47 115 2.8 7.7 8.6 7.4 7.8 2.3 5.5

Sales and office occupations

20,649 287 154 133 28.3 13.7 28.3 8.6 1.4 0.7 0.6

Sales and related occupations

7,379 146 72 74 10.1 7.0 13.2 4.8 2.0 1.0 1.0

Office and administrative support occupations

13,270 141 82 59 18.2 6.7 15.0 3.8 1.1 0.6 0.4

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

9,121 66 26 40 12.5 3.1 4.8 2.6 0.7 0.3 0.4

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

598 23 10 13 0.8 1.1 1.8 0.8 3.8 1.7 2.2

Construction and extraction occupations

5,111 21 5 16 7.0 1.0 0.9 1.0 0.4 0.1 0.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

3,412 21 10 11 4.7 1.0 1.8 0.7 0.6 0.3 0.3

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

13,700 132 55 77 18.8 6.3 10.1 5.0 1.0 0.4 0.6

Production occupations

7,799 54 23 31 10.7 2.6 4.2 2.0 0.7 0.3 0.4

Transportation and material moving occupations

5,901 77 32 45 8.1 3.7 5.9 2.9 1.3 0.5 0.8

NOTE: Data exclude all the self employed, both unincorporated and incorporated.

1 Occupations reflect the introduction of the 2002 Census occupational classification system.

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Table 5. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by major industry group, 2003 annual averages
Industry (1) Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 At or below $5.15
Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15

Total, 16 years and over

72,946 2,100 545 1,555 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.9 0.7 2.1

Private sector

63,945 1,986 492 1,494 87.7 94.6 90.3 96.1 3.1 0.8 2.3

Agriculture and related industries

639 27 12 15 0.9 1.3 2.2 1.0 4.2 1.9 2.3

Nonagricultural industries

63,306 1,959 480 1,479 86.8 93.3 88.1 95.1 3.1 0.8 2.3

Mining

310 - - - - - - - - - -

Construction

5,132 27 6 21 7.0 1.3 1.1 1.4 0.5 0.1 0.4

Manufacturing

10,621 58 14 44 14.6 2.8 2.6 2.8 0.5 0.1 0.4

Durable goods manufacturing

6,548 26 3 23 9.0 1.2 0.6 1.5 0.4 0.0 0.4

Nondurable goods manufacturing

4,073 33 12 21 5.6 1.6 2.2 1.4 0.8 0.3 0.5

Wholesale and retail trade

12,173 189 87 102 16.7 9.0 16.0 6.6 1.6 0.7 0.8

Wholesale trade

1,902 12 6 6 2.6 0.6 1.1 0.4 0.6 0.3 0.3

Retail trade

10,270 177 81 96 14.1 8.4 14.9 6.2 1.7 0.8 0.9

Transportation and utilities

2,881 20 9 11 3.9 1.0 1.7 0.7 0.7 0.3 0.4

Information

1,587 27 15 12 2.2 1.3 2.8 0.8 1.7 0.9 0.8

Financial activities

3,433 27 10 17 4.7 1.3 1.8 1.1 0.8 0.3 0.5

Professional and business services

5,274 65 35 30 7.2 3.1 6.4 1.9 1.2 0.7 0.6

Education and health services

10,926 177 67 110 15.0 8.4 12.3 7.1 1.6 0.6 1.0

Leisure and hospitality

8,093 1,240 199 1,041 11.1 59.0 36.5 66.9 15.3 2.5 12.9

Other services

2,877 129 38 91 3.9 6.1 7.0 5.9 4.5 1.3 3.2

Public sector

9,001 114 52 62 12.3 5.4 9.5 4.0 1.3 0.6 0.7

Federal

1,734 17 6 11 2.4 0.8 1.1 0.7 1.0 0.3 0.6

State

2,303 38 24 14 3.2 1.8 4.4 0.9 1.7 1.0 0.6

Local

4,964 58 22 36 6.8 2.8 4.0 2.3 1.2 0.4 0.7

NOTE: Data exclude all the self employed, both unincorporated and incorporated. Dash represents zero.

1 Industries reflect the introduction of the 2002 Census industry classification system.

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Table 6. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by educational attainment, 2003 annual averages
Educational attainment Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 At or below $5.15
Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15

Total, 16 years and over

72,946 2,100 545 1,555 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.9 0.7 2.1

Less than a high school diploma

12,405 620 245 375 17.0 29.5 45.0 24.1 5.0 2.0 3.0

Less than 1 year of high school

3,338 103 34 69 4.6 4.9 6.2 4.4 3.1 1.0 2.1

1 to 3 years of high school

7,765 468 196 272 10.6 22.3 36.0 17.5 6.0 2.5 3.5

4 years of high school, no diploma

1,302 50 15 35 1.8 2.4 2.8 2.3 3.8 1.2 2.7

High school graduates or more

60,541 1,479 299 1,180 83.0 70.4 54.9 75.9 2.4 0.5 1.9

High school graduates, no college

26,944 617 131 486 36.9 29.4 24.0 31.3 2.3 0.5 1.8

Some college or associate degree

23,640 700 146 554 32.4 33.3 26.8 35.6 3.0 0.6 2.3

Some college, no degree

16,504 595 126 469 22.6 28.3 23.1 30.2 3.6 0.8 2.8

Associate degree

7,136 105 20 85 9.8 5.0 3.7 5.5 1.5 0.3 1.2

Occupational program

3,948 45 13 32 5.4 2.1 2.4 2.1 1.1 0.3 0.8

Academic program

3,188 60 7 53 4.4 2.9 1.3 3.4 1.9 0.2 1.7

College graduates, total

9,957 163 23 140 13.6 7.8 4.2 9.0 1.6 0.2 1.4

Bachelor's degree

7,956 142 20 122 10.9 6.8 3.7 7.8 1.8 0.3 1.5

Master's degree

1,585 18 2 16 2.2 0.9 0.4 1.0 1.1 0.1 1.0

Professional degree

284 1 - 1 0.4 0.0 - 0.1 0.4 - 0.4

Doctoral degree

132 3 1 2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1 2.3 0.8 1.5

NOTE: Data exclude all the self employed, both unincorporated and incorporated. Dash represents zero.

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Table 7. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by age and sex, 2003 annual averages
Age and sex Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 At or below $5.15
Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15
BOTH SEXES

Total, 16 years and over

72,946 2,100 545 1,555 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.9 0.7 2.1

Under 25 years

15,871 1,106 330 776 21.8 52.7 60.6 49.9 7.0 2.1 4.9

16 to 19 years

5,412 534 212 322 7.4 25.4 38.9 20.7 9.9 3.9 5.9

20 to 24 years

10,460 570 117 453 14.3 27.1 21.5 29.1 5.4 1.1 4.3

25 years and over

57,075 995 215 780 78.2 47.4 39.4 50.2 1.7 0.4 1.4

25 to 34 years

16,499 400 71 329 22.6 19.0 13.0 21.2 2.4 0.4 2.0

25 to 29 years

8,239 229 36 193 11.3 10.9 6.6 12.4 2.8 0.4 2.3

30 to 34 years

8,259 172 35 137 11.3 8.2 6.4 8.8 2.1 0.4 1.7

35 to 44 years

16,827 245 52 193 23.1 11.7 9.5 12.4 1.5 0.3 1.1

35 to 39 years

8,178 119 20 99 11.2 5.7 3.7 6.4 1.5 0.2 1.2

40 to 44 years

8,649 127 33 94 11.9 6.0 6.1 6.0 1.5 0.4 1.1

45 to 54 years

14,544 183 38 145 19.9 8.7 7.0 9.3 1.3 0.3 1.0

45 to 49 years

8,048 105 25 80 11.0 5.0 4.6 5.1 1.3 0.3 1.0

50 to 54 years

6,496 79 14 65 8.9 3.8 2.6 4.2 1.2 0.2 1.0

55 to 64 years

7,130 84 23 61 9.8 4.0 4.2 3.9 1.2 0.3 0.9

55 to 59 years

4,552 45 12 33 6.2 2.1 2.2 2.1 1.0 0.3 0.7

60 to 64 years

2,579 39 11 28 3.5 1.9 2.0 1.8 1.5 0.4 1.1

65 years and over

2,075 82 31 51 2.8 3.9 5.7 3.3 4.0 1.5 2.5

65 to 69 years

1,155 35 9 26 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.7 3.0 0.8 2.3

70 years and over

920 46 21 25 1.3 2.2 3.9 1.6 5.0 2.3 2.7
MEN

Total, 16 years and over

35,853 706 213 493 49.2 33.6 39.1 31.7 2.0 0.6 1.4

Under 25 years

8,031 391 154 237 11.0 18.6 28.3 15.2 4.9 1.9 3.0

16 to 19 years

2,608 205 109 96 3.6 9.8 20.0 6.2 7.9 4.2 3.7

20 to 24 years

5,423 186 45 141 7.4 8.9 8.3 9.1 3.4 0.8 2.6

25 years and over

27,823 314 58 256 38.1 15.0 10.6 16.5 1.1 0.2 0.9

25 to 34 years

8,765 152 20 132 12.0 7.2 3.7 8.5 1.7 0.2 1.5

25 to 29 years

4,429 84 10 74 6.1 4.0 1.8 4.8 1.9 0.2 1.7

30 to 34 years

4,336 68 10 58 5.9 3.2 1.8 3.7 1.6 0.2 1.3

35 to 44 years

8,224 73 14 59 11.3 3.5 2.6 3.8 0.9 0.2 0.7

35 to 39 years

4,134 37 7 30 5.7 1.8 1.3 1.9 0.9 0.2 0.7

40 to 44 years

4,089 36 7 29 5.6 1.7 1.3 1.9 0.9 0.2 0.7

45 to 54 years

6,691 57 13 44 9.2 2.7 2.4 2.8 0.9 0.2 0.7

45 to 49 years

3,719 41 11 30 5.1 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.1 0.3 0.8

50 to 54 years

2,972 16 2 14 4.1 0.8 0.4 0.9 0.5 0.1 0.5

55 to 64 years

3,202 23 6 17 4.4 1.1 1.1 1.1 0.7 0.2 0.5

55 to 59 years

2,034 14 2 12 2.8 0.7 0.4 0.8 0.7 0.1 0.6

60 to 64 years

1,168 8 3 5 1.6 0.4 0.6 0.3 0.7 0.3 0.4

65 years and over

941 9 5 4 1.3 0.4 0.9 0.3 1.0 0.5 0.4

65 to 69 years

534 3 1 2 0.7 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.6 0.2 0.4

70 years and over

407 6 4 2 0.6 0.3 0.7 0.1 1.5 1.0 0.5
WOMEN

Total, 16 years and over

37,093 1,394 332 1,062 50.8 66.4 60.9 68.3 3.8 0.9 2.9

Under 25 years

7,841 713 175 538 10.7 34.0 32.1 34.6 9.1 2.2 6.9

16 to 19 years

2,804 329 103 226 3.8 15.7 18.9 14.5 11.7 3.7 8.1

20 to 24 years

5,037 385 72 313 6.9 18.3 13.2 20.1 7.6 1.4 6.2

25 years and over

29,252 681 157 524 40.1 32.4 28.8 33.7 2.3 0.5 1.8

25 to 34 years

7,734 248 51 197 10.6 11.8 9.4 12.7 3.2 0.7 2.5

25 to 29 years

3,810 145 26 119 5.2 6.9 4.8 7.7 3.8 0.7 3.1

30 to 34 years

3,923 103 25 78 5.4 4.9 4.6 5.0 2.6 0.6 2.0

35 to 44 years

8,604 173 38 135 11.8 8.2 7.0 8.7 2.0 0.4 1.6

35 to 39 years

4,044 81 12 69 5.5 3.9 2.2 4.4 2.0 0.3 1.7

40 to 44 years

4,560 91 26 65 6.3 4.3 4.8 4.2 2.0 0.6 1.4

45 to 54 years

7,852 126 25 101 10.8 6.0 4.6 6.5 1.6 0.3 1.3

45 to 49 years

4,329 64 14 50 5.9 3.0 2.6 3.2 1.5 0.3 1.2

50 to 54 years

3,524 62 11 51 4.8 3.0 2.0 3.3 1.8 0.3 1.4

55 to 64 years

3,928 61 17 44 5.4 2.9 3.1 2.8 1.6 0.4 1.1

55 to 59 years

2,518 31 10 21 3.5 1.5 1.8 1.4 1.2 0.4 0.8

60 to 64 years

1,410 30 7 23 1.9 1.4 1.3 1.5 2.1 0.5 1.6

65 years and over

1,134 73 26 47 1.6 3.5 4.8 3.0 6.4 2.3 4.1

65 to 69 years

621 32 8 24 0.9 1.5 1.5 1.5 5.2 1.3 3.9

70 years and over

514 41 18 23 0.7 2.0 3.3 1.5 8.0 3.5 4.5

NOTE: Data exclude all the self employed, both unincorporated and incorporated.

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Table 8. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by marital status, age, and sex, 2003 annual averages
Marital status, age and sex Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 At or below $5.15
Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15
BOTH SEXES

Total, 16 years and over

72,946 2,100 545 1,555 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.9 0.7 2.1

Never married

24,737 1,295 354 941 33.9 61.7 65.0 60.5 5.2 1.4 3.8

16 to 24 years

13,722 1,013 307 706 18.8 48.2 56.3 45.4 7.4 2.2 5.1

25 years and over

11,016 282 47 235 15.1 13.4 8.6 15.1 2.6 0.4 2.1

25 to 54 years

10,531 273 44 229 14.4 13.0 8.1 14.7 2.6 0.4 2.2

Married, spouse present

35,963 516 121 395 49.3 24.6 22.2 25.4 1.4 0.3 1.1

16 to 24 years

1,741 68 16 52 2.4 3.2 2.9 3.3 3.9 0.9 3.0

25 years and over

34,222 447 105 342 46.9 21.3 19.3 22.0 1.3 0.3 1.0

25 to 54 years

28,288 374 82 292 38.8 17.8 15.0 18.8 1.3 0.3 1.0

Other marital status

12,246 289 70 219 16.8 13.8 12.8 14.1 2.4 0.6 1.8

16 to 24 years

409 24 7 17 0.6 1.1 1.3 1.1 5.9 1.7 4.2

25 years and over

11,837 266 64 202 16.2 12.7 11.7 13.0 2.2 0.5 1.7

25 to 54 years

9,050 182 36 146 12.4 8.7 6.6 9.4 2.0 0.4 1.6
MEN

Total, 16 years and over

35,853 706 213 493 49.2 33.6 39.1 31.7 2.0 0.6 1.4

Never married

13,104 479 161 318 18.0 22.8 29.5 20.5 3.7 1.2 2.4

16 to 24 years

7,055 362 149 213 9.7 17.2 27.3 13.7 5.1 2.1 3.0

25 years and over

6,049 116 11 105 8.3 5.5 2.0 6.8 1.9 0.2 1.7

25 to 54 years

5,843 115 11 104 8.0 5.5 2.0 6.7 2.0 0.2 1.8

Married, spouse present

18,162 162 37 125 24.9 7.7 6.8 8.0 0.9 0.2 0.7

16 to 24 years

816 21 3 18 1.1 1.0 0.6 1.2 2.6 0.4 2.2

25 years and over]

17,346 142 35 107 23.8 6.8 6.4 6.9 0.8 0.2 0.6

25 to 54 years

14,189 120 27 93 19.5 5.7 5.0 6.0 0.8 0.2 0.7

Other marital status

4,587 65 15 50 6.3 3.1 2.8 3.2 1.4 0.3 1.1

16 to 24 years

160 9 3 6 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.4 5.6 1.9 3.8

25 years and over

4,427 56 12 44 6.1 2.7 2.2 2.8 1.3 0.3 1.0

25 to 54 years

3,647 47 9 38 5.0 2.2 1.7 2.4 1.3 0.2 1.0
WOMEN

Total, 16 years and over

37,093 1,394 332 1,062 50.8 66.4 60.9 68.3 3.8 0.9 2.9

Never married

11,633 816 193 623 15.9 38.9 35.4 40.1 7.0 1.7 5.4

16 to 24 years

6,667 651 158 493 9.1 31.0 29.0 31.7 9.8 2.4 7.4

25 years and over

4,966 165 35 130 6.8 7.9 6.4 8.4 3.3 0.7 2.6

25 to 54 years

4,688 158 33 125 6.4 7.5 6.1 8.0 3.4 0.7 2.7

Married, spouse present

17,802 354 84 270 24.4 16.9 15.4 17.4 2.0 0.5 1.5

16 to 24 years

926 47 13 34 1.3 2.2 2.4 2.2 5.1 1.4 3.7

25 years and over

16,876 306 70 236 23.1 14.6 12.8 15.2 1.8 0.4 1.4

25 to 54 years

14,099 254 55 199 19.3 12.1 10.1 12.8 1.8 0.4 1.4

Other marital status

7,658 224 55 169 10.5 10.7 10.1 10.9 2.9 0.7 2.2

16 to 24 years

248 15 4 11 0.3 0.7 0.7 0.7 6.0 1.6 4.4

25 years and over

7,410 209 51 158 10.2 10.0 9.4 10.2 2.8 0.7 2.1

25 to 54 years

5,403 136 27 109 7.4 6.5 5.0 7.0 2.5 0.5 2.0

NOTE: Data exclude all the self employed, both unincorporated and incorporated.

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Table 9. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by usual hours worked per week, 2003 annual averages
Usual hours worked per week Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 At or below $5.15
Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15

Total, 16 years and over

72,946 2,100 545 1,555 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.9 0.7 2.1

Hours vary

5,291 301 74 227 7.3 14.3 13.6 14.6 5.7 1.4 4.3

0 to 34 hours

15,851 1,109 331 778 21.7 52.8 60.7 50.0 7.0 2.1 4.9

0 to 4 hours

319 24 3 21 0.4 1.1 0.6 1.4 7.5 0.9 6.6

5 to 9 hours

932 72 24 48 1.3 3.4 4.4 3.1 7.7 2.6 5.2

10 to 14 hours

1,451 134 56 78 2.0 6.4 10.3 5.0 9.2 3.9 5.4

15 to 19 hours

2,218 179 68 111 3.0 8.5 12.5 7.1 8.1 3.1 5.0

20 to 24 hours

4,797 327 110 217 6.6 15.6 20.2 14.0 6.8 2.3 4.5

25 to 29 hours

2,127 149 26 123 2.9 7.1 4.8 7.9 7.0 1.2 5.8

30 to 34 hours

4,009 224 44 180 5.5 10.7 8.1 11.6 5.6 1.1 4.5

35 hours or more

51,804 691 140 551 71.0 32.9 25.7 35.4 1.3 0.3 1.1

35 to 39 hours

4,960 171 31 140 6.8 8.1 5.7 9.0 3.4 0.6 2.8

40 hours or more

46,844 520 109 411 64.2 24.8 20.0 26.4 1.1 0.2 0.9

40 hours

40,616 450 101 349 55.7 21.4 18.5 22.4 1.1 0.2 0.9

41 hours or more

6,228 70 8 62 8.5 3.3 1.5 4.0 1.1 0.1 1.0

41 to 44 hours

801 3 - 3 1.1 0.1 - 0.2 0.4 - 0.4

45 to 48 hours

2,306 19 5 14 3.2 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.2 0.6

49 to 59 hours

2,160 24 2 22 3.0 1.1 0.4 1.4 1.1 0.1 1.0

60 hours or more

962 24 1 23 1.3 1.1 0.2 1.5 2.5 0.1 2.4

NOTE: Data exclude all the self employed, both unincorporated and incorporated. Dash represents zero.

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Table 10. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by sex, 1979-2003 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Year and sex Total wage and salary workers Workers paid hourly rates
Total Percent of total wage and salary workers Below prevailing Federal minimum wage At prevailing Federal minimum wage Total at or below prevailing Federal minimum wage
Number Percent of hourly paid workers
BOTH SEXES

1979

87,529 51,721 59.1 2,916 3,997 6,912 13.4

1980

87,644 51,335 58.6 3,087 4,686 7,773 15.1

1981

88,516 51,869 58.6 3,513 4,311 7,824 15.1

1982

87,368 50,846 58.2 2,348 4,148 6,496 12.8

1983

88,290 51,820 58.7 2,077 4,261 6,338 12.2

1984

92,194 54,143 58.7 1,838 4,125 5,963 11.0

1985

94,521 55,762 59.0 1,639 3,899 5,538 9.9

1986 (1)

96,903 57,529 59.4 1,599 3,461 5,060 8.8

1987

99,303 59,552 60.0 1,468 3,229 4,698 7.9

1988

101,407 60,878 60.0 1,319 2,608 3,927 6.5

1989

103,480 62,389 60.3 1,372 1,790 3,162 5.1

1990 (1)

104,876 63,172 60.2 (2) 2,132 (2) 1,096 (2) 3,228 (2) 5.1

1991

103,723 62,627 60.4 (2) 2,377 (2) 2,906 (2) 5,283 (2) 8.4

1992

104,668 63,610 60.8 1,939 2,982 4,921 7.7

1993

106,101 64,274 60.6 1,707 2,625 4,332 6.7

1994 (1)

107,989 66,549 61.6 1,995 2,132 4,128 6.2

1995

110,038 68,354 62.1 1,699 1,956 3,656 5.3

1996

111,960 69,255 61.9 (2) 1,863 (2) 1,861 (2) 3,724 (2) 5.4

1997 (1)

114,533 70,735 61.8 (2) 2,990 (2) 1,764 (2) 4,754 (2) 6.7

1998 (1)

116,730 71,440 61.2 2,834 1,593 4,427 6.2

1999 (1)

118,963 72,306 60.8 2,194 1,146 3,340 4.6

2000 (1)

122,089 73,496 60.2 1,752 898 2,650 3.6

2001

122,229 73,392 60.0 1,518 656 2,174 3.0

2002

121,826 72,508 59.5 1,579 567 2,146 3.0

2003 (1)

122,358 72,946 59.6 1,555 545 2,100 2.9
MEN

1979

49,400 28,392 57.5 846 1,353 2,199 7.7

1980

48,700 27,709 56.9 983 1,696 2,678 9.7

1981

48,844 27,576 56.5 1,119 1,533 2,652 9.6

1982

47,591 26,481 55.6 697 1,587 2,284 8.6

1983

47,856 26,831 56.1 585 1,658 2,243 8.4

1984

50,022 28,140 56.3 490 1,626 2,116 7.5

1985

51,015 28,893 56.6 440 1,544 1,984 6.9

1986 (1)

51,942 29,666 57.1 408 1,336 1,743 5.9

1987

52,938 30,474 57.6 364 1,283 1,647 5.4

1988

53,912 31,058 57.6 311 1,066 1,377 4.4

1989

54,789 31,687 57.8 379 733 1,112 3.5

1990 (1)

55,553 32,104 57.8 (2) 712 (2) 385 (2) 1,097 (2) 3.4

1991

54,618 31,639 57.9 (2) 795 (2) 1,114 (2) 1,909 (2) 6.0

1992

54,826 32,155 58.6 653 1,231 1,885 5.9

1993

55,475 32,337 58.3 573 1,091 1,664 5.1

1994 (1)

56,570 33,528 59.3 674 891 1,565 4.7

1995

57,669 34,420 59.7 542 796 1,338 3.9

1996

58,473 34,838 59.6 (2) 619 (2) 755 (2) 1,374 (2) 3.9

1997 (1)

59,825 35,521 59.4 (2) 1,147 (2) 673 (2) 1,820 (2) 5.1

1998 (1)

60,973 35,761 58.7 1,039 628 1,667 4.7

1999 (1)

61,914 36,073 58.3 768 446 1,214 3.4

2000 (1)

63,662 36,720 57.7 582 319 901 2.5

2001

63,647 36,544 57.4 497 247 744 2.0

2002

63,272 36,000 56.9 582 217 799 2.2

2003 (1)

63,236 35,853 56.7 493 213 706 2.0
WOMEN

1979

38,129 23,329 61.2 2,070 2,644 4,714 20.2

1980

38,944 23,626 60.7 2,104 2,990 5,095 21.6

1981

39,672 24,294 61.2 2,394 2,778 5,172 21.3

1982

39,777 24,365 61.3 1,651 2,561 4,212 17.3

1983

40,433 24,989 61.8 1,492 2,603 4,095 16.4

1984

42,172 26,003 61.7 1,348 2,499 3,847 14.8

1985

43,506 26,869 61.8 1,198 2,356 3,554 13.2

1986 (1)

44,961 27,863 62.0 1,192 2,125 3,317 11.9

1987

46,365 29,078 62.7 1,105 1,946 3,051 10.5

1988

47,495 29,820 62.8 1,008 1,542 2,550 8.6

1989

48,691 30,702 63.1 994 1,056 2,050 6.7

1990 (1)

49,323 31,069 63.0 (2) 1,420 (2) 711 (2) 2,131 (2) 6.9

1991

49,105 30,988 63.1 (2) 1,582 (2) 1,792 (2) 3,374 (2) 10.9

1992

49,842 31,454 63.1 1,286 1,751 3,036 9.7

1993

50,626 31,937 63.1 1,133 1,534 2,667 8.4

1994 (1)

51,419 33,021 64.2 1,322 1,241 2,563 7.8

1995

52,369 33,934 64.8 1,157 1,161 2,318 6.8

1996

53,488 34,418 64.3 (2) 1,244 (2) 1,106 (2) 2,350 (2) 6.8

1997 (1)

54,708 35,214 64.4 (2) 1,843 (2) 1,092 (2) 2,935 (2) 8.3

1998 (1)

55,757 35,680 64.0 1,794 965 2,760 7.7

1999 (1)

57,050 36,233 63.5 1,426 700 2,126 5.9

2000 (1)

58,427 36,777 62.9 1,170 579 1,749 4.8

2001

58,582 36,848 62.9 1,021 409 1,430 3.9

2002

58,555 36,508 62.3 997 350 1,347 3.7

2003 (1)

59,122 37,093 62.7 1,062 332 1,394 3.8

1 The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and conceptual changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). For an explanation, see the Explanatory Notes and Estimates of Error section of the February 2004 and subsequent issues of Employment and Earnings, a monthly BLS periodical.

2 Data for 1990-91 and 1996-97 reflect changes in the minimum wage that took place in those years.

NOTE: The prevailing Federal minimum wage was $2.90 in 1979, $3.10 in 1980, and $3.35 in 1981-89. The minimum wage rose to $3.80 in April 1990, to $4.25 in April 1991, to $4.75 in October 1996, and to $5.15 in September 1997. Data exclude the incorporated self employed. Also note that the presence of a sizable number of workers with reported wages below the minimum does not necessarily indicate violations of the Fair Labor Standards Act, as there are numerous exemptions to the minimum wage provisions of the law. Indeed, the relatively large number of workers with reported wages below the minimum in 1998-2003 includes some hourly-paid workers reported as earning exactly $5.00 per hour (about 1.4 million in 1998, about 900,000 in 1999, about 600,000 in 2000, about 500,000 in 2001, about 500,000 in 2002, and about 350,000 in 2003); to some extent, this may reflect rounding on the part of survey respondents.

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Last Modified Date: March 31, 2005

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