Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey

Characteristics of Minimum Wage Workers: 2004

Tables 1 - 10

Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage, 2004 annual averages:

  1. by selected characteristics
  2. by census region and division
  3. by State
  4. by major occupation group
  5. by major industry group
  6. by educational attainment
  7. by age and sex
  8. by marital status, age, and sex
  9. by usual hours worked per week
  10. by sex (1979-2004 annual averages)

Table 1. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by selected characteristics, 2004 annual averages
Characteristic Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour At or below $5.15 per hour
Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15
AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

73,939 2,003 520 1,483 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.7 0.7 2.0

16 to 24 years

16,174 1,022 272 750 21.9 51.0 52.3 50.6 6.3 1.7 4.6

16 to 19 years

5,433 497 168 329 7.3 24.8 32.3 22.2 9.1 3.1 6.1

25 years and over

57,765 982 249 733 78.1 49.0 47.9 49.4 1.7 0.4 1.3

Men, 16 years and over

36,806 680 210 470 49.8 33.9 40.4 31.7 1.8 0.6 1.3

16 to 24 years

8,305 366 127 239 11.2 18.3 24.4 16.1 4.4 1.5 2.9

16 to 19 years

2,672 179 78 101 3.6 8.9 15.0 6.8 6.7 2.9 3.8

25 years and over

28,500 314 83 231 38.5 15.7 16.0 15.6 1.1 0.3 0.8

Women, 16 years and over

37,133 1,323 310 1,013 50.2 66.1 59.6 68.3 3.6 0.8 2.7

16 to 24 years

7,869 655 145 510 10.6 32.7 27.9 34.4 8.3 1.8 6.5

16 to 19 years

2,761 319 90 229 3.7 15.9 17.3 15.4 11.6 3.3 8.3

25 years and over

29,265 668 166 502 39.6 33.3 31.9 33.9 2.3 0.6 1.7
RACE, SEX, AND HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

White (1)

59,877 1,681 395 1,286 81.0 83.9 76.0 86.7 2.8 0.7 2.1

Men

30,255 554 161 393 40.9 27.7 31.0 26.5 1.8 0.5 1.3

Women

29,621 1,126 234 892 40.1 56.2 45.0 60.1 3.8 0.8 3.0

Black or African American (1)

9,417 227 99 128 12.7 11.3 19.0 8.6 2.4 1.1 1.4

Men

4,243 89 40 49 5.7 4.4 7.7 3.3 2.1 0.9 1.2

Women

5,174 138 59 79 7.0 6.9 11.3 5.3 2.7 1.1 1.5

Asian (1)

2,672 38 8 30 3.6 1.9 1.5 2.0 1.4 0.3 1.1

Men

1,295 15 3 12 1.8 0.7 0.6 0.8 1.2 0.2 0.9

Women

1,378 23 5 18 1.9 1.1 1.0 1.2 1.7 0.4 1.3

Hispanic or Latino (1)

12,073 250 82 168 16.3 12.5 15.8 11.3 2.1 0.7 1.4

Men

7,183 98 32 66 9.7 4.9 6.2 4.5 1.4 0.4 0.9

Women

4,890 151 49 102 6.6 7.5 9.4 6.9 3.1 1.0 2.1
FULL- AND PART-TIME STATUS AND SEX

Full-time workers (2)

55,739 760 177 583 75.4 37.9 34.0 39.3 1.4 0.3 1.0

Men

30,951 300 77 223 41.9 15.0 14.8 15.0 1.0 0.2 0.7

Women

24,788 460 100 360 33.5 23.0 19.2 24.3 1.9 0.4 1.5

Part-time workers (2)

18,046 1,240 343 897 24.4 61.9 66.0 60.5 6.9 1.9 5.0

Men

5,770 378 132 246 7.8 18.9 25.4 16.6 6.6 2.3 4.3

Women

12,276 861 210 651 16.6 43.0 40.4 43.9 7.0 1.7 5.3

1 Detail for the race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) will not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. In addition, persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race and, therefore, are classified by ethnicity as well as race.

2 The distinction between full- and part-time workers is based on hours usually worked. These data will not sum to totals because full- or part-time status on the principal job is not identifiable for a small number of multiple jobholders.

NOTE: Data exclude all the self-employed, both unincorporated and incorporated.

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Table 2. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by census region and division, 2004 annual averages
Region and division Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour At or below $5.15 per hour
Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15

Total, 16 years and over

73,939 2,003 520 1,483 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.7 0.7 2.0

Northeast

12,923 364 93 271 17.5 18.2 17.9 18.3 2.8 0.7 2.1

New England

3,809 89 13 76 5.2 4.4 2.5 5.1 2.3 0.3 2.0

Middle Atlantic

9,114 275 79 196 12.3 13.7 15.2 13.2 3.0 0.9 2.2

Midwest

18,768 533 110 423 25.4 26.6 21.2 28.5 2.8 0.6 2.3

East North Central

12,978 384 69 315 17.6 19.2 13.3 21.2 3.0 0.5 2.4

West North Central

5,790 149 41 108 7.8 7.4 7.9 7.3 2.6 0.7 1.9

South

25,343 840 232 608 34.3 41.9 44.6 41.0 3.3 0.9 2.4

South Atlantic

13,020 374 66 308 17.6 18.7 12.7 20.8 2.9 0.5 2.4

East South Central

4,455 154 55 99 6.0 7.7 10.6 6.7 3.5 1.2 2.2

West South Central

7,868 312 111 201 10.6 15.6 21.3 13.6 4.0 1.4 2.6

West

16,905 267 86 181 22.9 13.3 16.5 12.2 1.6 0.5 1.1

Mountain

5,143 168 53 115 7.0 8.4 10.2 7.8 3.3 1.0 2.2

Pacific

11,761 99 33 66 15.9 4.9 6.3 4.5 0.8 0.3 0.6

NOTE: Data exclude all the self-employed, both unincorporated and incorporated.

The four major regions and nine census divisions of the United States are as follows:

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Table 3. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by State, 2004 annual averages
State Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour At or below $5.15 per hour
Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15

Total, 16 years and over

73,939 2,003 520 1,483 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.7 0.7 2.0

Alabama

1,142 53 28 25 1.5 2.6 5.4 1.7 4.6 2.5 2.2

Alaska

194 1 - 1 0.3 - - 0.1 0.5 - 0.5

Arizona

1,470 43 10 33 2.0 2.1 1.9 2.2 2.9 0.7 2.2

Arkansas

655 18 8 10 0.9 0.9 1.5 0.7 2.7 1.2 1.5

California

8,575 72 26 46 11.6 3.6 5.0 3.1 0.8 0.3 0.5

Colorado

1,116 40 6 34 1.5 2.0 1.2 2.3 3.6 0.5 3.0

Connecticut

876 16 2 14 1.2 0.8 0.4 0.9 1.8 0.2 1.6

Delaware

204 4 1 3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 2.0 0.5 1.5

District of Columbia

107 3 1 2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 2.8 0.9 1.9

Florida

4,037 146 13 133 5.5 7.3 2.5 9.0 3.6 0.3 3.3

Georgia

2,022 39 7 32 2.7 1.9 1.3 2.2 1.9 0.3 1.6

Hawaii

329 5 1 4 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.3 1.5 0.3 1.2

Idaho

383 12 3 9 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 3.1 0.8 2.3

Illinois

3,184 84 13 71 4.3 4.2 2.5 4.8 2.6 0.4 2.2

Indiana

1,779 36 5 31 2.4 1.8 1.0 2.1 2.0 0.3 1.7

Iowa

882 26 6 20 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.3 2.9 0.7 2.3

Kansas

797 23 6 17 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.1 2.9 0.8 2.1

Kentucky

1,148 45 15 30 1.6 2.2 2.9 2.0 3.9 1.3 2.6

Louisiana

1,070 55 23 32 1.4 2.7 4.4 2.2 5.1 2.1 3.0

Maine

396 9 1 8 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.5 2.3 0.3 2.0

Maryland

1,294 24 4 20 1.8 1.2 0.8 1.3 1.9 0.3 1.5

Massachusetts

1,679 43 8 35 2.3 2.1 1.5 2.4 2.6 0.5 2.1

Michigan

2,888 90 16 74 3.9 4.5 3.1 5.0 3.1 0.6 2.6

Minnesota

1,529 31 13 18 2.1 1.5 2.5 1.2 2.0 0.9 1.2

Mississippi

658 17 6 11 0.9 0.8 1.2 0.7 2.6 0.9 1.7

Missouri

1,601 42 9 33 2.2 2.1 1.7 2.2 2.6 0.6 2.1

Montana

252 8 5 3 0.3 0.4 1.0 0.2 3.2 2.0 1.2

Nebraska

557 16 4 12 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 2.9 0.7 2.2

Nevada

640 16 9 7 0.9 0.8 1.7 0.5 2.5 1.4 1.1

New Hampshire

376 9 1 8 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.5 2.4 0.3 2.1

New Jersey

1,842 59 14 45 2.5 2.9 2.7 3.0 3.2 0.8 2.4

New Mexico

470 26 13 13 0.6 1.3 2.5 0.9 5.5 2.8 2.8

New York

4,009 128 39 89 5.4 6.4 7.5 6.0 3.2 1.0 2.2

North Carolina

2,099 54 16 38 2.8 2.7 3.1 2.6 2.6 0.8 1.8

North Dakota

195 5 2 3 0.3 0.2 0.4 0.2 2.6 1.0 1.5

Ohio

3,324 125 25 100 4.5 6.2 4.8 6.7 3.8 0.8 3.0

Oklahoma

849 41 13 28 1.1 2.0 2.5 1.9 4.8 1.5 3.3

Oregon

951 6 3 3 1.3 0.3 0.6 0.2 0.6 0.3 0.3

Pennsylvania

3,263 89 27 62 4.4 4.4 5.2 4.2 2.7 0.8 1.9

Rhode Island

306 8 1 7 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.5 2.6 0.3 2.3

South Carolina

1,062 43 7 36 1.4 2.1 1.3 2.4 4.0 0.7 3.4

South Dakota

229 8 2 6 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 3.5 0.9 2.6

Tennesee

1,507 40 7 33 2.0 2.0 1.3 2.2 2.7 0.5 2.2

Texas

5,293 198 67 131 7.2 9.9 12.9 8.8 3.7 1.3 2.5

Utah

667 19 6 13 0.9 0.9 1.2 0.9 2.8 0.9 1.9

Vermont

176 5 1 4 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 2.8 0.6 2.3

Virginia

1,720 42 5 37 2.3 2.1 1.0 2.5 2.4 0.3 2.2

Washington

1,713 15 3 12 2.3 0.7 0.6 0.8 0.9 0.2 0.7

West Virginia

475 20 11 9 0.6 1.0 2.1 0.6 4.2 2.3 1.9

Wisconsin

1,804 49 10 39 2.4 2.4 1.9 2.6 2.7 0.6 2.2

Wyoming

145 4 1 3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 2.8 0.7 2.1

NOTE: Data exclude all the self-employed, both unincorporated and incorporated. Users are reminded that these data are based on a sample and are therefore subject to sampling error; the degree of error may be quite large for less populous States. It is not possible to clearly determine whether workers surveyed in the CPS are actually covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) or by individual State minimum wage laws. Thus, some workers reported as earning an hourly wage of $5.15 may not in fact be covered by Federal or State minimum wage laws. At the same time, the presence of a sizable number of workers with wages below the prevailing Federal minimum wage does not necessarily indicate violations of the FLSA or applicable State laws, because there are numerous exclusions and exemptions to these minimum wage statutes. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

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Table 4. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by major occupation group, 2004 annual averages
Occupation Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour At or below $5.15 per hour
Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15

Total, 16 years and over

73,939 2,003 520 1,483 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.7 0.7 2.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

13,743 66 27 39 18.6 3.3 5.2 2.6 0.5 0.2 0.3

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

3,750 16 2 14 5.1 0.8 0.4 0.9 0.4 0.1 0.4

Professional and related occupations

9,993 50 25 25 13.5 2.5 4.8 1.7 0.5 0.3 0.3

Service occupations

16,381 1,494 256 1,238 22.2 74.6 49.2 83.5 9.1 1.6 7.6

Healthcare support occupations

2,460 33 12 21 3.3 1.6 2.3 1.4 1.3 0.5 0.9

Protective service occupations

1,823 24 4 20 2.5 1.2 0.8 1.3 1.3 0.2 1.1

Food preparation and serving related occupations

6,236 1,183 147 1,036 8.4 59.1 28.3 69.9 19.0 2.4 16.6

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3,608 102 39 63 4.9 5.1 7.5 4.2 2.8 1.1 1.7

Personal care and service occupations

2,254 151 54 97 3.0 7.5 10.4 6.5 6.7 2.4 4.3

Sales and office occupations

20,650 250 146 104 27.9 12.5 28.1 7.0 1.2 0.7 0.5

Sales and related occupations

7,512 142 76 66 10.2 7.1 14.6 4.5 1.9 1.0 0.9

Office and administrative support occupations

13,139 106 69 37 17.8 5.3 13.3 2.5 0.8 0.5 0.3

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

9,368 50 26 24 12.7 2.5 5.0 1.6 0.5 0.3 0.3

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

603 21 11 10 0.8 1.0 2.1 0.7 3.5 1.8 1.7

Construction and extraction occupations

5,430 13 6 7 7.3 0.6 1.2 0.5 0.2 0.1 0.1

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

3,335 15 9 6 4.5 0.7 1.7 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.2

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

13,796 144 66 78 18.7 7.2 12.7 5.3 1.0 0.5 0.6

Production occupations

7,708 54 18 36 10.4 2.7 3.5 2.4 0.7 0.2 0.5

Transportation and material moving occupations

6,087 89 47 42 8.2 4.4 9.0 2.8 1.5 0.8 0.7

NOTE: Data exclude all the self-employed, both unincorporated and incorporated.

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Table 5. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by major industry group, 2004 annual averages
Industry Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour At or below $5.15 per hour
Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15

Total, 16 years and over

73,939 2,003 520 1,483 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.7 0.7 2.0

Private sector

64,708 1,890 467 1,423 87.5 94.4 89.8 96.0 2.9 0.7 2.2

Agriculture and related industries

623 19 10 9 0.8 0.9 1.9 0.6 3.0 1.6 1.4

Nonagricultural industries

64,085 1,870 457 1,413 86.7 93.4 87.9 95.3 2.9 0.7 2.2

Mining

312 1 1 - 0.4 - 0.2 - 0.3 0.3 -

Construction

5,552 18 8 10 7.5 0.9 1.5 0.7 0.3 0.1 0.2

Manufacturing

10,388 61 23 38 14.0 3.0 4.4 2.6 0.6 0.2 0.4

Durable goods

6,397 28 8 20 8.7 1.4 1.5 1.3 0.4 0.1 0.3

Nondurable goods

3,991 33 15 18 5.4 1.6 2.9 1.2 0.8 0.4 0.5

Wholesale and retail trade

12,456 181 96 85 16.8 9.0 18.5 5.7 1.5 0.8 0.7

Wholesale trade

2,038 17 10 7 2.8 0.8 1.9 0.5 0.8 0.5 0.3

Retail trade

10,418 164 86 78 14.1 8.2 16.5 5.3 1.6 0.8 0.7

Transportation and utilities

2,915 20 7 13 3.9 1.0 1.3 0.9 0.7 0.2 0.4

Information

1,472 14 10 4 2.0 0.7 1.9 0.3 1.0 0.7 0.3

Financial activities

3,453 33 20 13 4.7 1.6 3.8 0.9 1.0 0.6 0.4

Professional and business services

5,461 61 24 37 7.4 3.0 4.6 2.5 1.1 0.4 0.7

Education and health services

11,022 138 62 76 14.9 6.9 11.9 5.1 1.3 0.6 0.7

Leisure and hospitality

8,095 1,242 176 1,066 10.9 62.0 33.8 71.9 15.3 2.2 13.2

Other services

2,959 102 31 71 4.0 5.1 6.0 4.8 3.4 1.0 2.4

Public sector

9,231 113 53 60 12.5 5.6 10.2 4.0 1.2 0.6 0.6

Federal

1,781 19 11 8 2.4 0.9 2.1 0.5 1.1 0.6 0.4

State

2,347 32 17 15 3.2 1.6 3.3 1.0 1.4 0.7 0.6

Local

5,103 62 25 37 6.9 3.1 4.8 2.5 1.2 0.5 0.7

NOTE: Data exclude all the self-employed, both unincorporated and incorporated. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

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Table 6. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by educational attainment, 2004 annual averages
Educational attainment Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour At or below $5.15 per hour
Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15

Total, 16 years and over

73,939 2,003 520 1,483 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.7 0.7 2.0

Less than a high school diploma

12,276 579 203 376 16.6 28.9 39.0 25.4 4.7 1.7 3.1

Less than 1 year of high school

3,428 85 26 59 4.6 4.2 5.0 4.0 2.5 0.8 1.7

1 to 3 years of high school

7,631 443 158 285 10.3 22.1 30.4 19.2 5.8 2.1 3.7

4 years of high school, no diploma

1,217 50 19 31 1.6 2.5 3.7 2.1 4.1 1.6 2.5

High school graduates or more

61,663 1,424 317 1,107 83.4 71.1 61.0 74.6 2.3 0.5 1.8

High school graduates, no college

27,399 633 156 477 37.1 31.6 30.0 32.2 2.3 0.6 1.7

Some college or associate degree

24,002 653 130 523 32.5 32.6 25.0 35.3 2.7 0.5 2.2

Some college, no degree

16,662 536 107 429 22.5 26.8 20.6 28.9 3.2 0.6 2.6

Associate degree

7,340 116 23 93 9.9 5.8 4.4 6.3 1.6 0.3 1.3

Occupational program

4,170 51 8 43 5.6 2.5 1.5 2.9 1.2 0.2 1.0

Academic program

3,170 64 14 50 4.3 3.2 2.7 3.4 2.0 0.4 1.6

Bachelor's degree and higher, total

10,262 139 31 108 13.9 6.9 6.0 7.3 1.4 0.3 1.1

Bachelor's degree

8,171 125 26 99 11.1 6.2 5.0 6.7 1.5 0.3 1.2

Master's degree

1,629 9 4 5 2.2 0.4 0.8 0.3 0.6 0.2 0.3

Professional degree

289 3 - 3 0.4 0.1 - 0.2 1.0 - 1.0

Doctoral degree

173 1 - 1 0.2 - - 0.1 0.6 - 0.6

NOTE: Data exclude all the self-employed, both unincorporated and incorporated. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

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Table 7. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by age and sex, 2004 annual averages
Age and sex Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour At or below $5.15 per hour
Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15
BOTH SEXES

Total, 16 years and over

73,939 2,003 520 1,483 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.7 0.7 2.0

Under 25 years

16,174 1,022 272 750 21.9 51.0 52.3 50.6 6.3 1.7 4.6

16 to 19 years

5,433 497 168 329 7.3 24.8 32.3 22.2 9.1 3.1 6.1

20 to 24 years

10,741 523 103 420 14.5 26.1 19.8 28.3 4.9 1.0 3.9

25 years and over

57,765 982 249 733 78.1 49.0 47.9 49.4 1.7 0.4 1.3

25 to 34 years

16,574 384 64 320 22.4 19.2 12.3 21.6 2.3 0.4 1.9

25 to 29 years

8,449 226 34 192 11.4 11.3 6.5 12.9 2.7 0.4 2.3

30 to 34 years

8,125 157 30 127 11.0 7.8 5.8 8.6 1.9 0.4 1.6

35 to 44 years

16,715 238 63 175 22.6 11.9 12.1 11.8 1.4 0.4 1.0

35 to 39 years

8,007 117 25 92 10.8 5.8 4.8 6.2 1.5 0.3 1.1

40 to 44 years

8,708 121 37 84 11.8 6.0 7.1 5.7 1.4 0.4 1.0

45 to 54 years

14,796 173 48 125 20.0 8.6 9.2 8.4 1.2 0.3 0.8

45 to 49 years

8,201 101 30 71 11.1 5.0 5.8 4.8 1.2 0.4 0.9

50 to 54 years

6,595 72 18 54 8.9 3.6 3.5 3.6 1.1 0.3 0.8

55 to 64 years

7,501 101 40 61 10.1 5.0 7.7 4.1 1.3 0.5 0.8

55 to 59 years

4,756 60 21 39 6.4 3.0 4.0 2.6 1.3 0.4 0.8

60 to 64 years

2,745 41 19 22 3.7 2.0 3.7 1.5 1.5 0.7 0.8

65 years and over

2,177 86 33 53 2.9 4.3 6.3 3.6 4.0 1.5 2.4

65 to 69 years

1,196 41 15 26 1.6 2.0 2.9 1.8 3.4 1.3 2.2

70 years and over

981 45 18 27 1.3 2.2 3.5 1.8 4.6 1.8 2.8
MEN

Total, 16 years and over

36,806 680 210 470 49.8 33.9 40.4 31.7 1.8 0.6 1.3

Under 25 years

8,305 366 127 239 11.2 18.3 24.4 16.1 4.4 1.5 2.9

16 to 19 years

2,672 179 78 101 3.6 8.9 15.0 6.8 6.7 2.9 3.8

20 to 24 years

5,633 187 49 138 7.6 9.3 9.4 9.3 3.3 0.9 2.4

25 years and over

28,500 314 83 231 38.5 15.7 16.0 15.6 1.1 0.3 0.8

25 to 34 years

8,929 141 30 111 12.1 7.0 5.8 7.5 1.6 0.3 1.2

25 to 29 years

4,610 88 15 73 6.2 4.4 2.9 4.9 1.9 0.3 1.6

30 to 34 years

4,319 52 14 38 5.8 2.6 2.7 2.6 1.2 0.3 0.9

35 to 44 years

8,277 71 17 54 11.2 3.5 3.3 3.6 0.9 0.2 0.7

35 to 39 years

4,081 33 3 30 5.5 1.6 0.6 2.0 0.8 0.1 0.7

40 to 44 years

4,196 36 13 23 5.7 1.8 2.5 1.6 0.9 0.3 0.5

45 to 54 years

6,928 57 17 40 9.4 2.8 3.3 2.7 0.8 0.2 0.6

45 to 49 years

3,847 33 10 23 5.2 1.6 1.9 1.6 0.9 0.3 0.6

50 to 54 years

3,081 25 7 18 4.2 1.2 1.3 1.2 0.8 0.2 0.6

55 to 64 years

3,402 27 13 14 4.6 1.3 2.5 0.9 0.8 0.4 0.4

55 to 59 years

2,167 17 9 8 2.9 0.8 1.7 0.5 0.8 0.4 0.4

60 to 64 years

1,235 9 4 5 1.7 0.4 0.8 0.3 0.7 0.3 0.4

65 years and over

964 20 7 13 1.3 1.0 1.3 0.9 2.1 0.7 1.3

65 to 69 years

530 8 1 7 0.7 0.4 0.2 0.5 1.5 0.2 1.3

70 years and over

434 10 5 5 0.6 0.5 1.0 0.3 2.3 1.2 1.2
WOMEN

Total, 16 years and over

37,133 1,323 310 1,013 50.2 66.1 59.6 68.3 3.6 0.8 2.7

Under 25 years

7,869 655 145 510 10.6 32.7 27.9 34.4 8.3 1.8 6.5

16 to 19 years

2,761 319 90 229 3.7 15.9 17.3 15.4 11.6 3.3 8.3

20 to 24 years

5,108 337 55 282 6.9 16.8 10.6 19.0 6.6 1.1 5.5

25 years and over

29,265 668 166 502 39.6 33.3 31.9 33.9 2.3 0.6 1.7

25 to 34 years

7,645 244 35 209 10.3 12.2 6.7 14.1 3.2 0.5 2.7

25 to 29 years

3,839 138 19 119 5.2 6.9 3.7 8.0 3.6 0.5 3.1

30 to 34 years

3,806 106 16 90 5.1 5.3 3.1 6.1 2.8 0.4 2.4

35 to 44 years

8,439 168 46 122 11.4 8.4 8.8 8.2 2.0 0.5 1.4

35 to 39 years

3,927 83 22 61 5.3 4.1 4.2 4.1 2.1 0.6 1.6

40 to 44 years

4,512 84 24 60 6.1 4.2 4.6 4.0 1.9 0.5 1.3

45 to 54 years

7,868 115 31 84 10.6 5.7 6.0 5.7 1.5 0.4 1.1

45 to 49 years

4,355 68 20 48 5.9 3.4 3.8 3.2 1.6 0.5 1.1

50 to 54 years

3,514 48 11 37 4.8 2.4 2.1 2.5 1.4 0.3 1.1

55 to 64 years

4,099 74 27 47 5.5 3.7 5.2 3.2 1.8 0.7 1.1

55 to 59 years

2,589 43 12 31 3.5 2.1 2.3 2.1 1.7 0.5 1.2

60 to 64 years

1,510 31 15 16 2.0 1.5 2.9 1.1 2.1 1.0 1.1

65 years and over

1,213 67 27 40 1.6 3.3 5.2 2.7 5.5 2.2 3.3

65 to 69 years

666 33 14 19 0.9 1.6 2.7 1.3 5.0 2.1 2.9

70 years and over

547 35 13 22 0.7 1.7 2.5 1.5 6.4 2.4 4.0

NOTE: Data exclude all the self-employed, both unincorporated and incorporated.

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Table 8. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by marital status, age, and sex, 2004 annual averages
Marital status, age and sex Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour At or below $5.15 per hour
Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15
BOTH SEXES

Total, 16 years and over

73,939 2,003 520 1,483 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.7 0.7 2.0

Never married

25,411 1,244 320 924 34.4 62.1 61.5 62.3 4.9 1.3 3.6

16 to 24 years

14,155 940 253 687 19.1 46.9 48.7 46.3 6.6 1.8 4.9

25 years and over

11,256 303 67 236 15.2 15.1 12.9 15.9 2.7 0.6 2.1

25 to 54 years

10,694 289 59 230 14.5 14.4 11.3 15.5 2.7 0.6 2.2

Married, spouse present

36,130 481 114 367 48.9 24.0 21.9 24.7 1.3 0.3 1.0

16 to 24 years

1,603 65 14 51 2.2 3.2 2.7 3.4 4.1 0.9 3.2

25 years and over

34,527 416 100 316 46.7 20.8 19.2 21.3 1.2 0.3 0.9

25 to 54 years

28,353 331 73 258 38.3 16.5 14.0 17.4 1.2 0.3 0.9

Other marital status

12,397 278 86 192 16.8 13.9 16.5 12.9 2.2 0.7 1.5

16 to 24 years

415 16 5 11 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.7 3.9 1.2 2.7

25 years and over

11,982 263 82 181 16.2 13.1 15.8 12.2 2.2 0.7 1.5

25 to 54 years

9,040 176 44 132 12.2 8.8 8.5 8.9 1.9 0.5 1.5
MEN

Total, 16 years and over

36,806 680 210 470 49.8 33.9 40.4 31.7 1.8 0.6 1.3

Never married

13,637 490 150 340 18.4 24.5 28.8 22.9 3.6 1.1 2.5

16 to 24 years

7,429 351 120 231 10.0 17.5 23.1 15.6 4.7 1.6 3.1

25 years and over

6,208 139 30 109 8.4 6.9 5.8 7.3 2.2 0.5 1.8

25 to 54 years

5,960 132 26 106 8.1 6.6 5.0 7.1 2.2 0.4 1.8

Married, spouse present

18,546 135 36 99 25.1 6.7 6.9 6.7 0.7 0.2 0.5

16 to 24 years

724 12 4 8 1.0 0.6 0.8 0.5 1.7 0.6 1.1

25 years and over]

17,822 123 32 91 24.1 6.1 6.2 6.1 0.7 0.2 0.5

25 to 54 years

14,506 98 24 74 19.6 4.9 4.6 5.0 0.7 0.2 0.5

Other marital status

4,623 54 23 31 6.3 2.7 4.4 2.1 1.2 0.5 0.7

16 to 24 years

153 3 3 - 0.2 0.1 0.6 - 2.0 2.0 -

25 years and over

4,470 52 21 31 6.0 2.6 4.0 2.1 1.2 0.5 0.7

25 to 54 years

3,667 37 13 24 5.0 1.8 2.5 1.6 1.0 0.4 0.7
WOMEN

Total, 16 years and over

37,133 1,323 310 1,013 50.2 66.1 59.6 68.3 3.6 0.8 2.7

Never married

11,774 754 170 584 15.9 37.6 32.7 39.4 6.4 1.4 5.0

16 to 24 years

6,727 588 132 456 9.1 29.4 25.4 30.7 8.7 2.0 6.8

25 years and over

5,047 164 37 127 6.8 8.2 7.1 8.6 3.2 0.7 2.5

25 to 54 years

4,733 156 33 123 6.4 7.8 6.3 8.3 3.3 0.7 2.6

Married, spouse present

17,584 346 78 268 23.8 17.3 15.0 18.1 2.0 0.4 1.5

16 to 24 years

879 54 11 43 1.2 2.7 2.1 2.9 6.1 1.3 4.9

25 years and over

16,705 293 68 225 22.6 14.6 13.1 15.2 1.8 0.4 1.3

25 to 54 years

13,847 232 48 184 18.7 11.6 9.2 12.4 1.7 0.3 1.3

Other marital status

7,774 224 63 161 10.5 11.2 12.1 10.9 2.9 0.8 2.1

16 to 24 years

262 13 2 11 0.4 0.6 0.4 0.7 5.0 0.8 4.2

25 years and over

7,512 211 61 150 10.2 10.5 11.7 10.1 2.8 0.8 2.0

25 to 54 years

5,372 139 31 108 7.3 6.9 6.0 7.3 2.6 0.6 2.0

NOTE: Data exclude all the self-employed, both unincorporated and incorporated. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

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Table 9. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by usual hours worked on primary job per week, 2004 annual averages
Usual hours worked per week on primary job Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour At or below $5.15 per hour
Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15

Total, 16 years and over

73,939 2,003 520 1,483 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.7 0.7 2.0

Hours vary

5,499 289 56 233 7.4 14.4 10.8 15.7 5.3 1.0 4.2

0 to 34 hours

15,833 1,060 305 755 21.4 52.9 58.7 50.9 6.7 1.9 4.8

0 to 4 hours

309 21 6 15 0.4 1.0 1.2 1.0 6.8 1.9 4.9

5 to 9 hours

913 75 23 52 1.2 3.7 4.4 3.5 8.2 2.5 5.7

10 to 14 hours

1,458 110 38 72 2.0 5.5 7.3 4.9 7.5 2.6 4.9

15 to 19 hours

2,110 155 57 98 2.9 7.7 11.0 6.6 7.3 2.7 4.6

20 to 24 hours

4,921 338 111 227 6.7 16.9 21.3 15.3 6.9 2.3 4.6

25 to 29 hours

2,163 143 30 113 2.9 7.1 5.8 7.6 6.6 1.4 5.2

30 to 34 hours

3,959 218 40 178 5.4 10.9 7.7 12.0 5.5 1.0 4.5

35 hours or more

52,607 654 159 495 71.1 32.7 30.6 33.4 1.2 0.3 0.9

35 to 39 hours

5,037 167 26 141 6.8 8.3 5.0 9.5 3.3 0.5 2.8

40 hours or more

47,570 487 133 354 64.3 24.3 25.6 23.9 1.0 0.3 0.7

40 hours

41,302 429 121 308 55.9 21.4 23.3 20.8 1.0 0.3 0.7

41 hours or more

6,267 59 13 46 8.5 2.9 2.5 3.1 0.9 0.2 0.7

41 to 44 hours

746 4 - 4 1.0 0.2 - 0.3 0.5 - 0.5

45 to 48 hours

2,263 18 4 14 3.1 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.2 0.6

49 to 59 hours

2,266 27 5 22 3.1 1.3 1.0 1.5 1.2 0.2 1.0

60 hours or more

992 9 4 5 1.3 0.4 0.8 0.3 0.9 0.4 0.5

NOTE: Data exclude all the self-employed, both unincorporated and incorporated. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

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Table 10. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by sex, 1979-2004 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Year and sex Total wage and salary workers Workers paid hourly rates
Total Percent of total wage and salary workers Below prevailing Federal minimum wage At prevailing Federal minimum wage Total at or below prevailing Federal minimum wage
Number Percent of hourly paid workers
BOTH SEXES

1979

87,529 51,721 59.1 2,916 3,997 6,912 13.4

1980

87,644 51,335 58.6 3,087 4,686 7,773 15.1

1981

88,516 51,869 58.6 3,513 4,311 7,824 15.1

1982

87,368 50,846 58.2 2,348 4,148 6,496 12.8

1983

88,290 51,820 58.7 2,077 4,261 6,338 12.2

1984

92,194 54,143 58.7 1,838 4,125 5,963 11.0

1985

94,521 55,762 59.0 1,639 3,899 5,538 9.9

1986 (1)

96,903 57,529 59.4 1,599 3,461 5,060 8.8

1987

99,303 59,552 60.0 1,468 3,229 4,698 7.9

1988

101,407 60,878 60.0 1,319 2,608 3,927 6.5

1989

103,480 62,389 60.3 1,372 1,790 3,162 5.1

1990 (1)

104,876 63,172 60.2 2,132 (2) 1,096 (2) 3,228 (2) 5.1 (2)

1991

103,723 62,627 60.4 2,377 (2) 2,906 (2) 5,283 (2) 8.4 (2)

1992

104,668 63,610 60.8 1,939 2,982 4,921 7.7

1993

106,101 64,274 60.6 1,707 2,625 4,332 6.7

1994 (1)

107,989 66,549 61.6 1,995 2,132 4,128 6.2

1995

110,038 68,354 62.1 1,699 1,956 3,656 5.3

1996

111,960 69,255 61.9 1,863 (2) 1,861 (2) 3,724 (2) 5.4 (2)

1997 (1)

114,533 70,735 61.8 2,990 (2) 1,764 (2) 4,754 (2) 6.7 (2)

1998 (1)

116,730 71,440 61.2 2,834 1,593 4,427 6.2

1999 (1)

118,963 72,306 60.8 2,194 1,146 3,340 4.6

2000 (1)

122,089 73,496 60.2 1,752 898 2,650 3.6

2001

122,229 73,392 60.0 1,518 656 2,174 3.0

2002

121,826 72,508 59.5 1,579 567 2,146 3.0

2003 (1)

122,358 72,946 59.6 1,555 545 2,100 2.9

2004 (1)

123,554 73,939 59.8 1,483 520 2,003 2.7
MEN

1979

49,400 28,392 57.5 846 1,353 2,199 7.7

1980

48,700 27,709 56.9 983 1,696 2,678 9.7

1981

48,844 27,576 56.5 1,119 1,533 2,652 9.6

1982

47,591 26,481 55.6 697 1,587 2,284 8.6

1983

47,856 26,831 56.1 585 1,658 2,243 8.4

1984

50,022 28,140 56.3 490 1,626 2,116 7.5

1985

51,015 28,893 56.6 440 1,544 1,984 6.9

1986 (1)

51,942 29,666 57.1 408 1,336 1,743 5.9

1987

52,938 30,474 57.6 364 1,283 1,647 5.4

1988

53,912 31,058 57.6 311 1,066 1,377 4.4

1989

54,789 31,687 57.8 379 733 1,112 3.5

1990 (1)

55,553 32,104 57.8 712 (2) 385 (2) 1,097 (2) 3.4 (2)

1991

54,618 31,639 57.9 795 (2) 1,114 (2) 1,909 (2) 6.0 (2)

1992

54,826 32,155 58.6 653 1,231 1,885 5.9

1993

55,475 32,337 58.3 573 1,091 1,664 5.1

1994 (1)

56,570 33,528 59.3 674 891 1,565 4.7

1995

57,669 34,420 59.7 542 796 1,338 3.9

1996

58,473 34,838 59.6 619 (2) 755 (2) 1,374 (2) 3.9 (2)

1997 (1)

59,825 35,521 59.4 1,147 (2) 673 (2) 1,820 (2) 5.1 (2)

1998 (1)

60,973 35,761 58.7 1,039 628 1,667 4.7

1999 (1)

61,914 36,073 58.3 768 446 1,214 3.4

2000 (1)

63,662 36,720 57.7 582 319 901 2.5

2001

63,647 36,544 57.4 497 247 744 2.0

2002

63,272 36,000 56.9 582 217 799 2.2

2003 (1)

63,236 35,853 56.7 493 213 706 2.0

2004 (1)

64,145 36,806 57.4 470 210 680 1.8
WOMEN

1979

38,129 23,329 61.2 2,070 2,644 4,714 20.2

1980

38,944 23,626 60.7 2,104 2,990 5,095 21.6

1981

39,672 24,294 61.2 2,394 2,778 5,172 21.3

1982

39,777 24,365 61.3 1,651 2,561 4,212 17.3

1983

40,433 24,989 61.8 1,492 2,603 4,095 16.4

1984

42,172 26,003 61.7 1,348 2,499 3,847 14.8

1985

43,506 26,869 61.8 1,198 2,356 3,554 13.2

1986 (1)

44,961 27,863 62.0 1,192 2,125 3,317 11.9

1987

46,365 29,078 62.7 1,105 1,946 3,051 10.5

1988

47,495 29,820 62.8 1,008 1,542 2,550 8.6

1989

48,691 30,702 63.1 994 1,056 2,050 6.7

1990 (1)

49,323 31,069 63.0 1,420 (2) 711 (2) 2,131 (2) 6.9 (2)

1991

49,105 30,988 63.1 1,582 (2) 1,792 (2) 3,374 (2) 10.9 (2)

1992

49,842 31,454 63.1 1,286 1,751 3,036 9.7

1993

50,626 31,937 63.1 1,133 1,534 2,667 8.4

1994 (1)

51,419 33,021 64.2 1,322 1,241 2,563 7.8

1995

52,369 33,934 64.8 1,157 1,161 2,318 6.8

1996

53,488 34,418 64.3 1,244 (2) 1,106 (2) 2,350 (2) 6.8 (2)

1997 (1)

54,708 35,214 64.4 1,843 (2) 1,092 (2) 2,935 (2) 8.3 (2)

1998 (1)

55,757 35,680 64.0 1,794 965 2,760 7.7

1999 (1)

57,050 36,233 63.5 1,426 700 2,126 5.9

2000 (1)

58,427 36,777 62.9 1,170 579 1,749 4.8

2001

58,582 36,848 62.9 1,021 409 1,430 3.9

2002

58,555 36,508 62.3 997 350 1,347 3.7

2003 (1)

59,122 37,093 62.7 1,062 332 1,394 3.8

2004 (1)

59,408 37,133 62.5 1,013 310 1,323 3.6

1 The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and conceptual changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). For an explanation, see the "Explanatory Notes and Estimates of Error" section of the February 2005 and subsequent issues of Employment and Earnings, a monthly BLS periodical .

2 Data for 1990-91 and 1996-97 reflect changes in the minimum wage that took place in those years.

NOTE: The prevailing Federal minimum wage was $2.90 in 1979, $3.10 in 1980, and $3.35 in 1981-89. The minimum wage rose to $3.80 in April 1990, to $4.25 in April 1991, to $4.75 in October 1996, and to $5.15 in September 1997. Data exclude the incorporated self-employed. The presence of a sizable number of workers with reported wages below the minimum does not necessarily indicate violations of the Fair Labor Standards Act, as there are numerous exemptions to the minimum wage provisions of the law. Indeed, the relatively large number of workers with reported wages below the minimum in 1998-2004 includes some hourly-paid workers reported as earning exactly $5.00 per hour (about 1.4 million in 1998, about 900,000 in 1999, about 600,000 in 2000, about 500,000 in 2001, about 500,000 in 2002, and about 350,000 in 2003 and in 2004); to some extent, this may reflect rounding on the part of survey respondents.

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Characteristics of Minimum Wage Workers: 2004

Last Modified Date: April 5, 2005

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