Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey

Characteristics of Minimum Wage Workers: 2005

Tables 1 - 10

Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage, 2005 annual averages:

  1. by selected characteristics
  2. by census region and division
  3. by State
  4. by major occupation group
  5. by major industry group
  6. by educational attainment
  7. by age and sex
  8. by marital status, age, and sex
  9. by usual hours worked per week
  10. by sex (1979-2005 annual averages)

Table 1. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by selected characteristics, 2005 annual averages
Characteristic Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour At or below $5.15 per hour
Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15
AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

75,609 1,882 479 1,403 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.5 0.6 1.9

16 to 24 years

16,374 1,003 283 720 21.7 53.3 59.1 51.3 6.1 1.7 4.4

16 to 19 years

5,528 491 179 312 7.3 26.1 37.4 22.2 8.9 3.2 5.6

25 years and over

59,235 879 196 683 78.3 46.7 40.9 48.7 1.5 0.3 1.2

Men, 16 years and over

37,652 648 189 459 49.8 34.4 39.5 32.7 1.7 0.5 1.2

16 to 24 years

8,288 353 130 223 11.0 18.8 27.1 15.9 4.3 1.6 2.7

16 to 19 years

2,654 172 86 86 3.5 9.1 18.0 6.1 6.5 3.2 3.2

25 years and over

29,364 296 60 236 38.8 15.7 12.5 16.8 1.0 0.2 0.8

Women, 16 years and over

37,957 1,234 290 944 50.2 65.6 60.5 67.3 3.3 0.8 2.5

16 to 24 years

8,086 649 153 496 10.7 34.5 31.9 35.4 8.0 1.9 6.1

16 to 19 years

2,874 318 93 225 3.8 16.9 19.4 16.0 11.1 3.2 7.8

25 years and over

29,871 584 137 447 39.5 31.0 28.6 31.9 2.0 0.5 1.5
RACE, SEX, AND HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

White (1)

60,978 1,537 349 1,188 80.6 81.7 72.9 84.7 2.5 0.6 1.9

Men

30,901 485 133 352 40.9 25.8 27.8 25.1 1.6 0.4 1.1

Women

30,078 1,052 216 836 39.8 55.9 45.1 59.6 3.5 0.7 2.8

Black or African American (1)

9,793 215 96 119 13.0 11.4 20.0 8.5 2.2 1.0 1.2

Men

4,421 105 42 63 5.8 5.6 8.8 4.5 2.4 1.0 1.4

Women

5,372 111 54 57 7.1 5.9 11.3 4.1 2.1 1.0 1.1

Asian (1)

2,720 65 14 51 3.6 3.5 2.9 3.6 2.4 0.5 1.9

Men

1,283 30 5 25 1.7 1.6 1.0 1.8 2.3 0.4 1.9

Women

1,437 35 9 26 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.4 0.6 1.8

Hispanic or Latino (1)

12,527 281 71 210 16.6 14.9 14.8 15.0 2.2 0.6 1.7

Men

7,467 114 29 85 9.9 6.1 6.1 6.1 1.5 0.4 1.1

Women

5,060 167 42 125 6.7 8.9 8.8 8.9 3.3 0.8 2.5
FULL- AND PART-TIME STATUS AND SEX

Full-time workers (2)

57,385 751 143 608 75.9 39.9 29.9 43.3 1.3 0.2 1.1

Men

31,911 321 69 252 42.2 17.1 14.4 18.0 1.0 0.2 0.8

Women

25,474 430 74 356 33.7 22.8 15.4 25.4 1.7 0.3 1.4

Part-time workers (2)

18,084 1,126 336 790 23.9 59.8 70.1 56.3 6.2 1.9 4.4

Men

5,669 327 120 207 7.5 17.4 25.1 14.8 5.8 2.1 3.7

Women

12,415 799 216 583 16.4 42.5 45.1 41.6 6.4 1.7 4.7

1 Detail for the race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) will not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. In addition, persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race and, therefore, are classified by ethnicity as well as race.

2 The distinction between full- and part-time workers is based on hours usually worked. These data will not sum to totals because full- or part-time status on the principal job is not identifiable for a small number of multiple jobholders.

NOTE: Data exclude all the self-employed, both unincorporated and incorporated.

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Table 2. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by census region and division, 2005 annual averages
Region and division Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour At or below $5.15 per hour
Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15

Total, 16 years and over

75,609 1,882 479 1,403 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.5 0.6 1.9

Northeast

13,284 302 61 241 17.6 16.0 12.7 17.2 2.3 0.5 1.8

New England

3,836 71 9 62 5.1 3.8 1.9 4.4 1.9 0.2 1.6

Middle Atlantic

9,448 232 52 180 12.5 12.3 10.9 12.8 2.5 0.6 1.9

North Central

18,879 502 112 390 25.0 26.7 23.4 27.8 2.7 0.6 2.1

East North Central

13,015 341 65 276 17.2 18.1 13.6 19.7 2.6 0.5 2.1

West North Central

5,864 160 46 114 7.8 8.5 9.6 8.1 2.7 0.8 1.9

South

26,138 813 232 581 34.6 43.2 48.4 41.4 3.1 0.9 2.2

South Atlantic

13,578 388 83 305 18.0 20.6 17.3 21.7 2.9 0.6 2.2

East South Central

4,442 145 51 94 5.9 7.7 10.6 6.7 3.3 1.1 2.1

West South Central

8,118 279 97 182 10.7 14.8 20.3 13.0 3.4 1.2 2.2

West

17,309 266 75 191 22.9 14.1 15.7 13.6 1.5 0.4 1.1

Mountain

5,237 158 52 106 6.9 8.4 10.9 7.6 3.0 1.0 2.0

Pacific

12,071 108 23 85 16.0 5.7 4.8 6.1 0.9 0.2 0.7

NOTE: Data exclude all the self-employed, both unincorporated and incorporated.

The four major regions and nine census divisions of the United States are as follows:

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Table 3. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by State, 2005 annual averages
State Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour At or below $5.15 per hour
Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15

Total, 16 years and over

75,609 1,882 479 1,403 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.5 0.6 1.9

Alabama

1,152 36 16 20 1.5 1.9 3.3 1.4 3.1 1.4 1.7

Alaska

192 1 - 1 0.3 0.1 - 0.1 0.5 - 0.5

Arizona

1,396 47 11 36 1.8 2.5 2.3 2.6 3.4 0.8 2.6

Arkansas

700 25 14 11 0.9 1.3 2.9 0.8 3.6 2.0 1.6

California

8,846 82 20 62 11.7 4.4 4.2 4.4 0.9 0.2 0.7

Colorado

1,131 34 9 25 1.5 1.8 1.9 1.8 3.0 0.8 2.2

Connecticut

892 9 1 8 1.2 0.5 0.2 0.6 1.0 0.1 0.9

Delaware

219 4 1 3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 1.8 0.5 1.4

District of Columbia

110 2 - 2 0.1 0.1 - 0.1 1.8 - 1.8

Florida

4,404 117 12 105 5.8 6.2 2.5 7.5 2.7 0.3 2.4

Georgia

2,060 66 14 52 2.7 3.5 2.9 3.7 3.2 0.7 2.5

Hawaii

341 4 - 4 0.4 0.3 - 0.3 1.2 - 1.2

Idaho

415 12 4 8 0.5 0.6 0.8 0.6 2.9 1.0 1.9

Illinois

3,207 77 12 65 4.2 4.1 2.5 4.6 2.4 0.4 2.0

Indiana

1,794 37 6 31 2.4 2.0 1.3 2.2 2.1 0.3 1.7

Iowa

922 20 4 16 1.2 1.1 0.8 1.1 2.2 0.4 1.7

Kansas

770 27 8 19 1.0 1.4 1.7 1.4 3.5 1.0 2.5

Kentucky

1,120 35 9 26 1.5 1.9 1.9 1.9 3.1 0.8 2.3

Louisiana

1,109 42 18 24 1.5 2.2 3.8 1.7 3.8 1.6 2.2

Maine

409 8 1 7 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.5 2.0 0.2 1.7

Maryland

1,318 28 2 26 1.7 1.5 0.4 1.9 2.1 0.2 2.0

Massachusetts

1,666 31 4 27 2.2 1.6 0.8 1.9 1.9 0.2 1.6

Michigan

2,869 88 16 72 3.8 4.7 3.3 5.1 3.1 0.6 2.5

Minnesota

1,593 29 11 18 2.1 1.5 2.3 1.3 1.8 0.7 1.1

Mississippi

664 23 8 15 0.9 1.2 1.7 1.1 3.5 1.2 2.3

Missouri

1,613 56 15 41 2.1 3.0 3.1 2.9 3.5 0.9 2.5

Montana

278 6 4 2 0.4 0.3 0.8 0.1 2.2 1.4 0.7

Nebraska

544 17 5 12 0.7 0.9 1.0 0.9 3.1 0.9 2.2

Nevada

684 19 10 9 0.9 1.0 2.1 0.6 2.8 1.5 1.3

New Hampshire

377 11 2 9 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.6 2.9 0.5 2.4

New Jersey

1,922 40 9 31 2.5 2.1 1.9 2.2 2.1 0.5 1.6

New Mexico

505 18 8 10 0.7 1.0 1.7 0.7 3.6 1.6 2.0

New York

4,186 95 18 77 5.5 5.0 3.8 5.5 2.3 0.4 1.8

North Carolina

2,176 58 13 45 2.9 3.1 2.7 3.2 2.7 0.6 2.1

North Dakota

183 4 1 3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 2.2 0.5 1.6

Ohio

3,403 111 26 85 4.5 5.9 5.4 6.1 3.3 0.8 2.5

Oklahoma

841 36 10 26 1.1 1.9 2.1 1.9 4.3 1.2 3.1

Oregon

959 10 1 9 1.3 0.5 0.2 0.6 1.0 0.1 0.9

Pennsylvania

3,340 97 25 72 4.4 5.2 5.2 5.1 2.9 0.7 2.2

Rhode Island

309 8 - 8 0.4 0.4 - 0.6 2.6 - 2.6

South Carolina

1,073 34 10 24 1.4 1.8 2.1 1.7 3.2 0.9 2.2

South Dakota

240 9 3 6 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.4 3.8 1.2 2.5

Tennesee

1,506 51 17 34 2.0 2.7 3.5 2.4 3.4 1.1 2.3

Texas

5,467 176 55 121 7.2 9.4 11.5 8.6 3.2 1.0 2.2

Utah

677 16 4 12 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.9 2.4 0.6 1.8

Vermont

182 3 - 3 0.2 0.2 - 0.2 1.6 - 1.6

Virginia

1,753 60 22 38 2.3 3.2 4.6 2.7 3.4 1.3 2.2

Washington

1,733 10 1 9 2.3 0.5 0.2 0.6 0.6 0.1 0.5

West Virginia

466 20 10 10 0.6 1.1 2.1 0.7 4.3 2.1 2.1

Wisconsin

1,743 27 5 22 2.3 1.4 1.0 1.6 1.5 0.3 1.3

Wyoming

150 4 1 3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 2.7 0.7 2.0

NOTE: Data exclude all the self-employed, both unincorporated and incorporated. Users are reminded that these data are based on a sample and are therefore subject to sampling error; the degree of error may be quite large for less populous States. It is not possible to clearly determine whether workers surveyed in the CPS are actually covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) or by individual State minimum wage laws. Thus, some workers reported as earning an hourly wage of $5.15 may not in fact be covered by Federal or State minimum wage laws. At the same time, the presence of a sizable number of workers with wages below the prevailing Federal minimum wage does not necessarily indicate violations of the FLSA or applicable State laws, because there are numerous exclusions and exemptions to these minimum wage statutes. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

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Table 4. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by major occupation group, 2005 annual averages
Occupation Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour At or below $5.15 per hour
Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15

Total, 16 years and over

75,609 1,882 479 1,403 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.5 0.6 1.9

Management, professional, and related occupations

14,258 72 26 46 18.9 3.8 5.4 3.3 0.5 0.2 0.3

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

3,893 22 7 15 5.1 1.2 1.5 1.1 0.6 0.2 0.4

Professional and related occupations

10,366 51 19 32 13.7 2.7 4.0 2.3 0.5 0.2 0.3

Service occupations

16,751 1,394 242 1,152 22.2 74.1 50.5 82.1 8.3 1.4 6.9

Healthcare support occupations

2,565 40 6 34 3.4 2.1 1.3 2.4 1.6 0.2 1.3

Protective service occupations

1,775 21 4 17 2.3 1.1 0.8 1.2 1.2 0.2 1.0

Food preparation and serving related occupations

6,493 1,131 165 966 8.6 60.1 34.4 68.9 17.4 2.5 14.9

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3,590 89 34 55 4.7 4.7 7.1 3.9 2.5 0.9 1.5

Personal care and service occupations

2,328 113 32 81 3.1 6.0 6.7 5.8 4.9 1.4 3.5

Sales and office occupations

20,930 240 136 104 27.7 12.8 28.4 7.4 1.1 0.6 0.5

Sales and related occupations

7,612 142 77 65 10.1 7.5 16.1 4.6 1.9 1.0 0.9

Office and administrative support occupations

13,318 98 59 39 17.6 5.2 12.3 2.8 0.7 0.4 0.3

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

9,900 48 18 30 13.1 2.6 3.8 2.1 0.5 0.2 0.3

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

623 14 7 7 0.8 0.7 1.5 0.5 2.2 1.1 1.1

Construction and extraction occupations

5,828 18 6 12 7.7 1.0 1.3 0.9 0.3 0.1 0.2

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

3,449 16 5 11 4.6 0.9 1.0 0.8 0.5 0.1 0.3

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

13,770 128 57 71 18.2 6.8 11.9 5.1 0.9 0.4 0.5

Production occupations

7,658 47 19 28 10.1 2.5 4.0 2.0 0.6 0.2 0.4

Transportation and material moving occupations

6,112 81 38 43 8.1 4.3 7.9 3.1 1.3 0.6 0.7

NOTE: Data exclude all the self-employed, both unincorporated and incorporated.

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Table 5. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by major industry group, 2005 annual averages
Industry Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour At or below $5.15 per hour
Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15

Total, 16 years and over

75,609 1,882 479 1,403 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.5 0.6 1.9

Private sector

66,135 1,782 438 1,344 87.5 94.7 91.4 95.8 2.7 0.7 2.0

Agriculture and related industries

641 15 8 7 0.8 0.8 1.7 0.5 2.3 1.2 1.1

Nonagricultural industries

65,495 1,767 430 1,337 86.6 93.9 89.8 95.3 2.7 0.7 2.0

Mining

390 - - - 0.5 - - - - - -

Construction

5,897 19 4 15 7.8 1.0 0.8 1.1 0.3 0.1 0.3

Manufacturing

10,299 39 14 25 13.6 2.1 2.9 1.8 0.4 0.1 0.2

Durable goods

6,462 18 3 15 8.5 1.0 0.6 1.1 0.3 0.0 0.2

Nondurable goods

3,837 20 10 10 5.1 1.1 2.1 0.7 0.5 0.3 0.3

Wholesale and retail trade

12,765 181 100 81 16.9 9.6 20.9 5.8 1.4 0.8 0.6

Wholesale trade

2,044 7 4 3 2.7 0.4 0.8 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.1

Retail trade

10,721 174 96 78 14.2 9.2 20.0 5.6 1.6 0.9 0.7

Transportation and utilities

3,029 22 7 15 4.0 1.2 1.5 1.1 0.7 0.2 0.5

Information

1,406 16 7 9 1.9 0.9 1.5 0.6 1.1 0.5 0.6

Financial activities

3,366 17 9 8 4.5 0.9 1.9 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.2

Professional and business services

5,537 59 19 40 7.3 3.1 4.0 2.9 1.1 0.3 0.7

Education and health services

11,335 126 38 88 15.0 6.7 7.9 6.3 1.1 0.3 0.8

Leisure and hospitality

8,420 1,201 197 1,004 11.1 63.8 41.1 71.6 14.3 2.3 11.9

Other services

3,051 87 35 52 4.0 4.6 7.3 3.7 2.9 1.1 1.7

Public sector

9,474 100 41 59 12.5 5.3 8.6 4.2 1.1 0.4 0.6

Federal

1,892 14 8 6 2.5 0.7 1.7 0.4 0.7 0.4 0.3

State

2,464 25 11 14 3.3 1.3 2.3 1.0 1.0 0.4 0.6

Local

5,118 61 21 40 6.8 3.2 4.4 2.9 1.2 0.4 0.8

NOTE: Data exclude all the self-employed, both unincorporated and incorporated. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

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Table 6. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by educational attainment, 2005 annual averages
Educational attainment Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour At or below $5.15 per hour
Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15

Total, 16 years and over

75,609 1,882 479 1,403 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.5 0.6 1.9

Less than a high school diploma

12,647 561 211 350 16.7 29.8 44.1 24.9 4.4 1.7 2.8

Less than 1 year of high school

3,576 91 32 59 4.7 4.8 6.7 4.2 2.5 0.9 1.6

1 to 3 years of high school

7,800 439 170 269 10.3 23.3 35.5 19.2 5.6 2.2 3.4

4 years of high school, no diploma

1,271 32 9 23 1.7 1.7 1.9 1.6 2.5 0.7 1.8

High school graduates or more

62,963 1,321 268 1,053 83.3 70.2 55.9 75.1 2.1 0.4 1.7

High school graduates, no college

27,622 547 129 418 36.5 29.1 26.9 29.8 2.0 0.5 1.5

Some college or associate degree

24,654 645 120 525 32.6 34.3 25.1 37.4 2.6 0.5 2.1

Some college, no degree

16,857 536 97 439 22.3 28.5 20.3 31.3 3.2 0.6 2.6

Associate degree

7,797 109 23 86 10.3 5.8 4.8 6.1 1.4 0.3 1.1

Occupational program

4,301 52 10 42 5.7 2.8 2.1 3.0 1.2 0.2 1.0

Academic program

3,496 57 13 44 4.6 3.0 2.7 3.1 1.6 0.4 1.3

College graduates, total

10,687 127 18 109 14.1 6.7 3.8 7.8 1.2 0.2 1.0

Bachelor's degree

8,485 113 17 96 11.2 6.0 3.5 6.8 1.3 0.2 1.1

Master's degree

1,702 12 1 11 2.3 0.6 0.2 0.8 0.7 0.1 0.6

Professional degree

311 1 - 1 0.4 0.1 - 0.1 0.3 - 0.3

Doctoral degree

188 2 - 2 0.2 0.1 - 0.1 1.1 - 1.1

NOTE: Data exclude all the self-employed, both unincorporated and incorporated. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

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Table 7. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by age and sex, 2005 annual averages
Age and sex Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour At or below $5.15 per hour
Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15
BOTH SEXES

Total, 16 years and over

75,609 1,882 479 1,403 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.5 0.6 1.9

Under 25 years

16,374 1,003 283 720 21.7 53.3 59.1 51.3 6.1 1.7 4.4

16 to 19 years

5,528 491 179 312 7.3 26.1 37.4 22.2 8.9 3.2 5.6

20 to 24 years

10,846 512 104 408 14.3 27.2 21.7 29.1 4.7 1.0 3.8

25 years and over

59,235 879 196 683 78.3 46.7 40.9 48.7 1.5 0.3 1.2

25 to 34 years

16,779 373 67 306 22.2 19.8 14.0 21.8 2.2 0.4 1.8

25 to 29 years

8,692 229 38 191 11.5 12.2 7.9 13.6 2.6 0.4 2.2

30 to 34 years

8,088 144 28 116 10.7 7.7 5.8 8.3 1.8 0.3 1.4

35 to 44 years

16,761 208 39 169 22.2 11.1 8.1 12.0 1.2 0.2 1.0

35 to 39 years

7,992 107 23 84 10.6 5.7 4.8 6.0 1.3 0.3 1.1

40 to 44 years

8,769 101 16 85 11.6 5.4 3.3 6.1 1.2 0.2 1.0

45 to 54 years

15,419 164 30 134 20.4 8.7 6.3 9.6 1.1 0.2 0.9

45 to 49 years

8,417 100 19 81 11.1 5.3 4.0 5.8 1.2 0.2 1.0

50 to 54 years

7,002 64 11 53 9.3 3.4 2.3 3.8 0.9 0.2 0.8

55 to 64 years

8,015 79 37 42 10.6 4.2 7.7 3.0 1.0 0.5 0.5

55 to 59 years

5,163 46 18 28 6.8 2.4 3.8 2.0 0.9 0.3 0.5

60 to 64 years

2,851 32 18 14 3.8 1.7 3.8 1.0 1.1 0.6 0.5

65 years and over

2,261 56 24 32 3.0 3.0 5.0 2.3 2.5 1.1 1.4

65 to 69 years

1,236 22 10 12 1.6 1.2 2.1 0.9 1.8 0.8 1.0

70 years and over

1,025 34 14 20 1.4 1.8 2.9 1.4 3.3 1.4 2.0
MEN

Total, 16 years and over

37,652 648 189 459 49.8 34.4 39.5 32.7 1.7 0.5 1.2

Under 25 years

8,288 353 130 223 11.0 18.8 27.1 15.9 4.3 1.6 2.7

16 to 19 years

2,654 172 86 86 3.5 9.1 18.0 6.1 6.5 3.2 3.2

20 to 24 years

5,634 180 43 137 7.5 9.6 9.0 9.8 3.2 0.8 2.4

25 years and over

29,364 296 60 236 38.8 15.7 12.5 16.8 1.0 0.2 0.8

25 to 34 years

9,063 144 22 122 12.0 7.7 4.6 8.7 1.6 0.2 1.3

25 to 29 years

4,756 90 13 77 6.3 4.8 2.7 5.5 1.9 0.3 1.6

30 to 34 years

4,307 54 9 45 5.7 2.9 1.9 3.2 1.3 0.2 1.0

35 to 44 years

8,374 60 14 46 11.1 3.2 2.9 3.3 0.7 0.2 0.5

35 to 39 years

4,082 35 9 26 5.4 1.9 1.9 1.9 0.9 0.2 0.6

40 to 44 years

4,292 26 5 21 5.7 1.4 1.0 1.5 0.6 0.1 0.5

45 to 54 years

7,222 55 13 42 9.6 2.9 2.7 3.0 0.8 0.2 0.6

45 to 49 years

3,959 38 8 30 5.2 2.0 1.7 2.1 1.0 0.2 0.8

50 to 54 years

3,264 16 5 11 4.3 0.9 1.0 0.8 0.5 0.2 0.3

55 to 64 years

3,695 23 7 16 4.9 1.2 1.5 1.1 0.6 0.2 0.4

55 to 59 years

2,369 14 2 12 3.1 0.7 0.4 0.9 0.6 0.1 0.5

60 to 64 years

1,326 8 4 4 1.8 0.4 0.8 0.3 0.6 0.3 0.3

65 years and over

1,009 14 4 10 1.3 0.7 0.8 0.7 1.4 0.4 1.0

65 to 69 years

547 5 2 3 0.7 0.3 0.4 0.2 0.9 0.4 0.5

70 years and over

462 8 1 7 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.5 1.7 0.2 1.5
WOMEN

Total, 16 years and over

37,957 1,234 290 944 50.2 65.6 60.5 67.3 3.3 0.8 2.5

Under 25 years

8,086 649 153 496 10.7 34.5 31.9 35.4 8.0 1.9 6.1

16 to 19 years

2,874 318 93 225 3.8 16.9 19.4 16.0 11.1 3.2 7.8

20 to 24 years

5,212 331 60 271 6.9 17.6 12.5 19.3 6.4 1.2 5.2

25 years and over

29,871 584 137 447 39.5 31.0 28.6 31.9 2.0 0.5 1.5

25 to 34 years

7,716 230 45 185 10.2 12.2 9.4 13.2 3.0 0.6 2.4

25 to 29 years

3,936 140 26 114 5.2 7.4 5.4 8.1 3.6 0.7 2.9

30 to 34 years

3,781 89 19 70 5.0 4.7 4.0 5.0 2.4 0.5 1.9

35 to 44 years

8,387 147 25 122 11.1 7.8 5.2 8.7 1.8 0.3 1.5

35 to 39 years

3,910 72 14 58 5.2 3.8 2.9 4.1 1.8 0.4 1.5

40 to 44 years

4,477 76 12 64 5.9 4.0 2.5 4.6 1.7 0.3 1.4

45 to 54 years

8,197 110 17 93 10.8 5.8 3.5 6.6 1.3 0.2 1.1

45 to 49 years

4,459 62 11 51 5.9 3.3 2.3 3.6 1.4 0.2 1.1

50 to 54 years

3,738 47 5 42 4.9 2.5 1.0 3.0 1.3 0.1 1.1

55 to 64 years

4,319 56 30 26 5.7 3.0 6.3 1.9 1.3 0.7 0.6

55 to 59 years

2,794 33 16 17 3.7 1.8 3.3 1.2 1.2 0.6 0.6

60 to 64 years

1,525 24 14 10 2.0 1.3 2.9 0.7 1.6 0.9 0.7

65 years and over

1,252 42 20 22 1.7 2.2 4.2 1.6 3.4 1.6 1.8

65 to 69 years

689 17 8 9 0.9 0.9 1.7 0.6 2.5 1.2 1.3

70 years and over

563 26 13 13 0.7 1.4 2.7 0.9 4.6 2.3 2.3

NOTE: Data exclude all the self-employed, both unincorporated and incorporated.

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Table 8. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by marital status, age, and sex, 2005 annual averages
Marital status, age and sex Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour At or below $5.15 per hour
Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15
BOTH SEXES

Total, 16 years and over

75,609 1,882 479 1,403 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.5 0.6 1.9

Never married

26,288 1,213 325 888 34.8 64.5 67.8 63.3 4.6 1.2 3.4

16 to 24 years

14,289 929 268 661 18.9 49.4 55.9 47.1 6.5 1.9 4.6

25 years and over

11,998 284 57 227 15.9 15.1 11.9 16.2 2.4 0.5 1.9

25 to 54 years

11,362 273 50 223 15.0 14.5 10.4 15.9 2.4 0.4 2.0

Married, spouse present

36,340 422 93 329 48.1 22.4 19.4 23.4 1.2 0.3 0.9

16 to 24 years

1,683 49 10 39 2.2 2.6 2.1 2.8 2.9 0.6 2.3

25 years and over

34,657 375 84 291 45.8 19.9 17.5 20.7 1.1 0.2 0.8

25 to 54 years

28,181 308 54 254 37.3 16.4 11.3 18.1 1.1 0.2 0.9

Other marital status

12,982 247 61 186 17.2 13.1 12.7 13.3 1.9 0.5 1.4

16 to 24 years

402 25 5 20 0.5 1.3 1.0 1.4 6.2 1.2 5.0

25 years and over

12,580 222 56 166 16.6 11.8 11.7 11.8 1.8 0.4 1.3

25 to 54 years

9,416 163 31 132 12.5 8.7 6.5 9.4 1.7 0.3 1.4
MEN

Total, 16 years and over

37,652 648 189 459 49.8 34.4 39.5 32.7 1.7 0.5 1.2

Never married

13,980 473 145 328 18.5 25.1 30.3 23.4 3.4 1.0 2.3

16 to 24 years

7,349 336 128 208 9.7 17.9 26.7 14.8 4.6 1.7 2.8

25 years and over

6,632 138 17 121 8.8 7.3 3.5 8.6 2.1 0.3 1.8

25 to 54 years

6,344 134 16 118 8.4 7.1 3.3 8.4 2.1 0.3 1.9

Married, spouse present

18,695 111 28 83 24.7 5.9 5.8 5.9 0.6 0.1 0.4

16 to 24 years

769 11 1 10 1.0 0.6 0.2 0.7 1.4 0.1 1.3

25 years and over

17,926 100 27 73 23.7 5.3 5.6 5.2 0.6 0.2 0.4

25 to 54 years

14,433 81 20 61 19.1 4.3 4.2 4.3 0.6 0.1 0.4

Other marital status

4,977 64 16 48 6.6 3.4 3.3 3.4 1.3 0.3 1.0

16 to 24 years

171 6 1 5 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.4 3.5 0.6 2.9

25 years and over

4,806 58 15 43 6.4 3.1 3.1 3.1 1.2 0.3 0.9

25 to 54 years

3,882 44 13 31 5.1 2.3 2.7 2.2 1.1 0.3 0.8
WOMEN

Total, 16 years and over

37,957 1,234 290 944 50.2 65.6 60.5 67.3 3.3 0.8 2.5

Never married

12,307 740 180 560 16.3 39.3 37.6 39.9 6.0 1.5 4.6

16 to 24 years

6,941 593 140 453 9.2 31.5 29.2 32.3 8.5 2.0 6.5

25 years and over

5,367 147 40 107 7.1 7.8 8.4 7.6 2.7 0.7 2.0

25 to 54 years

5,018 140 35 105 6.6 7.4 7.3 7.5 2.8 0.7 2.1

Married, spouse present

17,645 313 66 247 23.3 16.6 13.8 17.6 1.8 0.4 1.4

16 to 24 years

914 38 9 29 1.2 2.0 1.9 2.1 4.2 1.0 3.2

25 years and over

16,730 275 57 218 22.1 14.6 11.9 15.5 1.6 0.3 1.3

25 to 54 years

13,748 227 34 193 18.2 12.1 7.1 13.8 1.7 0.2 1.4

Other marital status

8,005 182 45 137 10.6 9.7 9.4 9.8 2.3 0.6 1.7

16 to 24 years

231 18 4 14 0.3 1.0 0.8 1.0 7.8 1.7 6.1

25 years and over

7,774 163 40 123 10.3 8.7 8.4 8.8 2.1 0.5 1.6

25 to 54 years

5,534 119 18 101 7.3 6.3 3.8 7.2 2.2 0.3 1.8

NOTE: Data exclude all the self-employed, both unincorporated and incorporated.

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Table 9. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by usual hours worked on primary job per week, 2005 annual averages
Usual hours worked per week on primary job Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour Total paid hourly rates At or below $5.15 per hour At or below $5.15 per hour
Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15 Total At $5.15 Below $5.15

Total, 16 years and over

75,609 1,882 479 1,403 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.5 0.6 1.9

Hours vary

5,695 273 55 218 7.5 14.5 11.5 15.5 4.8 1.0 3.8

0 to 34 hours

15,861 974 305 669 21.0 51.8 63.7 47.7 6.1 1.9 4.2

0 to 4 hours

324 20 5 15 0.4 1.1 1.0 1.1 6.2 1.5 4.6

5 to 9 hours

876 65 24 41 1.2 3.5 5.0 2.9 7.4 2.7 4.7

10 to 14 hours

1,427 104 41 63 1.9 5.5 8.6 4.5 7.3 2.9 4.4

15 to 19 hours

2,100 143 42 101 2.8 7.6 8.8 7.2 6.8 2.0 4.8

20 to 24 hours

4,796 291 114 177 6.3 15.5 23.8 12.6 6.1 2.4 3.7

25 to 29 hours

2,149 148 41 107 2.8 7.9 8.6 7.6 6.9 1.9 5.0

30 to 34 hours

4,189 202 37 165 5.5 10.7 7.7 11.8 4.8 0.9 3.9

35 hours or more

54,054 634 119 515 71.5 33.7 24.8 36.7 1.2 0.2 1.0

35 to 39 hours

5,330 187 38 149 7.0 9.9 7.9 10.6 3.5 0.7 2.8

40 hours or more

48,725 448 81 367 64.4 23.8 16.9 26.2 0.9 0.2 0.8

40 hours

41,954 380 63 317 55.5 20.2 13.2 22.6 0.9 0.2 0.8

41 hours or more

6,771 67 18 49 9.0 3.6 3.8 3.5 1.0 0.3 0.7

41 to 44 hours

826 3 1 2 1.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.4 0.1 0.2

45 to 48 hours

2,415 26 8 18 3.2 1.4 1.7 1.3 1.1 0.3 0.7

49 to 59 hours

2,518 20 5 15 3.3 1.1 1.0 1.1 0.8 0.2 0.6

60 hours or more

1,013 19 4 15 1.3 1.0 0.8 1.1 1.9 0.4 1.5

NOTE: Data exclude all the self-employed, both unincorporated and incorporated.

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Table 10. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by sex, 1979-2005 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Year and sex Total wage and salary workers Workers paid hourly rates
Total Percent of total wage and salary workers Below prevailing Federal minimum wage At prevailing Federal minimum wage Total at or below prevailing Federal minimum wage
Number Percent of hourly paid workers
BOTH SEXES

1979

87,529 51,721 59.1 2,916 3,997 6,912 13.4

1980

87,644 51,335 58.6 3,087 4,686 7,773 15.1

1981

88,516 51,869 58.6 3,513 4,311 7,824 15.1

1982

87,368 50,846 58.2 2,348 4,148 6,496 12.8

1983

88,290 51,820 58.7 2,077 4,261 6,338 12.2

1984

92,194 54,143 58.7 1,838 4,125 5,963 11.0

1985

94,521 55,762 59.0 1,639 3,899 5,538 9.9

1986 (1)

96,903 57,529 59.4 1,599 3,461 5,060 8.8

1987

99,303 59,552 60.0 1,468 3,229 4,698 7.9

1988

101,407 60,878 60.0 1,319 2,608 3,927 6.5

1989

103,480 62,389 60.3 1,372 1,790 3,162 5.1

1990 (1)

104,876 63,172 60.2 2,132 (2) 1,096 (2) 3,228 (2) 5.1 (2)

1991

103,723 62,627 60.4 2,377 (2) 2,906 (2) 5,283 (2) 8.4 (2)

1992

104,668 63,610 60.8 1,939 2,982 4,921 7.7

1993

106,101 64,274 60.6 1,707 2,625 4,332 6.7

1994 (1)

107,989 66,549 61.6 1,995 2,132 4,128 6.2

1995

110,038 68,354 62.1 1,699 1,956 3,656 5.3

1996

111,960 69,255 61.9 1,863 (2) 1,861 (2) 3,724 (2) 5.4 (2)

1997 (1)

114,533 70,735 61.8 2,990 (2) 1,764 (2) 4,754 (2) 6.7 (2)

1998 (1)

116,730 71,440 61.2 2,834 1,593 4,427 6.2

1999 (1)

118,963 72,306 60.8 2,194 1,146 3,340 4.6

2000 (1)

122,089 73,496 60.2 1,752 898 2,650 3.6

2001

122,229 73,392 60.0 1,518 656 2,174 3.0

2002

121,826 72,508 59.5 1,579 567 2,146 3.0

2003 (1)

122,358 72,946 59.6 1,555 545 2,100 2.9

2004 (1)

123,554 73,939 59.8 1,483 520 2,003 2.7

2005

125,889 75,609 60.1 1,403 479 1,882 2.5
MEN

1979

49,400 28,392 57.5 846 1,353 2,199 7.7

1980

48,700 27,709 56.9 983 1,696 2,678 9.7

1981

48,844 27,576 56.5 1,119 1,533 2,652 9.6

1982

47,591 26,481 55.6 697 1,587 2,284 8.6

1983

47,856 26,831 56.1 585 1,658 2,243 8.4

1984

50,022 28,140 56.3 490 1,626 2,116 7.5

1985

51,015 28,893 56.6 440 1,544 1,984 6.9

1986 (1)

51,942 29,666 57.1 408 1,336 1,743 5.9

1987

52,938 30,474 57.6 364 1,283 1,647 5.4

1988

53,912 31,058 57.6 311 1,066 1,377 4.4

1989

54,789 31,687 57.8 379 733 1,112 3.5

1990 (1)

55,553 32,104 57.8 712 (2) 385 (2) 1,097 (2) 3.4 (2)

1991

54,618 31,639 57.9 795 (2) 1,114 (2) 1,909 (2) 6.0 (2)

1992

54,826 32,155 58.6 653 1,231 1,885 5.9

1993

55,475 32,337 58.3 573 1,091 1,664 5.1

1994 (1)

56,570 33,528 59.3 674 891 1,565 4.7

1995

57,669 34,420 59.7 542 796 1,338 3.9

1996

58,473 34,838 59.6 619 (2) 755 (2) 1,374 (2) 3.9 (2)

1997 (1)

59,825 35,521 59.4 1,147 (2) 673 (2) 1,820 (2) 5.1 (2)

1998 (1)

60,973 35,761 58.7 1,039 628 1,667 4.7

1999 (1)

61,914 36,073 58.3 768 446 1,214 3.4

2000 (1)

63,662 36,720 57.7 582 319 901 2.5

2001

63,647 36,544 57.4 497 247 744 2.0

2002

63,272 36,000 56.9 582 217 799 2.2

2003 (1)

63,236 35,853 56.7 493 213 706 2.0

2004 (1)

64,145 36,806 57.4 470 210 680 1.8

2005

65,466 37,652 57.5 459 189 648 1.7
WOMEN

1979

38,129 23,329 61.2 2,070 2,644 4,714 20.2

1980

38,944 23,626 60.7 2,104 2,990 5,095 21.6

1981

39,672 24,294 61.2 2,394 2,778 5,172 21.3

1982

39,777 24,365 61.3 1,651 2,561 4,212 17.3

1983

40,433 24,989 61.8 1,492 2,603 4,095 16.4

1984

42,172 26,003 61.7 1,348 2,499 3,847 14.8

1985

43,506 26,869 61.8 1,198 2,356 3,554 13.2

1986 (1)

44,961 27,863 62.0 1,192 2,125 3,317 11.9

1987

46,365 29,078 62.7 1,105 1,946 3,051 10.5

1988

47,495 29,820 62.8 1,008 1,542 2,550 8.6

1989

48,691 30,702 63.1 994 1,056 2,050 6.7

1990 (1)

49,323 31,069 63.0 1,420 (2) 711 (2) 2,131 (2) 6.9 (2)

1991

49,105 30,988 63.1 1,582 (2) 1,792 (2) 3,374 (2) 10.9 (2)

1992

49,842 31,454 63.1 1,286 1,751 3,036 9.7

1993

50,626 31,937 63.1 1,133 1,534 2,667 8.4

1994 (1)

51,419 33,021 64.2 1,322 1,241 2,563 7.8

1995

52,369 33,934 64.8 1,157 1,161 2,318 6.8

1996

53,488 34,418 64.3 1,244 (2) 1,106 (2) 2,350 (2) 6.8 (2)

1997 (1)

54,708 35,214 64.4 1,843 (2) 1,092 (2) 2,935 (2) 8.3 (2)

1998 (1)

55,757 35,680 64.0 1,794 965 2,760 7.7

1999 (1)

57,050 36,233 63.5 1,426 700 2,126 5.9

2000 (1)

58,427 36,777 62.9 1,170 579 1,749 4.8

2001

58,582 36,848 62.9 1,021 409 1,430 3.9

2002

58,555 36,508 62.3 997 350 1,347 3.7

2003 (1)

59,122 37,093 62.7 1,062 332 1,394 3.8

2004 (1)

59,408 37,133 62.5 1,013 310 1,323 3.6

2005

60,423 37,957 62.8 944 290 1,234 3.3

1 The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and conceptual changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). For an explanation, see the "Explanatory Notes and Estimates of Error" section of the February 2005 and subsequent issues of Employment and Earnings, a monthly BLS periodical.

2 Data for 1990-91 and 1996-97 reflect changes in the minimum wage that took place in those years.

NOTE: The prevailing Federal minimum wage was $2.90 in 1979, $3.10 in 1980, and $3.35 in 1981-89. The minimum wage rose to $3.80 in April 1990, to $4.25 in April 1991, to $4.75 in October 1996, and to $5.15 in September 1997. Data exclude the incorporated self-employed. The presence of a sizable number of workers with reported wages below the minimum does not necessarily indicate violations of the Fair Labor Standards Act, as there are numerous exemptions to the minimum wage provisions of the law. Indeed, the relatively large number of workers with reported wages below the minimum in 1998-2005 includes some hourly-paid workers reported as earning exactly $5.00 per hour (about 1.4 million in 1998, about 900,000 in 1999, about 600,000 in 2000, about 500,000 in 2001 and in 2002, about 350,000 in 2003 and in 2004, and 300,000 in 2005); to some extent, this may reflect rounding on the part of survey respondents.

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Characteristics of Minimum Wage Workers: 2005

Last Modified Date: May 19, 2006

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