Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey

Characteristics of Minimum Wage Workers: 2007

Tables 1 - 10

Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage, 2007 annual averages:

  1. by selected characteristics
  2. by census region and division
  3. by State
  4. by major occupation group
  5. by major industry group
  6. by educational attainment
  7. by age and sex
  8. by marital status, age, and sex
  9. by usual hours worked per week
  10. by sex (1979-2007 annual averages)

Table 1. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by selected characteristics, 2007 annual averages
Characteristic Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage
AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

75,873 1,729 267 1,462 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.3 0.4 1.9

16 to 24 years

16,275 814 145 669 21.5 47.1 54.3 45.8 5.0 0.9 4.1

16 to 19 years

5,434 373 93 280 7.2 21.6 34.8 19.2 6.9 1.7 5.2

25 years and over

59,597 915 122 793 78.5 52.9 45.7 54.2 1.5 0.2 1.3

Men, 16 years and over

37,790 546 86 460 49.8 31.6 32.2 31.5 1.4 0.2 1.2

16 to 24 years

8,314 242 52 190 11.0 14.0 19.5 13.0 2.9 0.6 2.3

16 to 19 years

2,652 136 37 99 3.5 7.9 13.9 6.8 5.1 1.4 3.7

25 years and over

29,476 304 34 270 38.8 17.6 12.7 18.5 1.0 0.1 0.9

Women, 16 years and over

38,082 1,183 181 1,002 50.2 68.4 67.8 68.5 3.1 0.5 2.6

16 to 24 years

7,961 572 93 479 10.5 33.1 34.8 32.8 7.2 1.2 6.0

16 to 19 years

2,782 238 56 182 3.7 13.8 21.0 12.4 8.6 2.0 6.5

25 years and over

30,121 611 88 523 39.7 35.3 33.0 35.8 2.0 0.3 1.7
RACE, SEX, AND HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

White (1)

61,061 1,420 204 1,216 80.5 82.1 76.4 83.2 2.3 0.3 2.0

Men

30,944 471 73 398 40.8 27.2 27.3 27.2 1.5 0.2 1.3

Women

30,117 949 131 818 39.7 54.9 49.1 56.0 3.2 0.4 2.7

Black or African American (1)

9,965 205 55 150 13.1 11.9 20.6 10.3 2.1 0.6 1.5

Men

4,482 49 10 39 5.9 2.8 3.7 2.7 1.1 0.2 0.9

Women

5,483 156 45 111 7.2 9.0 16.9 7.6 2.8 0.8 2.0

Asian (1)

2,730 51 1 50 3.6 2.9 0.4 3.4 1.9 0.0 1.8

Men

1,260 14 - 14 1.7 0.8 - 1.0 1.1 - 1.1

Women

1,469 37 1 36 1.9 2.1 0.4 2.5 2.5 0.1 2.5

Hispanic or Latino (1)

13,168 246 41 205 17.4 14.2 15.4 14.0 1.9 0.3 1.6

Men

7,796 114 19 95 10.3 6.6 7.1 6.5 1.5 0.2 1.2

Women

5,372 132 22 110 7.1 7.6 8.2 7.5 2.5 0.4 2.0
FULL- AND PART-TIME STATUS AND SEX

Full-time workers (2)

57,745 752 94 658 76.1 43.5 35.2 45.0 1.3 0.2 1.1

Men

32,003 283 30 253 42.2 16.4 11.2 17.3 0.9 0.1 0.8

Women

25,743 469 64 405 33.9 27.1 24.0 27.7 1.8 0.2 1.6

Part-time workers (2)

17,997 971 172 799 23.7 56.2 64.4 54.7 5.4 1.0 4.4

Men

5,721 260 56 204 7.5 15.0 21.0 14.0 4.5 1.0 3.6

Women

12,276 711 117 594 16.2 41.1 43.8 40.6 5.8 1.0 4.8

1 Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

2 The distinction between full- and part-time workers is based on hours usually worked. These data will not sum to totals because full- or part-time status on the principal job is not identifiable for a small number of multiple jobholders.

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons regardless of whether or not their businesses are incorporated. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

top

Table 2. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by census region and division, 2007 annual averages
Region and division Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage

Total, 16 years and over

75,873 1,729 267 1,462 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.3 0.4 1.9

Northeast

12,903 292 20 272 17.0 16.9 7.5 18.6 2.3 0.2 2.1

New England

3,694 105 5 100 4.9 6.1 1.9 6.8 2.8 0.1 2.7

Middle Atlantic

9,209 187 15 172 12.1 10.8 5.6 11.8 2.0 0.2 1.9

Midwest

18,846 410 39 371 24.8 23.7 14.6 25.4 2.2 0.2 2.0

East North Central

12,989 280 21 259 17.1 16.2 7.9 17.7 2.2 0.2 2.0

West North Central

5,856 130 18 112 7.7 7.5 6.7 7.7 2.2 0.3 1.9

South

26,335 817 180 637 34.7 47.3 67.4 43.6 3.1 0.7 2.4

South Atlantic

13,710 374 57 317 18.1 21.6 21.3 21.7 2.7 0.4 2.3

East South Central

4,577 141 49 92 6.0 8.2 18.4 6.3 3.1 1.1 2.0

West South Central

8,048 302 74 228 10.6 17.5 27.7 15.6 3.8 0.9 2.8

West

17,789 209 28 181 23.4 12.1 10.5 12.4 1.2 0.2 1.0

Mountain

5,576 105 14 91 7.3 6.1 5.2 6.2 1.9 0.3 1.6

Pacific

12,214 105 14 91 16.1 6.1 5.2 6.2 0.9 0.1 0.7

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons regardless of whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

The four major regions and nine census divisions of the United States are as follows:

top

Table 3. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by State, 2007 annual averages
State Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage

Total, 16 years and over

75,873 1,729 267 1,462 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.3 0.4 1.9

Alabama

1,132 37 14 23 1.5 2.1 5.2 1.6 3.3 1.2 2.0

Alaska

197 2 - 2 0.3 0.1 - 0.1 1.0 - 1.0

Arizona

1,560 28 2 26 2.1 1.6 0.7 1.8 1.8 0.1 1.7

Arkansas

677 17 1 16 0.9 1.0 0.4 1.1 2.5 0.1 2.4

California

8,785 74 9 65 11.6 4.3 3.4 4.4 0.8 0.1 0.7

Colorado

1,164 25 1 24 1.5 1.4 0.4 1.6 2.1 0.1 2.1

Connecticut

923 14 - 14 1.2 0.8 - 1.0 1.5 - 1.5

Delaware

234 5 - 5 0.3 0.3 - 0.3 2.1 - 2.1

District of Columbia

109 3 1 2 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.1 2.8 0.9 1.8

Florida

4,261 114 15 99 5.6 6.6 5.6 6.8 2.7 0.4 2.3

Georgia

2,216 70 11 59 2.9 4.0 4.1 4.0 3.2 0.5 2.7

Hawaii

338 4 - 4 0.4 0.2 - 0.3 1.2 - 1.2

Idaho

424 12 4 8 0.6 0.7 1.5 0.5 2.8 0.9 1.9

Illinois

3,335 74 3 71 4.4 4.3 1.1 4.9 2.2 0.1 2.1

Indiana

1,826 36 7 29 2.4 2.1 2.6 2.0 2.0 0.4 1.6

Iowa

933 24 2 22 1.2 1.4 0.7 1.5 2.6 0.2 2.4

Kansas

796 25 5 20 1.0 1.4 1.9 1.4 3.1 0.6 2.5

Kentucky

1,152 35 9 26 1.5 2.0 3.4 1.8 3.0 0.8 2.3

Louisiana

937 40 17 23 1.2 2.3 6.4 1.6 4.3 1.8 2.5

Maine

399 9 - 9 0.5 0.5 - 0.6 2.3 - 2.3

Maryland

1,317 27 2 25 1.7 1.6 0.7 1.7 2.1 0.2 1.9

Massachusetts

1,505 60 2 58 2.0 3.5 0.7 4.0 4.0 0.1 3.9

Michigan

2,678 58 1 57 3.5 3.4 0.4 3.9 2.2 0.0 2.1

Minnesota

1,565 21 2 19 2.1 1.2 0.7 1.3 1.3 0.1 1.2

Mississippi

691 31 16 15 0.9 1.8 6.0 1.0 4.5 2.3 2.2

Missouri

1,577 33 3 30 2.1 1.9 1.1 2.1 2.1 0.2 1.9

Montana

289 1 - 1 0.4 0.1 - 0.1 0.3 - 0.3

Nebraska

553 17 3 14 0.7 1.0 1.1 1.0 3.1 0.5 2.5

Nevada

747 12 3 9 1.0 0.7 1.1 0.6 1.6 0.4 1.2

New Hampshire

372 9 1 8 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 2.4 0.3 2.2

New Jersey

1,697 29 4 25 2.2 1.7 1.5 1.7 1.7 0.2 1.5

New Mexico

479 11 2 9 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.6 2.3 0.4 1.9

New York

4,078 88 7 81 5.4 5.1 2.6 5.5 2.2 0.2 2.0

North Carolina

2,156 46 4 42 2.8 2.7 1.5 2.9 2.1 0.2 1.9

North Dakota

191 5 2 3 0.3 0.3 0.7 0.2 2.6 1.0 1.6

Ohio

3,422 79 5 74 4.5 4.6 1.9 5.1 2.3 0.1 2.2

Oklahoma

849 25 10 15 1.1 1.4 3.7 1.0 2.9 1.2 1.8

Oregon

1,050 9 2 7 1.4 0.5 0.7 0.5 0.9 0.2 0.7

Pennsylvania

3,434 69 3 66 4.5 4.0 1.1 4.5 2.0 0.1 1.9

Rhode Island

315 7 - 7 0.4 0.4 - 0.5 2.2 - 2.2

South Carolina

1,178 47 10 37 1.6 2.7 3.7 2.5 4.0 0.8 3.1

South Dakota

241 6 1 5 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3 2.5 0.4 2.1

Tennesee

1,602 39 10 29 2.1 2.3 3.7 2.0 2.4 0.6 1.8

Texas

5,585 221 46 175 7.4 12.8 17.2 12.0 4.0 0.8 3.1

Utah

748 11 1 10 1.0 0.6 0.4 0.7 1.5 0.1 1.3

Vermont

181 4 - 4 0.2 0.2 - 0.3 2.2 - 2.2

Virginia

1,761 46 5 41 2.3 2.7 1.9 2.8 2.6 0.3 2.3

Washington

1,844 17 3 14 2.4 1.0 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.2 0.8

West Virginia

478 16 9 7 0.6 0.9 3.4 0.5 3.3 1.9 1.5

Wisconsin

1,730 32 4 28 2.3 1.9 1.5 1.9 1.8 0.2 1.6

Wyoming

164 4 1 3 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.2 2.4 0.6 1.8

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons regardless of whether or not their businesses are incorporated. Users are reminded that these data are based on a sample and are therefore subject to sampling error; the degree of error may be quite large for less populous States. It is not possible to clearly determine whether workers surveyed in the CPS are actually covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) or by individual State minimum wage laws. Thus, some workers reported as earning an hourly wage of $5.15 may not in fact be covered by Federal or State minimum wage laws. At the same time, the presence of a sizable number of workers with wages below the prevailing Federal minimum wage does not necessarily indicate violations of the FLSA or applicable State laws, because there are numerous exclusions and exemptions to these minimum wage statutes. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

top

Table 4. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by major occupation group, 2007 annual averages
Occupation Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage

Total, 16 years and over

75,873 1,729 267 1,462 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.3 0.4 1.9

Management, professional, and related occupations

14,447 75 12 63 19.0 4.3 4.5 4.3 0.5 0.1 0.4

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

4,033 22 4 18 5.3 1.3 1.5 1.2 0.5 0.1 0.4

Professional and related occupations

10,413 53 8 45 13.7 3.1 3.0 3.1 0.5 0.1 0.4

Service occupations

16,882 1,248 130 1,118 22.3 72.2 48.7 76.5 7.4 0.8 6.6

Healthcare support occupations

2,514 37 10 27 3.3 2.1 3.7 1.8 1.5 0.4 1.1

Protective service occupations

1,823 29 7 22 2.4 1.7 2.6 1.5 1.6 0.4 1.2

Food preparation and serving related occupations

6,479 1,013 71 942 8.5 58.6 26.6 64.4 15.6 1.1 14.5

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3,573 58 22 36 4.7 3.4 8.2 2.5 1.6 0.6 1.0

Personal care and service occupations

2,495 111 20 91 3.3 6.4 7.5 6.2 4.4 0.8 3.6

Sales and office occupations

20,951 240 85 155 27.6 13.9 31.8 10.6 1.1 0.4 0.7

Sales and related occupations

7,851 125 50 75 10.3 7.2 18.7 5.1 1.6 0.6 1.0

Office and administrative support occupats

13,099 115 35 80 17.3 6.7 13.1 5.5 0.9 0.3 0.6

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

10,116 44 4 40 13.3 2.5 1.5 2.7 0.4 0.0 0.4

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

628 12 4 8 0.8 0.7 1.5 0.5 1.9 0.6 1.3

Construction and extraction occupations

6,009 27 - 27 7.9 1.6 - 1.8 0.4 - 0.4

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

3,480 5 - 5 4.6 0.3 - 0.3 0.1 - 0.1

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

13,477 121 35 86 17.8 7.0 13.1 5.9 0.9 0.3 0.6

Production occupations

7,373 42 13 29 9.7 2.4 4.9 2.0 0.6 0.2 0.4

Transportation and material moving occupations

6,104 79 22 57 8.0 4.6 8.2 3.9 1.3 0.4 0.9

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons regardless of whether or not their businesses are incorporated. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

top

Table 5. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by major industry group, 2007 annual averages
Industry Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage

Total, 16 years and over

75,873 1,729 267 1,462 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.3 0.4 1.9

Private sector

66,432 1,618 232 1,386 87.6 93.6 86.9 94.8 2.4 0.3 2.1

Agriculture and related industries

688 9 - 9 0.9 0.5 - 0.6 1.3 - 1.3

Nonagricultural industries

65,744 1,609 232 1,377 86.7 93.1 86.9 94.2 2.4 0.4 2.1

Mining

436 - - - 0.6 - - - - - -

Construction

6,041 34 3 31 8.0 2.0 1.1 2.1 0.6 0.0 0.5

Manufacturing

9,862 38 10 28 13.0 2.2 3.7 1.9 0.4 0.1 0.3

Durable goods

6,226 25 4 21 8.2 1.4 1.5 1.4 0.4 0.1 0.3

Nondurable goods

3,637 12 5 7 4.8 0.7 1.9 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.2

Wholesale and retail trade

12,658 151 52 99 16.7 8.7 19.5 6.8 1.2 0.4 0.8

Wholesale trade

1,986 9 2 7 2.6 0.5 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.1 0.4

Retail trade

10,671 142 50 92 14.1 8.2 18.7 6.3 1.3 0.5 0.9

Transportation and utilities

3,160 18 4 14 4.2 1.0 1.5 1.0 0.6 0.1 0.4

Information

1,505 19 6 13 2.0 1.1 2.2 0.9 1.3 0.4 0.9

Financial activities

3,409 24 7 17 4.5 1.4 2.6 1.2 0.7 0.2 0.5

Professional and business services

5,767 43 6 37 7.6 2.5 2.2 2.5 0.7 0.1 0.6

Education and health services

11,455 144 41 103 15.1 8.3 15.4 7.0 1.3 0.4 0.9

Leisure and hospitality

8,520 1,059 93 966 11.2 61.2 34.8 66.1 12.4 1.1 11.3

Other services

2,932 80 10 70 3.9 4.6 3.7 4.8 2.7 0.3 2.4

Public sector

9,441 111 35 76 12.4 6.4 13.1 5.2 1.2 0.4 0.8

Federal

1,729 15 4 11 2.3 0.9 1.5 0.8 0.9 0.2 0.6

State

2,596 43 16 27 3.4 2.5 6.0 1.8 1.7 0.6 1.0

Local

5,115 53 15 38 6.7 3.1 5.6 2.6 1.0 0.3 0.7

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons regardless of whether or not their businesses are incorporated. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

top

Table 6. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by educational attainment, 2007 annual averages
Educational attainment Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage

Total, 16 years and over

75,873 1,729 267 1,462 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.3 0.4 1.9

Less than a high school diploma

12,202 419 100 319 16.1 24.2 37.5 21.8 3.4 0.8 2.6

Less than 1 year of high school

3,438 62 14 48 4.5 3.6 5.2 3.3 1.8 0.4 1.4

1 to 3 years of high school

7,442 319 79 240 9.8 18.4 29.6 16.4 4.3 1.1 3.2

4 years of high school, no diploma

1,323 38 7 31 1.7 2.2 2.6 2.1 2.9 0.5 2.3

High school graduates, no college

27,701 566 94 472 36.5 32.7 35.2 32.3 2.0 0.3 1.7

Some college or associate degree

24,707 602 73 529 32.6 34.8 27.3 36.2 2.4 0.3 2.1

Some college, no degree

16,983 506 59 447 22.4 29.3 22.1 30.6 3.0 0.3 2.6

Associate degree

7,724 97 14 83 10.2 5.6 5.2 5.7 1.3 0.2 1.1

Occupational program

3,970 40 9 31 5.2 2.3 3.4 2.1 1.0 0.2 0.8

Academic program

3,754 56 5 51 4.9 3.2 1.9 3.5 1.5 0.1 1.4

College graduates, total

11,262 142 - 142 14.8 8.2 - 9.7 1.3 - 1.3

Bachelor's degree

8,923 127 - 127 11.8 7.3 - 8.7 1.4 - 1.4

Master's degree

1,844 11 - 11 2.4 0.6 - 0.8 0.6 - 0.6

Professional degree

327 2 - 2 0.4 0.1 - 0.1 0.6 - 0.6

Doctoral degree

167 2 - 2 0.2 0.1 - 0.1 1.2 - 1.2

High school graduates or more

63,670 1,311 167 1,144 83.9 75.8 62.5 78.2 2.1 0.3 1.8

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons regardless of whether or not their businesses are incorporated. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

top

Table 7. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by age and sex, 2007 annual averages
Age and sex Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage
BOTH SEXES

Total, 16 years and over

75,873 1,729 267 1,462 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.3 0.4 1.9

Under 25 years

16,275 814 145 669 21.5 47.1 54.3 45.8 5.0 0.9 4.1

16 to 19 years

5,434 373 93 280 7.2 21.6 34.8 19.2 6.9 1.7 5.2

20 to 24 years

10,841 441 52 389 14.3 25.5 19.5 26.6 4.1 0.5 3.6

25 years and over

59,597 915 122 793 78.5 52.9 45.7 54.2 1.5 0.2 1.3

25 to 34 years

16,912 401 35 366 22.3 23.2 13.1 25.0 2.4 0.2 2.2

25 to 29 years

9,238 233 20 213 12.2 13.5 7.5 14.6 2.5 0.2 2.3

30 to 34 years

7,674 168 16 152 10.1 9.7 6.0 10.4 2.2 0.2 2.0

35 to 44 years

16,026 226 39 187 21.1 13.1 14.6 12.8 1.4 0.2 1.2

35 to 39 years

7,800 118 20 98 10.3 6.8 7.5 6.7 1.5 0.3 1.3

40 to 44 years

8,226 109 20 89 10.8 6.3 7.5 6.1 1.3 0.2 1.1

45 to 54 years

15,551 148 20 128 20.5 8.6 7.5 8.8 1.0 0.1 0.8

45 to 49 years

8,366 90 14 76 11.0 5.2 5.2 5.2 1.1 0.2 0.9

50 to 54 years

7,186 56 5 51 9.5 3.2 1.9 3.5 0.8 0.1 0.7

55 to 64 years

8,613 92 17 75 11.4 5.3 6.4 5.1 1.1 0.2 0.9

55 to 59 years

5,416 49 6 43 7.1 2.8 2.2 2.9 0.9 0.1 0.8

60 to 64 years

3,197 43 11 32 4.2 2.5 4.1 2.2 1.3 0.3 1.0

65 years and over

2,495 49 11 38 3.3 2.8 4.1 2.6 2.0 0.4 1.5

65 to 69 years

1,378 24 6 18 1.8 1.4 2.2 1.2 1.7 0.4 1.3

70 years and over

1,118 25 5 20 1.5 1.4 1.9 1.4 2.2 0.4 1.8
MEN

Total, 16 years and over

37,790 546 86 460 49.8 31.6 32.2 31.5 1.4 0.2 1.2

Under 25 years

8,314 242 52 190 11.0 14.0 19.5 13.0 2.9 0.6 2.3

16 to 19 years

2,652 136 37 99 3.5 7.9 13.9 6.8 5.1 1.4 3.7

20 to 24 years

5,662 106 14 92 7.5 6.1 5.2 6.3 1.9 0.2 1.6

25 years and over

29,476 304 34 270 38.8 17.6 12.7 18.5 1.0 0.1 0.9

25 to 34 years

9,114 148 10 138 12.0 8.6 3.7 9.4 1.6 0.1 1.5

25 to 29 years

5,081 94 6 88 6.7 5.4 2.2 6.0 1.9 0.1 1.7

30 to 34 years

4,033 53 4 49 5.3 3.1 1.5 3.4 1.3 0.1 1.2

35 to 44 years

7,981 70 12 58 10.5 4.0 4.5 4.0 0.9 0.2 0.7

35 to 39 years

3,988 34 6 28 5.3 2.0 2.2 1.9 0.9 0.2 0.7

40 to 44 years

3,993 35 6 29 5.3 2.0 2.2 2.0 0.9 0.2 0.7

45 to 54 years

7,372 40 4 36 9.7 2.3 1.5 2.5 0.5 0.1 0.5

45 to 49 years

3,985 19 3 16 5.3 1.1 1.1 1.1 0.5 0.1 0.4

50 to 54 years

3,387 21 1 20 4.5 1.2 0.4 1.4 0.6 0.0 0.6

55 to 64 years

3,899 28 5 23 5.1 1.6 1.9 1.6 0.7 0.1 0.6

55 to 59 years

2,478 13 - 13 3.3 0.8 - 0.9 0.5 - 0.5

60 to 64 years

1,421 14 5 9 1.9 0.8 1.9 0.6 1.0 0.4 0.6

65 years and over

1,110 20 4 16 1.5 1.2 1.5 1.1 1.8 0.4 1.4

65 to 69 years

606 8 2 6 0.8 0.5 0.7 0.4 1.3 0.3 1.0

70 years and over

504 12 2 10 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 2.4 0.4 2.0
WOMEN

Total, 16 years and over

38,082 1,183 181 1,002 50.2 68.4 67.8 68.5 3.1 0.5 2.6

Under 25 years

7,961 572 93 479 10.5 33.1 34.8 32.8 7.2 1.2 6.0

16 to 19 years

2,782 238 56 182 3.7 13.8 21.0 12.4 8.6 2.0 6.5

20 to 24 years

5,179 334 37 297 6.8 19.3 13.9 20.3 6.4 0.7 5.7

25 years and over

30,121 611 88 523 39.7 35.3 33.0 35.8 2.0 0.3 1.7

25 to 34 years

7,798 254 26 228 10.3 14.7 9.7 15.6 3.3 0.3 2.9

25 to 29 years

4,157 139 14 125 5.5 8.0 5.2 8.5 3.3 0.3 3.0

30 to 34 years

3,641 115 12 103 4.8 6.7 4.5 7.0 3.2 0.3 2.8

35 to 44 years

8,045 156 27 129 10.6 9.0 10.1 8.8 1.9 0.3 1.6

35 to 39 years

3,812 83 14 69 5.0 4.8 5.2 4.7 2.2 0.4 1.8

40 to 44 years

4,233 73 13 60 5.6 4.2 4.9 4.1 1.7 0.3 1.4

45 to 54 years

8,179 107 16 91 10.8 6.2 6.0 6.2 1.3 0.2 1.1

45 to 49 years

4,381 72 12 60 5.8 4.2 4.5 4.1 1.6 0.3 1.4

50 to 54 years

3,799 36 4 32 5.0 2.1 1.5 2.2 0.9 0.1 0.8

55 to 64 years

4,714 65 12 53 6.2 3.8 4.5 3.6 1.4 0.3 1.1

55 to 59 years

2,938 36 6 30 3.9 2.1 2.2 2.1 1.2 0.2 1.0

60 to 64 years

1,776 29 6 23 2.3 1.7 2.2 1.6 1.6 0.3 1.3

65 years and over

1,386 29 7 22 1.8 1.7 2.6 1.5 2.1 0.5 1.6

65 to 69 years

771 16 4 12 1.0 0.9 1.5 0.8 2.1 0.5 1.6

70 years and over

614 13 3 10 0.8 0.8 1.1 0.7 2.1 0.5 1.6

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons regardless of whether or not their businesses are incorporated. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

top

Table 8. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by marital status, age, and sex, 2007 annual averages
Marital status, age and sex Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage
BOTH SEXES

Total, 16 years and over

75,873 1,729 267 1,462 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.3 0.4 1.9

Never married

26,868 1,088 179 909 35.4 62.9 67.0 62.2 4.0 0.7 3.4

16 to 24 years

14,350 756 137 619 18.9 43.7 51.3 42.3 5.3 1.0 4.3

25 years and over

12,518 332 42 290 16.5 19.2 15.7 19.8 2.7 0.3 2.3

25 to 54 years

11,822 321 41 280 15.6 18.6 15.4 19.2 2.7 0.3 2.4

Married, spouse present

35,893 391 47 344 47.3 22.6 17.6 23.5 1.1 0.1 1.0

16 to 24 years

1,493 43 7 36 2.0 2.5 2.6 2.5 2.9 0.5 2.4

25 years and over

34,399 346 39 307 45.3 20.0 14.6 21.0 1.0 0.1 0.9

25 to 54 years

27,399 280 26 254 36.1 16.2 9.7 17.4 1.0 0.1 0.9

Other marital status

13,112 250 41 209 17.3 14.5 15.4 14.3 1.9 0.3 1.6

16 to 24 years

432 14 - 14 0.6 0.8 - 1.0 3.2 - 3.2

25 years and over

12,680 236 41 195 16.7 13.6 15.4 13.3 1.9 0.3 1.5

25 to 54 years

9,268 173 27 146 12.2 10.0 10.1 10.0 1.9 0.3 1.6
MEN

Total, 16 years and over

37,790 546 86 460 49.8 31.6 32.2 31.5 1.4 0.2 1.2

Never married

14,444 432 69 363 19.0 25.0 25.8 24.8 3.0 0.5 2.5

16 to 24 years

7,474 239 49 190 9.9 13.8 18.4 13.0 3.2 0.7 2.5

25 years and over

6,970 193 20 173 9.2 11.2 7.5 11.8 2.8 0.3 2.5

25 to 54 years

6,656 177 18 159 8.8 10.2 6.7 10.9 2.7 0.3 2.4

Married, spouse present

18,265 113 16 97 24.1 6.5 6.0 6.6 0.6 0.1 0.5

16 to 24 years

670 2 2 - 0.9 0.1 0.7 - 0.3 0.3 -

25 years and over

17,595 111 14 97 23.2 6.4 5.2 6.6 0.6 0.1 0.6

25 to 54 years

13,921 80 7 73 18.3 4.6 2.6 5.0 0.6 0.1 0.5

Other marital status

5,081 46 3 43 6.7 2.7 1.1 2.9 0.9 0.1 0.8

16 to 24 years

170 1 - 1 0.2 0.1 - 0.1 0.6 - 0.6

25 years and over

4,911 45 3 42 6.5 2.6 1.1 2.9 0.9 0.1 0.9

25 to 54 years

3,891 35 2 33 5.1 2.0 0.7 2.3 0.9 0.1 0.8
WOMEN

Total, 16 years and over .

38,082 1,183 181 1,002 50.2 68.4 67.8 68.5 3.1 0.5 2.6

Never married

12,424 702 113 589 16.4 40.6 42.3 40.3 5.7 0.9 4.7

16 to 24 years

6,875 518 88 430 9.1 30.0 33.0 29.4 7.5 1.3 6.3

25 years and over

5,548 184 25 159 7.3 10.6 9.4 10.9 3.3 0.5 2.9

25 to 54 years

5,166 180 25 155 6.8 10.4 9.4 10.6 3.5 0.5 3.0

Married, spouse present

17,628 277 30 247 23.2 16.0 11.2 16.9 1.6 0.2 1.4

16 to 24 years

823 41 5 36 1.1 2.4 1.9 2.5 5.0 0.6 4.4

25 years and over

16,804 237 26 211 22.1 13.7 9.7 14.4 1.4 0.2 1.3

25 to 54 years

13,479 200 19 181 17.8 11.6 7.1 12.4 1.5 0.1 1.3

Other marital status

8,031 204 38 166 10.6 11.8 14.2 11.4 2.5 0.5 2.1

16 to 24 years

262 13 - 13 0.3 0.8 - 0.9 5.0 - 5.0

25 years and over

7,769 190 37 153 10.2 11.0 13.9 10.5 2.4 0.5 2.0

25 to 54 years

5,377 138 25 113 7.1 8.0 9.4 7.7 2.6 0.5 2.1

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons regardless of whether or not their businesses are incorporated. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

top

Table 9. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by usual hours worked on primary job, 2007 annual averages
Usual hours worked per week on primary job Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage

Total, 16 years and over

75,873 1,729 267 1,462 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2.3 0.4 1.9

Hours vary

4,866 219 38 181 6.4 12.7 14.2 12.4 4.5 0.8 3.7

0 to 34 hours

16,158 866 146 720 21.3 50.1 54.7 49.2 5.4 0.9 4.5

0 to 4 hours

294 16 2 14 0.4 0.9 0.7 1.0 5.4 0.7 4.8

5 to 9 hours

891 53 15 38 1.2 3.1 5.6 2.6 5.9 1.7 4.3

10 to 14 hours

1,461 82 13 69 1.9 4.7 4.9 4.7 5.6 0.9 4.7

15 to 19 hours

2,212 135 26 109 2.9 7.8 9.7 7.5 6.1 1.2 4.9

20 to 24 hours

4,969 261 57 204 6.5 15.1 21.3 14.0 5.3 1.1 4.1

25 to 29 hours

2,175 120 14 106 2.9 6.9 5.2 7.3 5.5 0.6 4.9

30 to 34 hours

4,156 198 19 179 5.5 11.5 7.1 12.2 4.8 0.5 4.3

35 hours or more

54,848 644 83 561 72.3 37.2 31.1 38.4 1.2 0.2 1.0

35 to 39 hours

5,338 166 27 139 7.0 9.6 10.1 9.5 3.1 0.5 2.6

40 hours or more

49,510 478 56 422 65.3 27.6 21.0 28.9 1.0 0.1 0.9

40 hours

42,656 410 48 362 56.2 23.7 18.0 24.8 1.0 0.1 0.8

41 hours or more

6,854 70 9 61 9.0 4.0 3.4 4.2 1.0 0.1 0.9

41 to 44 hours

760 6 2 4 1.0 0.3 0.7 0.3 0.8 0.3 0.5

45 to 48 hours

2,448 15 - 15 3.2 0.9 - 1.0 0.6 - 0.6

49 to 59 hours

2,536 37 6 31 3.3 2.1 2.2 2.1 1.5 0.2 1.2

60 hours or more

1,110 12 1 11 1.5 0.7 0.4 0.8 1.1 0.1 1.0

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons regardless of whether or not their businesses are incorporated. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

top

Table 10. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by sex, 1979-2007 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Year and sex Total wage and salary workers Workers paid hourly rates
Total Percent of total wage and salary workers Below prevailing Federal minimum wage At prevailing Federal minimum wage Total at or below prevailing Federal minimum wage
Number Percent of hourly paid workers
BOTH SEXES

1979

87,529 51,721 59.1 2,916 3,997 6,912 13.4

1980

87,644 51,335 58.6 3,087 4,686 7,773 15.1

1981

88,516 51,869 58.6 3,513 4,311 7,824 15.1

1982

87,368 50,846 58.2 2,348 4,148 6,496 12.8

1983

88,290 51,820 58.7 2,077 4,261 6,338 12.2

1984

92,194 54,143 58.7 1,838 4,125 5,963 11.0

1985

94,521 55,762 59.0 1,639 3,899 5,538 9.9

1986 (1)

96,903 57,529 59.4 1,599 3,461 5,060 8.8

1987

99,303 59,552 60.0 1,468 3,229 4,698 7.9

1988

101,407 60,878 60.0 1,319 2,608 3,927 6.5

1989

103,480 62,389 60.3 1,372 1,790 3,162 5.1

1990 (1)

104,876 63,172 60.2 2,132(2) 1,096(2) 3,228(2) 5.1(2)

1991

103,723 62,627 60.4 2,377(2) 2,906(2) 5,283(2) 8.4(2)

1992

104,668 63,610 60.8 1,939 2,982 4,921 7.7

1993

106,101 64,274 60.6 1,707 2,625 4,332 6.7

1994 (1)

107,989 66,549 61.6 1,995 2,132 4,128 6.2

1995

110,038 68,354 62.1 1,699 1,956 3,656 5.3

1996

111,960 69,255 61.9 1,863(2) 1,861(2) 3,724(2) 5.4(2)

1997 (1)

114,533 70,735 61.8 2,990(2) 1,764(2) 4,754(2) 6.7(2)

1998 (1)

116,730 71,440 61.2 2,834 1,593 4,427 6.2

1999 (1)

118,963 72,306 60.8 2,194 1,146 3,340 4.6

2000 (1)

122,089 73,496 60.2 1,752 898 2,650 3.6

2001

122,229 73,392 60.0 1,518 656 2,174 3.0

2002

121,826 72,508 59.5 1,579 567 2,146 3.0

2003 (1)

122,358 72,946 59.6 1,555 545 2,100 2.9

2004 (1)

123,554 73,939 59.8 1,483 520 2,003 2.7

2005

125,889 75,609 60.1 1,403 479 1,882 2.5

2006

128,237 76,514 59.7 1,283 409 1,692 2.2

2007

129,767 75,873 58.5 1,462(2) 267(2) 1,729(2) 2.3(2)
MEN

1979

49,400 28,392 57.5 846 1,353 2,199 7.7

1980

48,700 27,709 56.9 983 1,696 2,678 9.7

1981

48,844 27,576 56.5 1,119 1,533 2,652 9.6

1982

47,591 26,481 55.6 697 1,587 2,284 8.6

1983

47,856 26,831 56.1 585 1,658 2,243 8.4

1984

50,022 28,140 56.3 490 1,626 2,116 7.5

1985

51,015 28,893 56.6 440 1,544 1,984 6.9

1986 (1)

51,942 29,666 57.1 408 1,336 1,743 5.9

1987

52,938 30,474 57.6 364 1,283 1,647 5.4

1988

53,912 31,058 57.6 311 1,066 1,377 4.4

1989

54,789 31,687 57.8 379 733 1,112 3.5

1990 (1)

55,553 32,104 57.8 712(2) 385(2) 1,097(2) 3.4(2)

1991

54,618 31,639 57.9 795(2) 1,114(2) 1,909(2) 6.0(2)

1992

54,826 32,155 58.6 653 1,231 1,885 5.9

1993

55,475 32,337 58.3 573 1,091 1,664 5.1

1994 (1)

56,570 33,528 59.3 674 891 1,565 4.7

1995

57,669 34,420 59.7 542 796 1,338 3.9

1996

58,473 34,838 59.6 619(2) 755(2) 1,374(2) 3.9(2)

1997 (1)

59,825 35,521 59.4 1,147(2) 673(2) 1,820(2) 5.1(2)

1998 (1)

60,973 35,761 58.7 1,039 628 1,667 4.7

1999 (1)

61,914 36,073 58.3 768 446 1,214 3.4

2000 (1)

63,662 36,720 57.7 582 319 901 2.5

2001

63,647 36,544 57.4 497 247 744 2.0

2002

63,272 36,000 56.9 582 217 799 2.2

2003 (1)

63,236 35,853 56.7 493 213 706 2.0

2004 (1)

64,145 36,806 57.4 470 210 680 1.8

2005

65,466 37,652 57.5 459 189 648 1.7

2006

66,811 38,193 57.2 422 146 c 568 1.5

2007

67,468 37,790 56.0 460(2) 86(2) 546(2) 1.4(2)
WOMEN

1979

38,129 23,329 61.2 2,070 2,644 4,714 20.2

1980

38,944 23,626 60.7 2,104 2,990 5,095 21.6

1981

39,672 24,294 61.2 2,394 2,778 5,172 21.3

1982

39,777 24,365 61.3 1,651 2,561 4,212 17.3

1983

40,433 24,989 61.8 1,492 2,603 4,095 16.4

1984

42,172 26,003 61.7 1,348 2,499 3,847 14.8

1985

43,506 26,869 61.8 1,198 2,356 3,554 13.2

1986 (1)

44,961 27,863 62.0 1,192 2,125 3,317 11.9

1987

46,365 29,078 62.7 1,105 1,946 3,051 10.5

1988

47,495 29,820 62.8 1,008 1,542 2,550 8.6

1989

48,691 30,702 63.1 994 1,056 2,050 6.7

1990 (1)

49,323 31,069 63.0 1,420(2) 711(2) 2,131(2) 6.9(2)

1991

49,105 30,988 63.1 1,582(2) 1,792(2) 3,374(2) 10.9(2)

1992

49,842 31,454 63.1 1,286 1,751 3,036 9.7

1993

50,626 31,937 63.1 1,133 1,534 2,667 8.4

1994 (1)

51,419 33,021 64.2 1,322 1,241 2,563 7.8

1995

52,369 33,934 64.8 1,157 1,161 2,318 6.8

1996

53,488 34,418 64.3 1,244(2) 1,106(2) 2,350(2) 6.8(2)

1997 (1)

54,708 35,214 64.4 1,843(2) 1,092(2) 2,935(2) 8.3(2)

1998 (1)

55,757 35,680 64.0 1,794 965 2,760 7.7

1999 (1)

57,050 36,233 63.5 1,426 700 2,126 5.9

2000 (1)

58,427 36,777 62.9 1,170 579 1,749 4.8

2001

58,582 36,848 62.9 1,021 409 1,430 3.9

2002

58,555 36,508 62.3 997 350 1,347 3.7

2003 (1)

59,122 37,093 62.7 1,062 332 1,394 3.8

2004 (1)

59,408 37,133 62.5 1,013 310 1,323 3.6

2005

60,423 37,957 62.8 944 290 1,234 3.3

2006

61,426 38,321 62.4 861 263 1,124 2.9

2007

62,299 38,082 61.1 1,002(2) 181(2) 1,183(2) 3.1(2)

1 The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and conceptual changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). For an explanation, see the "Explanatory Notes and Estimates of Error" section of the February 2007 and subsequent issues of Employment and Earnings.

2 Data for 1990-91 and 1996-97 reflect changes in the minimum wage that took place in those years.

NOTE: The prevailing Federal minimum wage was $2.90 in 1979, $3.10 in 1980, and $3.35 in 1981-89. The minimum wage rose to $3.80 on April 1, 1990, to $4.25 on April 1, 1991, to $4.75 on October 1, 1996, to $5.15 on September 1, 1997, and to $5.85 on July 24, 2007. Data exclude all self-employed persons regardless of whether or not their businesses are incorporated. The presence of a sizable number of workers with reported wages below the minimum does not necessarily indicate violations of the Fair Labor Standards Act, as there are numerous exemptions to the minimum wage provisions of the law. The relatively large number of workers with reported wages below the minimum in 1998-2006 includes some hourly-paid workers reported as earning exactly $5.00 per hour (about 1.4 million in 1998, about 900,000 in 1999, about 600,000 in 2000, about 500,000 in 2001 and in 2002, about 350,000 in 2003 and in 2004, 300,000 in 2005, and about 200,000 in 2006); to some extent, this may reflect rounding on the part of survey respondents.

c = corrected.

top

Characteristics of Minimum Wage Workers: 2007

Last Modified Date: May 7, 2008

Recommend this page using: