Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey

Characteristics of Minimum Wage Workers: 2008

Tables 1 - 10

Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage, 2008 annual averages:

  1. by selected characteristics
  2. by census region and division
  3. by State
  4. by major occupation group
  5. by major industry group
  6. by educational attainment
  7. by age and sex
  8. by marital status, age, and sex
  9. by usual hours worked per week
  10. by sex (1979-2008 annual averages)

Table 1. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by selected characteristics, 2008 annual averages
Characteristic Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage
AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

75,305 2,226 286 1,940 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 3.0 0.4 2.6

16 to 24 years

15,680 1,122 161 961 20.8 50.4 56.3 49.5 7.2 1.0 6.1

16 to 19 years

5,137 545 108 437 6.8 24.5 37.8 22.5 10.6 2.1 8.5

25 years and over

59,626 1,104 125 979 79.2 49.6 43.7 50.5 1.9 0.2 1.6

Men, 16 years and over

37,334 728 90 638 49.6 32.7 31.5 32.9 1.9 0.2 1.7

16 to 24 years

7,978 384 58 326 10.6 17.3 20.3 16.8 4.8 0.7 4.1

16 to 19 years

2,478 194 39 155 3.3 8.7 13.6 8.0 7.8 1.6 6.3

25 years and over

29,356 345 32 313 39.0 15.5 11.2 16.1 1.2 0.1 1.1

Women, 16 years and over

37,972 1,498 196 1,302 50.4 67.3 68.5 67.1 3.9 0.5 3.4

16 to 24 years

7,701 738 103 635 10.2 33.2 36.0 32.7 9.6 1.3 8.2

16 to 19 years

2,660 351 70 281 3.5 15.8 24.5 14.5 13.2 2.6 10.6

25 years and over

30,270 759 93 666 40.2 34.1 32.5 34.3 2.5 0.3 2.2
RACE, SEX, AND HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

White (1)

60,464 1,783 215 1,568 80.3 80.1 75.2 80.8 2.9 0.4 2.6

Men

30,533 560 65 495 40.5 25.2 22.7 25.5 1.8 0.2 1.6

Women

29,931 1,224 151 1,073 39.7 55.0 52.8 55.3 4.1 0.5 3.6

Black or African American (1)

9,866 308 49 259 13.1 13.8 17.1 13.4 3.1 0.5 2.6

Men

4,408 122 17 105 5.9 5.5 5.9 5.4 2.8 0.4 2.4

Women

5,457 186 32 154 7.2 8.4 11.2 7.9 3.4 0.6 2.8

Asian (1)

2,844 69 11 58 3.8 3.1 3.8 3.0 2.4 0.4 2.0

Men

1,301 27 3 24 1.7 1.2 1.0 1.2 2.1 0.2 1.8

Women

1,543 42 8 34 2.0 1.9 2.8 1.8 2.7 0.5 2.2

Hispanic or Latino (1)

13,070 324 39 285 17.4 14.6 13.6 14.7 2.5 0.3 2.2

Men

7,756 132 15 117 10.3 5.9 5.2 6.0 1.7 0.2 1.5

Women

5,313 191 23 168 7.1 8.6 8.0 8.7 3.6 0.4 3.2
FULL- AND PART-TIME STATUS AND SEX

Full-time workers (2)

56,837 873 95 778 75.5 39.2 33.2 40.1 1.5 0.2 1.4

Men

31,363 340 27 313 41.6 15.3 9.4 16.1 1.1 0.1 1.0

Women

25,474 532 68 464 33.8 23.9 23.8 23.9 2.1 0.3 1.8

Part-time workers (2)

18,334 1,353 191 1,162 24.3 60.8 66.8 59.9 7.4 1.0 6.3

Men

5,903 388 63 325 7.8 17.4 22.0 16.8 6.6 1.1 5.5

Women

12,431 965 128 837 16.5 43.4 44.8 43.1 7.8 1.0 6.7

1 Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

2 The distinction between full- and part-time workers is based on hours usually worked. These data will not sum to totals because full- or part-time status on the principal job is not identifiable for a small number of multiple jobholders.

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

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Table 2. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by census region and division, 2008 annual averages
Region and division Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage

Total, 16 years and over

75,305 2,226 286 1,940 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 3.0 0.4 2.6

Northeast

13,303 318 21 297 17.3 14.3 7.3 15.3 2.4 0.2 2.3

New England

3,690 81 4 77 4.9 3.6 1.4 4.0 2.2 0.1 2.1

Middle Atlantic

9,342 238 17 221 12.4 10.7 5.9 11.4 2.5 0.2 2.4

Midwest

18,567 522 47 475 24.7 23.5 16.4 24.5 2.8 0.3 2.6

East North Central

12,740 347 26 321 16.9 15.6 9.1 16.5 2.7 0.2 2.5

West North Central

5,827 175 21 154 7.7 7.9 7.3 7.9 3.0 0.4 2.6

South

25,942 1,092 187 905 34.4 49.1 65.4 46.6 4.2 0.7 3.5

South Atlantic

13,461 488 54 434 17.9 21.9 18.9 22.4 3.6 0.4 3.2

East South Central

4,419 221 47 174 5.9 9.9 16.4 9.0 5.0 1.1 3.9

West South Central

8,061 384 86 298 10.7 17.3 30.1 15.4 4.8 1.1 3.7

West

17,764 292 30 262 23.6 13.1 10.5 13.5 1.6 0.2 1.5

Mountain

5,571 166 19 147 7.4 7.5 6.6 7.6 3.0 0.3 2.6

Pacific

12,193 127 11 116 16.2 5.7 3.8 6.0 1.0 0.1 1.0

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

The four major regions and nine census divisions of the United States are as follows:

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Table 3. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by State, 2008 annual averages
State Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage

Total, 16 years and over

75,305 2,226 286 1,940 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 3.0 0.4 2.6

Alabama

1,119 47 17 30 1.5 2.1 5.9 1.5 4.2 1.5 2.7

Alaska

204 2 - 2 0.3 0.1 - 0.1 1.0 - 1.0

Arizona

1,533 46 5 41 2.0 2.1 1.7 2.1 3.0 0.3 2.7

Arkansas

703 26 5 21 0.9 1.2 1.7 1.1 3.7 0.7 3.0

California

8,778 86 6 80 11.7 3.9 2.1 4.1 1.0 0.1 0.9

Colorado

1,211 48 1 47 1.6 2.2 0.3 2.4 4.0 0.1 3.9

Connecticut

892 16 1 15 1.2 0.7 0.3 0.8 1.8 0.1 1.7

Delaware

220 6 - 6 0.3 0.3 - 0.3 2.7 - 2.7

District of Columbia

110 3 - 3 0.1 0.1 - 0.2 2.7 - 2.7

Florida

4,058 127 5 122 5.4 5.7 1.7 6.3 3.1 0.1 3.0

Georgia

2,084 76 13 63 2.8 3.4 4.5 3.2 3.6 0.6 3.0

Hawaii

338 5 - 5 0.4 0.2 - 0.3 1.5 - 1.5

Idaho

412 15 4 11 0.5 0.7 1.4 0.6 3.6 1.0 2.7

Illinois

3,211 80 - 80 4.3 3.6 - 4.1 2.5 - 2.5

Indiana

1,812 64 10 54 2.4 2.9 3.5 2.8 3.5 0.6 3.0

Iowa

927 21 1 20 1.2 0.9 0.3 1.0 2.3 0.1 2.2

Kansas

791 31 5 26 1.1 1.4 1.7 1.3 3.9 0.6 3.3

Kentucky

1,101 45 9 36 1.5 2.0 3.1 1.9 4.1 0.8 3.3

Louisiana

953 48 9 39 1.3 2.2 3.1 2.0 5.0 0.9 4.1

Maine

397 7 - 7 0.5 0.3 - 0.4 1.8 - 1.8

Maryland

1,339 37 5 32 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.6 2.8 0.4 2.4

Massachusetts

1,543 35 2 33 2.0 1.6 0.7 1.7 2.3 0.1 2.1

Michigan

2,641 73 2 71 3.5 3.3 0.7 3.7 2.8 0.1 2.7

Minnesota

1,511 40 6 34 2.0 1.8 2.1 1.8 2.6 0.4 2.3

Mississippi

667 40 9 31 0.9 1.8 3.1 1.6 6.0 1.3 4.6

Missouri

1,592 50 4 46 2.1 2.2 1.4 2.4 3.1 0.3 2.9

Montana

287 4 2 2 0.4 0.2 0.7 0.1 1.4 0.7 0.7

Nebraska

551 20 3 17 0.7 0.9 1.0 0.9 3.6 0.5 3.1

Nevada

736 16 2 14 1.0 0.7 0.7 0.7 2.2 0.3 1.9

New Hampshire

380 11 - 11 0.5 0.5 - 0.6 2.9 - 2.9

New Jersey

1,781 53 5 48 2.4 2.4 1.7 2.5 3.0 0.3 2.7

New Mexico

495 13 - 13 0.7 0.6 - 0.7 2.6 - 2.6

New York

4,105 100 6 94 5.5 4.5 2.1 4.8 2.4 0.1 2.3

North Carolina

2,235 78 11 67 3.0 3.5 3.8 3.5 3.5 0.5 3.0

North Dakota

199 8 1 7 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.4 4.0 0.5 3.5

Ohio

3,329 77 5 72 4.4 3.5 1.7 3.7 2.3 0.2 2.2

Oklahoma

878 48 19 29 1.2 2.2 6.6 1.5 5.5 2.2 3.3

Oregon

999 8 2 6 1.3 0.4 0.7 0.3 0.8 0.2 0.6

Pennsylvania

3,457 85 6 79 4.6 3.8 2.1 4.1 2.5 0.2 2.3

Rhode Island

296 6 - 6 0.4 0.3 - 0.3 2.0 - 2.0

South Carolina

1,111 66 6 60 1.5 3.0 2.1 3.1 5.9 0.5 5.4

South Dakota

256 6 1 5 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 2.3 0.4 2.0

Tennessee

1,533 89 12 77 2.0 4.0 4.2 4.0 5.8 0.8 5.0

Texas

5,527 262 54 208 7.3 11.8 18.9 10.7 4.7 1.0 3.8

Utah

736 18 5 13 1.0 0.8 1.7 0.7 2.4 0.7 1.8

Vermont

183 4 - 4 0.2 0.2 - 0.2 2.2 - 2.2

Virginia

1,809 70 5 65 2.4 3.1 1.7 3.4 3.9 0.3 3.6

Washington

1,875 26 3 23 2.5 1.2 1.0 1.2 1.4 0.2 1.2

West Virginia

494 26 10 16 0.7 1.2 3.5 0.8 5.3 2.0 3.2

Wisconsin

1,748 53 9 44 2.3 2.4 3.1 2.3 3.0 0.5 2.5

Wyoming

160 7 1 6 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 4.4 0.6 3.8

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated. Users are reminded that these data are based on a sample and are therefore subject to sampling error; the degree of error may be quite large for less populous States. It is not possible to determine clearly whether workers surveyed in the CPS are actually covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) or by individual State minimum wage laws. Thus, some workers reported as earning the prevailing Federal minimum wage may not in fact be covered by Federal or State minimum wage laws. Also, there are a number of States that have minimum wages that exceed the Federal minimum wage. At the same time, the presence of a sizable number of workers with wages below the prevailing Federal minimum wage does not necessarily indicate violations of the FLSA or applicable State laws, because there are numerous exclusions and exemptions to these minimum wage statutes. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

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Table 4. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by major occupation group, 2008 annual averages
Occupation Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage

Total, 16 years and over

75,305 2,226 286 1,940 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 3.0 0.4 2.6

Management, professional, and related occupations

14,774 114 25 89 19.6 5.1 8.7 4.6 0.8 0.2 0.6

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

4,118 30 2 28 5.5 1.3 0.7 1.4 0.7 0.0 0.7

Professional and related occupations

10,656 84 23 61 14.2 3.8 8.0 3.1 0.8 0.2 0.6

Service occupations

17,261 1,541 143 1,398 22.9 69.2 50.0 72.1 8.9 0.8 8.1

Healthcare support occupations

2,564 57 3 54 3.4 2.6 1.0 2.8 2.2 0.1 2.1

Protective service occupations

1,895 46 5 41 2.5 2.1 1.7 2.1 2.4 0.3 2.2

Food preparation and serving related occupations

6,649 1,170 83 1,087 8.8 52.6 29.0 56.0 17.6 1.2 16.3

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3,627 106 19 87 4.8 4.8 6.6 4.5 2.9 0.5 2.4

Personal care and service occupations

2,526 162 34 128 3.4 7.3 11.9 6.6 6.4 1.3 5.1

Sales and office occupations

20,563 363 91 272 27.3 16.3 31.8 14.0 1.8 0.4 1.3

Sales and related occupations

7,713 224 58 166 10.2 10.1 20.3 8.6 2.9 0.8 2.2

Office and administrative support occupats

12,850 138 32 106 17.1 6.2 11.2 5.5 1.1 0.2 0.8

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

9,434 52 6 46 12.5 2.3 2.1 2.4 0.6 0.1 0.5

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

636 13 - 13 0.8 0.6 - 0.7 2.0 - 2.0

Construction and extraction occupations

5,388 29 5 24 7.2 1.3 1.7 1.2 0.5 0.1 0.4

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

3,410 10 - 10 4.5 0.4 - 0.5 0.3 - 0.3

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

13,273 157 22 135 17.6 7.1 7.7 7.0 1.2 0.2 1.0

Production occupations

7,191 44 7 37 9.5 2.0 2.4 1.9 0.6 0.1 0.5

Transportation and material moving occupations

6,082 113 15 98 8.1 5.1 5.2 5.1 1.9 0.2 1.6

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

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Table 5. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by major industry group, 2008 annual averages
Industry Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage

Total, 16 years and over

75,305 2,226 286 1,940 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 3.0 0.4 2.6

Private sector

65,758 2,093 261 1,832 87.3 94.0 91.3 94.4 3.2 0.4 2.8

Agriculture and related industries

692 12 - 12 0.9 0.5 - 0.6 1.7 - 1.7

Nonagricultural industries

65,066 2,080 260 1,820 86.4 93.4 90.9 93.8 3.2 0.4 2.8

Mining

471 1 - 1 0.6 0.0 - 0.1 0.2 - 0.2

Construction

5,392 29 5 24 7.2 1.3 1.7 1.2 0.5 0.1 0.4

Manufacturing

9,557 62 7 55 12.7 2.8 2.4 2.8 0.6 0.1 0.6

Durable goods

6,034 46 2 44 8.0 2.1 0.7 2.3 0.8 0.0 0.7

Nondurable goods

3,523 15 4 11 4.7 0.7 1.4 0.6 0.4 0.1 0.3

Wholesale and retail trade

12,437 271 64 207 16.5 12.2 22.4 10.7 2.2 0.5 1.7

Wholesale trade

1,752 12 2 10 2.3 0.5 0.7 0.5 0.7 0.1 0.6

Retail trade

10,685 260 63 197 14.2 11.7 22.0 10.2 2.4 0.6 1.8

Transportation and utilities

3,193 37 6 31 4.2 1.7 2.1 1.6 1.2 0.2 1.0

Information

1,475 21 2 19 2.0 0.9 0.7 1.0 1.4 0.1 1.3

Financial activities

3,338 33 8 25 4.4 1.5 2.8 1.3 1.0 0.2 0.7

Professional and business services

5,688 56 8 48 7.6 2.5 2.8 2.5 1.0 0.1 0.8

Education and health services

11,895 203 38 165 15.8 9.1 13.3 8.5 1.7 0.3 1.4

Leisure and hospitality

8,642 1,247 101 1,146 11.5 56.0 35.3 59.1 14.4 1.2 13.3

Other services

2,978 119 21 98 4.0 5.3 7.3 5.1 4.0 0.7 3.3

Public sector

9,547 133 25 108 12.7 6.0 8.7 5.6 1.4 0.3 1.1

Federal

1,844 16 1 15 2.4 0.7 0.3 0.8 0.9 0.1 0.8

State

2,490 47 12 35 3.3 2.1 4.2 1.8 1.9 0.5 1.4

Local

5,213 70 12 58 6.9 3.1 4.2 3.0 1.3 0.2 1.1

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

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Table 6. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by educational attainment, 2008 annual averages
Educational attainment Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage

Total, 16 years and over

75,305 2,226 286 1,940 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 3.0 0.4 2.6

Less than a high school diploma

11,253 578 114 464 14.9 26.0 39.9 23.9 5.1 1.0 4.1

Less than 1 year of high school

3,108 93 12 81 4.1 4.2 4.2 4.2 3.0 0.4 2.6

1 to 3 years of high school

6,974 450 94 356 9.3 20.2 32.9 18.4 6.5 1.3 5.1

4 years of high school, no diploma

1,171 35 7 28 1.6 1.6 2.4 1.4 3.0 0.6 2.4

High school graduates or more

64,053 1,648 172 1,476 85.1 74.0 60.1 76.1 2.6 0.3 2.3

High school graduates, no college

27,163 709 89 620 36.1 31.9 31.1 32.0 2.6 0.3 2.3

Some college or associate degree

25,267 753 75 678 33.6 33.8 26.2 34.9 3.0 0.3 2.7

Some college, no degree

17,267 634 63 571 22.9 28.5 22.0 29.4 3.7 0.4 3.3

Associate degree

8,001 119 11 108 10.6 5.3 3.8 5.6 1.5 0.1 1.3

Occupational program

3,800 46 5 41 5.0 2.1 1.7 2.1 1.2 0.1 1.1

Academic program

4,201 74 7 67 5.6 3.3 2.4 3.5 1.8 0.2 1.6

Bachelor's degree and higher

11,622 187 9 178 15.4 8.4 3.1 9.2 1.6 0.1 1.5

Bachelor's degree

9,215 161 8 153 12.2 7.2 2.8 7.9 1.7 0.1 1.7

Master's degree

1,903 18 - 18 2.5 0.8 - 0.9 0.9 - 0.9

Professional degree

314 5 1 4 0.4 0.2 0.3 0.2 1.6 0.3 1.3

Doctoral degree

190 3 - 3 0.3 0.1 - 0.2 1.6 - 1.6

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

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Table 7. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by age and sex, 2008 annual averages
Age and sex Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage
BOTH SEXES

Total, 16 years and over

75,305 2,226 286 1,940 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 3.0 0.4 2.6

Under 25 years

15,680 1,122 161 961 20.8 50.4 56.3 49.5 7.2 1.0 6.1

16 to 19 years

5,137 545 108 437 6.8 24.5 37.8 22.5 10.6 2.1 8.5

20 to 24 years

10,542 577 53 524 14.0 25.9 18.5 27.0 5.5 0.5 5.0

25 years and over

59,626 1,104 125 979 79.2 49.6 43.7 50.5 1.9 0.2 1.6

25 to 34 years

16,893 482 41 441 22.4 21.7 14.3 22.7 2.9 0.2 2.6

25 to 29 years

9,309 292 22 270 12.4 13.1 7.7 13.9 3.1 0.2 2.9

30 to 34 years

7,584 190 19 171 10.1 8.5 6.6 8.8 2.5 0.3 2.3

35 to 44 years

15,478 242 23 219 20.6 10.9 8.0 11.3 1.6 0.1 1.4

35 to 39 years

7,683 127 11 116 10.2 5.7 3.8 6.0 1.7 0.1 1.5

40 to 44 years

7,795 114 11 103 10.4 5.1 3.8 5.3 1.5 0.1 1.3

45 to 54 years

15,625 201 29 172 20.7 9.0 10.1 8.9 1.3 0.2 1.1

45 to 49 years

8,246 126 20 106 11.0 5.7 7.0 5.5 1.5 0.2 1.3

50 to 54 years

7,379 76 10 66 9.8 3.4 3.5 3.4 1.0 0.1 0.9

55 to 64 years

8,987 106 23 83 11.9 4.8 8.0 4.3 1.2 0.3 0.9

55 to 59 years

5,660 67 11 56 7.5 3.0 3.8 2.9 1.2 0.2 1.0

60 to 64 years

3,327 40 13 27 4.4 1.8 4.5 1.4 1.2 0.4 0.8

65 years and over

2,642 72 9 63 3.5 3.2 3.1 3.2 2.7 0.3 2.4

65 to 69 years

1,465 37 4 33 1.9 1.7 1.4 1.7 2.5 0.3 2.3

70 years and over

1,177 35 5 30 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.5 3.0 0.4 2.5
MEN

Total, 16 years and over

37,334 728 90 638 49.6 32.7 31.5 32.9 1.9 0.2 1.7

Under 25 years

7,978 384 58 326 10.6 17.3 20.3 16.8 4.8 0.7 4.1

16 to 19 years

2,478 194 39 155 3.3 8.7 13.6 8.0 7.8 1.6 6.3

20 to 24 years

5,500 190 20 170 7.3 8.5 7.0 8.8 3.5 0.4 3.1

25 years and over

29,356 345 32 313 39.0 15.5 11.2 16.1 1.2 0.1 1.1

25 to 34 years

9,029 150 9 141 12.0 6.7 3.1 7.3 1.7 0.1 1.6

25 to 29 years

4,963 86 5 81 6.6 3.9 1.7 4.2 1.7 0.1 1.6

30 to 34 years

4,066 64 4 60 5.4 2.9 1.4 3.1 1.6 0.1 1.5

35 to 44 years

7,696 71 5 66 10.2 3.2 1.7 3.4 0.9 0.1 0.9

35 to 39 years

3,885 42 4 38 5.2 1.9 1.4 2.0 1.1 0.1 1.0

40 to 44 years

3,810 30 1 29 5.1 1.3 0.3 1.5 0.8 0.0 0.8

45 to 54 years

7,365 68 7 61 9.8 3.1 2.4 3.1 0.9 0.1 0.8

45 to 49 years

3,899 39 2 37 5.2 1.8 0.7 1.9 1.0 0.1 0.9

50 to 54 years

3,467 28 4 24 4.6 1.3 1.4 1.2 0.8 0.1 0.7

55 to 64 years

4,092 35 9 26 5.4 1.6 3.1 1.3 0.9 0.2 0.6

55 to 59 years

2,593 18 1 17 3.4 0.8 0.3 0.9 0.7 0.0 0.7

60 to 64 years

1,499 16 8 8 2.0 0.7 2.8 0.4 1.1 0.5 0.5

65 years and over

1,174 22 3 19 1.6 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.9 0.3 1.6

65 to 69 years

645 12 1 11 0.9 0.5 0.3 0.6 1.9 0.2 1.7

70 years and over

529 10 2 8 0.7 0.4 0.7 0.4 1.9 0.4 1.5
WOMEN

Total, 16 years and over

37,972 1,498 196 1,302 50.4 67.3 68.5 67.1 3.9 0.5 3.4

Under 25 years

7,701 738 103 635 10.2 33.2 36.0 32.7 9.6 1.3 8.2

16 to 19 years

2,660 351 70 281 3.5 15.8 24.5 14.5 13.2 2.6 10.6

20 to 24 years

5,042 387 33 354 6.7 17.4 11.5 18.2 7.7 0.7 7.0

25 years and over

30,270 759 93 666 40.2 34.1 32.5 34.3 2.5 0.3 2.2

25 to 34 years

7,864 332 32 300 10.4 14.9 11.2 15.5 4.2 0.4 3.8

25 to 29 years

4,346 207 18 189 5.8 9.3 6.3 9.7 4.8 0.4 4.3

30 to 34 years

3,518 127 15 112 4.7 5.7 5.2 5.8 3.6 0.4 3.2

35 to 44 years

7,783 170 17 153 10.3 7.6 5.9 7.9 2.2 0.2 2.0

35 to 39 years

3,798 86 7 79 5.0 3.9 2.4 4.1 2.3 0.2 2.1

40 to 44 years

3,985 84 10 74 5.3 3.8 3.5 3.8 2.1 0.3 1.9

45 to 54 years

8,260 134 23 111 11.0 6.0 8.0 5.7 1.6 0.3 1.3

45 to 49 years

4,347 86 17 69 5.8 3.9 5.9 3.6 2.0 0.4 1.6

50 to 54 years

3,913 49 6 43 5.2 2.2 2.1 2.2 1.3 0.2 1.1

55 to 64 years

4,895 72 15 57 6.5 3.2 5.2 2.9 1.5 0.3 1.2

55 to 59 years

3,067 48 10 38 4.1 2.2 3.5 2.0 1.6 0.3 1.2

60 to 64 years

1,828 24 5 19 2.4 1.1 1.7 1.0 1.3 0.3 1.0

65 years and over

1,469 50 6 44 2.0 2.2 2.1 2.3 3.4 0.4 3.0

65 to 69 years

820 25 2 23 1.1 1.1 0.7 1.2 3.0 0.2 2.8

70 years and over

648 25 3 22 0.9 1.1 1.0 1.1 3.9 0.5 3.4

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

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Table 8. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by marital status, age, and sex, 2008 annual averages
Marital status, age and sex Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage
BOTH SEXES

Total, 16 years and over

75,305 2,226 286 1,940 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 3.0 0.4 2.6

Never married

26,790 1,388 173 1,215 35.6 62.4 60.5 62.6 5.2 0.6 4.5

16 to 24 years

13,876 1,034 145 889 18.4 46.5 50.7 45.8 7.5 1.0 6.4

25 years and over

12,914 355 29 326 17.1 15.9 10.1 16.8 2.7 0.2 2.5

25 to 54 years

12,122 332 23 309 16.1 14.9 8.0 15.9 2.7 0.2 2.5

Married, spouse present

35,783 532 76 456 47.5 23.9 26.6 23.5 1.5 0.2 1.3

16 to 24 years

1,335 61 12 49 1.8 2.7 4.2 2.5 4.6 0.9 3.7

25 years and over

34,448 471 64 407 45.7 21.2 22.4 21.0 1.4 0.2 1.2

25 to 54 years

27,060 387 51 336 35.9 17.4 17.8 17.3 1.4 0.2 1.2

Other marital status

12,732 305 36 269 16.9 13.7 12.6 13.9 2.4 0.3 2.1

16 to 24 years

468 28 4 24 0.6 1.3 1.4 1.2 6.0 0.9 5.1

25 years and over

12,263 278 32 246 16.3 12.5 11.2 12.7 2.3 0.3 2.0

25 to 54 years

8,815 207 19 188 11.7 9.3 6.6 9.7 2.3 0.2 2.1
MEN

Total, 16 years and over

37,334 728 90 638 49.6 32.7 31.5 32.9 1.9 0.2 1.7

Never married

14,258 510 64 446 18.9 22.9 22.4 23.0 3.6 0.4 3.1

16 to 24 years

7,213 363 54 309 9.6 16.3 18.9 15.9 5.0 0.7 4.3

25 years and over

7,046 147 10 137 9.4 6.6 3.5 7.1 2.1 0.1 1.9

25 to 54 years

6,691 134 6 128 8.9 6.0 2.1 6.6 2.0 0.1 1.9

Married, spouse present

18,134 152 17 135 24.1 6.8 5.9 7.0 0.8 0.1 0.7

16 to 24 years

582 14 3 11 0.8 0.6 1.0 0.6 2.4 0.5 1.9

25 years and over

17,552 138 14 124 23.3 6.2 4.9 6.4 0.8 0.1 0.7

25 to 54 years

13,666 109 11 98 18.1 4.9 3.8 5.1 0.8 0.1 0.7

Other marital status

4,941 67 9 58 6.6 3.0 3.1 3.0 1.4 0.2 1.2

16 to 24 years

184 7 1 6 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 3.8 0.5 3.3

25 years and over

4,758 60 8 52 6.3 2.7 2.8 2.7 1.3 0.2 1.1

25 to 54 years

3,733 46 4 42 5.0 2.1 1.4 2.2 1.2 0.1 1.1
WOMEN

Total, 16 years and over .

37,972 1,498 196 1,302 50.4 67.3 68.5 67.1 3.9 0.5 3.4

Never married

12,532 878 109 769 16.6 39.4 38.1 39.6 7.0 0.9 6.1

16 to 24 years

6,663 671 91 580 8.8 30.1 31.8 29.9 10.1 1.4 8.7

25 years and over

5,869 208 18 190 7.8 9.3 6.3 9.8 3.5 0.3 3.2

25 to 54 years

5,431 198 17 181 7.2 8.9 5.9 9.3 3.6 0.3 3.3

Married, spouse present

17,649 381 60 321 23.4 17.1 21.0 16.5 2.2 0.3 1.8

16 to 24 years

753 47 9 38 1.0 2.1 3.1 2.0 6.2 1.2 5.0

25 years and over

16,896 333 50 283 22.4 15.0 17.5 14.6 2.0 0.3 1.7

25 to 54 years

13,394 277 40 237 17.8 12.4 14.0 12.2 2.1 0.3 1.8

Other marital status

7,790 239 27 212 10.3 10.7 9.4 10.9 3.1 0.3 2.7

16 to 24 years

285 21 3 18 0.4 0.9 1.0 0.9 7.4 1.1 6.3

25 years and over

7,505 218 24 194 10.0 9.8 8.4 10.0 2.9 0.3 2.6

25 to 54 years

5,082 161 15 146 6.7 7.2 5.2 7.5 3.2 0.3 2.9

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

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Table 9. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by usual hours worked on primary job, 2008 annual averages
Usual hours worked per week on primary job Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage

Total, 16 years and over

75,305 2,226 286 1,940 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 3.0 0.4 2.6

Hours vary

4,938 303 29 274 6.6 13.6 10.1 14.1 6.1 0.6 5.5

0 to 34 hours

16,457 1,169 168 1,001 21.9 52.5 58.7 51.6 7.1 1.0 6.1

0 to 4 hours

316 22 4 18 0.4 1.0 1.4 0.9 7.0 1.3 5.7

5 to 9 hours

892 58 10 48 1.2 2.6 3.5 2.5 6.5 1.1 5.4

10 to 14 hours

1,473 119 20 99 2.0 5.3 7.0 5.1 8.1 1.4 6.7

15 to 19 hours

2,221 166 21 145 2.9 7.5 7.3 7.5 7.5 0.9 6.5

20 to 24 hours

4,935 355 62 293 6.6 15.9 21.7 15.1 7.2 1.3 5.9

25 to 29 hours

2,331 177 14 163 3.1 8.0 4.9 8.4 7.6 0.6 7.0

30 to 34 hours

4,289 273 38 235 5.7 12.3 13.3 12.1 6.4 0.9 5.5

35 hours or more

53,910 753 88 665 71.6 33.8 30.8 34.3 1.4 0.2 1.2

35 to 39 hours

5,550 230 34 196 7.4 10.3 11.9 10.1 4.1 0.6 3.5

40 hours or more

48,360 525 55 470 64.2 23.6 19.2 24.2 1.1 0.1 1.0

40 hours

41,843 439 47 392 55.6 19.7 16.4 20.2 1.0 0.1 0.9

41 hours or more

6,517 86 8 78 8.7 3.9 2.8 4.0 1.3 0.1 1.2

41 to 44 hours

819 12 2 10 1.1 0.5 0.7 0.5 1.5 0.2 1.2

45 to 48 hours

2,235 15 3 16 3.0 0.7 1.0 0.8 0.7 0.1 0.7

49 to 59 hours

2,433 37 1 36 3.2 1.7 0.3 1.9 1.5 0.0 1.5

60 hours or more

1,030 17 1 16 1.4 0.8 0.3 0.8 1.7 0.1 1.6

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

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Table 10. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by sex, 1979-2008 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Year and sex Total wage and salary workers Workers paid hourly rates
Total Percent of total wage and salary workers Below prevailing Federal minimum wage At prevailing Federal minimum wage Total at or below prevailing Federal minimum wage
Number Percent of hourly paid workers
BOTH SEXES

1979

87,529 51,721 59.1 2,916 3,997 6,912 13.4

1980

87,644 51,335 58.6 3,087 4,686 7,773 15.1

1981

88,516 51,869 58.6 3,513 4,311 7,824 15.1

1982

87,368 50,846 58.2 2,348 4,148 6,496 12.8

1983

88,290 51,820 58.7 2,077 4,261 6,338 12.2

1984

92,194 54,143 58.7 1,838 4,125 5,963 11.0

1985

94,521 55,762 59.0 1,639 3,899 5,538 9.9

1986 (1)

96,903 57,529 59.4 1,599 3,461 5,060 8.8

1987

99,303 59,552 60.0 1,468 3,229 4,698 7.9

1988

101,407 60,878 60.0 1,319 2,608 3,927 6.5

1989

103,480 62,389 60.3 1,372 1,790 3,162 5.1

1990 (1)

104,876 63,172 60.2 (2)2,132 (2)1,096 (2)3,228 (2)5.1

1991

103,723 62,627 60.4 (2)2,377 (2)2,906 (2)5,283 (2)8.4

1992

104,668 63,610 60.8 1,939 2,982 4,921 7.7

1993

106,101 64,274 60.6 1,707 2,625 4,332 6.7

1994 (1)

107,989 66,549 61.6 1,995 2,132 4,128 6.2

1995

110,038 68,354 62.1 1,699 1,956 3,656 5.3

1996

111,960 69,255 61.9 (2)1,863 (2)1,861 (2)3,724 (2)5.4

1997 (1)

114,533 70,735 61.8 (2)2,990 (2)1,764 (2)4,754 (2)6.7

1998 (1)

116,730 71,440 61.2 2,834 1,593 4,427 6.2

1999 (1)

118,963 72,306 60.8 2,194 1,146 3,340 4.6

2000 (1)

122,089 73,496 60.2 1,752 898 2,650 3.6

2001

122,229 73,392 60.0 1,518 656 2,174 3.0

2002

121,826 72,508 59.5 1,579 567 2,146 3.0

2003 (1)

122,358 72,946 59.6 1,555 545 2,100 2.9

2004 (1)

123,554 73,939 59.8 1,483 520 2,003 2.7

2005

125,889 75,609 60.1 1,403 479 1,882 2.5

2006

128,237 76,514 59.7 1,283 409 1,692 2.2

2007

129,767 75,873 58.5 (2)1,462 (2)267 (2)1,729 (2)2.3

2008 (1)

129,377 75,305 58.2 (2)1,940 (2)286 (2)2,226 (2)3.0
MEN

1979

49,400 28,392 57.5 846 1,353 2,199 7.7

1980

48,700 27,709 56.9 983 1,696 2,678 9.7

1981

48,844 27,576 56.5 1,119 1,533 2,652 9.6

1982

47,591 26,481 55.6 697 1,587 2,284 8.6

1983

47,856 26,831 56.1 585 1,658 2,243 8.4

1984

50,022 28,140 56.3 490 1,626 2,116 7.5

1985

51,015 28,893 56.6 440 1,544 1,984 6.9

1986 (1)

51,942 29,666 57.1 408 1,336 1,743 5.9

1987

52,938 30,474 57.6 364 1,283 1,647 5.4

1988

53,912 31,058 57.6 311 1,066 1,377 4.4

1989

54,789 31,687 57.8 379 733 1,112 3.5

1990 (1)

55,553 32,104 57.8 (2)712 (2)385 (2)1,097 (2)3.4

1991

54,618 31,639 57.9 (2)795 (2)1,114 (2)1,909 (2)6.0

1992

54,826 32,155 58.6 653 1,231 1,885 5.9

1993

55,475 32,337 58.3 573 1,091 1,664 5.1

1994 (1)

56,570 33,528 59.3 674 891 1,565 4.7

1995

57,669 34,420 59.7 542 796 1,338 3.9

1996

58,473 34,838 59.6 (2)619 (2)755 (2)1,374 (2)3.9

1997 (1)

59,825 35,521 59.4 (2)1,147 (2)673 (2)1,820 (2)5.1

1998 (1)

60,973 35,761 58.7 1,039 628 1,667 4.7

1999 (1)

61,914 36,073 58.3 768 446 1,214 3.4

2000 (1)

63,662 36,720 57.7 582 319 901 2.5

2001

63,647 36,544 57.4 497 247 744 2.0

2002

63,272 36,000 56.9 582 217 799 2.2

2003 (1)

63,236 35,853 56.7 493 213 706 2.0

2004 (1)

64,145 36,806 57.4 470 210 680 1.8

2005

65,466 37,652 57.5 459 189 648 1.7

2006

66,811 38,193 57.2 422 146 568 1.5

2007

67,468 37,790 56.0 (2)460 (2)86 (2)546 (2)1.4

2008 (1)

66,846 37,334 55.9 (2)638 (2)90 (2)728 (2)1.9
WOMEN

1979

38,129 23,329 61.2 2,070 2,644 4,714 20.2

1980

38,944 23,626 60.7 2,104 2,990 5,095 21.6

1981

39,672 24,294 61.2 2,394 2,778 5,172 21.3

1982

39,777 24,365 61.3 1,651 2,561 4,212 17.3

1983

40,433 24,989 61.8 1,492 2,603 4,095 16.4

1984

42,172 26,003 61.7 1,348 2,499 3,847 14.8

1985

43,506 26,869 61.8 1,198 2,356 3,554 13.2

1986 (1)

44,961 27,863 62.0 1,192 2,125 3,317 11.9

1987

46,365 29,078 62.7 1,105 1,946 3,051 10.5

1988

47,495 29,820 62.8 1,008 1,542 2,550 8.6

1989

48,691 30,702 63.1 994 1,056 2,050 6.7

1990 (1)

49,323 31,069 63.0 (2)1,420 (2)711 (2)2,131 (2)6.9

1991

49,105 30,988 63.1 (2)1,582 (2)1,792 (2)3,374 (2)10.9

1992

49,842 31,454 63.1 1,286 1,751 3,036 9.7

1993

50,626 31,937 63.1 1,133 1,534 2,667 8.4

1994 (1)

51,419 33,021 64.2 1,322 1,241 2,563 7.8

1995

52,369 33,934 64.8 1,157 1,161 2,318 6.8

1996

53,488 34,418 64.3 (2)1,244 (2)1,106 (2)2,350 (2)6.8

1997 (1)

54,708 35,214 64.4 (2)1,843 (2)1,092 (2)2,935 (2)8.3

1998 (1)

55,757 35,680 64.0 1,794 965 2,760 7.7

1999 (1)

57,050 36,233 63.5 1,426 700 2,126 5.9

2000 (1)

58,427 36,777 62.9 1,170 579 1,749 4.8

2001

58,582 36,848 62.9 1,021 409 1,430 3.9

2002

58,555 36,508 62.3 997 350 1,347 3.7

2003 (1)

59,122 37,093 62.7 1,062 332 1,394 3.8

2004 (1)

59,408 37,133 62.5 1,013 310 1,323 3.6

2005

60,423 37,957 62.8 944 290 1,234 3.3

2006

61,426 38,321 62.4 861 263 1,124 2.9

2007

62,299 38,082 61.1 (2)1,002 (2)181 (2)1,183 (2)3.1

2008 (1)

62,532 37,972 60.7 (2)1,302 (2)196 (2)1,498 (2)3.9

1 The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and conceptual changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). For an explanation, see the Historical Comparability section of the Household Data technical documentation provided at http://www.bls.gov/cps/eetech_methods.pdf.

2 Data for 1990-91, 1996-97, and 2007-08 reflect changes in the minimum wage that took place in those years.

NOTE: The prevailing Federal minimum wage was $2.90 in 1979, $3.10 in 1980, and $3.35 in 1981-89. The minimum wage rose to $3.80 on April 1, 1990, to $4.25 on April 1, 1991, to $4.75 on October 1, 1996, to $5.15 on September 1, 1997, to $5.85 on July 24, 2007, and to $6.55 on July 24, 2008. Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated. The presence of a sizable number of workers with reported wages below the minimum does not necessarily indicate violations of the Fair Labor Standards Act, as there are numerous exemptions to the minimum wage provisions of the law. In addition, the relatively large number of workers with reported wages below the minimum in some years may reflect rounding on the part of survey respondents.

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Characteristics of Minimum Wage Workers: 2008

Last Modified Date: March 11, 2009

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