Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey

Characteristics of Minimum Wage Workers: 2009

Tables 1 - 10

Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage, 2009 annual averages:

  1. by selected characteristics
  2. by census region and division
  3. by State
  4. by major occupation group
  5. by major industry group
  6. by educational attainment
  7. by age and sex
  8. by marital status, age, and sex
  9. by usual hours worked per week
  10. by sex (1979-2009 annual averages)

Table 1. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by selected characteristics, 2009 annual averages
Characteristic Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage
AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

72,611 3,572 980 2,592 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 4.9 1.3 3.6

16 to 24 years

14,389 1,737 508 1,229 19.8 48.6 51.8 47.4 12.1 3.5 8.5

16 to 19 years

4,397 818 288 530 6.1 22.9 29.4 20.4 18.6 6.5 12.1

25 years and over

58,222 1,835 472 1,363 80.2 51.4 48.2 52.6 3.2 0.8 2.3

Men, 16 years and over

35,185 1,358 368 990 48.5 38.0 37.6 38.2 3.9 1.0 2.8

16 to 24 years

7,045 674 214 460 9.7 18.9 21.8 17.7 9.6 3.0 6.5

16 to 19 years

2,053 322 121 201 2.8 9.0 12.3 7.8 15.7 5.9 9.8

25 years and over

28,140 684 154 530 38.8 19.1 15.7 20.4 2.4 0.5 1.9

Women, 16 years and over

37,426 2,215 612 1,603 51.5 62.0 62.4 61.8 5.9 1.6 4.3

16 to 24 years

7,344 1,064 295 769 10.1 29.8 30.1 29.7 14.5 4.0 10.5

16 to 19 years

2,345 496 167 329 3.2 13.9 17.0 12.7 21.2 7.1 14.0

25 years and over

30,082 1,151 318 833 41.4 32.2 32.4 32.1 3.8 1.1 2.8
RACE, SEX, AND HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

White (1)

58,633 2,857 763 2,094 80.7 80.0 77.9 80.8 4.9 1.3 3.6

Men

28,873 1,074 300 774 39.8 30.1 30.6 29.9 3.7 1.0 2.7

Women

29,760 1,783 463 1,320 41.0 49.9 47.2 50.9 6.0 1.6 4.4

Black or African American (1)

9,269 495 168 327 12.8 13.9 17.1 12.6 5.3 1.8 3.5

Men

4,038 192 50 142 5.6 5.4 5.1 5.5 4.8 1.2 3.5

Women

5,231 302 117 185 7.2 8.5 11.9 7.1 5.8 2.2 3.5

Asian (1)

2,718 117 21 96 3.7 3.3 2.1 3.7 4.3 0.8 3.5

Men

1,258 47 6 41 1.7 1.3 0.6 1.6 3.7 0.5 3.3

Women

1,460 70 15 55 2.0 2.0 1.5 2.1 4.8 1.0 3.8

Hispanic or Latino (1)

12,740 622 183 439 17.5 17.4 18.7 16.9 4.9 1.4 3.4

Men

7,291 290 80 210 10.0 8.1 8.2 8.1 4.0 1.1 2.9

Women

5,449 331 102 229 7.5 9.3 10.4 8.8 6.1 1.9 4.2
FULL- AND PART-TIME STATUS AND SEX

Full-time workers (2)

52,454 1,272 320 952 72.2 35.6 32.7 36.7 2.4 0.6 1.8

Men

28,388 579 137 442 39.1 16.2 14.0 17.1 2.0 0.5 1.6

Women

24,066 694 183 511 33.1 19.4 18.7 19.7 2.9 0.8 2.1

Part-time workers (2)

20,027 2,281 656 1,625 27.6 63.9 66.9 62.7 11.4 3.3 8.1

Men

6,721 769 229 540 9.3 21.5 23.4 20.8 11.4 3.4 8.0

Women

13,307 1,513 428 1,085 18.3 42.4 43.7 41.9 11.4 3.2 8.2

Footnotes:
(1) Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
(2) The distinction between full- and part-time workers is based on hours usually worked. These data will not sum to totals because full- or part-time status on the principal job is not identifiable for a small number of multiple jobholders.

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

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Table 2. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by census region and division, 2009 annual averages
Region and division Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage

Total, 16 years and over

72,611 3,572 980 2,592 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 4.9 1.3 3.6

Northeast

12,767 570 104 466 17.6 16.0 10.6 18.0 4.5 0.8 3.7

New England

3,581 125 20 105 4.9 3.5 2.0 4.1 3.5 0.6 2.9

Middle Atlantic

9,186 445 84 361 12.7 12.5 8.6 13.9 4.8 0.9 3.9

Midwest

17,795 864 229 635 24.5 24.2 23.4 24.5 4.9 1.3 3.6

East North Central

12,105 555 122 433 16.7 15.5 12.4 16.7 4.6 1.0 3.6

West North Central

5,690 309 107 202 7.8 8.7 10.9 7.8 5.4 1.9 3.6

South

25,035 1,721 545 1,176 34.5 48.2 55.6 45.4 6.9 2.2 4.7

South Atlantic

12,726 768 216 552 17.5 21.5 22.0 21.3 6.0 1.7 4.3

East South Central

4,173 300 121 179 5.7 8.4 12.3 6.9 7.2 2.9 4.3

West South Central

8,135 652 208 444 11.2 18.3 21.2 17.1 8.0 2.6 5.5

West

17,014 417 102 315 23.4 11.7 10.4 12.2 2.5 0.6 1.9

Mountain

5,231 221 55 166 7.2 6.2 5.6 6.4 4.2 1.1 3.2

Pacific

11,783 196 47 149 16.2 5.5 4.8 5.7 1.7 0.4 1.3

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

The four major regions and nine census divisions of the United States are as follows:

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Table 3. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by State, 2009 annual averages
State Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage

Total, 16 years and over

72,611 3,572 980 2,592 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 4.9 1.3 3.6

Alabama

1,065 80 34 46 1.5 2.2 3.5 1.8 7.5 3.2 4.3

Alaska

198 5 2 3 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.1 2.5 1.0 1.5

Arizona

1,450 59 18 41 2.0 1.7 1.8 1.6 4.1 1.2 2.8

Arkansas

712 53 19 34 1.0 1.5 1.9 1.3 7.4 2.7 4.8

California

8,515 140 35 105 11.7 3.9 3.6 4.1 1.6 0.4 1.2

Colorado

1,137 44 5 39 1.6 1.2 0.5 1.5 3.9 0.4 3.4

Connecticut

866 25 2 23 1.2 0.7 0.2 0.9 2.9 0.2 2.7

Delaware

208 10 2 8 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 4.8 1.0 3.8

District of Columbia

98 4 - 4 0.1 0.1 - 0.2 4.1 - 4.1

Florida

3,795 215 48 167 5.2 6.0 4.9 6.4 5.7 1.3 4.4

Georgia

1,971 141 49 92 2.7 3.9 5.0 3.5 7.2 2.5 4.7

Hawaii

320 9 3 6 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.2 2.8 0.9 1.9

Idaho

388 24 9 15 0.5 0.7 0.9 0.6 6.2 2.3 3.9

Illinois

3,057 103 21 82 4.2 2.9 2.1 3.2 3.4 0.7 2.7

Indiana

1,669 108 44 64 2.3 3.0 4.5 2.5 6.5 2.6 3.8

Iowa

897 40 15 25 1.2 1.1 1.5 1.0 4.5 1.7 2.8

Kansas

809 47 19 28 1.1 1.3 1.9 1.1 5.8 2.3 3.5

Kentucky

1,070 77 32 45 1.5 2.2 3.3 1.7 7.2 3.0 4.2

Louisiana

976 68 18 50 1.3 1.9 1.8 1.9 7.0 1.8 5.1

Maine

366 10 3 7 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.3 2.7 0.8 1.9

Maryland

1,296 67 11 56 1.8 1.9 1.1 2.2 5.2 0.8 4.3

Massachusetts

1,527 60 10 50 2.1 1.7 1.0 1.9 3.9 0.7 3.3

Michigan

2,440 104 15 89 3.4 2.9 1.5 3.4 4.3 0.6 3.6

Minnesota

1,454 76 27 49 2.0 2.1 2.8 1.9 5.2 1.9 3.4

Mississippi

644 47 18 29 0.9 1.3 1.8 1.1 7.3 2.8 4.5

Missouri

1,534 87 28 59 2.1 2.4 2.9 2.3 5.7 1.8 3.8

Montana

261 9 4 5 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.2 3.4 1.5 1.9

Nebraska

550 32 10 22 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.8 5.8 1.8 4.0

Nevada

659 23 3 20 0.9 0.6 0.3 0.8 3.5 0.5 3.0

New Hampshire

364 15 4 11 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 4.1 1.1 3.0

New Jersey

1,696 98 8 90 2.3 2.7 0.8 3.5 5.8 0.5 5.3

New Mexico

470 22 2 20 0.6 0.6 0.2 0.8 4.7 0.4 4.3

New York

4,183 192 40 152 5.8 5.4 4.1 5.9 4.6 1.0 3.6

North Carolina

2,132 136 38 98 2.9 3.8 3.9 3.8 6.4 1.8 4.6

North Dakota

193 12 4 8 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3 6.2 2.1 4.1

Ohio

3,282 142 20 122 4.5 4.0 2.0 4.7 4.3 0.6 3.7

Oklahoma

852 57 16 41 1.2 1.6 1.6 1.6 6.7 1.9 4.8

Oregon

949 13 3 10 1.3 0.4 0.3 0.4 1.4 0.3 1.1

Pennsylvania

3,307 155 36 119 4.6 4.3 3.7 4.6 4.7 1.1 3.6

Rhode Island

279 11 1 10 0.4 0.3 0 0.4 3.9 0.4 3.6

South Carolina

1,076 60 21 39 1.5 1.7 2.1 1.5 5.6 2.0 3.6

South Dakota

254 13 3 10 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.4 5.1 1.2 3.9

Tennesee

1,394 96 37 59 1.9 2.7 3.8 2.3 6.9 2.7 4.2

Texas

5,596 474 155 319 7.7 13.3 15.8 12.3 8.5 2.8 5.7

Utah

707 30 10 20 1.0 0.8 1.0 0.8 4.2 1.4 2.8

Vermont

180 5 - 5 0.2 0.1 - 0.2 2.8 - 2.8

Virginia

1,701 100 32 68 2.3 2.8 3.3 2.6 5.9 1.9 4.0

Washington

1,800 28 4 24 2.5 0.8 0.4 0.9 1.6 0.2 1.3

West Virginia

448 35 15 20 0.6 1.0 1.5 0.8 7.8 3.3 4.5

Wisconsin

1,659 98 22 76 2.3 2.7 2.2 2.9 5.9 1.3 4.6

Wyoming

159 8 3 5 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 5.0 1.9 3.1

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated. Users are reminded that these data are based on a sample and are therefore subject to sampling error; the degree of error may be quite large for less populous States. It is not possible to determine clearly whether workers surveyed in the CPS are actually covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) or by individual State minimum wage laws. Thus, some workers reported as earning the prevailing Federal minimum wage may not in fact be covered by Federal or State minimum wage laws. Also, there are a number of States that have minimum wages that exceed the Federal minimum wage. At the same time, the presence of a sizable number of workers with wages below the prevailing Federal minimum wage does not necessarily indicate violations of the FLSA or applicable State laws, because there are numerous exclusions and exemptions to these minimum wage statutes. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

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Table 4. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by major occupation group, 2009 annual averages
Occupation Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage

Total, 16 years and over

72,611 3,572 980 2,592 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 4.9 1.3 3.6

Management, professional, and related occupations

14,839 141 40 101 20.4 3.9 4.1 3.9 1.0 0.3 0.7

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

4,090 32 9 23 5.6 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.2 0.6

Professional and related occupations

10,749 109 31 78 14.8 3.1 3.2 3.0 1.0 0.3 0.7

Service occupations

17,693 2,251 466 1,785 24.4 63.0 47.6 68.9 12.7 2.6 10.1

Healthcare support occupations

2,667 79 28 51 3.7 2.2 2.9 2.0 3.0 1.0 1.9

Protective service occupations

2,048 68 14 54 2.8 1.9 1.4 2.1 3.3 0.7 2.6

Food preparation and serving related occupations

6,652 1,594 272 1,322 9.2 44.6 27.8 51.0 24.0 4.1 19.9

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3,645 223 81 142 5.0 6.2 8.3 5.5 6.1 2.2 3.9

Personal care and service occupations

2,681 288 72 216 3.7 8.1 7.3 8.3 10.7 2.7 8.1

Sales and office occupations

19,880 733 336 397 27.4 20.5 34.3 15.3 3.7 1.7 2.0

Sales and related occupations

7,658 522 257 265 10.5 14.6 26.2 10.2 6.8 3.4 3.5

Office and administrative support occupats

12,222 211 79 132 16.8 5.9 8.1 5.1 1.7 0.6 1.1

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

8,411 95 22 73 11.6 2.7 2.2 2.8 1.1 0.3 0.9

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

596 32 10 22 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.8 5.4 1.7 3.7

Construction and extraction occupations

4,551 39 4 35 6.3 1.1 0.4 1.4 0.9 0.1 0.8

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

3,264 24 8 16 4.5 0.7 0.8 0.6 0.7 0.2 0.5

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

11,788 352 116 236 16.2 9.9 11.8 9.1 3.0 1.0 2.0

Production occupations

6,032 123 47 76 8.3 3.4 4.8 2.9 2.0 0.8 1.3

Transportation and material moving occupations

5,756 230 70 160 7.9 6.4 7.1 6.2 4.0 1.2 2.8

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

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Table 5. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by major industry group, 2009 annual averages
Industry Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage

Total, 16 years and over

72,611 3,572 980 2,592 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 4.9 1.3 3.6

Private sector

62,885 3,349 919 2,430 86.6 93.8 93.8 93.8 5.3 1.5 3.9

Agriculture and related industries

642 37 14 23 0.9 1.0 1.4 0.9 5.8 2.2 3.6

Nonagricultural industries

62,243 3,312 905 2,407 85.7 92.7 92.3 92.9 5.3 1.5 3.9

Mining

397 1 - 1 0.5 0.0 - 0.0 0.3 - 0.3

Construction

4,556 45 4 41 6.3 1.3 0.4 1.6 1.0 0.1 0.9

Manufacturing

8,347 107 32 75 11.5 3.0 3.3 2.9 1.3 0.4 0.9

Durable goods

5,077 47 13 34 7.0 1.3 1.3 1.3 0.9 0.3 0.7

Nondurable goods

3,270 60 19 41 4.5 1.7 1.9 1.6 1.8 0.6 1.3

Wholesale and retail trade

12,085 567 243 324 16.6 15.9 24.8 12.5 4.7 2.0 2.7

Wholesale trade

1,658 33 7 26 2.3 0.9 0.7 1.0 2.0 0.4 1.6

Retail trade

10,427 534 236 298 14.4 14.9 24.1 11.5 5.1 2.3 2.9

Transportation and utilities

2,942 41 12 29 4.1 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.4 0.4 1.0

Information

1,288 35 10 25 1.8 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.7 0.8 1.9

Financial activities

3,251 44 18 26 4.5 1.2 1.8 1.0 1.4 0.6 0.8

Professional and business services

5,286 132 50 82 7.3 3.7 5.1 3.2 2.5 0.9 1.6

Education and health services

12,165 286 114 172 16.8 8.0 11.6 6.6 2.4 0.9 1.4

Leisure and hospitality

8,881 1,844 374 1,470 12.2 51.6 38.2 56.7 20.8 4.2 16.6

Other services

3,045 209 48 161 4.2 5.9 4.9 6.2 6.9 1.6 5.3

Public sector

9,725 223 61 162 13.4 6.2 6.2 6.3 2.3 0.6 1.7

Federal

1,856 21 6 15 2.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 1.1 0.3 0.8

State

2,672 66 16 50 3.7 1.8 1.6 1.9 2.5 0.6 1.9

Local

5,197 136 39 97 7.2 3.8 4.0 3.7 2.6 0.8 1.9

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

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Table 6. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by educational attainment, 2009 annual averages
Educational attainment Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage

Total, 16 years and over

72,611 3,572 980 2,592 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 4.9 1.3 3.6

Less than a high school diploma

10,211 1,037 366 671 14.1 29.0 37.3 25.9 10.2 3.6 6.6

Less than 1 year of high school

2,988 218 62 156 4.1 6.1 6.3 6.0 7.3 2.1 5.2

1 to 3 years of high school

6,100 719 273 446 8.4 20.1 27.9 17.2 11.8 4.5 7.3

4 years of high school, no diploma

1,123 100 31 69 1.5 2.8 3.2 2.7 8.9 2.8 6.1

High school graduates or more

62,399 2,535 614 1,921 85.9 71.0 62.7 74.1 4.1 1.0 3.1

High school graduates, no college

25,693 1,105 326 779 35.4 30.9 33.3 30.1 4.3 1.3 3.0

Some college or associate degree

24,960 1,135 254 881 34.4 31.8 25.9 34.0 4.5 1.0 3.5

Some college, no degree

16,785 941 209 732 23.1 26.3 21.3 28.2 5.6 1.2 4.4

Associate degree

8,175 195 45 150 11.3 5.5 4.6 5.8 2.4 0.6 1.8

Occupational program

3,811 86 20 66 5.2 2.4 2.0 2.5 2.3 0.5 1.7

Academic program

4,364 109 25 84 6.0 3.1 2.6 3.2 2.5 0.6 1.9

Bachelor's degree and higher

11,746 295 33 262 16.2 8.3 3.4 10.1 2.5 0.3 2.2

Bachelor's degree

9,350 248 25 223 12.9 6.9 2.6 8.6 2.7 0.3 2.4

Master's degree

1,901 38 6 32 2.6 1.1 0.6 1.2 2.0 0.3 1.7

Professional degree

302 7 2 5 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.2 2.3 0.7 1.7

Doctoral degree

194 1 - 1 0.3 0.0 - 0.0 0.5 - 0.5

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

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Table 7. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by age and sex, 2009 annual averages
Age and sex Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage
BOTH SEXES

Total, 16 years and over

72,611 3,572 980 2,592 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 4.9 1.3 3.6

Under 25 years

14,389 1,737 508 1,229 19.8 48.6 51.8 47.4 12.1 3.5 8.5

16 to 19 years

4,397 818 288 530 6.1 22.9 29.4 20.4 18.6 6.5 12.1

20 to 24 years

9,991 919 220 699 13.8 25.7 22.4 27.0 9.2 2.2 7.0

25 years and over

58,222 1,835 472 1,363 80.2 51.4 48.2 52.6 3.2 0.8 2.3

25 to 34 years

16,363 716 159 557 22.5 20.0 16.2 21.5 4.4 1.0 3.4

25 to 29 years

8,917 424 83 341 12.3 11.9 8.5 13.2 4.8 0.9 3.8

30 to 34 years

7,446 292 76 216 10.3 8.2 7.8 8.3 3.9 1.0 2.9

35 to 44 years

14,575 440 104 336 20.1 12.3 10.6 13.0 3.0 0.7 2.3

35 to 39 years

7,219 240 54 186 9.9 6.7 5.5 7.2 3.3 0.7 2.6

40 to 44 years

7,356 201 51 150 10.1 5.6 5.2 5.8 2.7 0.7 2.0

45 to 54 years

15,468 350 100 250 21.3 9.8 10.2 9.6 2.3 0.6 1.6

45 to 49 years

8,112 182 53 129 11.2 5.1 5.4 5.0 2.2 0.7 1.6

50 to 54 years

7,356 168 47 121 10.1 4.7 4.8 4.7 2.3 0.6 1.6

55 to 64 years

9,151 209 69 140 12.6 5.9 7.0 5.4 2.3 0.8 1.5

55 to 59 years

5,680 122 37 85 7.8 3.4 3.8 3.3 2.1 0.7 1.5

60 to 64 years

3,471 87 32 55 4.8 2.4 3.3 2.1 2.5 0.9 1.6

65 years and over

2,665 120 40 80 3.7 3.4 4.1 3.1 4.5 1.5 3.0

65 to 69 years

1,456 65 22 43 2.0 1.8 2.2 1.7 4.5 1.5 3.0

70 years and over

1,209 54 18 36 1.7 1.5 1.8 1.4 4.5 1.5 3.0
MEN

Total, 16 years and over

35,185 1,358 368 990 48.5 38.0 37.6 38.2 3.9 1.0 2.8

Under 25 years

7,045 674 214 460 9.7 18.9 21.8 17.7 9.6 3.0 6.5

16 to 19 years

2,053 322 121 201 2.8 9.0 12.3 7.8 15.7 5.9 9.8

20 to 24 years

4,992 352 93 259 6.9 9.9 9.5 10.0 7.1 1.9 5.2

25 years and over

28,140 684 154 530 38.8 19.1 15.7 20.4 2.4 0.5 1.9

25 to 34 years

8,536 279 63 216 11.8 7.8 6.4 8.3 3.3 0.7 2.5

25 to 29 years

4,685 173 32 141 6.5 4.8 3.3 5.4 3.7 0.7 3.0

30 to 34 years

3,851 106 31 75 5.3 3.0 3.2 2.9 2.8 0.8 1.9

35 to 44 years

7,191 175 33 142 9.9 4.9 3.4 5.5 2.4 0.5 2.0

35 to 39 years

3,657 95 19 76 5.0 2.7 1.9 2.9 2.6 0.5 2.1

40 to 44 years

3,533 81 14 67 4.9 2.3 1.4 2.6 2.3 0.4 1.9

45 to 54 years

7,087 103 21 82 9.8 2.9 2.1 3.2 1.5 0.3 1.2

45 to 49 years

3,740 51 12 39 5.2 1.4 1.2 1.5 1.4 0.3 1.0

50 to 54 years

3,347 53 10 43 4.6 1.5 1.0 1.7 1.6 0.3 1.3

55 to 64 years

4,134 80 23 57 5.7 2.2 2.3 2.2 1.9 0.6 1.4

55 to 59 years

2,562 45 10 35 3.5 1.3 1.0 1.4 1.8 0.4 1.4

60 to 64 years

1,572 35 13 22 2.2 1.0 1.3 0.8 2.2 0.8 1.4

65 years and over

1,192 46 14 32 1.6 1.3 1.4 1.2 3.9 1.2 2.7

65 to 69 years

644 27 8 19 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 4.2 1.2 3.0

70 years and over

548 19 6 13 0.8 0.5 0.6 0.5 3.5 1.1 2.4
WOMEN

Total, 16 years and over

37,426 2,215 612 1,603 51.5 62.0 62.4 61.8 5.9 1.6 4.3

Under 25 years

7,344 1,064 295 769 10.1 29.8 30.1 29.7 14.5 4.0 10.5

16 to 19 years

2,345 496 167 329 3.2 13.9 17.0 12.7 21.2 7.1 14.0

20 to 24 years

4,999 567 127 440 6.9 15.9 13.0 17.0 11.3 2.5 8.8

25 years and over

30,082 1,151 318 833 41.4 32.2 32.4 32.1 3.8 1.1 2.8

25 to 34 years

7,827 437 96 341 10.8 12.2 9.8 13.2 5.6 1.2 4.4

25 to 29 years

4,232 250 50 200 5.8 7.0 5.1 7.7 5.9 1.2 4.7

30 to 34 years

3,595 187 46 141 5.0 5.2 4.7 5.4 5.2 1.3 3.9

35 to 44 years

7,385 265 71 194 10.2 7.4 7.2 7.5 3.6 1.0 2.6

35 to 39 years

3,562 144 34 110 4.9 4.0 3.5 4.2 4.0 1.0 3.1

40 to 44 years

3,823 121 37 84 5.3 3.4 3.8 3.2 3.2 1.0 2.2

45 to 54 years

8,381 247 79 168 11.5 6.9 8.1 6.5 2.9 0.9 2.0

45 to 49 years

4,372 131 41 90 6.0 3.7 4.2 3.5 3.0 0.9 2.1

50 to 54 years

4,009 116 38 78 5.5 3.2 3.9 3.0 2.9 0.9 1.9

55 to 64 years

5,017 129 46 83 6.9 3.6 4.7 3.2 2.6 0.9 1.7

55 to 59 years

3,117 77 27 50 4.3 2.2 2.8 1.9 2.5 0.9 1.6

60 to 64 years

1,900 51 19 32 2.6 1.4 1.9 1.2 2.7 1.0 1.7

65 years and over

1,473 74 26 48 2.0 2.1 2.7 1.9 5.0 1.8 3.3

65 to 69 years

812 37 13 24 1.1 1.0 1.3 0.9 4.6 1.6 3.0

70 years and over

661 36 12 24 0.9 1.0 1.2 0.9 5.4 1.8 3.6

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

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Table 8. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by marital status, age, and sex, 2009 annual averages
Marital status, age and sex Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage
BOTH SEXES

Total, 16 years and over

72,611 3,572 980 2,592 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 4.9 1.3 3.6

Never married

25,437 2,192 611 1,581 35.0 61.4 62.3 61.0 8.6 2.4 6.2

16 to 24 years

12,715 1,604 475 1,129 17.5 44.9 48.5 43.6 12.6 3.7 8.9

25 years and over

12,722 588 136 452 17.5 16.5 13.9 17.4 4.6 1.1 3.6

25 to 54 years

11,816 562 131 431 16.3 15.7 13.4 16.6 4.8 1.1 3.6

Married, spouse present

34,919 876 231 645 48.1 24.5 23.6 24.9 2.5 0.7 1.8

16 to 24 years

1,270 84 22 62 1.7 2.4 2.2 2.4 6.6 1.7 4.9

25 years and over

33,649 793 210 583 46.3 22.2 21.4 22.5 2.4 0.6 1.7

25 to 54 years

26,145 596 144 452 36.0 16.7 14.7 17.4 2.3 0.6 1.7

Other marital status

12,254 504 138 366 16.9 14.1 14.1 14.1 4.1 1.1 3.0

16 to 24 years

404 50 12 38 0.6 1.4 1.2 1.5 12.4 3.0 9.4

25 years and over

11,851 454 126 328 16.3 12.7 12.9 12.7 3.8 1.1 2.8

25 to 54 years

8,445 348 88 260 11.6 9.7 9.0 10.0 4.1 1.0 3.1
MEN

Total, 16 years and over

35,185 1,358 368 990 48.5 38.0 37.6 38.2 3.9 1.0 2.8

Never married

13,218 910 269 641 18.2 25.5 27.4 24.7 6.9 2.0 4.8

16 to 24 years

6,366 635 206 429 8.8 17.8 21.0 16.6 10.0 3.2 6.7

25 years and over

6,851 275 63 212 9.4 7.7 6.4 8.2 4.0 0.9 3.1

25 to 54 years

6,425 264 62 202 8.8 7.4 6.3 7.8 4.1 1.0 3.1

Married, spouse present

17,384 311 65 246 23.9 8.7 6.6 9.5 1.8 0.4 1.4

16 to 24 years

523 27 5 22 0.7 0.8 0.5 0.8 5.2 1.0 4.2

25 years and over

16,861 285 61 224 23.2 8.0 6.2 8.6 1.7 0.4 1.3

25 to 54 years

12,979 199 36 163 17.9 5.6 3.7 6.3 1.5 0.3 1.3

Other marital status

4,583 137 34 103 6.3 3.8 3.5 4.0 3.0 0.7 2.2

16 to 24 years

155 13 3 10 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.4 8.4 1.9 6.5

25 years and over

4,427 124 30 94 6.1 3.5 3.1 3.6 2.8 0.7 2.1

25 to 54 years

3,411 95 19 76 4.7 2.7 1.9 2.9 2.8 0.6 2.2
WOMEN

Total, 16 years and over .

37,426 2,215 612 1,603 51.5 62.0 62.4 61.8 5.9 1.6 4.3

Never married

12,220 1,282 342 940 16.8 35.9 34.9 36.3 10.5 2.8 7.7

16 to 24 years

6,349 969 269 700 8.7 27.1 27.4 27.0 15.3 4.2 11.0

25 years and over

5,871 313 73 240 8.1 8.8 7.4 9.3 5.3 1.2 4.1

25 to 54 years

5,391 299 69 230 7.4 8.4 7.0 8.9 5.5 1.3 4.3

Married, spouse present

17,535 565 166 399 24.1 15.8 16.9 15.4 3.2 0.9 2.3

16 to 24 years

747 57 17 40 1.0 1.6 1.7 1.5 7.6 2.3 5.4

25 years and over

16,787 508 149 359 23.1 14.2 15.2 13.9 3.0 0.9 2.1

25 to 54 years

13,167 396 108 288 18.1 11.1 11.0 11.1 3.0 0.8 2.2

Other marital status

7,672 367 104 263 10.6 10.3 10.6 10.1 4.8 1.4 3.4

16 to 24 years

248 37 8 29 0.3 1.0 0.8 1.1 14.9 3.2 11.7

25 years and over

7,423 331 96 235 10.2 9.3 9.8 9.1 4.5 1.3 3.2

25 to 54 years

5,034 254 69 185 6.9 7.1 7.0 7.1 5.0 1.4 3.7

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

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Table 9. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by usual hours worked on primary job, 2009 annual averages
Usual hours worked per week on primary job Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage

Total, 16 years and over

72,611 3,572 980 2,592 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 4.9 1.3 3.6

Hours vary

4,920 520 128 392 6.8 14.6 13.1 15.1 10.6 2.6 8.0

0 to 34 hours

17,981 1,981 580 1,401 24.8 55.5 59.2 54.1 11.0 3.2 7.8

0 to 4 hours

345 38 10 28 0.5 1.1 1.0 1.1 11.0 2.9 8.1

5 to 9 hours

960 124 32 92 1.3 3.5 3.3 3.5 12.9 3.3 9.6

10 to 14 hours

1,600 242 83 159 2.2 6.8 8.5 6.1 15.1 5.2 9.9

15 to 19 hours

2,323 312 103 209 3.2 8.7 10.5 8.1 13.4 4.4 9.0

20 to 24 hours

5,259 538 151 387 7.2 15.1 15.4 14.9 10.2 2.9 7.4

25 to 29 hours

2,498 289 82 207 3.4 8.1 8.4 8.0 11.6 3.3 8.3

30 to 34 hours

4,996 438 120 318 6.9 12.3 12.2 12.3 8.8 2.4 6.4

35 hours or more

49,709 1,073 273 800 68.5 30.0 27.9 30.9 2.2 0.5 1.6

35 to 39 hours

5,988 286 76 210 8.2 8.0 7.8 8.1 4.8 1.3 3.5

40 hours or more

43,721 787 197 590 60.2 22.0 20.1 22.8 1.8 0.5 1.3

40 hours

38,666 680 170 510 53.3 19.0 17.3 19.7 1.8 0.4 1.3

41 hours or more

5,055 107 27 80 7.0 3.0 2.8 3.1 2.1 0.5 1.6

41 to 44 hours

665 13 4 9 0.9 0.4 0.4 0.3 2.0 0.6 1.4

45 to 48 hours

1,750 23 8 15 2.4 0.6 0.8 0.6 1.3 0.5 0.9

49 to 59 hours

1,885 40 11 29 2.6 1.1 1.1 1.1 2.1 0.6 1.5

60 hours or more

755 31 4 27 1.0 0.9 0.4 1.0 4.1 0.5 3.6

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

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Table 10. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by sex, 1979-2009 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Year and sex Total wage and salary workers Workers paid hourly rates
Total Percent of total wage and salary workers Below prevailing Federal minimum wage At prevailing Federal minimum wage Total at or below prevailing Federal minimum wage
Number Percent of hourly paid workers
BOTH SEXES

1979

87,529 51,721 59.1 2,916 3,997 6,912 13.4

1980

87,644 51,335 58.6 3,087 4,686 7,773 15.1

1981

88,516 51,869 58.6 3,513 4,311 7,824 15.1

1982

87,368 50,846 58.2 2,348 4,148 6,496 12.8

1983

88,290 51,820 58.7 2,077 4,261 6,338 12.2

1984

92,194 54,143 58.7 1,838 4,125 5,963 11.0

1985

94,521 55,762 59.0 1,639 3,899 5,538 9.9

1986 (1)

96,903 57,529 59.4 1,599 3,461 5,060 8.8

1987

99,303 59,552 60.0 1,468 3,229 4,698 7.9

1988

101,407 60,878 60.0 1,319 2,608 3,927 6.5

1989

103,480 62,389 60.3 1,372 1,790 3,162 5.1

1990 (1)

104,876 63,172 60.2 (2)2,132 (2)1,096 (2)3,228 (2)5.1

1991

103,723 62,627 60.4 (2)2,377 (2)2,906 (2)5,283 (2)8.4

1992

104,668 63,610 60.8 1,939 2,982 4,921 7.7

1993

106,101 64,274 60.6 1,707 2,625 4,332 6.7

1994 (1)

107,989 66,549 61.6 1,995 2,132 4,128 6.2

1995

110,038 68,354 62.1 1,699 1,956 3,656 5.3

1996

111,960 69,255 61.9 (2)1,863 (2)1,861 (2)3,724 (2)5.4

1997 (1)

114,533 70,735 61.8 (2)2,990 (2)1,764 (2)4,754 (2)6.7

1998 (1)

116,730 71,440 61.2 2,834 1,593 4,427 6.2

1999 (1)

118,963 72,306 60.8 2,194 1,146 3,340 4.6

2000 (1)

122,089 73,496 60.2 1,752 898 2,650 3.6

2001

122,229 73,392 60.0 1,518 656 2,174 3.0

2002

121,826 72,508 59.5 1,579 567 2,146 3.0

2003 (1)

122,358 72,946 59.6 1,555 545 2,100 2.9

2004 (1)

123,554 73,939 59.8 1,483 520 2,003 2.7

2005

125,889 75,609 60.1 1,403 479 1,882 2.5

2006

128,237 76,514 59.7 1,283 409 1,692 2.2

2007

129,767 75,873 58.5 (2)1,462 (2)267 (2)1,729 (2)2.3

2008 (1)

129,377 75,305 58.2 (2)1,940 (2)286 (2)2,226 (2)3.0

2009 (1)

124,490 72,611 58.3 (2)2,592 (2)980 (2)3,572 (2)4.9
MEN

1979

49,400 28,392 57.5 846 1,353 2,199 7.7

1980

48,700 27,709 56.9 983 1,696 2,678 9.7

1981

48,844 27,576 56.5 1,119 1,533 2,652 9.6

1982

47,591 26,481 55.6 697 1,587 2,284 8.6

1983

47,856 26,831 56.1 585 1,658 2,243 8.4

1984

50,022 28,140 56.3 490 1,626 2,116 7.5

1985

51,015 28,893 56.6 440 1,544 1,984 6.9

1986 (1)

51,942 29,666 57.1 408 1,336 1,743 5.9

1987

52,938 30,474 57.6 364 1,283 1,647 5.4

1988

53,912 31,058 57.6 311 1,066 1,377 4.4

1989

54,789 31,687 57.8 379 733 1,112 3.5

1990 (1)

55,553 32,104 57.8 (2)712 (2)385 (2)1,097 (2)3.4

1991

54,618 31,639 57.9 (2)795 (2)1,114 (2)1,909 (2)6.0

1992

54,826 32,155 58.6 653 1,231 1,885 5.9

1993

55,475 32,337 58.3 573 1,091 1,664 5.1

1994 (1)

56,570 33,528 59.3 674 891 1,565 4.7

1995

57,669 34,420 59.7 542 796 1,338 3.9

1996

58,473 34,838 59.6 (2)619 (2)755 (2)1,374 (2)3.9

1997 (1)

59,825 35,521 59.4 (2)1,147 (2)673 (2)1,820 (2)5.1

1998 (1)

60,973 35,761 58.7 1,039 628 1,667 4.7

1999 (1)

61,914 36,073 58.3 768 446 1,214 3.4

2000 (1)

63,662 36,720 57.7 582 319 901 2.5

2001

63,647 36,544 57.4 497 247 744 2.0

2002

63,272 36,000 56.9 582 217 799 2.2

2003 (1)

63,236 35,853 56.7 493 213 706 2.0

2004 (1)

64,145 36,806 57.4 470 210 680 1.8

2005

65,466 37,652 57.5 459 189 648 1.7

2006

66,811 38,193 57.2 422 146 568 1.5

2007

67,468 37,790 56.0 (2)460 (2)86 (2)546 (2)1.4

2008 (1)

66,846 37,334 55.9 (2)638 (2)90 (2)728 (2)1.9

2009 (1)

63,539 35,185 55.4 (2)990 (2)368 (2)1,358 (2)3.9
WOMEN

1979

38,129 23,329 61.2 2,070 2,644 4,714 20.2

1980

38,944 23,626 60.7 2,104 2,990 5,095 21.6

1981

39,672 24,294 61.2 2,394 2,778 5,172 21.3

1982

39,777 24,365 61.3 1,651 2,561 4,212 17.3

1983

40,433 24,989 61.8 1,492 2,603 4,095 16.4

1984

42,172 26,003 61.7 1,348 2,499 3,847 14.8

1985

43,506 26,869 61.8 1,198 2,356 3,554 13.2

1986 (1)

44,961 27,863 62.0 1,192 2,125 3,317 11.9

1987

46,365 29,078 62.7 1,105 1,946 3,051 10.5

1988

47,495 29,820 62.8 1,008 1,542 2,550 8.6

1989

48,691 30,702 63.1 994 1,056 2,050 6.7

1990 (1)

49,323 31,069 63.0 (2)1,420 (2)711 (2)2,131 (2)6.9

1991

49,105 30,988 63.1 (2)1,582 (2)1,792 (2)3,374 (2)10.9

1992

49,842 31,454 63.1 1,286 1,751 3,036 9.7

1993

50,626 31,937 63.1 1,133 1,534 2,667 8.4

1994 (1)

51,419 33,021 64.2 1,322 1,241 2,563 7.8

1995

52,369 33,934 64.8 1,157 1,161 2,318 6.8

1996

53,488 34,418 64.3 (2)1,244 (2)1,106 (2)2,350 (2)6.8

1997 (1)

54,708 35,214 64.4 (2)1,843 (2)1,092 (2)2,935 (2)8.3

1998 (1)

55,757 35,680 64.0 1,794 965 2,760 7.7

1999 (1)

57,050 36,233 63.5 1,426 700 2,126 5.9

2000 (1)

58,427 36,777 62.9 1,170 579 1,749 4.8

2001

58,582 36,848 62.9 1,021 409 1,430 3.9

2002

58,555 36,508 62.3 997 350 1,347 3.7

2003 (1)

59,122 37,093 62.7 1,062 332 1,394 3.8

2004 (1)

59,408 37,133 62.5 1,013 310 1,323 3.6

2005

60,423 37,957 62.8 944 290 1,234 3.3

2006

61,426 38,321 62.4 861 263 1,124 2.9

2007

62,299 38,082 61.1 (2)1,002 (2)181 (2)1,183 (2)3.1

2008 (1)

62,532 37,972 60.7 (2)1,302 (2)196 (2)1,498 (2)3.9

2009 (1)

60,951 37,426 61.4 (2)1,603 (2)612 (2)2,215 (2)5.9

Footnotes:
(1) The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and conceptual changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). For an explanation, see the Historical Comparability section of the Household Data technical documentation provided at www.bls.gov/cps/eetech_methods.pdf.
(2) Data for 1990-91, 1996-97, and 2007-09 reflect changes in the minimum wage that took place in those years.

NOTE: The prevailing Federal minimum wage was $2.90 in 1979, $3.10 in 1980, and $3.35 in 1981-89. The minimum wage rose to $3.80 on April 1, 1990, to $4.25 on April 1, 1991, to $4.75 on October 1, 1996, to $5.15 on September 1, 1997, to $5.85 on July 24, 2007, to $6.55 on July 24, 2008, and to $7.25 on July 24, 2009. Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated. The presence of a sizable number of workers with reported wages below the minimum does not necessarily indicate violations of the Fair Labor Standards Act, as there are numerous exemptions to the minimum wage provisions of the law. In addition, the relatively large number of workers with reported wages below the minimum in some years may reflect rounding on the part of survey respondents.

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Characteristics of Minimum Wage Workers: 2009

Last Modified Date: March 1, 2010

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