Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey

Characteristics of Minimum Wage Workers: 2010

Tables 1 - 10

Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage, 2010 annual averages:

  1. by selected characteristics
  2. by census region and division
  3. by State
  4. by major occupation group
  5. by major industry group
  6. by educational attainment
  7. by age and sex
  8. by marital status, age, and sex
  9. by usual hours worked per week
  10. by sex (1979-2010 annual averages)

Table 1. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by selected characteristics, 2010 annual averages
Characteristic Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage
AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

72,902 4,361 1,820 2,541 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 6.0 2.5 3.5

16 to 24 years

14,061 2,135 955 1,180 19.3 49.0 52.5 46.4 15.2 6.8 8.4

16 to 19 years

3,985 994 514 480 5.5 22.8 28.2 18.9 24.9 12.9 12.0

25 years and over

58,842 2,225 865 1,360 80.7 51.0 47.5 53.5 3.8 1.5 2.3

Men, 16 years and over

35,498 1,612 669 943 48.7 37.0 36.8 37.1 4.5 1.9 2.7

16 to 24 years

6,913 851 413 438 9.5 19.5 22.7 17.2 12.3 6.0 6.3

16 to 19 years

1,889 412 236 176 2.6 9.4 13.0 6.9 21.8 12.5 9.3

25 years and over

28,585 762 257 505 39.2 17.5 14.1 19.9 2.7 0.9 1.8

Women, 16 years and over

37,404 2,749 1,151 1,598 51.3 63.0 63.2 62.9 7.3 3.1 4.3

16 to 24 years

7,148 1,286 543 743 9.8 29.5 29.8 29.2 18.0 7.6 10.4

16 to 19 years

2,096 581 277 304 2.9 13.3 15.2 12.0 27.7 13.2 14.5

25 years and over

30,256 1,463 608 855 41.5 33.5 33.4 33.6 4.8 2.0 2.8
RACE, SEX, AND HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

White (1)

58,529 3,429 1,414 2,015 80.3 78.6 77.7 79.3 5.9 2.4 3.4

Men

28,949 1,254 538 716 39.7 28.8 29.6 28.2 4.3 1.9 2.5

Women

29,580 2,174 875 1,299 40.6 49.9 48.1 51.1 7.3 3.0 4.4

Black or African American (1)

9,436 650 301 349 12.9 14.9 16.5 13.7 6.9 3.2 3.7

Men

4,137 244 92 152 5.7 5.6 5.1 6.0 5.9 2.2 3.7

Women

5,299 406 209 197 7.3 9.3 11.5 7.8 7.7 3.9 3.7

Asian (1)

2,920 140 36 104 4.0 3.2 2.0 4.1 4.8 1.2 3.6

Men

1,406 59 12 47 1.9 1.4 0.7 1.8 4.2 0.9 3.3

Women

1,513 81 24 57 2.1 1.9 1.3 2.2 5.4 1.6 3.8

Hispanic or Latino (1)

12,977 822 360 462 17.8 18.8 19.8 18.2 6.3 2.8 3.6

Men

7,474 355 154 201 10.3 8.1 8.5 7.9 4.7 2.1 2.7

Women

5,503 468 207 261 7.5 10.7 11.4 10.3 8.5 3.8 4.7
FULL- AND PART-TIME STATUS AND SEX

Full-time workers (2)

52,803 1,634 595 1,039 72.4 37.5 32.7 40.9 3.1 1.1 2.0

Men

28,574 699 255 444 39.2 16.0 14.0 17.5 2.4 0.9 1.6

Women

24,229 935 340 595 33.2 21.4 18.7 23.4 3.9 1.4 2.5

Part-time workers (2)

19,994 2,716 1,220 1,496 27.4 62.3 67.0 58.9 13.6 6.1 7.5

Men

6,871 911 413 498 9.4 20.9 22.7 19.6 13.3 6.0 7.2

Women

13,123 1,805 807 998 18.0 41.4 44.3 39.3 13.8 6.1 7.6

Footnotes:
(1) Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
(2) The distinction between full- and part-time workers is based on hours usually worked. These data will not sum to totals because full- or part-time status on the principal job is not identifiable for a small number of multiple jobholders.

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

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Table 2. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by census region and division, 2010 annual averages
Region and division Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage

Total, 16 years and over

72,902 4,361 1,820 2,541 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 6.0 2.5 3.5

Northeast

12,577 717 255 462 17.3 16.4 14.0 18.2 5.7 2.0 3.7

New England

3,589 134 29 105 4.9 3.1 1.6 4.1 3.7 0.8 2.9

Middle Atlantic

8,989 584 226 358 12.3 13.4 12.4 14.1 6.5 2.5 4.0

Midwest

17,815 1,041 403 638 24.4 23.9 22.1 25.1 5.8 2.3 3.6

East North Central

12,075 652 217 435 16.6 15.0 11.9 17.1 5.4 1.8 3.6

West North Central

5,740 389 186 203 7.9 8.9 10.2 8.0 6.8 3.2 3.5

South

25,324 2,082 962 1,120 34.7 47.7 52.9 44.1 8.2 3.8 4.4

South Atlantic

12,613 934 394 540 17.3 21.4 21.6 21.3 7.4 3.1 4.3

East South Central

4,426 383 200 183 6.1 8.8 11.0 7.2 8.7 4.5 4.1

West South Central

8,284 765 368 397 11.4 17.5 20.2 15.6 9.2 4.4 4.8

West

17,186 520 200 320 23.6 11.9 11.0 12.6 3.0 1.2 1.9

Mountain

5,307 292 123 169 7.3 6.7 6.8 6.7 5.5 2.3 3.2

Pacific

11,879 228 77 151 16.3 5.2 4.2 5.9 1.9 0.6 1.3

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

The four major regions and nine census divisions of the United States are as follows:

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Table 3. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by State, 2010 annual averages
State Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage

Total, 16 years and over

72,902 4,361 1,820 2,541 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 6.0 2.5 3.5

Alabama

1,141 106 59 47 1.6 2.4 3.2 1.8 9.3 5.2 4.1

Alaska

208 4 1 3 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.1 1.9 0.5 1.4

Arizona

1,492 83 38 45 2.0 1.9 2.1 1.8 5.6 2.5 3.0

Arkansas

705 56 32 24 1.0 1.3 1.8 0.9 7.9 4.5 3.4

California

8,619 174 55 119 11.8 4.0 3.0 4.7 2.0 0.6 1.4

Colorado

1,135 55 14 41 1.6 1.3 0.8 1.6 4.8 1.2 3.6

Connecticut

866 35 5 30 1.2 0.8 0.3 1.2 4.0 0.6 3.5

Delaware

203 14 6 8 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 6.9 3.0 3.9

District of Columbia

97 5 1 4 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 5.2 1.0 4.1

Florida

3,778 253 100 153 5.2 5.8 5.5 6.0 6.7 2.6 4.0

Georgia

1,912 163 85 78 2.6 3.7 4.7 3.1 8.5 4.4 4.1

Hawaii

318 15 8 7 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.3 4.7 2.5 2.2

Idaho

396 30 15 15 0.5 0.7 0.8 0.6 7.6 3.8 3.8

Illinois

3,145 126 34 92 4.3 2.9 1.9 3.6 4.0 1.1 2.9

Indiana

1,610 126 60 66 2.2 2.9 3.3 2.6 7.8 3.7 4.1

Iowa

947 61 33 28 1.3 1.4 1.8 1.1 6.4 3.5 3.0

Kansas

771 59 30 29 1.1 1.4 1.6 1.1 7.7 3.9 3.8

Kentucky

1,119 91 43 48 1.5 2.1 2.4 1.9 8.1 3.8 4.3

Louisiana

981 87 29 58 1.3 2.0 1.6 2.3 8.9 3.0 5.9

Maine

369 14 3 11 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.4 3.8 0.8 3.0

Maryland

1,311 77 21 56 1.8 1.8 1.2 2.2 5.9 1.6 4.3

Massachusetts

1,519 45 10 35 2.1 1.0 0.5 1.4 3.0 0.7 2.3

Michigan

2,478 137 30 107 3.4 3.1 1.6 4.2 5.5 1.2 4.3

Minnesota

1,497 90 39 51 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.0 6.0 2.6 3.4

Mississippi

663 63 34 29 0.9 1.4 1.9 1.1 9.5 5.1 4.4

Missouri

1,531 123 55 68 2.1 2.8 3.0 2.7 8.0 3.6 4.4

Montana

255 17 12 5 0.3 0.4 0.7 0.2 6.7 4.7 2.0

Nebraska

536 30 17 13 0.7 0.7 0.9 0.5 5.6 3.2 2.4

Nevada

651 23 10 13 0.9 0.5 0.5 0.5 3.5 1.5 2.0

New Hampshire

356 19 5 14 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.6 5.3 1.4 3.9

New Jersey

1,612 113 31 82 2.2 2.6 1.7 3.2 7.0 1.9 5.1

New Mexico

476 26 6 20 0.7 0.6 0.3 0.8 5.5 1.3 4.2

New York

4,122 264 103 161 5.7 6.1 5.7 6.3 6.4 2.5 3.9

North Carolina

2,121 168 73 95 2.9 3.9 4.0 3.7 7.9 3.4 4.5

North Dakota

200 13 7 6 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.2 6.5 3.5 3.0

Ohio

3,185 172 49 123 4.4 3.9 2.7 4.8 5.4 1.5 3.9

Oklahoma

835 72 39 33 1.1 1.7 2.1 1.3 8.6 4.7 4.0

Oregon

994 16 6 10 1.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 1.6 0.6 1.0

Pennsylvania

3,255 206 91 115 4.5 4.7 5.0 4.5 6.3 2.8 3.5

Rhode Island

294 14 4 10 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.4 4.8 1.4 3.4

South Carolina

1,050 78 32 46 1.4 1.8 1.8 1.8 7.4 3.0 4.4

South Dakota

257 15 7 8 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.3 5.8 2.7 3.1

Tennessee

1,503 124 64 60 2.1 2.8 3.5 2.4 8.3 4.3 4.0

Texas

5,763 550 268 282 7.9 12.6 14.7 11.1 9.5 4.7 4.9

Utah

739 45 21 24 1.0 1.0 1.2 0.9 6.1 2.8 3.2

Vermont

184 6 1 5 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.2 3.3 0.5 2.7

Virginia

1,712 136 53 83 2.3 3.1 2.9 3.3 7.9 3.1 4.8

Washington

1,739 19 7 12 2.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 1.1 0.4 0.7

West Virginia

430 40 23 17 0.6 0.9 1.3 0.7 9.3 5.3 4.0

Wisconsin

1,657 91 44 47 2.3 2.1 2.4 1.8 5.5 2.7 2.8

Wyoming

163 12 6 6 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 7.4 3.7 3.7

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated. Users are reminded that these data are based on a sample and are therefore subject to sampling error; the degree of error may be quite large for less populous States. It is not possible to determine clearly whether workers surveyed in the CPS are actually covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) or by individual State minimum wage laws. Thus, some workers reported as earning the prevailing Federal minimum wage may not in fact be covered by Federal or State minimum wage laws. Also, there are a number of States that have minimum wages that exceed the Federal minimum wage. At the same time, the presence of a sizable number of workers with wages below the prevailing Federal minimum wage does not necessarily indicate violations of the FLSA or applicable State laws, because there are numerous exclusions and exemptions to these minimum wage statutes.

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Table 4. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by major occupation group, 2010 annual averages
Occupation Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage

Total, 16 years and over

72,902 4,361 1,820 2,541 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 6.0 2.5 3.5

Management, professional, and related occupations

15,208 224 97 127 20.9 5.1 5.3 5.0 1.5 0.6 0.8

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

4,013 53 22 31 5.5 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.3 0.5 0.8

Professional and related occupations

11,195 172 75 97 15.4 3.9 4.1 3.8 1.5 0.7 0.9

Service occupations

17,732 2,511 825 1,686 24.3 57.6 45.3 66.4 14.2 4.7 9.5

Healthcare support occupations

2,727 135 83 52 3.7 3.1 4.6 2.0 5.0 3.0 1.9

Protective service occupations

2,093 76 30 46 2.9 1.7 1.6 1.8 3.6 1.4 2.2

Food preparation and serving related occupations

6,604 1,694 449 1,245 9.1 38.8 24.7 49.0 25.7 6.8 18.9

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3,606 281 126 155 4.9 6.4 6.9 6.1 7.8 3.5 4.3

Personal care and service occupations

2,703 325 137 188 3.7 7.5 7.5 7.4 12.0 5.1 7.0

Sales and office occupations

19,773 1,059 646 413 27.1 24.3 35.5 16.3 5.4 3.3 2.1

Sales and related occupations

7,670 734 463 271 10.5 16.8 25.4 10.7 9.6 6.0 3.5

Office and administrative support occupations

12,103 326 184 142 16.6 7.5 10.1 5.6 2.7 1.5 1.2

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

8,200 104 27 77 11.2 2.4 1.5 3.0 1.3 0.3 0.9

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

621 34 14 20 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8 5.5 2.3 3.2

Construction and extraction occupations

4,355 39 4 35 6.0 0.9 0.2 1.4 0.9 0.1 0.8

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

3,224 32 9 23 4.4 0.7 0.5 0.9 1.0 0.3 0.7

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

11,989 462 225 237 16.4 10.6 12.4 9.3 3.9 1.9 2.0

Production occupations

6,356 171 86 85 8.7 3.9 4.7 3.3 2.7 1.4 1.3

Transportation and material moving occupations

5,633 291 139 152 7.7 6.7 7.6 6.0 5.2 2.5 2.7

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

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Table 5. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by major industry group, 2010 annual averages
Industry Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage

Total, 16 years and over

72,902 4,361 1,820 2,541 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 6.0 2.5 3.5

Private sector

63,201 4,089 1,711 2,378 86.7 93.8 94.0 93.6 6.5 2.7 3.8

Agriculture and related industries

726 31 15 16 1.0 0.7 0.8 0.6 4.3 2.1 2.2

Nonagricultural industries

62,475 4,058 1,696 2,362 85.7 93.1 93.2 93.0 6.5 2.7 3.8

Mining

422 - - - 0.6 - - - - - -

Construction

4,252 46 9 37 5.8 1.1 0.5 1.5 1.1 0.2 0.9

Manufacturing

8,355 159 71 88 11.5 3.6 3.9 3.5 1.9 0.8 1.1

Durable goods

5,072 60 29 31 7.0 1.4 1.6 1.2 1.2 0.6 0.6

Nondurable goods

3,283 98 42 56 4.5 2.2 2.3 2.2 3.0 1.3 1.7

Wholesale and retail trade

12,123 811 482 329 16.6 18.6 26.5 12.9 6.7 4.0 2.7

Wholesale trade

1,613 46 28 18 2.2 1.1 1.5 0.7 2.9 1.7 1.1

Retail trade

10,510 764 454 310 14.4 17.5 24.9 12.2 7.3 4.3 2.9

Transportation and utilities

2,973 52 23 29 4.1 1.2 1.3 1.1 1.7 0.8 1.0

Information

1,267 49 28 21 1.7 1.1 1.5 0.8 3.9 2.2 1.7

Financial activities

3,154 73 35 38 4.3 1.7 1.9 1.5 2.3 1.1 1.2

Professional and business services

5,617 175 96 79 7.7 4.0 5.3 3.1 3.1 1.7 1.4

Education and health services

12,658 425 238 187 17.4 9.7 13.1 7.4 3.4 1.9 1.5

Leisure and hospitality

8,751 2,015 615 1,400 12.0 46.2 33.8 55.1 23.0 7.0 16.0

Other services

2,905 255 100 155 4.0 5.8 5.5 6.1 8.8 3.4 5.3

Public sector

9,701 272 109 163 13.3 6.2 6.0 6.4 2.8 1.1 1.7

Federal

1,878 33 9 24 2.6 0.8 0.5 0.9 1.8 0.5 1.3

State

2,666 102 44 58 3.7 2.3 2.4 2.3 3.8 1.7 2.2

Local

5,157 137 56 81 7.1 3.1 3.1 3.2 2.7 1.1 1.6

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

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Table 6. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by educational attainment, 2010 annual averages
Educational attainment Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage

Total, 16 years and over

72,902 4,361 1,820 2,541 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 6.0 2.5 3.5

Less than a high school diploma

9,768 1,285 630 655 13.4 29.5 34.6 25.8 13.2 6.4 6.7

Less than 1 year of high school

2,915 245 105 140 4.0 5.6 5.8 5.5 8.4 3.6 4.8

1 to 3 years of high school

5,773 935 476 459 7.9 21.4 26.2 18.1 16.2 8.2 8.0

4 years of high school, no diploma

1,079 106 49 57 1.5 2.4 2.7 2.2 9.8 4.5 5.3

High school graduates or more

63,135 3,075 1,190 1,885 86.6 70.5 65.4 74.2 4.9 1.9 3.0

High school graduates, no college

25,768 1,334 573 761 35.3 30.6 31.5 29.9 5.2 2.2 3.0

Some college or associate degree

25,030 1,414 546 868 34.3 32.4 30.0 34.2 5.6 2.2 3.5

Some college, no degree

16,614 1,155 447 708 22.8 26.5 24.6 27.9 7.0 2.7 4.3

Associate degree

8,416 259 99 160 11.5 5.9 5.4 6.3 3.1 1.2 1.9

Occupational program

4,071 124 46 78 5.6 2.8 2.5 3.1 3.0 1.1 1.9

Academic program

4,345 135 53 82 6.0 3.1 2.9 3.2 3.1 1.2 1.9

Bachelor's degree and higher

12,336 327 71 256 16.9 7.5 3.9 10.1 2.7 0.6 2.1

Bachelor's degree

9,715 288 57 231 13.3 6.6 3.1 9.1 3.0 0.6 2.4

Master's degree

2,089 32 11 21 2.9 0.7 0.6 0.8 1.5 0.5 1.0

Professional degree

290 5 2 3 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.1 1.7 0.7 1.0

Doctoral degree

243 2 1 1 0.3 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.8 0.4 0.4

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

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Table 7. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by age and sex, 2010 annual averages
Age and sex Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage
BOTH SEXES

Total, 16 years and over

72,902 4,361 1,820 2,541 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 6.0 2.5 3.5

Under 25 years

14,061 2,135 955 1,180 19.3 49.0 52.5 46.4 15.2 6.8 8.4

16 to 19 years

3,985 994 514 480 5.5 22.8 28.2 18.9 24.9 12.9 12.0

20 to 24 years

10,076 1,141 441 700 13.8 26.2 24.2 27.5 11.3 4.4 6.9

25 years and over

58,842 2,225 865 1,360 80.7 51.0 47.5 53.5 3.8 1.5 2.3

25 to 34 years

16,827 844 271 573 23.1 19.4 14.9 22.6 5.0 1.6 3.4

25 to 29 years

9,091 502 163 339 12.5 11.5 9.0 13.3 5.5 1.8 3.7

30 to 34 years

7,735 342 108 234 10.6 7.8 5.9 9.2 4.4 1.4 3.0

35 to 44 years

14,362 530 216 314 19.7 12.2 11.9 12.4 3.7 1.5 2.2

35 to 39 years

7,043 265 105 160 9.7 6.1 5.8 6.3 3.8 1.5 2.3

40 to 44 years

7,319 265 111 154 10.0 6.1 6.1 6.1 3.6 1.5 2.1

45 to 54 years

15,316 457 200 257 21.0 10.5 11.0 10.1 3.0 1.3 1.7

45 to 49 years

7,805 242 101 141 10.7 5.5 5.5 5.5 3.1 1.3 1.8

50 to 54 years

7,511 214 98 116 10.3 4.9 5.4 4.6 2.8 1.3 1.5

55 to 64 years

9,584 227 103 124 13.1 5.2 5.7 4.9 2.4 1.1 1.3

55 to 59 years

5,864 136 56 80 8.0 3.1 3.1 3.1 2.3 1.0 1.4

60 to 64 years

3,719 91 47 44 5.1 2.1 2.6 1.7 2.4 1.3 1.2

65 years and over

2,753 167 75 92 3.8 3.8 4.1 3.6 6.1 2.7 3.3

65 to 69 years

1,535 77 36 41 2.1 1.8 2.0 1.6 5.0 2.3 2.7

70 years and over

1,218 90 39 51 1.7 2.1 2.1 2.0 7.4 3.2 4.2
MEN

Total, 16 years and over

35,498 1,612 669 943 48.7 37.0 36.8 37.1 4.5 1.9 2.7

Under 25 years

6,913 851 413 438 9.5 19.5 22.7 17.2 12.3 6.0 6.3

16 to 19 years

1,889 412 236 176 2.6 9.4 13.0 6.9 21.8 12.5 9.3

20 to 24 years

5,024 437 176 261 6.9 10.0 9.7 10.3 8.7 3.5 5.2

25 years and over

28,585 762 257 505 39.2 17.5 14.1 19.9 2.7 0.9 1.8

25 to 34 years

8,819 308 85 223 12.1 7.1 4.7 8.8 3.5 1.0 2.5

25 to 29 years

4,736 195 56 139 6.5 4.5 3.1 5.5 4.1 1.2 2.9

30 to 34 years

4,083 112 28 84 5.6 2.6 1.5 3.3 2.7 0.7 2.1

35 to 44 years

7,123 192 69 123 9.8 4.4 3.8 4.8 2.7 1.0 1.7

35 to 39 years

3,554 97 25 72 4.9 2.2 1.4 2.8 2.7 0.7 2.0

40 to 44 years

3,569 94 44 50 4.9 2.2 2.4 2.0 2.6 1.2 1.4

45 to 54 years

7,133 128 54 74 9.8 2.9 3.0 2.9 1.8 0.8 1.0

45 to 49 years

3,645 65 30 35 5.0 1.5 1.6 1.4 1.8 0.8 1.0

50 to 54 years

3,487 62 23 39 4.8 1.4 1.3 1.5 1.8 0.7 1.1

55 to 64 years

4,267 78 30 48 5.9 1.8 1.6 1.9 1.8 0.7 1.1

55 to 59 years

2,650 40 14 26 3.6 0.9 0.8 1.0 1.5 0.5 1.0

60 to 64 years

1,617 38 16 22 2.2 0.9 0.9 0.9 2.4 1.0 1.4

65 years and over

1,243 56 19 37 1.7 1.3 1.0 1.5 4.5 1.5 3.0

65 to 69 years

698 26 9 17 1.0 0.6 0.5 0.7 3.7 1.3 2.4

70 years and over

545 30 10 20 0.7 0.7 0.5 0.8 5.5 1.8 3.7
WOMEN

Total, 16 years and over

37,404 2,749 1,151 1,598 51.3 63.0 63.2 62.9 7.3 3.1 4.3

Under 25 years

7,148 1,286 543 743 9.8 29.5 29.8 29.2 18.0 7.6 10.4

16 to 19 years

2,096 581 277 304 2.9 13.3 15.2 12.0 27.7 13.2 14.5

20 to 24 years

5,052 704 265 439 6.9 16.1 14.6 17.3 13.9 5.2 8.7

25 years and over

30,256 1,463 608 855 41.5 33.5 33.4 33.6 4.8 2.0 2.8

25 to 34 years

8,008 535 186 349 11.0 12.3 10.2 13.7 6.7 2.3 4.4

25 to 29 years

4,355 306 106 200 6.0 7.0 5.8 7.9 7.0 2.4 4.6

30 to 34 years

3,652 229 80 149 5.0 5.3 4.4 5.9 6.3 2.2 4.1

35 to 44 years

7,239 338 147 191 9.9 7.8 8.1 7.5 4.7 2.0 2.6

35 to 39 years

3,489 168 80 88 4.8 3.9 4.4 3.5 4.8 2.3 2.5

40 to 44 years

3,750 171 67 104 5.1 3.9 3.7 4.1 4.6 1.8 2.8

45 to 54 years

8,183 329 146 183 11.2 7.5 8.0 7.2 4.0 1.8 2.2

45 to 49 years

4,160 177 71 106 5.7 4.1 3.9 4.2 4.3 1.7 2.5

50 to 54 years

4,024 152 75 77 5.5 3.5 4.1 3.0 3.8 1.9 1.9

55 to 64 years

5,317 149 73 76 7.3 3.4 4.0 3.0 2.8 1.4 1.4

55 to 59 years

3,215 96 42 54 4.4 2.2 2.3 2.1 3.0 1.3 1.7

60 to 64 years

2,102 53 31 22 2.9 1.2 1.7 0.9 2.5 1.5 1.0

65 years and over

1,510 111 56 55 2.1 2.5 3.1 2.2 7.4 3.7 3.6

65 to 69 years

837 51 27 24 1.1 1.2 1.5 0.9 6.1 3.2 2.9

70 years and over

672 61 29 32 0.9 1.4 1.6 1.3 9.1 4.3 4.8

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

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Table 8. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by marital status, age, and sex, 2010 annual averages
Marital status, age and sex Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage
BOTH SEXES

Total, 16 years and over

72,902 4,361 1,820 2,541 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 6.0 2.5 3.5

Never married

25,988 2,719 1,124 1,595 35.6 62.3 61.8 62.8 10.5 4.3 6.1

16 to 24 years

12,517 1,980 886 1,094 17.2 45.4 48.7 43.1 15.8 7.1 8.7

25 years and over

13,471 739 238 501 18.5 16.9 13.1 19.7 5.5 1.8 3.7

25 to 54 years

12,507 698 224 474 17.2 16.0 12.3 18.7 5.6 1.8 3.8

Married, spouse present

34,519 1,053 436 617 47.3 24.1 24.0 24.3 3.1 1.3 1.8

16 to 24 years

1,145 99 46 53 1.6 2.3 2.5 2.1 8.6 4.0 4.6

25 years and over

33,374 955 390 565 45.8 21.9 21.4 22.2 2.9 1.2 1.7

25 to 54 years

25,617 749 295 454 35.1 17.2 16.2 17.9 2.9 1.2 1.8

Other marital status

12,395 589 260 329 17.0 13.5 14.3 12.9 4.8 2.1 2.7

16 to 24 years

399 57 23 34 0.5 1.3 1.3 1.3 14.3 5.8 8.5

25 years and over

11,997 532 237 295 16.5 12.2 13.0 11.6 4.4 2.0 2.5

25 to 54 years

8,381 383 168 215 11.5 8.8 9.2 8.5 4.6 2.0 2.6
MEN

Total, 16 years and over

35,498 1,612 669 943 48.7 37.0 36.8 37.1 4.5 1.9 2.7

Never married

18,177 1,119 478 641 24.9 25.7 26.3 25.2 6.2 2.6 3.5

16 to 24 years

6,443 808 391 417 8.8 18.5 21.5 16.4 12.5 6.1 6.5

25 years and over

11,733 311 87 224 16.1 7.1 4.8 8.8 2.7 0.7 1.9

25 to 54 years

10,183 289 81 208 14.0 6.6 4.5 8.2 2.8 0.8 2.0

Married, spouse present

17,321 349 133 216 23.8 8.0 7.3 8.5 2.0 0.8 1.2

16 to 24 years

469 23 11 12 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.5 4.9 2.3 2.6

25 years and over

16,852 325 122 203 23.1 7.5 6.7 8.0 1.9 0.7 1.2

25 to 54 years

12,892 243 87 156 17.7 5.6 4.8 6.1 1.9 0.7 1.2

Other marital status

4,662 146 59 87 6.4 3.3 3.2 3.4 3.1 1.3 1.9

16 to 24 years

158 20 11 9 0.2 0.5 0.6 0.4 12.7 7.0 5.7

25 years and over

4,505 126 48 78 6.2 2.9 2.6 3.1 2.8 1.1 1.7

25 to 54 years

3,414 96 40 56 4.7 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.8 1.2 1.6
WOMEN

Total, 16 years and over .

37,404 2,749 1,151 1,598 51.3 63.0 63.2 62.9 7.3 3.1 4.3

Never married

12,474 1,600 646 954 17.1 36.7 35.5 37.5 12.8 5.2 7.6

16 to 24 years

6,231 1,172 495 677 8.5 26.9 27.2 26.6 18.8 7.9 10.9

25 years and over

6,243 428 151 277 8.6 9.8 8.3 10.9 6.9 2.4 4.4

25 to 54 years

5,738 410 144 266 7.9 9.4 7.9 10.5 7.1 2.5 4.6

Married, spouse present

17,198 705 303 402 23.6 16.2 16.6 15.8 4.1 1.8 2.3

16 to 24 years

676 75 35 40 0.9 1.7 1.9 1.6 11.1 5.2 5.9

25 years and over

16,522 630 268 362 22.7 14.4 14.7 14.2 3.8 1.6 2.2

25 to 54 years

12,725 506 208 298 17.5 11.6 11.4 11.7 4.0 1.6 2.3

Other marital status

7,733 443 201 242 10.6 10.2 11.0 9.5 5.7 2.6 3.1

16 to 24 years

241 37 12 25 0.3 0.8 0.7 1.0 15.4 5.0 10.4

25 years and over

7,492 406 189 217 10.3 9.3 10.4 8.5 5.4 2.5 2.9

25 to 54 years

4,966 287 128 159 6.8 6.6 7.0 6.3 5.8 2.6 3.2

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

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Table 9. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by usual hours worked on primary job, 2010 annual averages
Usual hours worked per week on primary job Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage

Total, 16 years and over

72,902 4,361 1,820 2,541 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 6.0 2.5 3.5

Hours vary

4,877 544 230 314 6.7 12.5 12.6 12.4 11.2 4.7 6.4

0 to 34 hours

17,966 2,406 1,102 1,304 24.6 55.2 60.5 51.3 13.4 6.1 7.3

0 to 4 hours

391 56 25 31 0.5 1.3 1.4 1.2 14.3 6.4 7.9

5 to 9 hours

993 197 86 111 1.4 4.5 4.7 4.4 19.8 8.7 11.2

10 to 14 hours

1,580 268 133 135 2.2 6.1 7.3 5.3 17.0 8.4 8.5

15 to 19 hours

2,379 373 181 192 3.3 8.6 9.9 7.6 15.7 7.6 8.1

20 to 24 hours

5,299 724 338 386 7.3 16.6 18.6 15.2 13.7 6.4 7.3

25 to 29 hours

2,445 316 150 166 3.4 7.2 8.2 6.5 12.9 6.1 6.8

30 to 34 hours

4,879 472 189 283 6.7 10.8 10.4 11.1 9.7 3.9 5.8

35 hours or more

50,060 1,410 488 922 68.7 32.3 26.8 36.3 2.8 1.0 1.8

35 to 39 hours

6,012 414 143 271 8.2 9.5 7.9 10.7 6.9 2.4 4.5

40 hours or more

44,048 998 346 652 60.4 22.9 19.0 25.7 2.3 0.8 1.5

40 hours

38,857 884 312 572 53.3 20.3 17.1 22.5 2.3 0.8 1.5

41 hours or more

5,190 113 33 80 7.1 2.6 1.8 3.1 2.2 0.6 1.5

41 to 44 hours

619 12 5 7 0.8 0.3 0.3 0.3 1.9 0.8 1.1

45 to 48 hours

1,831 37 14 23 2.5 0.8 0.8 0.9 2.0 0.8 1.3

49 to 59 hours

1,862 39 7 32 2.6 0.9 0.4 1.3 2.1 0.4 1.7

60 hours or more

878 25 8 17 1.2 0.6 0.4 0.7 2.8 0.9 1.9

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

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Table 10. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by sex, 1979-2010 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Year and sex Total wage and salary workers Workers paid hourly rates
Total Percent of total wage and salary workers Below prevailing Federal minimum wage At prevailing Federal minimum wage Total at or below prevailing Federal minimum wage
Number Percent of hourly paid workers
BOTH SEXES

1979

87,529 51,721 59.1 2,916 3,997 6,912 13.4

1980

87,644 51,335 58.6 3,087 4,686 7,773 15.1

1981

88,516 51,869 58.6 3,513 4,311 7,824 15.1

1982

87,368 50,846 58.2 2,348 4,148 6,496 12.8

1983

88,290 51,820 58.7 2,077 4,261 6,338 12.2

1984

92,194 54,143 58.7 1,838 4,125 5,963 11.0

1985

94,521 55,762 59.0 1,639 3,899 5,538 9.9

1986 (1)

96,903 57,529 59.4 1,599 3,461 5,060 8.8

1987

99,303 59,552 60.0 1,468 3,229 4,698 7.9

1988

101,407 60,878 60.0 1,319 2,608 3,927 6.5

1989

103,480 62,389 60.3 1,372 1,790 3,162 5.1

1990 (1)

104,876 63,172 60.2 (2)2,132 (2)1,096 (2)3,228 (2)5.1

1991

103,723 62,627 60.4 (2)2,377 (2)2,906 (2)5,283 (2)8.4

1992

104,668 63,610 60.8 1,939 2,982 4,921 7.7

1993

106,101 64,274 60.6 1,707 2,625 4,332 6.7

1994 (1)

107,989 66,549 61.6 1,995 2,132 4,128 6.2

1995

110,038 68,354 62.1 1,699 1,956 3,656 5.3

1996

111,960 69,255 61.9 (2)1,863 (2)1,861 (2)3,724 (2)5.4

1997 (1)

114,533 70,735 61.8 (2)2,990 (2)1,764 (2)4,754 (2)6.7

1998 (1)

116,730 71,440 61.2 2,834 1,593 4,427 6.2

1999 (1)

118,963 72,306 60.8 2,194 1,146 3,340 4.6

2000 (1)

122,089 73,496 60.2 1,752 898 2,650 3.6

2001

122,229 73,392 60.0 1,518 656 2,174 3.0

2002

121,826 72,508 59.5 1,579 567 2,146 3.0

2003 (1)

122,358 72,946 59.6 1,555 545 2,100 2.9

2004 (1)

123,554 73,939 59.8 1,483 520 2,003 2.7

2005

125,889 75,609 60.1 1,403 479 1,882 2.5

2006

128,237 76,514 59.7 1,283 409 1,692 2.2

2007

129,767 75,873 58.5 (2)1,462 (2)267 (2)1,729 (2)2.3

2008 (1)

129,377 75,305 58.2 (2)1,940 (2)286 (2)2,226 (2)3.0

2009 (1)

124,490 72,611 58.3 (2)2,592 (2)980 (2)3,572 (2)4.9

2010

124,073 72,902 58.8 2,541 1820 4,361 6.0
MEN

1979

49,400 28,392 57.5 846 1,353 2,199 7.7

1980

48,700 27,709 56.9 983 1,696 2,678 9.7

1981

48,844 27,576 56.5 1,119 1,533 2,652 9.6

1982

47,591 26,481 55.6 697 1,587 2,284 8.6

1983

47,856 26,831 56.1 585 1,658 2,243 8.4

1984

50,022 28,140 56.3 490 1,626 2,116 7.5

1985

51,015 28,893 56.6 440 1,544 1,984 6.9

1986 (1)

51,942 29,666 57.1 408 1,336 1,743 5.9

1987

52,938 30,474 57.6 364 1,283 1,647 5.4

1988

53,912 31,058 57.6 311 1,066 1,377 4.4

1989

54,789 31,687 57.8 379 733 1,112 3.5

1990 (1)

55,553 32,104 57.8 (2)712 (2)385 (2)1,097 (2)3.4

1991

54,618 31,639 57.9 (2)795 (2)1,114 (2)1,909 (2)6.0

1992

54,826 32,155 58.6 653 1,231 1,885 5.9

1993

55,475 32,337 58.3 573 1,091 1,664 5.1

1994 (1)

56,570 33,528 59.3 674 891 1,565 4.7

1995

57,669 34,420 59.7 542 796 1,338 3.9

1996

58,473 34,838 59.6 (2)619 (2)755 (2)1,374 (2)3.9

1997 (1)

59,825 35,521 59.4 (2)1,147 (2)673 (2)1,820 (2)5.1

1998 (1)

60,973 35,761 58.7 1,039 628 1,667 4.7

1999 (1)

61,914 36,073 58.3 768 446 1,214 3.4

2000 (1)

63,662 36,720 57.7 582 319 901 2.5

2001

63,647 36,544 57.4 497 247 744 2.0

2002

63,272 36,000 56.9 582 217 799 2.2

2003 (1)

63,236 35,853 56.7 493 213 706 2.0

2004 (1)

64,145 36,806 57.4 470 210 680 1.8

2005

65,466 37,652 57.5 459 189 648 1.7

2006

66,811 38,193 57.2 422 146 568 1.5

2007

67,468 37,790 56.0 (2)460 (2)86 (2)546 (2)1.4

2008 (1)

66,846 37,334 55.9 (2)638 (2)90 (2)728 (2)1.9

2009 (1)

63,539 35,185 55.4 (2)990 (2)368 (2)1,358 (2)3.9

2010

63,531 35,498 55.9 943 669 1,612 4.5
WOMEN

1979

38,129 23,329 61.2 2,070 2,644 4,714 20.2

1980

38,944 23,626 60.7 2,104 2,990 5,095 21.6

1981

39,672 24,294 61.2 2,394 2,778 5,172 21.3

1982

39,777 24,365 61.3 1,651 2,561 4,212 17.3

1983

40,433 24,989 61.8 1,492 2,603 4,095 16.4

1984

42,172 26,003 61.7 1,348 2,499 3,847 14.8

1985

43,506 26,869 61.8 1,198 2,356 3,554 13.2

1986 (1)

44,961 27,863 62.0 1,192 2,125 3,317 11.9

1987

46,365 29,078 62.7 1,105 1,946 3,051 10.5

1988

47,495 29,820 62.8 1,008 1,542 2,550 8.6

1989

48,691 30,702 63.1 994 1,056 2,050 6.7

1990 (1)

49,323 31,069 63.0 (2)1,420 (2)711 (2)2,131 (2)6.9

1991

49,105 30,988 63.1 (2)1,582 (2)1,792 (2)3,374 (2)10.9

1992

49,842 31,454 63.1 1,286 1,751 3,036 9.7

1993

50,626 31,937 63.1 1,133 1,534 2,667 8.4

1994 (1)

51,419 33,021 64.2 1,322 1,241 2,563 7.8

1995

52,369 33,934 64.8 1,157 1,161 2,318 6.8

1996

53,488 34,418 64.3 (2)1,244 (2)1,106 (2)2,350 (2)6.8

1997 (1)

54,708 35,214 64.4 (2)1,843 (2)1,092 (2)2,935 (2)8.3

1998 (1)

55,757 35,680 64.0 1,794 965 2,760 7.7

1999 (1)

57,050 36,233 63.5 1,426 700 2,126 5.9

2000 (1)

58,427 36,777 62.9 1,170 579 1,749 4.8

2001

58,582 36,848 62.9 1,021 409 1,430 3.9

2002

58,555 36,508 62.3 997 350 1,347 3.7

2003 (1)

59,122 37,093 62.7 1,062 332 1,394 3.8

2004 (1)

59,408 37,133 62.5 1,013 310 1,323 3.6

2005

60,423 37,957 62.8 944 290 1,234 3.3

2006

61,426 38,321 62.4 861 263 1,124 2.9

2007

62,299 38,082 61.1 (2)1,002 (2)181 (2)1,183 (2)3.1

2008 (1)

62,532 37,972 60.7 (2)1,302 (2)196 (2)1,498 (2)3.9

2009 (1)

60,951 37,426 61.4 (2)1,603 (2)612 (2)2,215 (2)5.9

2010

60,542 37,404 61.8 1,598 1,151 2,749 7.3

Footnotes:
(1) The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and conceptual changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). For an explanation, see the Historical Comparability section of the Household Data technical documentation provided at www.bls.gov/cps/eetech_methods.pdf.
(2) Data for 1990-91, 1996-97, and 2007-09 reflect changes in the minimum wage that took place in those years.

NOTE: The prevailing Federal minimum wage was $2.90 in 1979, $3.10 in 1980, and $3.35 in 1981-89. The minimum wage rose to $3.80 on April 1, 1990, to $4.25 on April 1, 1991, to $4.75 on October 1, 1996, to $5.15 on September 1, 1997, to $5.85 on July 24, 2007, to $6.55 on July 24, 2008, and to $7.25 on July 24, 2009. Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated. The presence of a sizable number of workers with reported wages below the minimum does not necessarily indicate violations of the Fair Labor Standards Act, as there are numerous exemptions to the minimum wage provisions of the law. In addition, the relatively large number of workers with reported wages below the minimum in some years may reflect rounding on the part of survey respondents.

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Characteristics of Minimum Wage Workers: 2010

Last Modified Date: March 9, 2011

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