Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey

Characteristics of Minimum Wage Workers: 2011

Tables 1 - 10

Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage, 2011 annual averages:

  1. by selected characteristics
  2. by census region and division
  3. by State
  4. by major occupation group
  5. by major industry group
  6. by educational attainment
  7. by age and sex
  8. by marital status, age, and sex
  9. by usual hours worked per week
  10. by sex (1979-2011 annual averages)

Table 1. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by selected characteristics, 2011 annual averages
Characteristic Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage
AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

73,926 3,829 1,677 2,152 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 5.2 2.3 2.9

16 to 24 years

14,436 1,896 893 1,003 19.5 49.5 53.2 46.6 13.1 6.2 6.9

16 to 19 years

3,936 899 491 408 5.3 23.5 29.3 19.0 22.8 12.5 10.4

25 years and over

59,490 1,933 784 1,149 80.5 50.5 46.8 53.4 3.2 1.3 1.9

Men, 16 years and over

36,457 1,433 648 785 49.3 37.4 38.6 36.5 3.9 1.8 2.2

16 to 24 years

7,290 787 388 399 9.9 20.6 23.1 18.5 10.8 5.3 5.5

16 to 19 years

1,872 373 212 161 2.5 9.7 12.6 7.5 19.9 11.3 8.6

25 years and over

29,167 647 260 387 39.5 16.9 15.5 18.0 2.2 0.9 1.3

Women, 16 years and over

37,469 2,395 1,029 1,366 50.7 62.5 61.4 63.5 6.4 2.7 3.6

16 to 24 years

7,147 1,109 505 604 9.7 29.0 30.1 28.1 15.5 7.1 8.5

16 to 19 years

2,064 526 279 247 2.8 13.7 16.6 11.5 25.5 13.5 12.0

25 years and over

30,323 1,286 524 762 41.0 33.6 31.2 35.4 4.2 1.7 2.5
RACE, SEX, AND HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

White (1)

59,314 3,006 1,258 1,748 80.2 78.5 75.0 81.2 5.1 2.1 2.9

Men

29,743 1,108 484 624 40.2 28.9 28.9 29.0 3.7 1.6 2.1

Women

29,571 1,898 774 1,124 40.0 49.6 46.2 52.2 6.4 2.6 3.8

Black or African American (1)

9,523 577 324 253 12.9 15.1 19.3 11.8 6.1 3.4 2.7

Men

4,252 222 117 105 5.8 5.8 7.0 4.9 5.2 2.8 2.5

Women

5,271 356 208 148 7.1 9.3 12.4 6.9 6.8 3.9 2.8

Asian (1)

3,037 99 36 63 4.1 2.6 2.1 2.9 3.3 1.2 2.1

Men

1,425 41 13 28 1.9 1.1 0.8 1.3 2.9 0.9 2.0

Women

1,612 58 23 35 2.2 1.5 1.4 1.6 3.6 1.4 2.2

Hispanic or Latino (1)

13,264 720 340 380 17.9 18.8 20.3 17.7 5.4 2.6 2.9

Men

7,703 326 154 172 10.4 8.5 9.2 8.0 4.2 2.0 2.2

Women

5,561 394 186 208 7.5 10.3 11.1 9.7 7.1 3.3 3.7
FULL- AND PART-TIME STATUS AND SEX

Full-time workers (2)

53,594 1,274 522 752 72.5 33.3 31.1 34.9 2.4 1.0 1.4

Men

29,292 501 205 296 39.6 13.1 12.2 13.8 1.7 0.7 1.0

Women

24,302 773 317 456 32.9 20.2 18.9 21.2 3.2 1.3 1.9

Part-time workers (2)

20,199 2,545 1,153 1,392 27.3 66.5 68.8 64.7 12.6 5.7 6.9

Men

7,103 932 443 489 9.6 24.3 26.4 22.7 13.1 6.2 6.9

Women

13,096 1,615 711 904 17.7 42.2 42.4 42.0 12.3 5.4 6.9

Footnotes:
(1) Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
(2) The distinction between full- and part-time workers is based on hours usually worked. These data will not sum to totals because full- or part-time status on the principal job is not identifiable for a small number of multiple jobholders. Full time is 35 hours or more per week; part time is less than 35 hours.

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

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Table 2. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by census region and division, 2011 annual averages
Region and division Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage

Total, 16 years and over

73,926 3,829 1,677 2,152 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 5.2 2.3 2.9

Northeast

12,755 619 255 364 17.3 16.2 15.2 16.9 4.9 2.0 2.9

New England

3,629 128 26 102 4.9 3.3 1.6 4.7 3.5 0.7 2.8

Middle Atlantic

9,126 490 228 262 12.3 12.8 13.6 12.2 5.4 2.5 2.9

Midwest

18,135 910 354 556 24.5 23.8 21.1 25.8 5.0 2.0 3.1

East North Central

12,311 562 171 391 16.7 14.7 10.2 18.2 4.6 1.4 3.2

West North Central

5,823 349 183 166 7.9 9.1 10.9 7.7 6.0 3.1 2.9

South

25,652 1,845 912 933 34.7 48.2 54.4 43.4 7.2 3.6 3.6

South Atlantic

12,806 895 393 502 17.3 23.4 23.4 23.3 7.0 3.1 3.9

East South Central

4,365 297 158 139 5.9 7.8 9.4 6.5 6.8 3.6 3.2

West South Central

8,481 654 362 292 11.5 17.1 21.6 13.6 7.7 4.3 3.4

West

17,385 454 156 298 23.5 11.9 9.3 13.8 2.6 0.9 1.7

Mountain

5,450 252 83 169 7.4 6.6 4.9 7.9 4.6 1.5 3.1

Pacific

11,935 203 73 130 16.1 5.3 4.4 6.0 1.7 0.6 1.1

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

The four major regions and nine census divisions of the United States are as follows:

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Table 3. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by State, 2011 annual averages
State Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage

Total, 16 years and over

73,926 3,829 1,677 2,152 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 5.2 2.3 2.9

Alabama

1,147 74 43 31 1.6 1.9 2.6 1.4 6.5 3.7 2.7

Alaska

212 4 1 3 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.1 1.9 0.5 1.4

Arizona

1,517 85 20 65 2.1 2.2 1.2 3.0 5.6 1.3 4.3

Arkansas

746 49 33 16 1.0 1.3 2.0 0.7 6.6 4.4 2.1

California

8,706 139 53 86 11.8 3.6 3.2 4.0 1.6 0.6 1.0

Colorado

1,222 49 9 40 1.7 1.3 0.5 1.9 4.0 0.7 3.3

Connecticut

870 25 4 21 1.2 0.7 0.2 1.0 2.9 0.5 2.4

Delaware

213 11 3 8 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.4 5.2 1.4 3.8

District of Columbia

94 4 1 3 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 4.3 1.1 3.2

Florida

3,891 246 73 173 5.3 6.4 4.4 8.0 6.3 1.9 4.4

Georgia

2,041 196 105 91 2.8 5.1 6.3 4.2 9.6 5.1 4.5

Hawaii

321 15 8 7 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.3 4.7 2.5 2.2

Idaho

379 19 12 7 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.3 5.0 3.2 1.8

Illinois

3,095 109 29 80 4.2 2.8 1.7 3.7 3.5 0.9 2.6

Indiana

1,730 108 54 54 2.3 2.8 3.2 2.5 6.2 3.1 3.1

Iowa

941 53 28 25 1.3 1.4 1.7 1.2 5.6 3.0 2.7

Kansas

802 56 27 29 1.1 1.5 1.6 1.3 7.0 3.4 3.6

Kentucky

1,077 63 30 33 1.5 1.6 1.8 1.5 5.8 2.8 3.1

Louisiana

1,011 75 33 42 1.4 2.0 2.0 2.0 7.4 3.3 4.2

Maine

381 14 3 11 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.5 3.7 0.8 2.9

Maryland

1,274 65 27 38 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.8 5.1 2.1 3.0

Massachusetts

1,539 60 11 49 2.1 1.6 0.7 2.3 3.9 0.7 3.2

Michigan

2,550 117 29 88 3.4 3.1 1.7 4.1 4.6 1.1 3.5

Minnesota

1,544 78 47 31 2.1 2.0 2.8 1.4 5.1 3.0 2.0

Mississippi

686 58 37 21 0.9 1.5 2.2 1.0 8.5 5.4 3.1

Missouri

1,543 109 54 55 2.1 2.8 3.2 2.6 7.1 3.5 3.6

Montana

271 10 6 4 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.2 3.7 2.2 1.5

Nebraska

532 29 15 14 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.7 5.5 2.8 2.6

Nevada

670 22 9 13 0.9 0.6 0.5 0.6 3.3 1.3 1.9

New Hampshire

368 14 4 10 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.5 3.8 1.1 2.7

New Jersey

1,795 99 41 58 2.4 2.6 2.4 2.7 5.5 2.3 3.2

New Mexico

459 20 6 14 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.7 4.4 1.3 3.1

New York

3,930 199 91 108 5.3 5.2 5.4 5.0 5.1 2.3 2.7

North Carolina

2,055 140 65 75 2.8 3.7 3.9 3.5 6.8 3.2 3.6

North Dakota

208 11 6 5 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.2 5.3 2.9 2.4

Ohio

3,224 150 27 123 4.4 3.9 1.6 5.7 4.7 0.8 3.8

Oklahoma

828 56 36 20 1.1 1.5 2.1 0.9 6.8 4.3 2.4

Oregon

1,010 12 4 8 1.4 0.3 0.2 0.4 1.2 0.4 0.8

Pennsylvania

3,400 193 97 96 4.6 5.0 5.8 4.5 5.7 2.9 2.8

Rhode Island

289 11 3 8 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.4 3.8 1.0 2.8

South Carolina

1,078 79 42 37 1.5 2.1 2.5 1.7 7.3 3.9 3.4

South Dakota

253 13 7 6 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3 5.1 2.8 2.4

Tennessee

1,455 101 48 53 2.0 2.6 2.9 2.5 6.9 3.3 3.6

Texas

5,896 473 259 214 8.0 12.4 15.4 9.9 8.0 4.4 3.6

Utah

765 35 15 20 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.9 4.6 2.0 2.6

Vermont

182 4 1 3 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 2.2 0.5 1.6

Virginia

1,697 121 57 64 2.3 3.2 3.4 3.0 7.1 3.4 3.8

Washington

1,686 31 6 25 2.3 0.8 0.4 1.2 1.8 0.4 1.5

West Virginia

462 34 20 14 0.6 0.9 1.2 0.7 7.4 4.3 3.0

Wisconsin

1,711 78 32 46 2.3 2.0 1.9 2.1 4.6 1.9 2.7

Wyoming

167 10 5 5 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 6.0 3.0 3.0

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated. Users are reminded that these data are based on a sample and are therefore subject to sampling error; the degree of error may be quite large for less populous States. It is not possible to determine whether workers surveyed in the CPS are actually covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) or by individual State minimum wage laws. Thus, some workers reported as earning the prevailing Federal minimum wage may not in fact be covered by Federal or State minimum wage laws. Also, there are a number of States that have minimum wages that exceed the Federal minimum wage. At the same time, the presence of a sizable number of workers with wages below the prevailing Federal minimum wage does not necessarily indicate violations of the FLSA or applicable State laws, because there are numerous exclusions and exemptions to these minimum wage statutes. Hourly earnings do not include overtime pay, commissions, or tips.

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Table 4. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by occupation, 2011 annual averages
Occupation Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage

Total, 16 years and over

73,926 3,829 1,677 2,152 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 5.2 2.3 2.9

Management, professional, and related occupations

15,524 195 89 106 21.0 5.1 5.3 4.9 1.3 0.6 0.7

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

4,300 48 11 37 5.8 1.3 0.7 1.7 1.1 0.3 0.9

Professional and related occupations

11,224 147 78 69 15.2 3.8 4.7 3.2 1.3 0.7 0.6

Service occupations

17,800 2,322 742 1,580 24.1 60.6 44.2 73.4 13.0 4.2 8.9

Healthcare support occupations

2,700 98 52 46 3.7 2.6 3.1 2.1 3.6 1.9 1.7

Protective service occupations

2,028 61 22 39 2.7 1.6 1.3 1.8 3.0 1.1 1.9

Food preparation and serving related occupations

6,710 1,653 422 1,231 9.1 43.2 25.2 57.2 24.6 6.3 18.3

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3,618 211 111 100 4.9 5.5 6.6 4.6 5.8 3.1 2.8

Personal care and service occupations

2,745 299 135 164 3.7 7.8 8.1 7.6 10.9 4.9 6.0

Sales and office occupations

19,987 856 617 239 27.0 22.4 36.8 11.1 4.3 3.1 1.2

Sales and related occupations

7,813 600 441 159 10.6 15.7 26.3 7.4 7.7 5.6 2.0

Office and administrative support occupations

12,174 257 177 80 16.5 6.7 10.6 3.7 2.1 1.5 0.7

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

8,221 96 48 48 11.1 2.5 2.9 2.2 1.2 0.6 0.6

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

675 42 24 18 0.9 1.1 1.4 0.8 6.2 3.6 2.7

Construction and extraction occupations

4,332 28 13 15 5.9 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.3 0.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

3,214 26 11 15 4.3 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.3 0.5

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

12,394 360 181 179 16.8 9.4 10.8 8.3 2.9 1.5 1.4

Production occupations

6,485 100 53 47 8.8 2.6 3.2 2.2 1.5 0.8 0.7

Transportation and material moving occupations

5,909 260 128 132 8.0 6.8 7.6 6.1 4.4 2.2 2.2

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated. Effective with January 2011 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2010 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2011 are not strictly comparable with earlier years.

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Table 5. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by industry, 2011 annual averages
Industry Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage

Total, 16 years and over

73,926 3,829 1,677 2,152 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 5.2 2.3 2.9

Private sector

64,525 3,625 1,577 2,048 87.3 94.7 94.0 95.2 5.6 2.4 3.2

Agriculture and related industries

775 41 20 21 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.0 5.3 2.6 2.7

Nonagricultural industries

63,750 3,584 1,557 2,027 86.2 93.6 92.8 94.2 5.6 2.4 3.2

Mining

489 3 2 1 0.7 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.6 0.4 0.2

Construction

4,304 41 15 26 5.8 1.1 0.9 1.2 1.0 0.3 0.6

Manufacturing

8,556 91 47 44 11.6 2.4 2.8 2.0 1.1 0.5 0.5

Durable goods

5,264 41 18 23 7.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 0.8 0.3 0.4

Nondurable goods

3,292 50 29 21 4.5 1.3 1.7 1.0 1.5 0.9 0.6

Wholesale and retail trade

12,423 669 463 206 16.8 17.5 27.6 9.6 5.4 3.7 1.7

Wholesale trade

1,689 27 17 10 2.3 0.7 1.0 0.5 1.6 1.0 0.6

Retail trade

10,734 642 446 196 14.5 16.8 26.6 9.1 6.0 4.2 1.8

Transportation and utilities

3,069 46 22 24 4.2 1.2 1.3 1.1 1.5 0.7 0.8

Information

1,273 36 18 18 1.7 0.9 1.1 0.8 2.8 1.4 1.4

Financial activities

3,228 40 25 15 4.4 1.0 1.5 0.7 1.2 0.8 0.5

Professional and business services

5,857 157 85 72 7.9 4.1 5.1 3.3 2.7 1.5 1.2

Education and health services

12,636 355 185 170 17.1 9.3 11.0 7.9 2.8 1.5 1.3

Leisure and hospitality

8,943 1,963 610 1,353 12.1 51.3 36.4 62.9 22.0 6.8 15.1

Other services

2,970 183 86 97 4.0 4.8 5.1 4.5 6.2 2.9 3.3

Public sector

9,401 204 100 104 12.7 5.3 6.0 4.8 2.2 1.1 1.1

Federal

1,770 20 12 8 2.4 0.5 0.7 0.4 1.1 0.7 0.5

State

2,604 65 37 28 3.5 1.7 2.2 1.3 2.5 1.4 1.1

Local

5,026 119 50 69 6.8 3.1 3.0 3.2 2.4 1.0 1.4

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

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Table 6. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by educational attainment, 2011 annual averages
Educational attainment Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage

Total, 16 years and over

73,926 3,829 1,677 2,152 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 5.2 2.3 2.9

Less than a high school diploma

9,562 1,061 582 479 12.9 27.7 34.7 22.3 11.1 6.1 5.0

Less than 1 year of high school

2,794 182 95 87 3.8 4.8 5.7 4.0 6.5 3.4 3.1

1 to 3 years of high school

5,631 773 427 346 7.6 20.2 25.5 16.1 13.7 7.6 6.1

4 years of high school, no diploma

1,137 106 60 46 1.5 2.8 3.6 2.1 9.3 5.3 4.0

High school graduates or more

64,364 2,767 1,094 1,673 87.1 72.3 65.2 77.7 4.3 1.7 2.6

High school graduates, no college

25,710 1,179 532 647 34.8 30.8 31.7 30.1 4.6 2.1 2.5

Some college or associate degree

25,858 1,309 500 809 35.0 34.2 29.8 37.6 5.1 1.9 3.1

Some college, no degree

17,178 1,057 422 635 23.2 27.6 25.2 29.5 6.2 2.5 3.7

Associate degree

8,680 253 79 174 11.7 6.6 4.7 8.1 2.9 0.9 2.0

Occupational program

4,021 93 35 58 5.4 2.4 2.1 2.7 2.3 0.9 1.4

Academic program

4,659 158 43 115 6.3 4.1 2.6 5.3 3.4 0.9 2.5

Bachelor's degree and higher

12,796 279 62 217 17.3 7.3 3.7 10.1 2.2 0.5 1.7

Bachelor's degree

9,984 248 55 193 13.5 6.5 3.3 9.0 2.5 0.6 1.9

Master's degree

2,230 24 6 18 3.0 0.6 0.4 0.8 1.1 0.3 0.8

Professional degree

293 6 - 6 0.4 0.2 - 0.3 2.0 - 2.0

Doctoral degree

289 1 1 - 0.4 0.0 0.1 - 0.3 0.3 -

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

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Table 7. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by age and sex, 2011 annual averages
Age and sex Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage
BOTH SEXES

Total, 16 years and over

73,926 3,829 1,677 2,152 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 5.2 2.3 2.9

Under 25 years

14,436 1,896 893 1,003 19.5 49.5 53.2 46.6 13.1 6.2 6.9

16 to 19 years

3,936 899 491 408 5.3 23.5 29.3 19.0 22.8 12.5 10.4

20 to 24 years

10,501 997 402 595 14.2 26.0 24.0 27.6 9.5 3.8 5.7

25 years and over

59,490 1,933 784 1,149 80.5 50.5 46.8 53.4 3.2 1.3 1.9

25 to 34 years

17,155 808 299 509 23.2 21.1 17.8 23.7 4.7 1.7 3.0

25 to 29 years

9,229 460 170 290 12.5 12.0 10.1 13.5 5.0 1.8 3.1

30 to 34 years

7,926 348 129 219 10.7 9.1 7.7 10.2 4.4 1.6 2.8

35 to 44 years

14,168 399 161 238 19.2 10.4 9.6 11.1 2.8 1.1 1.7

35 to 39 years

6,889 205 75 130 9.3 5.4 4.5 6.0 3.0 1.1 1.9

40 to 44 years

7,279 194 86 108 9.8 5.1 5.1 5.0 2.7 1.2 1.5

45 to 54 years

15,331 382 159 223 20.7 10.0 9.5 10.4 2.5 1.0 1.5

45 to 49 years

7,793 208 82 126 10.5 5.4 4.9 5.9 2.7 1.1 1.6

50 to 54 years

7,537 175 78 97 10.2 4.6 4.7 4.5 2.3 1.0 1.3

55 to 64 years

10,046 221 117 104 13.6 5.8 7.0 4.8 2.2 1.2 1.0

55 to 59 years

6,135 123 66 57 8.3 3.2 3.9 2.6 2.0 1.1 0.9

60 to 64 years

3,911 98 51 47 5.3 2.6 3.0 2.2 2.5 1.3 1.2

65 years and over

2,790 123 48 75 3.8 3.2 2.9 3.5 4.4 1.7 2.7

65 to 69 years

1,569 68 27 41 2.1 1.8 1.6 1.9 4.3 1.7 2.6

70 years and over

1,220 55 21 34 1.7 1.4 1.3 1.6 4.5 1.7 2.8
MEN

Total, 16 years and over

36,457 1,433 648 785 49.3 37.4 38.6 36.5 3.9 1.8 2.2

Under 25 years

7,290 787 388 399 9.9 20.6 23.1 18.5 10.8 5.3 5.5

16 to 19 years

1,872 373 212 161 2.5 9.7 12.6 7.5 19.9 11.3 8.6

20 to 24 years

5,418 413 175 238 7.3 10.8 10.4 11.1 7.6 3.2 4.4

25 years and over

29,167 647 260 387 39.5 16.9 15.5 18.0 2.2 0.9 1.3

25 to 34 years

9,132 278 96 182 12.4 7.3 5.7 8.5 3.0 1.1 2.0

25 to 29 years

4,893 157 53 104 6.6 4.1 3.2 4.8 3.2 1.1 2.1

30 to 34 years

4,238 122 43 79 5.7 3.2 2.6 3.7 2.9 1.0 1.9

35 to 44 years

7,036 142 56 86 9.5 3.7 3.3 4.0 2.0 0.8 1.2

35 to 39 years

3,471 74 26 48 4.7 1.9 1.6 2.2 2.1 0.7 1.4

40 to 44 years

3,565 67 30 37 4.8 1.7 1.8 1.7 1.9 0.8 1.0

45 to 54 years

7,167 113 55 58 9.7 3.0 3.3 2.7 1.6 0.8 0.8

45 to 49 years

3,689 61 30 31 5.0 1.6 1.8 1.4 1.7 0.8 0.8

50 to 54 years

3,477 51 24 27 4.7 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.5 0.7 0.8

55 to 64 years

4,491 72 36 36 6.1 1.9 2.1 1.7 1.6 0.8 0.8

55 to 59 years

2,814 42 23 19 3.8 1.1 1.4 0.9 1.5 0.8 0.7

60 to 64 years

1,677 30 13 17 2.3 0.8 0.8 0.8 1.8 0.8 1.0

65 years and over

1,341 42 17 25 1.8 1.1 1.0 1.2 3.1 1.3 1.9

65 to 69 years

754 21 10 11 1.0 0.5 0.6 0.5 2.8 1.3 1.5

70 years and over

587 22 7 15 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.7 3.7 1.2 2.6
WOMEN

Total, 16 years and over

37,469 2,395 1,029 1,366 50.7 62.5 61.4 63.5 6.4 2.7 3.6

Under 25 years

7,147 1,109 505 604 9.7 29.0 30.1 28.1 15.5 7.1 8.5

16 to 19 years

2,064 526 279 247 2.8 13.7 16.6 11.5 25.5 13.5 12.0

20 to 24 years

5,083 583 226 357 6.9 15.2 13.5 16.6 11.5 4.4 7.0

25 years and over

30,323 1,286 524 762 41.0 33.6 31.2 35.4 4.2 1.7 2.5

25 to 34 years

8,024 528 202 326 10.9 13.8 12.0 15.1 6.6 2.5 4.1

25 to 29 years

4,336 303 117 186 5.9 7.9 7.0 8.6 7.0 2.7 4.3

30 to 34 years

3,688 225 85 140 5.0 5.9 5.1 6.5 6.1 2.3 3.8

35 to 44 years

7,132 257 105 152 9.6 6.7 6.3 7.1 3.6 1.5 2.1

35 to 39 years

3,418 131 49 82 4.6 3.4 2.9 3.8 3.8 1.4 2.4

40 to 44 years

3,714 126 56 70 5.0 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.4 1.5 1.9

45 to 54 years

8,164 270 105 165 11.0 7.1 6.3 7.7 3.3 1.3 2.0

45 to 49 years

4,104 146 51 95 5.6 3.8 3.0 4.4 3.6 1.2 2.3

50 to 54 years

4,060 123 53 70 5.5 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.0 1.3 1.7

55 to 64 years

5,555 150 81 69 7.5 3.9 4.8 3.2 2.7 1.5 1.2

55 to 59 years

3,321 80 42 38 4.5 2.1 2.5 1.8 2.4 1.3 1.1

60 to 64 years

2,233 68 38 30 3.0 1.8 2.3 1.4 3.0 1.7 1.3

65 years and over

1,448 81 31 50 2.0 2.1 1.8 2.3 5.6 2.1 3.5

65 to 69 years

815 46 16 30 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.4 5.6 2.0 3.7

70 years and over

633 33 14 19 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.9 5.2 2.2 3.0

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

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Table 8. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by marital status, age, and sex, 2011 annual averages
Marital status, age and sex Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage
BOTH SEXES

Total, 16 years and over

73,926 3,829 1,677 2,152 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 5.2 2.3 2.9

Never married

26,703 2,462 1,097 1,365 36.1 64.3 65.4 63.4 9.2 4.1 5.1

16 to 24 years

12,847 1,751 835 916 17.4 45.7 49.8 42.6 13.6 6.5 7.1

25 years and over

13,855 711 262 449 18.7 18.6 15.6 20.9 5.1 1.9 3.2

25 to 54 years

12,827 660 239 421 17.4 17.2 14.3 19.6 5.1 1.9 3.3

Married, spouse present

34,624 836 358 478 46.8 21.8 21.3 22.2 2.4 1.0 1.4

16 to 24 years

1,143 89 40 49 1.5 2.3 2.4 2.3 7.8 3.5 4.3

25 years and over

33,481 748 318 430 45.3 19.5 19.0 20.0 2.2 0.9 1.3

25 to 54 years

25,347 605 252 353 34.3 15.8 15.0 16.4 2.4 1.0 1.4

Other marital status

12,599 531 222 309 17.0 13.9 13.2 14.4 4.2 1.8 2.5

16 to 24 years

446 56 18 38 0.6 1.5 1.1 1.8 12.6 4.0 8.5

25 years and over

12,153 475 204 271 16.4 12.4 12.2 12.6 3.9 1.7 2.2

25 to 54 years

8,481 324 128 196 11.5 8.5 7.6 9.1 3.8 1.5 2.3
MEN

Total, 16 years and over

36,457 1,433 648 785 49.3 37.4 38.6 36.5 3.9 1.8 2.2

Never married

14,132 1,019 457 562 19.1 26.6 27.3 26.1 7.2 3.2 4.0

16 to 24 years

6,575 734 363 371 8.9 19.2 21.6 17.2 11.2 5.5 5.6

25 years and over

7,557 285 94 191 10.2 7.4 5.6 8.9 3.8 1.2 2.5

25 to 54 years

7,072 262 85 177 9.6 6.8 5.1 8.2 3.7 1.2 2.5

Married, spouse present

17,462 279 131 148 23.6 7.3 7.8 6.9 1.6 0.8 0.8

16 to 24 years

518 33 16 17 0.7 0.9 1.0 0.8 6.4 3.1 3.3

25 years and over

16,944 245 115 130 22.9 6.4 6.9 6.0 1.4 0.7 0.8

25 to 54 years

12,765 188 85 103 17.3 4.9 5.1 4.8 1.5 0.7 0.8

Other marital status

4,864 137 61 76 6.6 3.6 3.6 3.5 2.8 1.3 1.6

16 to 24 years

197 20 9 11 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.5 10.2 4.6 5.6

25 years and over

4,666 116 51 65 6.3 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.5 1.1 1.4

25 to 54 years

3,497 82 36 46 4.7 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.3 1.0 1.3
WOMEN

Total, 16 years and over

37,469 2,395 1,029 1,366 50.7 62.5 61.4 63.5 6.4 2.7 3.6

Never married

12,571 1,444 641 803 17.0 37.7 38.2 37.3 11.5 5.1 6.4

16 to 24 years

6,273 1,018 473 545 8.5 26.6 28.2 25.3 16.2 7.5 8.7

25 years and over

6,298 426 168 258 8.5 11.1 10.0 12.0 6.8 2.7 4.1

25 to 54 years

5,754 399 154 245 7.8 10.4 9.2 11.4 6.9 2.7 4.3

Married, spouse present

17,162 557 227 330 23.2 14.5 13.5 15.3 3.2 1.3 1.9

16 to 24 years

625 55 24 31 0.8 1.4 1.4 1.4 8.8 3.8 5.0

25 years and over

16,537 502 203 299 22.4 13.1 12.1 13.9 3.0 1.2 1.8

25 to 54 years

12,582 415 166 249 17.0 10.8 9.9 11.6 3.3 1.3 2.0

Other marital status

7,736 394 161 233 10.5 10.3 9.6 10.8 5.1 2.1 3.0

16 to 24 years

249 37 9 28 0.3 1.0 0.5 1.3 14.9 3.6 11.2

25 years and over

7,487 357 152 205 10.1 9.3 9.1 9.5 4.8 2.0 2.7

25 to 54 years

4,983 242 92 150 6.7 6.3 5.5 7.0 4.9 1.8 3.0

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated. Other marital status includes married, spouse absent; divorced; separated; and widowed persons.

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Table 9. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by usual hours worked on primary job, 2011 annual averages
Usual hours worked per week on primary job Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage

Total, 16 years and over

73,926 3,829 1,677 2,152 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 5.2 2.3 2.9

Hours vary

4,962 491 198 293 6.7 12.8 11.8 13.6 9.9 4.0 5.9

0 to 34 hours

18,127 2,251 1,029 1,222 24.5 58.8 61.4 56.8 12.4 5.7 6.7

0 to 4 hours

411 59 22 37 0.6 1.5 1.3 1.7 14.4 5.4 9.0

5 to 9 hours

992 146 63 83 1.3 3.8 3.8 3.9 14.7 6.4 8.4

10 to 14 hours

1,550 211 128 83 2.1 5.5 7.6 3.9 13.6 8.3 5.4

15 to 19 hours

2,284 363 184 179 3.1 9.5 11.0 8.3 15.9 8.1 7.8

20 to 24 hours

5,272 673 337 336 7.1 17.6 20.1 15.6 12.8 6.4 6.4

25 to 29 hours

2,610 314 121 193 3.5 8.2 7.2 9.0 12.0 4.6 7.4

30 to 34 hours

5,006 484 173 311 6.8 12.6 10.3 14.5 9.7 3.5 6.2

35 hours or more

50,837 1,087 450 637 68.8 28.4 26.8 29.6 2.1 0.9 1.3

35 to 39 hours

6,050 343 134 209 8.2 9.0 8.0 9.7 5.7 2.2 3.5

40 hours or more

44,787 743 316 427 60.6 19.4 18.8 19.8 1.7 0.7 1.0

40 hours

39,231 653 286 367 53.1 17.1 17.1 17.1 1.7 0.7 0.9

41 hours or more

5,557 90 30 60 7.5 2.4 1.8 2.8 1.6 0.5 1.1

41 to 44 hours

659 12 3 9 0.9 0.3 0.2 0.4 1.8 0.5 1.4

45 to 48 hours

1,885 31 9 22 2.5 0.8 0.5 1.0 1.6 0.5 1.2

49 to 59 hours

2,038 26 6 20 2.8 0.7 0.4 0.9 1.3 0.3 1.0

60 hours or more

975 20 11 9 1.3 0.5 0.7 0.4 2.1 1.1 0.9

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated. Estimates of usual hours worked presented in this table differ from usual full- or part-time status (as shown in table 1) because of a sizable number of workers whose usual hours vary on the primary job.

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Table 10. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing Federal minimum wage by sex, 1979-2011 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Year and sex Total wage and salary workers Workers paid hourly rates
Total Percent of total wage and salary workers Below prevailing Federal minimum wage At prevailing Federal minimum wage Total at or below prevailing Federal minimum wage
Number Percent of hourly paid workers
BOTH SEXES

1979

87,529 51,721 59.1 2,916 3,997 6,912 13.4

1980

87,644 51,335 58.6 3,087 4,686 7,773 15.1

1981

88,516 51,869 58.6 3,513 4,311 7,824 15.1

1982

87,368 50,846 58.2 2,348 4,148 6,496 12.8

1983

88,290 51,820 58.7 2,077 4,261 6,338 12.2

1984

92,194 54,143 58.7 1,838 4,125 5,963 11.0

1985

94,521 55,762 59.0 1,639 3,899 5,538 9.9

1986 (1)

96,903 57,529 59.4 1,599 3,461 5,060 8.8

1987

99,303 59,552 60.0 1,468 3,229 4,698 7.9

1988

101,407 60,878 60.0 1,319 2,608 3,927 6.5

1989

103,480 62,389 60.3 1,372 1,790 3,162 5.1

1990 (1)

104,876 63,172 60.2 (2)2,132 (2)1,096 (2)3,228 (2)5.1

1991

103,723 62,627 60.4 (2)2,377 (2)2,906 (2)5,283 (2)8.4

1992

104,668 63,610 60.8 1,939 2,982 4,921 7.7

1993

106,101 64,274 60.6 1,707 2,625 4,332 6.7

1994 (1)

107,989 66,549 61.6 1,995 2,132 4,128 6.2

1995

110,038 68,354 62.1 1,699 1,956 3,656 5.3

1996

111,960 69,255 61.9 (2)1,863 (2)1,861 (2)3,724 (2)5.4

1997 (1)

114,533 70,735 61.8 (2)2,990 (2)1,764 (2)4,754 (2)6.7

1998 (1)

116,730 71,440 61.2 2,834 1,593 4,427 6.2

1999 (1)

118,963 72,306 60.8 2,194 1,146 3,340 4.6

2000 (1)

122,089 73,496 60.2 1,752 898 2,650 3.6

2001

122,229 73,392 60.0 1,518 656 2,174 3.0

2002

121,826 72,508 59.5 1,579 567 2,146 3.0

2003 (1)

122,358 72,946 59.6 1,555 545 2,100 2.9

2004 (1)

123,554 73,939 59.8 1,483 520 2,003 2.7

2005

125,889 75,609 60.1 1,403 479 1,882 2.5

2006

128,237 76,514 59.7 1,283 409 1,692 2.2

2007

129,767 75,873 58.5 (2)1,462 (2)267 (2)1,729 (2)2.3

2008 (1)

129,377 75,305 58.2 (2)1,940 (2)286 (2)2,226 (2)3.0

2009 (1)

124,490 72,611 58.3 (2)2,592 (2)980 (2)3,572 (2)4.9

2010

124,073 72,902 58.8 2,541 1,820 4,361 6.0

2011

125,187 73,926 59.1 2,152 1,677 3,829 5.2
MEN

1979

49,400 28,392 57.5 846 1,353 2,199 7.7

1980

48,700 27,709 56.9 983 1,696 2,678 9.7

1981

48,844 27,576 56.5 1,119 1,533 2,652 9.6

1982

47,591 26,481 55.6 697 1,587 2,284 8.6

1983

47,856 26,831 56.1 585 1,658 2,243 8.4

1984

50,022 28,140 56.3 490 1,626 2,116 7.5

1985

51,015 28,893 56.6 440 1,544 1,984 6.9

1986 (1)

51,942 29,666 57.1 408 1,336 1,743 5.9

1987

52,938 30,474 57.6 364 1,283 1,647 5.4

1988

53,912 31,058 57.6 311 1,066 1,377 4.4

1989

54,789 31,687 57.8 379 733 1,112 3.5

1990 (1)

55,553 32,104 57.8 (2)712 (2)385 (2)1,097 (2)3.4

1991

54,618 31,639 57.9 (2)795 (2)1,114 (2)1,909 (2)6.0

1992

54,826 32,155 58.6 653 1,231 1,885 5.9

1993

55,475 32,337 58.3 573 1,091 1,664 5.1

1994 (1)

56,570 33,528 59.3 674 891 1,565 4.7

1995

57,669 34,420 59.7 542 796 1,338 3.9

1996

58,473 34,838 59.6 (2)619 (2)755 (2)1,374 (2)3.9

1997 (1)

59,825 35,521 59.4 (2)1,147 (2)673 (2)1,820 (2)5.1

1998 (1)

60,973 35,761 58.7 1,039 628 1,667 4.7

1999 (1)

61,914 36,073 58.3 768 446 1,214 3.4

2000 (1)

63,662 36,720 57.7 582 319 901 2.5

2001

63,647 36,544 57.4 497 247 744 2.0

2002

63,272 36,000 56.9 582 217 799 2.2

2003 (1)

63,236 35,853 56.7 493 213 706 2.0

2004 (1)

64,145 36,806 57.4 470 210 680 1.8

2005

65,466 37,652 57.5 459 189 648 1.7

2006

66,811 38,193 57.2 422 146 568 1.5

2007

67,468 37,790 56.0 (2)460 (2)86 (2)546 (2)1.4

2008 (1)

66,846 37,334 55.9 (2)638 (2)90 (2)728 (2)1.9

2009 (1)

63,539 35,185 55.4 (2)990 (2)368 (2)1,358 (2)3.9

2010

63,531 35,498 55.9 943 669 1,612 4.5

2011

64,686 36,457 56.4 785 648 1,433 3.9
WOMEN

1979

38,129 23,329 61.2 2,070 2,644 4,714 20.2

1980

38,944 23,626 60.7 2,104 2,990 5,095 21.6

1981

39,672 24,294 61.2 2,394 2,778 5,172 21.3

1982

39,777 24,365 61.3 1,651 2,561 4,212 17.3

1983

40,433 24,989 61.8 1,492 2,603 4,095 16.4

1984

42,172 26,003 61.7 1,348 2,499 3,847 14.8

1985

43,506 26,869 61.8 1,198 2,356 3,554 13.2

1986 (1)

44,961 27,863 62.0 1,192 2,125 3,317 11.9

1987

46,365 29,078 62.7 1,105 1,946 3,051 10.5

1988

47,495 29,820 62.8 1,008 1,542 2,550 8.6

1989

48,691 30,702 63.1 994 1,056 2,050 6.7

1990 (1)

49,323 31,069 63.0 (2)1,420 (2)711 (2)2,131 (2)6.9

1991

49,105 30,988 63.1 (2)1,582 (2)1,792 (2)3,374 (2)10.9

1992

49,842 31,454 63.1 1,286 1,751 3,036 9.7

1993

50,626 31,937 63.1 1,133 1,534 2,667 8.4

1994 (1)

51,419 33,021 64.2 1,322 1,241 2,563 7.8

1995

52,369 33,934 64.8 1,157 1,161 2,318 6.8

1996

53,488 34,418 64.3 (2)1,244 (2)1,106 (2)2,350 (2)6.8

1997 (1)

54,708 35,214 64.4 (2)1,843 (2)1,092 (2)2,935 (2)8.3

1998 (1)

55,757 35,680 64.0 1,794 965 2,760 7.7

1999 (1)

57,050 36,233 63.5 1,426 700 2,126 5.9

2000 (1)

58,427 36,777 62.9 1,170 579 1,749 4.8

2001

58,582 36,848 62.9 1,021 409 1,430 3.9

2002

58,555 36,508 62.3 997 350 1,347 3.7

2003 (1)

59,122 37,093 62.7 1,062 332 1,394 3.8

2004 (1)

59,408 37,133 62.5 1,013 310 1,323 3.6

2005

60,423 37,957 62.8 944 290 1,234 3.3

2006

61,426 38,321 62.4 861 263 1,124 2.9

2007

62,299 38,082 61.1 (2)1,002 (2)181 (2)1,183 (2)3.1

2008 (1)

62,532 37,972 60.7 (2)1,302 (2)196 (2)1,498 (2)3.9

2009 (1)

60,951 37,426 61.4 (2)1,603 (2)612 (2)2,215 (2)5.9

2010

60,542 37,404 61.8 1,598 1,151 2,749 7.3

2011

60,502 37,469 61.9 1,366 1,029 2,395 6.4

Footnotes:
(1) The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and conceptual changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). For an explanation, see the Historical Comparability section of the Household Data technical documentation provided at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp.
(2) Data for 1990-91, 1996-97, and 2007-09 reflect changes in the minimum wage that took place in those years.

NOTE: The prevailing Federal minimum wage was $2.90 in 1979, $3.10 in 1980, and $3.35 in 1981-89. The minimum wage rose to $3.80 on April 1, 1990, to $4.25 on April 1, 1991, to $4.75 on October 1, 1996, to $5.15 on September 1, 1997, to $5.85 on July 24, 2007, to $6.55 on July 24, 2008, and to $7.25 on July 24, 2009. Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated. The presence of a sizable number of workers with reported wages below the minimum does not necessarily indicate violations of the Fair Labor Standards Act, as there are numerous exemptions to the minimum wage provisions of the law. In addition, the relatively large number of workers with reported wages below the minimum in some years may reflect rounding on the part of survey respondents.

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Characteristics of Minimum Wage Workers: 2011

Last Modified Date: March 2, 2012

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