Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey

Characteristics of Minimum Wage Workers: 2012

Tables 1 - 10

Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage, 2012 annual averages:

  1. by selected characteristics
  2. by census region and division
  3. by state
  4. by major occupation group
  5. by major industry group
  6. by educational attainment
  7. by age and sex
  8. by marital status, age, and sex
  9. by usual hours worked per week
  10. by sex (1979–2012 annual averages)

Table 1. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage by selected characteristics, 2012 annual averages
Characteristic Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage
AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

75,276 3,550 1,566 1,984 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 4.7 2.1 2.6

16 to 24 years

14,909 1,797 862 935 19.8 50.6 55.0 47.1 12.1 5.8 6.3

16 to 19 years

4,044 854 484 370 5.4 24.1 30.9 18.6 21.1 12.0 9.1

25 years and over

60,367 1,753 704 1,049 80.2 49.4 45.0 52.9 2.9 1.2 1.7

Men, 16 years and over

37,113 1,263 567 696 49.3 35.6 36.2 35.1 3.4 1.5 1.9

16 to 24 years

7,454 673 333 340 9.9 19.0 21.3 17.1 9.0 4.5 4.6

16 to 19 years

1,922 366 207 159 2.6 10.3 13.2 8.0 19.0 10.8 8.3

25 years and over

29,659 591 235 356 39.4 16.6 15.0 17.9 2.0 0.8 1.2

Women, 16 years and over

38,163 2,287 999 1,288 50.7 64.4 63.8 64.9 6.0 2.6 3.4

16 to 24 years

7,455 1,124 529 595 9.9 31.7 33.8 30.0 15.1 7.1 8.0

16 to 19 years

2,122 489 278 211 2.8 13.8 17.8 10.6 23.0 13.1 9.9

25 years and over

30,708 1,163 470 693 40.8 32.8 30.0 34.9 3.8 1.5 2.3
RACE AND HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

White (1)

59,180 2,760 1,185 1,575 78.6 77.7 75.7 79.4 4.7 2.0 2.7

Men

29,691 984 444 540 39.4 27.7 28.4 27.2 3.3 1.5 1.8

Women

29,490 1,776 741 1,035 39.2 50.0 47.3 52.2 6.0 2.5 3.5

Black or African American (1)

10,049 533 277 256 13.3 15.0 17.7 12.9 5.3 2.8 2.5

Men

4,522 183 85 98 6.0 5.2 5.4 4.9 4.0 1.9 2.2

Women

5,527 350 193 157 7.3 9.9 12.3 7.9 6.3 3.5 2.8

Asian (1)

3,403 117 48 69 4.5 3.3 3.1 3.5 3.4 1.4 2.0

Men

1,568 39 16 23 2.1 1.1 1.0 1.2 2.5 1.0 1.5

Women

1,835 78 32 46 2.4 2.2 2.0 2.3 4.3 1.7 2.5

Hispanic or Latino (1)

14,404 718 337 381 19.1 20.2 21.5 19.2 5.0 2.3 2.6

Men

8,114 295 127 168 10.8 8.3 8.1 8.5 3.6 1.6 2.1

Women

6,290 423 210 213 8.4 11.9 13.4 10.7 6.7 3.3 3.4
FULL- AND PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers (2)

54,745 1,261 501 760 72.7 35.5 32.0 38.3 2.3 0.9 1.4

Men

30,052 491 197 294 39.9 13.8 12.6 14.8 1.6 0.7 1.0

Women

24,693 770 304 466 32.8 21.7 19.4 23.5 3.1 1.2 1.9

Part-time workers (2)

20,411 2,286 1,063 1,223 27.1 64.4 67.9 61.6 11.2 5.2 6.0

Men

6,998 772 370 402 9.3 21.7 23.6 20.3 11.0 5.3 5.7

Women

13,413 1,513 693 820 17.8 42.6 44.3 41.3 11.3 5.2 6.1

Footnotes:
(1) Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
(2) The distinction between full- and part-time workers is based on hours usually worked. These data will not sum to totals because full- or part-time status on the principal job is not identifiable for a small number of multiple jobholders. Full time is 35 hours or more per week; part time is less than 35 hours.

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

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Table 2. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage by census region and division, 2012 annual averages
Region and division Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage

Total, 16 years and over

75,276 3,550 1,566 1,984 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 4.7 2.1 2.6

Northeast

12,951 648 280 368 17.2 18.3 17.9 18.5 5.0 2.2 2.8

New England

3,649 125 30 95 4.8 3.5 1.9 4.8 3.4 0.8 2.6

Middle Atlantic

9,302 523 250 273 12.4 14.7 16.0 13.8 5.6 2.7 2.9

Midwest

18,100 808 327 481 24.0 22.8 20.9 24.2 4.5 1.8 2.7

East North Central

12,321 510 163 347 16.4 14.4 10.4 17.5 4.1 1.3 2.8

West North Central

5,779 298 164 134 7.7 8.4 10.5 6.8 5.2 2.8 2.3

South

26,675 1,674 809 865 35.4 47.2 51.7 43.6 6.3 3.0 3.2

South Atlantic

13,473 777 301 476 17.9 21.9 19.2 24.0 5.8 2.2 3.5

East South Central

4,484 256 128 128 6.0 7.2 8.2 6.5 5.7 2.9 2.9

West South Central

8,718 640 379 261 11.6 18.0 24.2 13.2 7.3 4.3 3.0

West

17,551 420 150 270 23.3 11.8 9.6 13.6 2.4 0.9 1.5

Mountain

5,533 237 82 155 7.4 6.7 5.2 7.8 4.3 1.5 2.8

Pacific

12,017 183 68 115 16.0 5.2 4.3 5.8 1.5 0.6 1.0

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

The four major regions and nine census divisions of the United States are as follows:

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Table 3. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage by state, 2012 annual averages
state Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage

Total, 16 years and over

75,276 3,550 1,566 1,984 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 4.7 2.1 2.6

Alabama

1,083 65 31 34 1.4 1.8 2.0 1.7 6.0 2.9 3.1

Alaska

194 2 1 1 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.1 1.0 0.5 0.5

Arizona

1,472 68 17 51 2.0 1.9 1.1 2.6 4.6 1.2 3.5

Arkansas

725 50 33 17 1.0 1.4 2.1 0.9 6.9 4.6 2.3

California

8,805 127 45 82 11.7 3.6 2.9 4.1 1.4 0.5 0.9

Colorado

1,234 42 7 35 1.6 1.2 0.4 1.8 3.4 0.6 2.8

Connecticut

853 23 2 21 1.1 0.6 0.1 1.1 2.7 0.2 2.5

Delaware

219 11 4 7 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 5.0 1.8 3.2

District of Columbia

103 5 1 4 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 4.9 1.0 3.9

Florida

4,164 214 49 165 5.5 6.0 3.1 8.3 5.1 1.2 4.0

Georgia

2,114 136 60 76 2.8 3.8 3.8 3.8 6.4 2.8 3.6

Hawaii

331 14 7 7 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 4.2 2.1 2.1

Idaho

404 31 16 15 0.5 0.9 1.0 0.8 7.7 4.0 3.7

Illinois

3,065 85 21 64 4.1 2.4 1.3 3.2 2.8 0.7 2.1

Indiana

1,785 93 50 43 2.4 2.6 3.2 2.2 5.2 2.8 2.4

Iowa

920 46 25 21 1.2 1.3 1.6 1.1 5.0 2.7 2.3

Kansas

780 44 29 15 1.0 1.2 1.9 0.8 5.6 3.7 1.9

Kentucky

1,147 60 30 30 1.5 1.7 1.9 1.5 5.2 2.6 2.6

Louisiana

1,043 74 35 39 1.4 2.1 2.2 2.0 7.1 3.4 3.7

Maine

378 11 3 8 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.4 2.9 0.8 2.1

Maryland

1,327 67 25 42 1.8 1.9 1.6 2.1 5.0 1.9 3.2

Massachusetts

1,567 62 17 45 2.1 1.7 1.1 2.3 4.0 1.1 2.9

Michigan

2,449 90 19 71 3.3 2.5 1.2 3.6 3.7 0.8 2.9

Minnesota

1,522 60 35 25 2.0 1.7 2.2 1.3 3.9 2.3 1.6

Mississippi

700 45 21 24 0.9 1.3 1.3 1.2 6.4 3.0 3.4

Missouri

1,538 97 49 48 2.0 2.7 3.1 2.4 6.3 3.2 3.1

Montana

274 4 1 3 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.2 1.5 0.4 1.1

Nebraska

561 32 17 15 0.7 0.9 1.1 0.8 5.7 3.0 2.7

Nevada

730 23 9 14 1.0 0.6 0.6 0.7 3.2 1.2 1.9

New Hampshire

370 13 5 8 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.4 3.5 1.4 2.2

New Jersey

1,777 103 49 54 2.4 2.9 3.1 2.7 5.8 2.8 3.0

New Mexico

488 23 6 17 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.9 4.7 1.2 3.5

New York

4,075 224 113 111 5.4 6.3 7.2 5.6 5.5 2.8 2.7

North Carolina

2,206 137 74 63 2.9 3.9 4.7 3.2 6.2 3.4 2.9

North Dakota

205 7 3 4 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 3.4 1.5 2.0

Ohio

3,277 147 31 116 4.4 4.1 2.0 5.8 4.5 0.9 3.5

Oklahoma

890 64 29 35 1.2 1.8 1.9 1.8 7.2 3.3 3.9

Oregon

982 11 3 8 1.3 0.3 0.2 0.4 1.1 0.3 0.8

Pennsylvania

3,450 195 87 108 4.6 5.5 5.6 5.4 5.7 2.5 3.1

Rhode Island

298 10 2 8 0.4 0.3 0.1 0.4 3.4 0.7 2.7

South Carolina

1,084 59 28 31 1.4 1.7 1.8 1.6 5.4 2.6 2.9

South Dakota

253 12 6 6 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3 4.7 2.4 2.4

Tennessee

1,554 86 46 40 2.1 2.4 2.9 2.0 5.5 3.0 2.6

Texas

6,060 452 282 170 8.1 12.7 18.0 8.6 7.5 4.7 2.8

Utah

758 37 21 16 1.0 1.0 1.3 0.8 4.9 2.8 2.1

Vermont

184 5 1 4 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 2.7 0.5 2.2

Virginia

1,803 123 48 75 2.4 3.5 3.1 3.8 6.8 2.7 4.2

Washington

1,705 29 11 18 2.3 0.8 0.7 0.9 1.7 0.6 1.1

West Virginia

453 26 13 13 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.7 5.7 2.9 2.9

Wisconsin

1,745 94 41 53 2.3 2.6 2.6 2.7 5.4 2.3 3.0

Wyoming

173 9 4 5 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 5.2 2.3 2.9

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated. Users are reminded that these data are based on a sample and are therefore subject to sampling error; the degree of error may be quite large for less populous states. It is not possible to determine whether workers surveyed in the CPS are actually covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) or by individual state minimum wage laws. Thus, some workers reported as earning the prevailing federal minimum wage may not in fact be covered by federal or state minimum wage laws. Also, there are a number of states that have minimum wages that exceed the federal minimum wage. At the same time, the presence of a sizable number of workers with wages below the prevailing federal minimum wage does not necessarily indicate violations of the FLSA or applicable state laws, because there are numerous exclusions and exemptions to these minimum wage statutes. Hourly earnings do not include overtime pay, commissions, or tips.

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Table 4. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage by occupation, 2012 annual averages
Occupation Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage

Total, 16 years and over

75,276 3,550 1,566 1,984 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 4.7 2.1 2.6

Management, professional, and related occupations

15,962 145 69 76 21.2 4.1 4.4 3.8 0.9 0.4 0.5

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

4,609 33 11 22 6.1 0.9 0.7 1.1 0.7 0.2 0.5

Professional and related occupations

11,353 112 58 54 15.1 3.2 3.7 2.7 1.0 0.5 0.5

Service occupations

18,277 2,204 713 1,491 24.3 62.1 45.5 75.2 12.1 3.9 8.2

Healthcare support occupations

2,835 100 55 45 3.8 2.8 3.5 2.3 3.5 1.9 1.6

Protective service occupations

1,935 49 17 32 2.6 1.4 1.1 1.6 2.5 0.9 1.7

Food preparation and serving related occupations

6,971 1,555 408 1,147 9.3 43.8 26.1 57.8 22.3 5.9 16.5

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3,772 231 112 119 5.0 6.5 7.2 6.0 6.1 3.0 3.2

Personal care and service occupations

2,764 268 120 148 3.7 7.5 7.7 7.5 9.7 4.3 5.4

Sales and office occupations

20,123 772 549 223 26.7 21.7 35.1 11.2 3.8 2.7 1.1

Sales and related occupations

7,956 546 400 146 10.6 15.4 25.5 7.4 6.9 5.0 1.8

Office and administrative support occupations

12,167 227 150 77 16.2 6.4 9.6 3.9 1.9 1.2 0.6

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

8,217 79 39 40 10.9 2.2 2.5 2.0 1.0 0.5 0.5

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

683 40 19 21 0.9 1.1 1.2 1.1 5.9 2.8 3.1

Construction and extraction occupations

4,330 23 13 10 5.8 0.6 0.8 0.5 0.5 0.3 0.2

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

3,204 16 6 10 4.3 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.2 0.3

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

12,697 349 196 153 16.9 9.8 12.5 7.7 2.7 1.5 1.2

Production occupations

6,740 109 60 49 9.0 3.1 3.8 2.5 1.6 0.9 0.7

Transportation and material moving occupations

5,957 240 136 104 7.9 6.8 8.7 5.2 4.0 2.3 1.7

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

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Table 5. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage by industry, 2012 annual averages
Industry Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage

Total, 16 years and over

75,276 3,550 1,566 1,984 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 4.7 2.1 2.6

Private sector

65,927 3,377 1,484 1,893 87.6 95.1 94.8 95.4 5.1 2.3 2.9

Agriculture and related industries

775 35 17 18 1.0 1.0 1.1 0.9 4.5 2.2 2.3

Nonagricultural industries

65,152 3,342 1,467 1,875 86.6 94.1 93.7 94.5 5.1 2.3 2.9

Mining

538 4 2 2 0.7 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.7 0.4 0.4

Construction

4,277 29 15 14 5.7 0.8 1.0 0.7 0.7 0.4 0.3

Manufacturing

8,757 116 62 54 11.6 3.3 4.0 2.7 1.3 0.7 0.6

Durable goods

5,399 57 27 30 7.2 1.6 1.7 1.5 1.1 0.5 0.6

Nondurable goods

3,358 58 34 24 4.5 1.6 2.2 1.2 1.7 1.0 0.7

Wholesale and retail trade

12,430 583 410 173 16.5 16.4 26.2 8.7 4.7 3.3 1.4

Wholesale trade

1,653 22 8 14 2.2 0.6 0.5 0.7 1.3 0.5 0.8

Retail trade

10,776 561 402 159 14.3 15.8 25.7 8.0 5.2 3.7 1.5

Transportation and utilities

3,187 48 23 25 4.2 1.4 1.5 1.3 1.5 0.7 0.8

Information

1,190 35 21 14 1.6 1.0 1.3 0.7 2.9 1.8 1.2

Financial activities

3,309 36 17 19 4.4 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.1 0.5 0.6

Professional and business services

6,130 150 67 83 8.1 4.2 4.3 4.2 2.4 1.1 1.4

Education and health services

12,908 330 190 140 17.1 9.3 12.1 7.1 2.6 1.5 1.1

Leisure and hospitality

9,821 1,819 585 1,234 13.0 51.2 37.4 62.2 18.5 6.0 12.6

Other services

3,145 193 76 117 4.2 5.4 4.9 5.9 6.1 2.4 3.7

Public sector

9,349 173 82 91 12.4 4.9 5.2 4.6 1.9 0.9 1.0

Federal

1,767 16 7 9 2.3 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.9 0.4 0.5

state

2,576 60 35 25 3.4 1.7 2.2 1.3 2.3 1.4 1.0

Local

5,006 98 41 57 6.7 2.8 2.6 2.9 2.0 0.8 1.1

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

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Table 6. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage by educational attainment, 2012 annual averages
Educational attainment Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage

Total, 16 years and over

75,276 3,550 1,566 1,984 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 4.7 2.1 2.6

Less than a high school diploma

9,601 989 568 421 12.8 27.9 36.3 21.2 10.3 5.9 4.4

Less than 1 year of high school

2,979 169 93 76 4.0 4.8 5.9 3.8 5.7 3.1 2.6

1 to 3 years of high school

5,464 714 412 302 7.3 20.1 26.3 15.2 13.1 7.5 5.5

4 years of high school, no diploma

1,157 106 63 43 1.5 3.0 4.0 2.2 9.2 5.4 3.7

High school graduates or more

65,675 2,562 999 1,563 87.2 72.2 63.8 78.8 3.9 1.5 2.4

High school graduates, no college

25,732 1,047 474 573 34.2 29.5 30.3 28.9 4.1 1.8 2.2

Some college or associate degree

26,544 1,230 465 765 35.3 34.6 29.7 38.6 4.6 1.8 2.9

Some college, no degree

17,553 1,007 392 615 23.3 28.4 25.0 31.0 5.7 2.2 3.5

Associate degree

8,991 223 74 149 11.9 6.3 4.7 7.5 2.5 0.8 1.7

Occupational program

4,073 96 35 61 5.4 2.7 2.2 3.1 2.4 0.9 1.5

Academic program

4,918 127 39 88 6.5 3.6 2.5 4.4 2.6 0.8 1.8

Bachelor's degree and higher

13,400 284 59 225 17.8 8.0 3.8 11.3 2.1 0.4 1.7

Bachelor's degree

10,425 242 51 191 13.8 6.8 3.3 9.6 2.3 0.5 1.8

Master's degree

2,370 30 7 23 3.1 0.8 0.4 1.2 1.3 0.3 1.0

Professional degree

288 6 - 5 0.4 0.2 - 0.3 2.1 - 1.7

Doctoral degree

316 1 1 6 0.4 0.0 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.3 1.9

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.

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Table 7. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage by age and sex, 2012 annual averages
Age and sex Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage
BOTH SEXES

Total, 16 years and over

75,276 3,550 1,566 1,984 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 4.7 2.1 2.6

16 to 24 years

14,909 1,797 862 935 19.8 50.6 55.0 47.1 12.1 5.8 6.3

16 to 19 years

4,044 854 484 370 5.4 24.1 30.9 18.6 21.1 12.0 9.1

20 to 24 years

10,865 942 377 565 14.4 26.5 24.1 28.5 8.7 3.5 5.2

25 years and over

60,367 1,753 704 1,049 80.2 49.4 45.0 52.9 2.9 1.2 1.7

25 to 34 years

17,167 720 243 477 22.8 20.3 15.5 24.0 4.2 1.4 2.8

25 to 29 years

9,133 415 125 290 12.1 11.7 8.0 14.6 4.5 1.4 3.2

30 to 34 years

8,034 305 118 187 10.7 8.6 7.5 9.4 3.8 1.5 2.3

35 to 44 years

14,383 388 154 234 19.1 10.9 9.8 11.8 2.7 1.1 1.6

35 to 39 years

7,051 204 82 122 9.4 5.7 5.2 6.1 2.9 1.2 1.7

40 to 44 years

7,333 185 73 112 9.7 5.2 4.7 5.6 2.5 1.0 1.5

45 to 54 years

15,169 368 164 204 20.2 10.4 10.5 10.3 2.4 1.1 1.3

45 to 49 years

7,552 194 87 107 10.0 5.5 5.6 5.4 2.6 1.2 1.4

50 to 54 years

7,616 173 77 96 10.1 4.9 4.9 4.8 2.3 1.0 1.3

55 to 64 years

10,642 190 100 90 14.1 5.4 6.4 4.5 1.8 0.9 0.8

55 to 59 years

6,495 104 50 54 8.6 2.9 3.2 2.7 1.6 0.8 0.8

60 to 64 years

4,147 87 50 37 5.5 2.5 3.2 1.9 2.1 1.2 0.9

65 years and over

3,006 88 44 44 4.0 2.5 2.8 2.2 2.9 1.5 1.5

65 to 69 years

1,749 50 25 25 2.3 1.4 1.6 1.3 2.9 1.4 1.4

70 years and over

1,257 38 19 19 1.7 1.1 1.2 1.0 3.0 1.5 1.5
MEN

Total, 16 years and over

37,113 1,263 567 696 49.3 35.6 36.2 35.1 3.4 1.5 1.9

16 to 24 years

7,454 673 333 340 9.9 19.0 21.3 17.1 9.0 4.5 4.6

16 to 19 years

1,922 366 207 159 2.6 10.3 13.2 8.0 19.0 10.8 8.3

20 to 24 years

5,532 307 126 181 7.3 8.6 8.0 9.1 5.5 2.3 3.3

25 years and over

29,659 591 235 356 39.4 16.6 15.0 17.9 2.0 0.8 1.2

25 to 34 years

9,078 252 86 166 12.1 7.1 5.5 8.4 2.8 0.9 1.8

25 to 29 years

4,838 143 38 105 6.4 4.0 2.4 5.3 3.0 0.8 2.2

30 to 34 years

4,240 109 48 61 5.6 3.1 3.1 3.1 2.6 1.1 1.4

35 to 44 years

7,140 120 45 75 9.5 3.4 2.9 3.8 1.7 0.6 1.1

35 to 39 years

3,568 66 22 44 4.7 1.9 1.4 2.2 1.8 0.6 1.2

40 to 44 years

3,572 55 23 32 4.7 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.5 0.6 0.9

45 to 54 years

7,135 114 50 64 9.5 3.2 3.2 3.2 1.6 0.7 0.9

45 to 49 years

3,559 66 30 36 4.7 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.9 0.8 1.0

50 to 54 years

3,576 48 20 28 4.8 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.3 0.6 0.8

55 to 64 years

4,897 67 34 33 6.5 1.9 2.2 1.7 1.4 0.7 0.7

55 to 59 years

3,012 36 15 21 4.0 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.2 0.5 0.7

60 to 64 years

1,885 30 18 12 2.5 0.8 1.1 0.6 1.6 1.0 0.6

65 years and over

1,409 37 20 17 1.9 1.0 1.3 0.9 2.6 1.4 1.2

65 to 69 years

798 23 12 11 1.1 0.6 0.8 0.6 2.9 1.5 1.4

70 years and over

611 14 8 6 0.8 0.4 0.5 0.3 2.3 1.3 1.0
WOMEN

Total, 16 years and over

38,163 2,287 999 1,288 50.7 64.4 63.8 64.9 6.0 2.6 3.4

16 to 24 years

7,455 1,124 529 595 9.9 31.7 33.8 30.0 15.1 7.1 8.0

16 to 19 years

2,122 489 278 211 2.8 13.8 17.8 10.6 23.0 13.1 9.9

20 to 24 years

5,333 635 251 384 7.1 17.9 16.0 19.4 11.9 4.7 7.2

25 years and over

30,708 1,163 470 693 40.8 32.8 30.0 34.9 3.8 1.5 2.3

25 to 34 years

8,090 467 156 311 10.7 13.2 10.0 15.7 5.8 1.9 3.8

25 to 29 years

4,295 272 87 185 5.7 7.7 5.6 9.3 6.3 2.0 4.3

30 to 34 years

3,794 194 69 125 5.0 5.5 4.4 6.3 5.1 1.8 3.3

35 to 44 years

7,243 268 109 159 9.6 7.5 7.0 8.0 3.7 1.5 2.2

35 to 39 years

3,483 139 60 79 4.6 3.9 3.8 4.0 4.0 1.7 2.3

40 to 44 years

3,760 131 50 81 5.0 3.7 3.2 4.1 3.5 1.3 2.2

45 to 54 years

8,034 254 114 140 10.7 7.2 7.3 7.1 3.2 1.4 1.7

45 to 49 years

3,993 128 57 71 5.3 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.2 1.4 1.8

50 to 54 years

4,041 126 57 69 5.4 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.1 1.4 1.7

55 to 64 years

5,745 124 67 57 7.6 3.5 4.3 2.9 2.2 1.2 1.0

55 to 59 years

3,483 67 35 32 4.6 1.9 2.2 1.6 1.9 1.0 0.9

60 to 64 years

2,262 57 32 25 3.0 1.6 2.0 1.3 2.5 1.4 1.1

65 years and over

1,597 50 24 26 2.1 1.4 1.5 1.3 3.1 1.5 1.6

65 to 69 years

951 26 13 13 1.3 0.7 0.8 0.7 2.7 1.4 1.4

70 years and over

646 24 11 13 0.9 0.7 0.7 0.7 3.7 1.7 2.0

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

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Table 8. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage by marital status, age, and sex, 2012 annual averages
Marital status, age and sex Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage
BOTH SEXES

Total, 16 years and over

75,276 3,550 1,566 1,984 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 4.7 2.1 2.6

Never married

27,453 2,314 1,033 1,281 36.5 65.2 66.0 64.6 8.4 3.8 4.7

16 to 24 years

13,213 1,670 802 868 17.6 47.0 51.2 43.8 12.6 6.1 6.6

25 years and over

14,240 644 232 412 18.9 18.1 14.8 20.8 4.5 1.6 2.9

25 to 54 years

13,123 612 213 399 17.4 17.2 13.6 20.1 4.7 1.6 3.0

Married, spouse present

34,926 779 323 456 46.4 21.9 20.6 23.0 2.2 0.9 1.3

16 to 24 years

1,216 75 37 38 1.6 2.1 2.4 1.9 6.2 3.0 3.1

25 years and over

33,710 704 286 418 44.8 19.8 18.3 21.1 2.1 0.8 1.2

25 to 54 years

25,135 569 219 350 33.4 16.0 14.0 17.6 2.3 0.9 1.4

Other marital status

12,896 457 210 247 17.1 12.9 13.4 12.4 3.5 1.6 1.9

16 to 24 years

479 51 23 28 0.6 1.4 1.5 1.4 10.6 4.8 5.8

25 years and over

12,417 406 187 219 16.5 11.4 11.9 11.0 3.3 1.5 1.8

25 to 54 years

8,461 294 128 166 11.2 8.3 8.2 8.4 3.5 1.5 2.0
MEN

Total, 16 years and over

37,113 1,263 567 696 49.3 35.6 36.2 35.1 3.4 1.5 1.9

Never married

14,394 920 422 498 19.1 25.9 26.9 25.1 6.4 2.9 3.5

16 to 24 years

6,694 648 321 327 8.9 18.3 20.5 16.5 9.7 4.8 4.9

25 years and over

7,700 271 100 171 10.2 7.6 6.4 8.6 3.5 1.3 2.2

25 to 54 years

7,162 256 92 164 9.5 7.2 5.9 8.3 3.6 1.3 2.3

Married, spouse present

17,620 241 100 141 23.4 6.8 6.4 7.1 1.4 0.6 0.8

16 to 24 years

560 16 7 9 0.7 0.5 0.4 0.5 2.9 1.2 1.6

25 years and over

17,060 225 93 132 22.7 6.3 5.9 6.7 1.3 0.5 0.8

25 to 54 years

12,594 165 62 103 16.7 4.6 4.0 5.2 1.3 0.5 0.8

Other marital status

5,100 103 46 57 6.8 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.0 0.9 1.1

16 to 24 years

200 8 4 4 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 4.0 2.0 2.0

25 years and over

4,900 95 42 53 6.5 2.7 2.7 2.7 1.9 0.9 1.1

25 to 54 years

3,598 65 27 38 4.8 1.8 1.7 1.9 1.8 0.8 1.1
WOMEN

Total, 16 years and over .

38,163 2,287 999 1,288 50.7 64.4 63.8 64.9 6.0 2.6 3.4

Never married

13,060 1,395 612 783 17.3 39.3 39.1 39.5 10.7 4.7 6.0

16 to 24 years

6,519 1,022 480 542 8.7 28.8 30.7 27.3 15.7 7.4 8.3

25 years and over

6,541 372 131 241 8.7 10.5 8.4 12.1 5.7 2.0 3.7

25 to 54 years

5,961 356 121 235 7.9 10.0 7.7 11.8 6.0 2.0 3.9

Married, spouse present

17,307 536 222 314 23.0 15.1 14.2 15.8 3.1 1.3 1.8

16 to 24 years

656 59 30 29 0.9 1.7 1.9 1.5 9.0 4.6 4.4

25 years and over

16,650 479 193 286 22.1 13.5 12.3 14.4 2.9 1.2 1.7

25 to 54 years

12,541 404 157 247 16.7 11.4 10.0 12.4 3.2 1.3 2.0

Other marital status

7,796 354 164 190 10.4 10.0 10.5 9.6 4.5 2.1 2.4

16 to 24 years

279 43 19 24 0.4 1.2 1.2 1.2 15.4 6.8 8.6

25 years and over

7,517 312 146 166 10.0 8.8 9.3 8.4 4.2 1.9 2.2

25 to 54 years

4,863 229 101 128 6.5 6.5 6.4 6.5 4.7 2.1 2.6

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated. Other marital status includes married, spouse absent; divorced; separated; and widowed persons.

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Table 9. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage by usual hours worked on primary job, 2012 annual averages
Usual hours worked per week on primary job Number of workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution Percent of workers paid hourly rates
Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage Total paid hourly rates At or below minimum wage At or below minimum wage
Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage Total At minimum wage Below minimum wage

Total, 16 years and over

75,276 3,550 1,566 1,984 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 4.7 2.1 2.6

Hours vary

5,329 429 185 244 7.1 12.1 11.8 12.3 8.1 3.5 4.6

0 to 34 hours

18,393 2,037 977 1,060 24.4 57.4 62.4 53.4 11.1 5.3 5.8

0 to 4 hours

381 39 20 19 0.5 1.1 1.3 1.0 10.2 5.2 5.0

5 to 9 hours

994 147 71 76 1.3 4.1 4.5 3.8 14.8 7.1 7.6

10 to 14 hours

1,620 225 112 113 2.2 6.3 7.2 5.7 13.9 6.9 7.0

15 to 19 hours

2,351 273 155 118 3.1 7.7 9.9 5.9 11.6 6.6 5.0

20 to 24 hours

5,369 583 303 280 7.1 16.4 19.3 14.1 10.9 5.6 5.2

25 to 29 hours

2,649 334 147 187 3.5 9.4 9.4 9.4 12.6 5.5 7.1

30 to 34 hours

5,030 436 169 267 6.7 12.3 10.8 13.5 8.7 3.4 5.3

35 hours or more

51,554 1,085 405 680 68.5 30.6 25.9 34.3 2.1 0.8 1.3

35 to 39 hours

6,122 315 126 189 8.1 8.9 8.0 9.5 5.1 2.1 3.1

40 hours or more

45,433 768 278 490 60.4 21.6 17.8 24.7 1.7 0.6 1.1

40 hours

39,456 677 256 421 52.4 19.1 16.3 21.2 1.7 0.6 1.1

41 hours or more

5,977 92 22 70 7.9 2.6 1.4 3.5 1.5 0.4 1.2

41 to 44 hours

672 14 4 10 0.9 0.4 0.3 0.5 2.1 0.6 1.5

45 to 48 hours

2,013 24 9 15 2.7 0.7 0.6 0.8 1.2 0.4 0.7

49 to 59 hours

2,256 38 9 29 3.0 1.1 0.6 1.5 1.7 0.4 1.3

60 hours or more

1,036 16 1 15 1.4 0.5 0.1 0.8 1.5 0.1 1.4

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated. Estimates of usual hours worked presented in this table differ from usual full- or part-time status (as shown in table 1) because of a sizable number of workers whose usual hours vary on the primary job.

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Table 10. Employed wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage by sex, 1979–2012 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Year and sex Total wage and salary workers Workers paid hourly rates
Total Percent of total wage and salary workers At prevailing federal minimum wage Below prevailing federal minimum wage Total at or below prevailing federal minimum wage
Number Percent of hourly paid workers
BOTH SEXES

1979

87,529 51,721 59.1 3,997 2,916 6,912 13.4

1980

87,644 51,335 58.6 4,686 3,087 7,773 15.1

1981

88,516 51,869 58.6 4,311 3,513 7,824 15.1

1982

87,368 50,846 58.2 4,148 2,348 6,496 12.8

1983

88,290 51,820 58.7 4,261 2,077 6,338 12.2

1984

92,194 54,143 58.7 4,125 1,838 5,963 11.0

1985

94,521 55,762 59.0 3,899 1,639 5,538 9.9

1986

96,903 57,529 59.4 3,461 1,599 5,060 8.8

1987

99,303 59,552 60.0 3,229 1,468 4,698 7.9

1988

101,407 60,878 60.0 2,608 1,319 3,927 6.5

1989

103,480 62,389 60.3 1,790 1,372 3,162 5.1

1990

104,876 63,172 60.2 (1)1,096 (1)2,132 (1)3,228 (1)5.1

1991

103,723 62,627 60.4 (1)2,906 (1)2,377 (1)5,283 (1)8.4

1992

104,668 63,610 60.8 2,982 1,939 4,921 7.7

1993

106,101 64,274 60.6 2,625 1,707 4,332 6.7

1994

107,989 66,549 61.6 2,132 1,995 4,128 6.2

1995

110,038 68,354 62.1 1,956 1,699 3,656 5.3

1996

111,960 69,255 61.9 (1)1,861 (1)1,863 (1)3,724 (1)5.4

1997

114,533 70,735 61.8 (1)1,764 (1)2,990 (1)4,754 (1)6.7

1998

116,730 71,440 61.2 1,593 2,834 4,427 6.2

1999

118,963 72,306 60.8 1,146 2,194 3,340 4.6

2000

122,089 73,496 60.2 898 1,752 2,650 3.6

2001

122,229 73,392 60.0 656 1,518 2,174 3.0

2002

121,826 72,508 59.5 567 1,579 2,146 3.0

2003

122,358 72,946 59.6 545 1,555 2,100 2.9

2004

123,554 73,939 59.8 520 1,483 2,003 2.7

2005

125,889 75,609 60.1 479 1,403 1,882 2.5

2006

128,237 76,514 59.7 409 1,283 1,692 2.2

2007

129,767 75,873 58.5 (1)267 (1)1,462 (1)1,729 (1)2.3

2008

129,377 75,305 58.2 (1)286 (1)1,940 (1)2,226 (1)3.0

2009

124,490 72,611 58.3 (1)980 (1)2,592 (1)3,572 (1)4.9

2010

124,073 72,902 58.8 1,820 2,541 4,361 6.0

2011

125,187 73,926 59.1 1,677 2,152 3,829 5.2

2012

127,577 75,276 59.0 1,566 1,984 3,550 4.7
MEN

1979

49,400 28,392 57.5 1,353 846 2,199 7.7

1980

48,700 27,709 56.9 1,696 983 2,678 9.7

1981

48,844 27,576 56.5 1,533 1,119 2,652 9.6

1982

47,591 26,481 55.6 1,587 697 2,284 8.6

1983

47,856 26,831 56.1 1,658 585 2,243 8.4

1984

50,022 28,140 56.3 1,626 490 2,116 7.5

1985

51,015 28,893 56.6 1,544 440 1,984 6.9

1986

51,942 29,666 57.1 1,336 408 1,743 5.9

1987

52,938 30,474 57.6 1,283 364 1,647 5.4

1988

53,912 31,058 57.6 1,066 311 1,377 4.4

1989

54,789 31,687 57.8 733 379 1,112 3.5

1990

55,553 32,104 57.8 (1)385 (1)712 (1)1,097 (1)3.4

1991

54,618 31,639 57.9 (1)1,114 (1)795 (1)1,909 (1)6.0

1992

54,826 32,155 58.6 1,231 653 1,885 5.9

1993

55,475 32,337 58.3 1,091 573 1,664 5.1

1994

56,570 33,528 59.3 891 674 1,565 4.7

1995

57,669 34,420 59.7 796 542 1,338 3.9

1996

58,473 34,838 59.6 (1)755 (1)619 (1)1,374 (1)3.9

1997

59,825 35,521 59.4 (1)673 (1)1,147 (1)1,820 (1)5.1

1998

60,973 35,761 58.7 628 1,039 1,667 4.7

1999

61,914 36,073 58.3 446 768 1,214 3.4

2000

63,662 36,720 57.7 319 582 901 2.5

2001

63,647 36,544 57.4 247 497 744 2.0

2002

63,272 36,000 56.9 217 582 799 2.2

2003

63,236 35,853 56.7 213 493 706 2.0

2004

64,145 36,806 57.4 210 470 680 1.8

2005

65,466 37,652 57.5 189 459 648 1.7

2006

66,811 38,193 57.2 146 422 568 1.5

2007

67,468 37,790 56.0 (1)86 (1)460 (1)546 (1)1.4

2008

66,846 37,334 55.9 (1)90 (1)638 (1)728 (1)1.9

2009

63,539 35,185 55.4 (1)368 (1)990 (1)1,358 (1)3.9

2010

63,531 35,498 55.9 669 943 1,612 4.5

2011

64,686 36,457 56.4 648 785 1,433 3.9

2012

65,898 37,113 56.3 567 696 1,263 3.4
WOMEN

1979

38,129 23,329 61.2 2,644 2,070 4,714 20.2

1980

38,944 23,626 60.7 2,990 2,104 5,095 21.6

1981

39,672 24,294 61.2 2,778 2,394 5,172 21.3

1982

39,777 24,365 61.3 2,561 1,651 4,212 17.3

1983

40,433 24,989 61.8 2,603 1,492 4,095 16.4

1984

42,172 26,003 61.7 2,499 1,348 3,847 14.8

1985

43,506 26,869 61.8 2,356 1,198 3,554 13.2

1986

44,961 27,863 62.0 2,125 1,192 3,317 11.9

1987

46,365 29,078 62.7 1,946 1,105 3,051 10.5

1988

47,495 29,820 62.8 1,542 1,008 2,550 8.6

1989

48,691 30,702 63.1 1,056 994 2,050 6.7

1990

49,323 31,069 63.0 (1)711 (1)1,420 (1)2,131 (1)6.9

1991

49,105 30,988 63.1 (1)1,792 (1)1,582 (1)3,374 (1)10.9

1992

49,842 31,454 63.1 1,751 1,286 3,036 9.7

1993

50,626 31,937 63.1 1,534 1,133 2,667 8.4

1994

51,419 33,021 64.2 1,241 1,322 2,563 7.8

1995

52,369 33,934 64.8 1,161 1,157 2,318 6.8

1996

53,488 34,418 64.3 (1)1,106 (1)1,244 (1)2,350 (1)6.8

1997

54,708 35,214 64.4 (1)1,092 (1)1,843 (1)2,935 (1)8.3

1998

55,757 35,680 64.0 965 1,794 2,760 7.7

1999

57,050 36,233 63.5 700 1,426 2,126 5.9

2000

58,427 36,777 62.9 579 1,170 1,749 4.8

2001

58,582 36,848 62.9 409 1,021 1,430 3.9

2002

58,555 36,508 62.3 350 997 1,347 3.7

2003

59,122 37,093 62.7 332 1,062 1,394 3.8

2004

59,408 37,133 62.5 310 1,013 1,323 3.6

2005

60,423 37,957 62.8 290 944 1,234 3.3

2006

61,426 38,321 62.4 263 861 1,124 2.9

2007

62,299 38,082 61.1 (1)181 (1)1,002 (1)1,183 (1)3.1

2008

62,532 37,972 60.7 (1)196 (1)1,302 (1)1,498 (1)3.9

2009

60,951 37,426 61.4 (1)612 (1)1,603 (1)2,215 (1)5.9

2010

60,542 37,404 61.8 1,151 1,598 2,749 7.3

2011

60,502 37,469 61.9 1,029 1,366 2,395 6.4

2012

61,679 38,163 61.9 999 1,288 2,287 6.0

Footnote:
(1) Data for 1990-91, 1996-97, and 2007-09 reflect changes in the minimum wage that took place in those years.

NOTE: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and other changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). Information about historical comparability is online at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp.

The prevailing federal minimum wage was $2.90 in 1979, $3.10 in 1980, and $3.35 in 1981-89. The minimum wage rose to $3.80 on April 1, 1990, to $4.25 on April 1, 1991, to $4.75 on October 1, 1996, to $5.15 on September 1, 1997, to $5.85 on July 24, 2007, to $6.55 on July 24, 2008, and to $7.25 on July 24, 2009. Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated. The presence of a sizable number of workers with reported wages below the minimum does not necessarily indicate violations of the Fair Labor Standards Act, as there are numerous exemptions to the minimum wage provisions of the law. In addition, the relatively large number of workers with reported wages below the minimum in some years may reflect rounding on the part of survey respondents.

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Characteristics of Minimum Wage Workers: 2012

Last Modified Date: February 26, 2013

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