International Labor Comparisons

Last Updated: August 1, 2013 (updated monthly)

International Indexes of Consumer Prices,
18 countries and areas, 1999–2013

Entire report (PDF 497KB)
Data tables (XLS)


Elimination of ILC
  • BLS has eliminated the International Labor Comparisons (ILC) program. This is the last BLS release of international indexes of consumer prices.
  • BLS is aware of other organizations that have obtained the methodology and intend to produce ILC indicators similar to those done previously by BLS. Please see the announcement at www.bls.gov/ilc.

Chart 1.



HICP percent changes

This report consists of monthly and annual figures on Consumer Price Indexes (CPI) and Harmonized Indexes of Consumer Prices (HICP). Data for each country or area are presented as indexes and average annual growth rates from 1999 to 2013. For more information, see the section on Technical Notes

In June 2013, HICP monthly percent change from the previous year increased in all 16 countries compared. Netherlands experienced the highest growth, followed by the United Kingdom. Japan and Switzerland had the lowest growth.

The CPI and HICP both measure the average change in prices over time paid by consumers for a market basket of customary goods and services. However, the CPI measures have not been adjusted for comparability; in contrast, the HICP are an internationally comparable measure of consumer price inflation. For more information, see the section on Technical Notes.

For 2012, HICP increased in 14 of the 16 countries compared. Italy had the highest inflation followed by the United Kingdom. Japan had no change. Switzerland had the lowest HICP.



Chart 2.

CPI and HICP Charts, Monthly changes


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Table 1. Consumer Price Indexes (CPI), 15 countries, 6/2012-6/2013
Monthly percent change from the previous year
Jun 12 Jul 12 Aug 12 Sep 12 Oct 12 Nov 12 Dec 12 Jan 13 Feb 13 Mar 13 Apr 13 May 13 Jun 13

United States

1.7 1.4 1.7 2.0 2.2 1.8 1.7 1.6 2.0 1.5 1.1 1.4 1.8

Austria

2.3 2.1 2.3 2.6 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.6 2.5 2.3 2.0 2.3 2.2

Belgium

2.3 2.3 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.3 2.2 1.5 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.2 1.6

Canada

1.5 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 0.8 0.8 0.5 1.2 1.0 0.4 0.7 1.2

Denmark

2.2 2.3 2.6 2.5 2.3 2.3 2.0 1.3 1.2 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.9

France

1.9 1.9 2.1 1.9 1.9 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.0 1.0 0.7 0.8 0.9

Germany

1.7 1.7 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.2 1.8 1.7 1.5 1.4 1.2 1.5 1.8

Italy

3.3 3.1 3.2 3.2 2.6 2.5 2.3 2.2 1.9 1.6 1.1 1.1 1.2

Japan

-0.1 -0.4 -0.5 -0.3 -0.4 -0.2 -0.1 -0.3 -0.6 -0.9 -0.7 -0.3 0.2

Netherlands

2.1 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.9 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.6 2.8 2.9

Norway

0.5 0.2 0.5 0.5 1.1 1.1 1.4 1.3 1.0 1.4 1.9 2.0 2.1

Spain

1.9 2.2 2.7 3.4 3.5 2.9 2.9 2.7 2.8 2.4 1.4 1.7 2.1

Sweden

1.0 0.7 0.7 0.4 0.4 -0.1 -0.1 0.0 -0.2 -0.0 -0.5 -0.2 -0.1

Switzerland

-1.0 -0.7 -0.4 -0.4 -0.2 -0.3 -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.6 -0.7 -0.6 -0.2

United Kingdom

2.8 3.2 2.9 2.6 3.2 3.0 3.1 3.3 3.2 3.3 2.9 3.1 3.3


Table 2. Harmonized Indexes of Consumer Prices (HICP), 16 countries and areas, 6/2012-6/2013
Monthly percent change from the previous year
Jun 12 Jul 12 Aug 12 Sep 12 Oct 12 Nov 12 Dec 12 Jan 13 Feb 13 Mar 13 Apr 13 May 13 Jun 13

United States

1.7 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.3 1.8 1.8 1.6 1.9 1.3 0.8 1.2 1.7

Austria

2.2 2.1 2.3 2.8 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.6 2.4 2.1 2.4 2.2

Belgium

2.2 2.0 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.2 2.1 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.5

Denmark

2.2 2.1 2.6 2.5 2.3 2.2 1.9 1.0 1.0 0.7 0.4 0.6 0.6

Euro area(1)

2.4 2.4 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.2 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.7 1.2 1.4 1.6

European Union(2)

2.5 2.5 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.4 2.3 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.4 1.6 1.7

France

2.3 2.2 2.4 2.2 2.1 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.2 1.1 0.8 0.9 1.0

Germany

2.0 1.9 2.2 2.1 2.1 1.9 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.1 1.6 1.9

Italy

3.6 3.6 3.3 3.4 2.8 2.6 2.6 2.4 2.0 1.8 1.3 1.3 1.4

Japan

-0.1 -0.4 -0.5 -0.3 -0.4 -0.1 -0.1 -0.3 -0.7 -1.0 -0.7 -0.3 0.3

Netherlands

2.5 2.6 2.5 2.5 3.3 3.2 3.4 3.2 3.2 3.2 2.8 3.1 3.2

Norway

0.0 -0.2 0.0 0.1 0.8 0.9 1.1 1.2 0.6 1.1 1.8 1.8 1.9

Spain

1.8 2.2 2.7 3.5 3.5 3.0 3.0 2.8 2.9 2.6 1.5 1.8 2.2

Sweden

0.9 0.7 0.9 1.0 1.2 0.8 1.0 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.0 0.3 0.5

Switzerland

-1.2 -0.8 -0.5 -0.3 -0.1 -0.1 -0.3 -0.1 0.1 -0.3 -0.4 -0.2 0.2

United Kingdom

2.4 2.6 2.5 2.2 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.4 2.7 2.9

Note:
(1) Data for the Euro Area refer to the Monetary Union Index of Consumer Prices (MUICP). For more information, see Technical Notes.
(2) Data for the European Union refer to the European Index of Consumer Prices (EICP). For more information, see Technical Notes.


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Chart 3.

CPI and HICP Charts, Annual changes


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Table 3. Consumer Price Indexes (CPI), 16 countries, 1999-2012
Annual Indexes: 1982-84 = 100
1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

United States

166.6 172.2 177.1 179.9 184.0 188.9 195.3 201.6 207.3 215.3 214.5 218.1 224.9 229.6

Australia

197.0 205.7 214.8 221.2 227.2 232.6 238.8 247.3 253.1 264.1 268.8 276.6 285.8 290.8

Austria

147.9 151.4 155.4 158.2 160.3 163.6 167.4 169.9 173.6 179.1 180.0 183.3 189.3 194.0

Belgium

148.3 152.1 155.8 158.4 160.9 164.3 168.8 171.9 175.0 182.9 182.8 186.8 193.4 198.9

Canada

160.5 164.9 169.0 172.8 177.6 180.9 184.9 188.5 192.7 197.2 197.7 201.3 207.2 210.3

Denmark

162.0 166.8 170.7 174.8 178.5 180.5 183.8 187.3 190.5 197.0 199.6 204.2 209.8 214.9

France

155.0 157.7 160.3 163.4 166.8 170.3 173.4 176.2 178.9 183.9 184.1 186.9 190.8 194.6

Germany

140.0 142.0 144.8 146.9 148.5 150.9 153.2 155.7 159.2 163.3 163.9 165.8 169.6 173.0

Italy

226.3 232.1 238.5 244.5 251.0 256.6 261.5 267.1 272.0 281.1 283.3 287.7 295.7 304.6

Japan

121.8 121.0 120.1 119.0 118.7 118.7 118.3 118.7 118.7 120.3 118.7 117.8 117.5 117.5

Netherlands

137.0 140.2 146.1 150.9 154.0 156.0 158.6 160.4 163.0 167.1 169.0 171.2 175.2 179.5

Norway

186.6 192.4 198.2 200.8 205.7 206.6 209.9 214.7 216.3 224.5 229.2 234.9 237.8 239.6

Spain

234.1 242.1 250.8 259.6 267.5 275.6 284.9 294.9 303.1 315.5 314.6 320.2 330.5 338.6

Sweden

195.1 196.9 201.6 206.0 209.9 210.7 211.7 214.5 219.3 226.8 225.7 228.3 235.1 237.2

Switzerland

143.8 146.1 147.5 148.5 149.4 150.6 152.5 154.1 155.2 158.9 158.1 159.2 159.7 158.5

United Kingdom

194.3 200.1 203.6 207.0 213.0 219.4 225.6 232.8 242.7 252.4 251.1 262.7 276.3 285.2


Table 4. Consumer Price Indexes (CPI), 16 countries, 1999-2012
Annual percent change
1999–
2012
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

United States

2.5 3.4 2.8 1.6 2.3 2.7 3.4 3.2 2.8 3.8 -0.4 1.6 3.2 2.1

Australia

3.0 4.5 4.4 3.0 2.7 2.3 2.7 3.6 2.3 4.4 1.8 2.9 3.3 1.8

Austria

2.1 2.4 2.7 1.8 1.3 2.1 2.3 1.5 2.2 3.2 0.5 1.9 3.3 2.5

Belgium

2.3 2.5 2.5 1.6 1.6 2.1 2.8 1.8 1.8 4.5 -0.1 2.2 3.5 2.8

Canada

2.1 2.7 2.5 2.2 2.8 1.8 2.2 2.0 2.2 2.3 0.3 1.8 2.9 1.5

Denmark

2.2 2.9 2.4 2.4 2.1 1.2 1.8 1.9 1.7 3.4 1.3 2.3 2.8 2.4

France

1.8 1.7 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.1 1.8 1.6 1.5 2.8 0.1 1.5 2.1 2.0

Germany

1.6 1.4 1.9 1.5 1.0 1.7 1.5 1.6 2.3 2.6 0.4 1.1 2.3 2.0

Italy

2.3 2.5 2.7 2.5 2.7 2.2 1.9 2.1 1.8 3.3 0.8 1.5 2.8 3.0

Japan

-0.3 -0.7 -0.8 -0.9 -0.3 0.0 -0.3 0.3 0.0 1.4 -1.4 -0.7 -0.3 0.0

Netherlands

2.1 2.3 4.2 3.3 2.1 1.2 1.7 1.2 1.6 2.5 1.2 1.3 2.3 2.5

Norway

1.9 3.1 3.0 1.3 2.5 0.4 1.6 2.3 0.8 3.8 2.1 2.5 1.2 0.8

Spain

2.9 3.4 3.6 3.5 3.0 3.0 3.4 3.5 2.8 4.1 -0.3 1.8 3.2 2.4

Sweden

1.5 0.9 2.4 2.2 1.9 0.4 0.5 1.4 2.2 3.4 -0.5 1.2 3.0 0.9

Switzerland

0.8 1.6 1.0 0.6 0.6 0.7 1.3 1.0 0.7 2.4 -0.5 0.7 0.3 -0.7

United Kingdom

3.0 3.0 1.8 1.7 2.9 3.0 2.8 3.2 4.3 4.0 -0.5 4.6 5.2 3.2

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Table 5. Harmonized Indexes of Consumer Prices (HICP), 16 countries and areas, 1999-2012
Annual indexes: 2005 = 100
1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

United States(1)

85.8 88.7 90.8 91.6 93.7 96.3 100.0 103.2 105.9 110.6 109.7 112.4 116.8 119.4

Austria

89.4 91.2 93.3 94.8 96.1 97.9 100.0 101.7 103.9 107.3 107.7 109.5 113.4 116.3

Belgium

88.3 90.7 92.9 94.3 95.8 97.5 100.0 102.3 104.2 108.9 108.9 111.4 115.3 118.3

Denmark

88.8 91.2 93.3 95.6 97.5 98.3 100.0 101.8 103.5 107.3 108.4 110.8 113.8 116.5

Euro area(2)

87.9 89.7 91.8 93.9 95.8 97.9 100.0 102.2 104.4 107.8 108.1 109.8 112.8 115.7

European Union(3)

88.5 90.2 92.2 94.1 96.0 97.9 100.0 102.2 104.6 108.4 109.5 111.8 115.2 118.3

France

88.8 90.5 92.1 93.9 95.9 98.1 100.0 101.9 103.6 106.8 106.9 108.8 111.3 113.8

Germany

91.1 92.4 94.1 95.4 96.4 98.1 100.0 101.8 104.1 107.0 107.2 108.4 111.1 113.5

Italy

86.4 88.6 90.7 93.1 95.7 97.8 100.0 102.2 104.3 108.0 108.8 110.6 113.8 117.5

Japan

103.7 102.8 101.9 100.7 100.4 100.4 100.0 100.3 100.4 102.0 100.5 99.7 99.4 99.4

Netherlands

85.1 87.1 91.5 95.1 97.2 98.5 100.0 101.7 103.3 105.5 106.6 107.6 110.2 113.3

Norway

90.0 92.8 95.3 96.1 97.9 98.5 100.0 102.5 103.2 106.7 109.2 111.8 113.1 113.6

Spain

82.6 85.5 87.9 91.0 93.9 96.7 100.0 103.6 106.5 110.9 110.6 112.9 116.4 119.2

Sweden

90.5 91.7 94.1 95.9 98.2 99.2 100.0 101.5 103.2 106.7 108.7 110.8 112.3 113.4

Switzerland

100.0 101.0 101.8 104.2 103.4 104.1 104.2 103.4

United Kingdom

92.3 93.1 94.2 95.4 96.7 98.0 100.0 102.3 104.7 108.5 110.8 114.5 119.6 123.0

Notes:
(1) Urban households prior to December 2001.
(2) Data for the Euro Area refer to the Monetary Union Index of Consumer Prices (MUICP). For more information, see Technical Notes.
(3) Data for the European Union refer to the European Index of Consumer Prices (EICP). For more information, see Technical Notes.
Dashes indicate data are unavailable.



Table 6. Harmonized Indexes of Consumer Prices (HICP), 16 countries and areas, 1999-2012
Annual percent change
1999–
2012
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

United States(1)

2.6 3.4 2.3 0.9 2.3 2.8 3.9 3.2 2.6 4.4 -0.9 2.5 3.9 2.2

Austria

2.0 2.0 2.3 1.7 1.3 2.0 2.1 1.7 2.2 3.2 0.4 1.7 3.6 2.6

Belgium

2.3 2.7 2.4 1.6 1.5 1.9 2.5 2.3 1.8 4.5 -0.0 2.3 3.5 2.6

Denmark

2.1 2.7 2.3 2.5 2.0 0.8 1.7 1.8 1.7 3.7 1.0 2.2 2.7 2.4

Euro area(2)

2.1 2.1 2.4 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.1 3.3 0.3 1.6 2.7 2.5

European Union(3)

2.3 1.9 2.2 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.2 2.2 2.3 3.7 1.0 2.1 3.1 2.6

France

1.9 1.8 1.8 1.9 2.2 2.3 1.9 1.9 1.6 3.2 0.1 1.7 2.3 2.2

Germany

1.7 1.4 1.8 1.4 1.0 1.8 1.9 1.8 2.3 2.8 0.2 1.1 2.5 2.2

Italy

2.4 2.5 2.4 2.6 2.8 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.1 3.5 0.7 1.7 2.9 3.3

Japan

-0.3 -0.9 -0.9 -1.2 -0.3 0.0 -0.4 0.3 0.1 1.6 -1.5 -0.8 -0.3 0.0

Netherlands

2.2 2.3 5.1 3.9 2.2 1.4 1.5 1.7 1.6 2.2 1.0 0.9 2.5 2.8

Norway

1.8 3.1 2.7 0.8 1.9 0.6 1.5 2.5 0.7 3.4 2.3 2.4 1.2 0.4

Spain

2.9 3.5 2.8 3.6 3.1 3.1 3.4 3.6 2.8 4.1 -0.2 2.0 3.1 2.4

Sweden

1.7 1.3 2.7 1.9 2.3 1.0 0.8 1.5 1.7 3.3 1.9 1.9 1.4 0.9

Switzerland

1.0 0.8 2.4 -0.8 0.7 0.1 -0.8

United Kingdom

2.2 0.9 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.3 2.0 2.3 2.3 3.6 2.1 3.3 4.5 2.8

Notes:
(1) Urban households prior to December 2001.
(2) Data for the Euro Area refer to the Monetary Union Index of Consumer Prices (MUICP). For more information, see Technical Notes.
(3) Data for the European Union refer to the European Index of Consumer Prices (EICP). For more information, see Technical Notes.
Dashes indicate data are unavailable.


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Technical Notes

Consumer Price Indexes (CPI)
The Consumer Price Indexes or CPI are a measure of the average change over time in the prices paid by urban consumers for a market basket of consumer goods and services. This report covers the CPI for the United States, Australia, Canada, Japan, and 12 European countries. CPI indexes and annual percent changes are based upon national consumer price indexes as published by each country. They have not been adjusted for comparability. National differences exist, for example, in population coverage, frequency of market basket weight changes, and treatment of homeowner costs.

Harmonized Indexes of Consumer Prices (HICP)
The Harmonized Indexes of Consumer Prices or HICP are an internationally comparable measure of consumer price inflation. This report covers the HICP for 14 countries and 2 areas. HICP indexes and percent changes conform, insofar as possible, to the conceptual basis of the European Union's Harmonized Index of Consumer Prices (HICP). The HICP is the standard price index that EU member states must produce for comparisons across countries. It is used by the European Central Bank for the conduct of monetary policy in the euro area. The index represents urban and rural households in each country and excludes the component for owner-occupied housing costs. For more information, see "International comparisons of Harmonized Indexes of Consumer Prices," www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2007/02/ressum.pdf.

Methodology
In table 3, CPI indexes are calculated by rebasing the official indexes of each country to the official U.S. base year of 1982-84. Because of the change in base year, the indexes may differ from the official indexes published by national statistical agencies.

Percent changes are computed using the compound rate method. The figures may differ from official percent changes published by national statistical agencies because of rounding. In several countries, the national statistical agencies calculate the official percent changes from more precise index values than those that they publish.

United States
The data for the United States are an "experimental" Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) series adjusted to the concepts of the EU HICP in that they are expanded to cover the entire (non-institutional) population and narrowed to remove owner-occupied housing costs that the HICP excludes from its scope. These U.S. data are produced outside of regular BLS production systems and, consequently, with less than full production quality. For more information, see "Comparing U.S. and European inflation: the CPI and the HICP," at www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2006/05/art3full.pdf.

Euro Area
Data for the euro area refer to the Monetary Union Index of Consumer Prices (MUICP), the official series published by Eurostat for the EU member countries that have adopted the euro as the common currency. The MUICP is the household expenditure-weighted aggregate of the HICPs of the euro area. The composition of the euro area has changed over the years. As the euro area expands, data for new member countries are linked to this moving coverage series. Thus, the euro area index changes its geographical coverage according to the composition of the euro area during the period to which the data refer. The MUICP index for 2013 is comprised of the following 17 countries: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Spain. For analytical purposes, Eurostat also makes available historical series covering all the current euro area countries. For more information see the Eurostat Web site, at http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/eurostat/home.

European Union
Data for the European Union refer to the European Index of Consumer Prices (EICP), the official series published by Eurostat for the European Union (EU). The EICP is the household expenditure- weighted aggregate of the Harmonized Indexes of Consumer Prices (HICPs) of the EU member countries. The composition of the EU has changed over the years. As EU membership expands, data for new member countries are linked to this moving coverage series. Thus, the EU index changes its geographical coverage according to the composition of the EU during the period to which the data refer. The EU index for 2013 is comprised of the following 27 countries: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. For analytical purposes, Eurostat also makes available historical series covering all the current EU countries.

Last Modified Date: August 15, 2013

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