International Labor Comparisons

International Comparisons of Hourly Compensation Costs in Manufacturing Industries, 2012

REPORT (PDF)
Technical Notes (PDF)
Country Notes and Data Sources (PDF)

Elimination of ILC
  • BLS has eliminated the International Labor Comparisons (ILC) program. This is the last BLS release of international comparisons of hourly compensation costs.
  • BLS is aware of other organizations that have obtained the methodology and intend to produce ILC indicators similar to those done previously by BLS. Please see the announcement at www.bls.gov/ilc.

Related Links:

  • Report: International Comparisons of Hourly Compensation Costs in Manufacturing, 2012 (HTML) (PDF) (report tables only, XLS)
  • Tables by Country (XLS with interactive charts)
  • Tables by Industry (XLS with interactive charts)
  • Charts and Analysis

    Hourly compensation costs, or the hourly cost to the manufacturer of employing labor, is one of the most important indicators of international competitiveness in manufacturing. Average measures of compensation costs for the manufacturing sector as a whole, however, often mask important cost differences and competitiveness among sub-manufacturing industries. Under an international comparative lens, this report highlights the differences in compensation costs across both countries and industries.

    Chart 1 Highlights

    Within each country, industry compensation costs can vary greatly from average compensation in total manufacturing (see Chart 1). The overall spread of compensation costs across industries can be compared across countries by looking at the relative—and not the absolute—distance of costs between the highest and lowest compensated industries. In 2012, for example, the highest paid industry was more than double the lowest paid industry in 13 of 23 countries compared. The greatest variation in compensation across industries occurred primarily in Brazil and Mexico and countries in Eastern Europe and Asia. Historically, the highest and lowest compensated industries have tended to be similar across countries. In 2012, coke and petroleum products and pharmaceuticals were among the highly paid industries, while the lower paid industries included apparel and wood products manufacturing.

    Chart 1.



    Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing, 2012

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    Chart 2 Highlights

    In Chart 2, bold diamonds represent the average compensation cost in manufacturing for each country, and each notch along a country line represents average costs in a particular sub-manufacturing industry. The spread, or dispersion, of compensation within countries is shown against the horizontal axis (each country's manufacturing average is set equal to 100), while a country's position relative to the United States is shown against the vertical axis (average U.S. manufacturing compensation is set equal to 100).

    The overall spread of manufacturing compensation is determined not only by the industries at the upper and lower ends of the compensation spectrum, but also by how closely together or far apart industries fall between the two extremes (see Chart 2). The dispersion of manufacturing compensation is high and driven largely by variations in the top (red) end of the compensation spectrum in Latin America, Asia, and eastern Europe. On the other hand, the dispersion of compensation costs is lower in northern Europe primarily because industry compensation is more tightly clustered around the manufacturing average in these countries.

    Chart 2.



    . Industry compensation costs as a percent of average costs in manufacturing, by region, 2012

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    Chart 3 Highlights

    Because compensation costs can differ so much from one industry within manufacturing to another, Chart 3 focuses the analysis at the industry level and provides a snapshot of U.S. competitiveness for the industries shown. In the charts, compensation costs for the industry in each country are compared to the country's average manufacturing compensation along the horizontal axis and to U.S. compensation for that industry along the vertical axis.

    Industries for which most countries lie in the left (red) portion of the chart (apparel and fabricated metals) are industries that are generally lower compensated than the manufacturing average in each country, while industries for which most countries lie in the right (green) portion of the chart (pharmaceuticals, computers, motor vehicles, and other transport) are generally higher compensated industries.

    Similar to the pattern seen at the sector level, industry compensation costs in western and northern Europe are generally higher than in the United States, while costs in Asia, Latin America, and eastern Europe are generally lower. Based on 2012 compensation levels for the industries shown, the United States was relatively more competitive in the manufacture of fabricated metal and paper products and relatively less competitive in computer, electronic, and optical products and other transport equipment (also see Table 3).

    Chart 3.



    Industry compensation costs as a percent of average costs in manufacturing,
and as a percent of average U.S. industry costs, by industry, 2012

    (Continued) Industry compensation costs as a percent of average costs in manufacturing,
and as a percent of average U.S. industry costs, by industry, 2012

    Back to Top Back to Top

    Report Tables

    Table 1a. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, U.S. dollars, 2012
    Industry ISIC Rev.4 Code United States Argentina Australia Austria Belgium Brazil Canada

    Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

    C
    35.67 18.87 47.68 41.53 52.19 11.20 36.59

    Food products, beverages and tobacco

    10-12
    27.20 NA 41.21 32.46 46.24 8.81 NA

    Food and beverages

    10-11
    NA NA NA 31.88 46.22 8.70 NA

    Food products

    10
    26.25 NA 39.15 30.10 44.84 8.44 NA

    Beverages

    11
    NA NA NA 42.84 55.14 11.47 NA

    Tobacco products

    12
    NA NA NA NA 46.41 16.23 NA

    Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

    13-15
    24.34 NA NA 31.98 41.20 5.32 NA

    Textiles and wearing apparel

    13-14
    24.19 NA NA 33.03 40.99 5.52 NA

    Textiles

    13
    24.17 NA NA 34.64 41.89 7.60 NA

    Wearing apparel

    14
    24.09 NA NA 30.82 37.51 4.61 NA

    Leather and related products

    15
    26.34 NA NA 28.82 43.80 4.87 NA

    Wood and paper products and printing

    16-18
    30.78 NA 41.40 38.12 46.77 9.49 NA

    Wood and wood products, except furniture

    16
    24.67 NA 37.56 32.55 38.38 6.27 NA

    Paper and paper products

    17
    36.99 NA 53.33 45.82 53.30 13.82 NA

    Printing and reproduction of recorded media

    18
    30.15 NA 40.36 41.23 48.08 8.49 NA

    Coke and refined petroleum products

    19
    55.85 NA NA NA NA 38.31 NA

    Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

    20-21
    42.52 NA NA 51.42 68.64 20.26 NA

    Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

    20
    39.48 NA NA 53.12 67.32 19.23 NA

    Pharmaceutical products

    21
    48.20 NA NA 49.14 71.79 23.40 NA

    Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

    22-23
    30.24 NA 52.53 39.58 49.10 9.24 NA

    Rubber and plastics products

    22
    29.60 NA 57.02 37.23 49.03 10.21 NA

    Other non-metallic mineral products

    23
    31.37 NA 48.45 41.67 49.09 8.31 NA

    Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

    24-25
    32.25 NA 50.05 41.52 49.62 12.42 NA

    Basic metals

    24
    37.29 NA 62.15 47.91 58.47 18.58 NA

    Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

    25
    30.73 NA 43.55 38.20 43.69 9.56 NA

    Computer, electronic and optical products

    26
    50.62 NA NA 49.16 55.33 16.01 NA

    Electrical equipment

    27
    36.41 NA NA 45.85 49.87 14.00 NA

    Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

    28
    38.15 NA NA 45.09 48.45 14.58 NA

    Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

    29-30
    45.34 NA NA 46.81 57.63 18.78 NA

    Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

    29
    37.38 NA 54.34 46.05 58.52 18.80 NA

    Other transport equipment

    30
    54.35 NA 47.28 50.45 53.42 NA NA

    Furniture

    31
    26.57 NA NA 30.40 37.85 6.05 NA

    Note:
    Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
    Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
    For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
    'NA' means data not available.
    Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

    Table 1b. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, U.S. dollars, 2012
    Industry ISIC Rev.4 Code Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece

    Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

    C
    11.95 48.47 10.41 42.60 39.81 45.79 19.41

    Food products, beverages and tobacco

    10-12
    NA 44.67 NA NA NA 31.52 NA

    Food and beverages

    10-11
    NA 44.77 9.83 NA NA NA NA

    Food products

    10
    NA 44.51 9.20 NA 30.55 29.56 NA

    Beverages

    11
    NA 47.69 15.42 NA NA 43.20 NA

    Tobacco products

    12
    NA NA NA NA NA 62.28 NA

    Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

    13-15
    NA 43.29 7.12 NA 31.54 35.09 NA

    Textiles and wearing apparel

    13-14
    NA 42.85 7.09 NA 31.54 34.37 NA

    Textiles

    13
    NA 42.95 8.16 NA 30.73 33.82 NA

    Wearing apparel

    14
    NA 42.55 6.44 NA 32.47 35.49 NA

    Leather and related products

    15
    NA NA 7.38 NA 31.60 38.83 NA

    Wood and paper products and printing

    16-18
    NA 44.51 11.17 NA 34.51 37.94 NA

    Wood and wood products, except furniture

    16
    NA 40.00 10.92 NA 29.34 31.27 NA

    Paper and paper products

    17
    NA 47.09 11.66 NA 37.46 41.12 NA

    Printing and reproduction of recorded media

    18
    NA 48.79 12.10 NA 35.93 39.44 NA

    Coke and refined petroleum products

    19
    NA NA NA NA NA 69.38 NA

    Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

    20-21
    NA 53.73 NA NA 54.28 58.18 NA

    Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

    20
    NA 53.63 13.71 NA 52.03 57.59 NA

    Pharmaceutical products

    21
    NA 67.09 NA NA 58.33 60.06 NA

    Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

    22-23
    NA 47.41 12.32 NA 37.49 37.71 NA

    Rubber and plastics products

    22
    NA 48.50 10.84 NA 36.94 37.91 NA

    Other non-metallic mineral products

    23
    NA 46.16 13.84 NA 38.04 37.31 NA

    Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

    24-25
    NA 43.93 NA NA 37.71 41.63 NA

    Basic metals

    24
    NA 43.41 NA NA 44.49 48.14 NA

    Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

    25
    NA 44.02 13.05 NA 35.47 39.12 NA

    Computer, electronic and optical products

    26
    NA 53.54 10.40 NA 52.15 50.11 NA

    Electrical equipment

    27
    NA 48.73 11.85 NA 41.83 49.52 NA

    Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

    28
    NA 50.05 13.50 NA 42.19 49.11 NA

    Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

    29-30
    NA 45.61 NA NA 45.77 58.82 NA

    Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

    29
    NA 43.87 11.29 NA 42.36 59.04 NA

    Other transport equipment

    30
    NA 47.42 NA NA 52.59 57.53 NA

    Furniture

    31
    NA 42.14 9.11 NA 29.67 34.45 NA

    Note:
    Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
    Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
    For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
    'NA' means data not available.
    Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

    Table 1c. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, U.S. dollars, 2012
    Industry ISIC Rev.4 Code Hungary Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea, Republic of Mexico

    Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

    C
    8.95 38.17 20.14 34.18 35.34 20.72 6.36

    Food products, beverages and tobacco

    10-12
    7.16 NA 13.65 33.99 25.37 15.58 5.52

    Food and beverages

    10-11
    7.07 NA NA 33.92 NA 15.39 5.49

    Food products

    10
    6.58 NA 13.07 33.22 NA 14.95 5.50

    Beverages

    11
    10.81 NA NA 39.12 NA 21.51 5.55

    Tobacco products

    12
    12.13 NA NA 54.95 NA 31.79 11.71

    Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

    13-15
    5.21 NA 12.98 27.45 NA 14.54 3.30

    Textiles and wearing apparel

    13-14
    5.18 NA 12.82 27.51 23.67 14.60 3.40

    Textiles

    13
    6.12 NA 14.07 30.13 NA 13.41 3.87

    Wearing apparel

    14
    4.69 NA 11.77 25.43 NA 15.95 2.92

    Leather and related products

    15
    5.27 NA 12.28 27.25 NA 14.06 3.03

    Wood and paper products and printing

    16-18
    7.68 NA 14.03 31.42 29.64 16.41 4.89

    Wood and wood products, except furniture

    16
    5.67 NA 13.28 27.61 26.97 15.86 2.70

    Paper and paper products

    17
    9.98 NA 15.89 33.08 31.24 18.08 5.34

    Printing and reproduction of recorded media

    18
    7.64 NA 13.26 33.77 29.40 14.36 4.73

    Coke and refined petroleum products

    19
    22.98 NA NA 51.21 NA 63.56 14.56

    Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

    20-21
    14.68 NA NA 46.44 NA 24.10 11.01

    Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

    20
    12.91 NA NA 42.20 NA 24.25 9.91

    Pharmaceutical products

    21
    15.97 NA 26.70 53.05 NA 23.47 13.93

    Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

    22-23
    8.63 NA 16.29 33.44 32.35 16.31 5.52

    Rubber and plastics products

    22
    8.13 NA 15.72 32.73 31.17 15.08 4.81

    Other non-metallic mineral products

    23
    9.57 NA 17.62 34.12 34.57 19.22 6.29

    Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

    24-25
    8.06 NA 15.46 32.69 34.58 19.87 7.09

    Basic metals

    24
    11.35 NA 15.09 37.37 40.98 26.94 8.39

    Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

    25
    7.07 NA 15.53 31.18 30.42 16.64 5.71

    Computer, electronic and optical products

    26
    9.89 NA 30.47 39.95 NA 24.30 5.18

    Electrical equipment

    27
    7.99 NA 18.77 35.75 NA 18.49 6.02

    Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

    28
    9.68 NA 23.36 36.70 NA 18.24 6.59

    Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

    29-30
    10.91 NA 25.95 37.26 41.65 25.74 7.80

    Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

    29
    10.87 NA 15.85 36.88 NA 25.87 7.79

    Other transport equipment

    30
    11.58 NA 29.67 37.90 NA 25.50 7.86

    Furniture

    31
    5.89 NA 12.13 27.57 27.75 18.73 3.79

    Note:
    Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
    Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
    For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
    'NA' means data not available.
    Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

    Table 1d. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, U.S. dollars, 2012
    Industry ISIC Rev.4 Code Netherlands New Zealand Norway Philippines Poland Portugal Singapore

    Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

    C
    39.62 24.77 63.36 2.10 8.25 12.10 24.16

    Food products, beverages and tobacco

    10-12
    NA NA 56.32 NA NA 12.15 NA

    Food and beverages

    10-11
    NA NA NA NA 7.38 NA NA

    Food products

    10
    NA 23.49 NA NA 7.09 NA NA

    Beverages

    11
    NA NA NA NA 11.64 NA NA

    Tobacco products

    12
    NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

    Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

    13-15
    NA 21.65 51.55 NA 5.28 8.81 NA

    Textiles and wearing apparel

    13-14
    NA NA NA NA 5.27 NA NA

    Textiles

    13
    NA NA NA NA 6.07 NA NA

    Wearing apparel

    14
    NA NA NA NA 4.88 NA NA

    Leather and related products

    15
    NA NA NA NA 5.31 NA NA

    Wood and paper products and printing

    16-18
    NA NA NA NA 7.69 NA NA

    Wood and wood products, except furniture

    16
    NA 21.73 49.41 NA 6.29 NA NA

    Paper and paper products

    17
    NA NA 56.60 NA 9.15 NA NA

    Printing and reproduction of recorded media

    18
    NA 23.65 60.75 NA 9.45 NA NA

    Coke and refined petroleum products

    19
    NA NA NA NA 17.19 NA NA

    Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

    20-21
    NA NA NA NA 11.31 NA NA

    Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

    20
    NA NA 71.94 NA 10.81 NA NA

    Pharmaceutical products

    21
    NA NA 72.67 NA 12.99 NA NA

    Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

    22-23
    NA NA 58.81 NA 8.36 NA NA

    Rubber and plastics products

    22
    NA 25.55 NA NA 8.04 NA NA

    Other non-metallic mineral products

    23
    NA 24.19 NA NA 8.82 12.55 NA

    Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

    24-25
    NA NA NA NA 8.65 12.48 NA

    Basic metals

    24
    NA 29.81 69.90 NA 10.16 NA NA

    Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

    25
    NA 24.27 59.99 NA 8.27 NA NA

    Computer, electronic and optical products

    26
    NA NA NA NA 7.94 NA NA

    Electrical equipment

    27
    NA NA NA NA 9.05 NA NA

    Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

    28
    NA NA 71.54 NA 9.24 NA NA

    Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

    29-30
    NA 27.97 71.10 NA 9.53 NA NA

    Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

    29
    NA NA NA NA 9.49 NA NA

    Other transport equipment

    30
    NA NA NA NA 9.68 NA NA

    Furniture

    31
    NA NA NA NA 6.39 NA NA

    Note:
    Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
    Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
    For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
    'NA' means data not available.
    Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

    Table 1e. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, U.S. dollars, 2012
    Industry ISIC Rev.4 Code Slovakia Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan United Kingdom

    Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

    C
    11.30 26.83 49.80 57.79 9.46 31.23

    Food products, beverages and tobacco

    10-12
    NA 23.06 42.58 NA NA 26.96

    Food and beverages

    10-11
    NA 22.69 NA NA NA 26.67

    Food products

    10
    NA 21.63 NA NA NA 25.40

    Beverages

    11
    NA 30.07 NA NA NA 37.57

    Tobacco products

    12
    NA 53.50 NA NA NA 49.70

    Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

    13-15
    NA 19.14 42.05 NA NA 24.18

    Textiles and wearing apparel

    13-14
    NA 20.05 NA NA NA 24.01

    Textiles

    13
    NA 20.65 NA NA 7.29 24.83

    Wearing apparel

    14
    NA 19.54 NA NA NA 22.05

    Leather and related products

    15
    NA 15.94 NA NA NA 25.34

    Wood and paper products and printing

    16-18
    NA 24.17 44.29 NA NA 27.67

    Wood and wood products, except furniture

    16
    NA 20.11 39.18 NA NA 22.74

    Paper and paper products

    17
    NA 29.45 49.55 NA 7.43 31.47

    Printing and reproduction of recorded media

    18
    NA 23.93 41.62 NA 7.39 28.19

    Coke and refined petroleum products

    19
    NA 51.59 66.31 NA 20.38 48.38

    Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

    20-21
    NA 35.73 67.91 NA NA 38.87

    Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

    20
    NA 33.65 NA NA NA 36.38

    Pharmaceutical products

    21
    NA 39.72 NA NA NA 42.52

    Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

    22-23
    NA 27.28 43.82 NA 7.97 27.78

    Rubber and plastics products

    22
    NA 27.54 43.06 NA 7.99 26.53

    Other non-metallic mineral products

    23
    NA 27.10 45.01 NA 7.95 30.21

    Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

    24-25
    NA 25.82 45.29 NA 8.31 28.26

    Basic metals

    24
    NA 31.45 52.35 NA 10.88 33.49

    Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

    25
    NA 24.14 41.70 NA 7.46 26.56

    Computer, electronic and optical products

    26
    NA 31.63 NA NA 11.31 37.83

    Electrical equipment

    27
    NA 30.68 NA NA NA 28.77

    Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

    28
    NA 28.92 NA NA NA 33.23

    Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

    29-30
    NA 33.63 51.27 NA 9.98 38.28

    Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

    29
    NA 32.19 NA NA 10.20 35.00

    Other transport equipment

    30
    NA 38.92 NA NA 9.72 41.37

    Furniture

    31
    NA NA NA NA 6.84 24.75

    Note:
    Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
    Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
    For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
    'NA' means data not available.
    Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

    Table 2a. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, as a percent of the manufacturing sector average (ISIC C = 100), 2012
    Industry ISIC Rev.4 Code United States Argentina Australia Austria Belgium Brazil Canada

    Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

    C
    100 100 100 100 100 100 100

    Food products, beverages and tobacco

    10-12
    76 NA 86 78 89 79 NA

    Food and beverages

    10-11
    NA NA NA 77 89 78 NA

    Food products

    10
    74 NA 82 72 86 75 NA

    Beverages

    11
    NA NA NA 103 106 102 NA

    Tobacco products

    12
    NA NA NA NA 89 145 NA

    Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

    13-15
    68 NA NA 77 79 47 NA

    Textiles and wearing apparel

    13-14
    68 NA NA 80 79 49 NA

    Textiles

    13
    68 NA NA 83 80 68 NA

    Wearing apparel

    14
    68 NA NA 74 72 41 NA

    Leather and related products

    15
    74 NA NA 69 84 44 NA

    Wood and paper products and printing

    16-18
    86 NA 87 92 90 85 NA

    Wood and wood products, except furniture

    16
    69 NA 79 78 74 56 NA

    Paper and paper products

    17
    104 NA 112 110 102 123 NA

    Printing and reproduction of recorded media

    18
    85 NA 85 99 92 76 NA

    Coke and refined petroleum products

    19
    157 NA NA NA NA 342 NA

    Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

    20-21
    119 NA NA 124 132 181 NA

    Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

    20
    111 NA NA 128 129 172 NA

    Pharmaceutical products

    21
    135 NA NA 118 138 209 NA

    Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

    22-23
    85 NA 110 95 94 82 NA

    Rubber and plastics products

    22
    83 NA 120 90 94 91 NA

    Other non-metallic mineral products

    23
    88 NA 102 100 94 74 NA

    Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

    24-25
    90 NA 105 100 95 111 NA

    Basic metals

    24
    105 NA 130 115 112 166 NA

    Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

    25
    86 NA 91 92 84 85 NA

    Computer, electronic and optical products

    26
    142 NA NA 118 106 143 NA

    Electrical equipment

    27
    102 NA NA 110 96 125 NA

    Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

    28
    107 NA NA 109 93 130 NA

    Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

    29-30
    127 NA NA 113 110 168 NA

    Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

    29
    105 NA 114 111 112 168 NA

    Other transport equipment

    30
    152 NA 99 121 102 NA NA

    Furniture

    31
    75 NA NA 73 73 54 NA

    Note:
    Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
    Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
    For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
    'NA' means data not available.
    Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

    Table 2b. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, as a percent of the manufacturing sector average (ISIC C = 100), 2012
    Industry ISIC Rev.4 Code Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece

    Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

    C
    100 100 100 100 100 100 100

    Food products, beverages and tobacco

    10-12
    NA 92 NA NA NA 69 NA

    Food and beverages

    10-11
    NA 92 94 NA NA NA NA

    Food products

    10
    NA 92 88 NA 77 65 NA

    Beverages

    11
    NA 98 148 NA NA 94 NA

    Tobacco products

    12
    NA NA NA NA NA 136 NA

    Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

    13-15
    NA 89 68 NA 79 77 NA

    Textiles and wearing apparel

    13-14
    NA 88 68 NA 79 75 NA

    Textiles

    13
    NA 89 78 NA 77 74 NA

    Wearing apparel

    14
    NA 88 62 NA 82 77 NA

    Leather and related products

    15
    NA NA 71 NA 79 85 NA

    Wood and paper products and printing

    16-18
    NA 92 107 NA 87 83 NA

    Wood and wood products, except furniture

    16
    NA 83 105 NA 74 68 NA

    Paper and paper products

    17
    NA 97 112 NA 94 90 NA

    Printing and reproduction of recorded media

    18
    NA 101 116 NA 90 86 NA

    Coke and refined petroleum products

    19
    NA NA NA NA NA 152 NA

    Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

    20-21
    NA 111 NA NA 136 127 NA

    Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

    20
    NA 111 132 NA 131 126 NA

    Pharmaceutical products

    21
    NA 138 NA NA 147 131 NA

    Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

    22-23
    NA 98 118 NA 94 82 NA

    Rubber and plastics products

    22
    NA 100 104 NA 93 83 NA

    Other non-metallic mineral products

    23
    NA 95 133 NA 96 81 NA

    Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

    24-25
    NA 91 NA NA 95 91 NA

    Basic metals

    24
    NA 90 NA NA 112 105 NA

    Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

    25
    NA 91 125 NA 89 85 NA

    Computer, electronic and optical products

    26
    NA 110 100 NA 131 109 NA

    Electrical equipment

    27
    NA 101 114 NA 105 108 NA

    Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

    28
    NA 103 130 NA 106 107 NA

    Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

    29-30
    NA 94 NA NA 115 128 NA

    Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

    29
    NA 91 108 NA 106 129 NA

    Other transport equipment

    30
    NA 98 NA NA 132 126 NA

    Furniture

    31
    NA 87 88 NA 75 75 NA

    Note:
    Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
    Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
    For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
    'NA' means data not available.
    Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

    Table 2c. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, as a percent of the manufacturing sector average (ISIC C = 100), 2012
    Industry ISIC Rev.4 Code Hungary Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea, Republic of Mexico

    Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

    C
    100 100 100 100 100 100 100

    Food products, beverages and tobacco

    10-12
    80 NA 68 99 72 75 87

    Food and beverages

    10-11
    79 NA NA 99 NA 74 86

    Food products

    10
    74 NA 65 97 NA 72 86

    Beverages

    11
    121 NA NA 114 NA 104 87

    Tobacco products

    12
    136 NA NA 161 NA 153 184

    Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

    13-15
    58 NA 64 80 NA 70 52

    Textiles and wearing apparel

    13-14
    58 NA 64 80 67 70 53

    Textiles

    13
    68 NA 70 88 NA 65 61

    Wearing apparel

    14
    52 NA 58 74 NA 77 46

    Leather and related products

    15
    59 NA 61 80 NA 68 48

    Wood and paper products and printing

    16-18
    86 NA 70 92 84 79 77

    Wood and wood products, except furniture

    16
    63 NA 66 81 76 77 42

    Paper and paper products

    17
    111 NA 79 97 88 87 84

    Printing and reproduction of recorded media

    18
    85 NA 66 99 83 69 74

    Coke and refined petroleum products

    19
    257 NA NA 150 NA 307 229

    Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

    20-21
    164 NA NA 136 NA 116 173

    Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

    20
    144 NA NA 123 NA 117 156

    Pharmaceutical products

    21
    178 NA 133 155 NA 113 219

    Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

    22-23
    96 NA 81 98 92 79 87

    Rubber and plastics products

    22
    91 NA 78 96 88 73 76

    Other non-metallic mineral products

    23
    107 NA 87 100 98 93 99

    Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

    24-25
    90 NA 77 96 98 96 111

    Basic metals

    24
    127 NA 75 109 116 130 132

    Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

    25
    79 NA 77 91 86 80 90

    Computer, electronic and optical products

    26
    110 NA 151 117 NA 117 81

    Electrical equipment

    27
    89 NA 93 105 NA 89 95

    Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

    28
    108 NA 116 107 NA 88 103

    Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

    29-30
    122 NA 129 109 118 124 123

    Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

    29
    121 NA 79 108 NA 125 122

    Other transport equipment

    30
    129 NA 147 111 NA 123 123

    Furniture

    31
    66 NA 60 81 79 90 60

    Note:
    Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
    Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
    For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
    'NA' means data not available.
    Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

    Table 2d. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, as a percent of the manufacturing sector average (ISIC C = 100), 2012
    Industry ISIC Rev.4 Code Netherlands New Zealand Norway Philippines Poland Portugal Singapore

    Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

    C
    100 100 100 100 100 100 100

    Food products, beverages and tobacco

    10-12
    NA NA 89 NA NA 100 NA

    Food and beverages

    10-11
    NA NA NA NA 89 NA NA

    Food products

    10
    NA 95 NA NA 86 NA NA

    Beverages

    11
    NA NA NA NA 141 NA NA

    Tobacco products

    12
    NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

    Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

    13-15
    NA 87 81 NA 64 73 NA

    Textiles and wearing apparel

    13-14
    NA NA NA NA 64 NA NA

    Textiles

    13
    NA NA NA NA 74 NA NA

    Wearing apparel

    14
    NA NA NA NA 59 NA NA

    Leather and related products

    15
    NA NA NA NA 64 NA NA

    Wood and paper products and printing

    16-18
    NA NA NA NA 93 NA NA

    Wood and wood products, except furniture

    16
    NA 88 78 NA 76 NA NA

    Paper and paper products

    17
    NA NA 89 NA 111 NA NA

    Printing and reproduction of recorded media

    18
    NA 95 96 NA 115 NA NA

    Coke and refined petroleum products

    19
    NA NA NA NA 208 NA NA

    Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

    20-21
    NA NA NA NA 137 NA NA

    Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

    20
    NA NA 114 NA 131 NA NA

    Pharmaceutical products

    21
    NA NA 115 NA 157 NA NA

    Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

    22-23
    NA NA 93 NA 101 NA NA

    Rubber and plastics products

    22
    NA 103 NA NA 97 NA NA

    Other non-metallic mineral products

    23
    NA 98 NA NA 107 104 NA

    Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

    24-25
    NA NA NA NA 105 103 NA

    Basic metals

    24
    NA 120 110 NA 123 NA NA

    Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

    25
    NA 98 95 NA 100 NA NA

    Computer, electronic and optical products

    26
    NA NA NA NA 96 NA NA

    Electrical equipment

    27
    NA NA NA NA 110 NA NA

    Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

    28
    NA NA 113 NA 112 NA NA

    Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

    29-30
    NA 113 112 NA 116 NA NA

    Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

    29
    NA NA NA NA 115 NA NA

    Other transport equipment

    30
    NA NA NA NA 117 NA NA

    Furniture

    31
    NA NA NA NA 77 NA NA

    Note:
    Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
    Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
    For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
    'NA' means data not available.
    Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

    Table 2e. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, as a percent of the manufacturing sector average (ISIC C = 100), 2012
    Industry ISIC Rev.4 Code Slovakia Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan United Kingdom

    Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

    C
    100 100 100 100 100 100

    Food products, beverages and tobacco

    10-12
    NA 86 85 NA NA 86

    Food and beverages

    10-11
    NA 85 NA NA NA 85

    Food products

    10
    NA 81 NA NA NA 81

    Beverages

    11
    NA 112 NA NA NA 120

    Tobacco products

    12
    NA 199 NA NA NA 159

    Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

    13-15
    NA 71 84 NA NA 77

    Textiles and wearing apparel

    13-14
    NA 75 NA NA NA 77

    Textiles

    13
    NA 77 NA NA 77 80

    Wearing apparel

    14
    NA 73 NA NA NA 71

    Leather and related products

    15
    NA 59 NA NA NA 81

    Wood and paper products and printing

    16-18
    NA 90 89 NA NA 89

    Wood and wood products, except furniture

    16
    NA 75 79 NA NA 73

    Paper and paper products

    17
    NA 110 99 NA 79 101

    Printing and reproduction of recorded media

    18
    NA 89 84 NA 78 90

    Coke and refined petroleum products

    19
    NA 192 133 NA 216 155

    Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

    20-21
    NA 133 136 NA NA 124

    Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

    20
    NA 125 NA NA NA 116

    Pharmaceutical products

    21
    NA 148 NA NA NA 136

    Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

    22-23
    NA 102 88 NA 84 89

    Rubber and plastics products

    22
    NA 103 86 NA 84 85

    Other non-metallic mineral products

    23
    NA 101 90 NA 84 97

    Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

    24-25
    NA 96 91 NA 88 90

    Basic metals

    24
    NA 117 105 NA 115 107

    Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

    25
    NA 90 84 NA 79 85

    Computer, electronic and optical products

    26
    NA 118 NA NA 120 121

    Electrical equipment

    27
    NA 114 NA NA NA 92

    Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

    28
    NA 108 NA NA NA 106

    Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

    29-30
    NA 125 103 NA 106 123

    Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

    29
    NA 120 NA NA 108 112

    Other transport equipment

    30
    NA 145 NA NA 103 132

    Furniture

    31
    NA NA NA NA 72 79

    Note:
    Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
    Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
    For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
    'NA' means data not available.
    Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

    Table 3a. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, as a percent of costs in the United States (U.S. = 100), 2012
    Industry ISIC Rev.4 Code United States Argentina Australia Austria Belgium Brazil Canada

    Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

    C
    100 53 134 116 146 31 103

    Food products, beverages and tobacco

    10-12
    100 NA 152 119 170 32 NA

    Food and beverages

    10-11
    NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

    Food products

    10
    100 NA 149 115 171 32 NA

    Beverages

    11
    NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

    Tobacco products

    12
    NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

    Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

    13-15
    100 NA NA 131 169 22 NA

    Textiles and wearing apparel

    13-14
    100 NA NA 137 169 23 NA

    Textiles

    13
    100 NA NA 143 173 31 NA

    Wearing apparel

    14
    100 NA NA 128 156 19 NA

    Leather and related products

    15
    100 NA NA 109 166 19 NA

    Wood and paper products and printing

    16-18
    100 NA 135 124 152 31 NA

    Wood and wood products, except furniture

    16
    100 NA 152 132 156 25 NA

    Paper and paper products

    17
    100 NA 144 124 144 37 NA

    Printing and reproduction of recorded media

    18
    100 NA 134 137 159 28 NA

    Coke and refined petroleum products

    19
    100 NA NA NA NA 69 NA

    Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

    20-21
    100 NA NA 121 161 48 NA

    Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

    20
    100 NA NA 135 171 49 NA

    Pharmaceutical products

    21
    100 NA NA 102 149 49 NA

    Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

    22-23
    100 NA 174 131 162 31 NA

    Rubber and plastics products

    22
    100 NA 193 126 166 35 NA

    Other non-metallic mineral products

    23
    100 NA 154 133 157 26 NA

    Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

    24-25
    100 NA 155 129 154 39 NA

    Basic metals

    24
    100 NA 167 128 157 50 NA

    Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

    25
    100 NA 142 124 142 31 NA

    Computer, electronic and optical products

    26
    100 NA NA 97 109 32 NA

    Electrical equipment

    27
    100 NA NA 126 137 38 NA

    Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

    28
    100 NA NA 118 127 38 NA

    Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

    29-30
    100 NA NA 103 127 41 NA

    Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

    29
    100 NA 145 123 157 50 NA

    Other transport equipment

    30
    100 NA 87 93 98 NA NA

    Furniture

    31
    100 NA NA 114 142 23 NA

    Note:
    Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
    Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
    For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
    'NA' means data not available.
    Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

    Table 3b. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, as a percent of costs in the United States (U.S. = 100), 2012
    Industry ISIC Rev.4 Code Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece

    Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

    C
    34 136 29 119 112 128 54

    Food products, beverages and tobacco

    10-12
    NA 164 NA NA NA 116 NA

    Food and beverages

    10-11
    NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

    Food products

    10
    NA 170 35 NA 116 113 NA

    Beverages

    11
    NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

    Tobacco products

    12
    NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

    Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

    13-15
    NA 178 29 NA 130 144 NA

    Textiles and wearing apparel

    13-14
    NA 177 29 NA 130 142 NA

    Textiles

    13
    NA 178 34 NA 127 140 NA

    Wearing apparel

    14
    NA 177 27 NA 135 147 NA

    Leather and related products

    15
    NA NA 28 NA 120 147 NA

    Wood and paper products and printing

    16-18
    NA 145 36 NA 112 123 NA

    Wood and wood products, except furniture

    16
    NA 162 44 NA 119 127 NA

    Paper and paper products

    17
    NA 127 32 NA 101 111 NA

    Printing and reproduction of recorded media

    18
    NA 162 40 NA 119 131 NA

    Coke and refined petroleum products

    19
    NA NA NA NA NA 124 NA

    Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

    20-21
    NA 126 NA NA 128 137 NA

    Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

    20
    NA 136 35 NA 132 146 NA

    Pharmaceutical products

    21
    NA 139 NA NA 121 125 NA

    Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

    22-23
    NA 157 41 NA 124 125 NA

    Rubber and plastics products

    22
    NA 164 37 NA 125 128 NA

    Other non-metallic mineral products

    23
    NA 147 44 NA 121 119 NA

    Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

    24-25
    NA 136 NA NA 117 129 NA

    Basic metals

    24
    NA 116 NA NA 119 129 NA

    Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

    25
    NA 143 42 NA 115 127 NA

    Computer, electronic and optical products

    26
    NA 106 21 NA 103 99 NA

    Electrical equipment

    27
    NA 134 33 NA 115 136 NA

    Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

    28
    NA 131 35 NA 111 129 NA

    Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

    29-30
    NA 101 NA NA 101 130 NA

    Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

    29
    NA 117 30 NA 113 158 NA

    Other transport equipment

    30
    NA 87 NA NA 97 106 NA

    Furniture

    31
    NA 159 34 NA 112 130 NA

    Note:
    Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
    Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
    For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
    'NA' means data not available.
    Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

    Table 3c. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, as a percent of costs in the United States (U.S. = 100), 2012
    Industry ISIC Rev.4 Code Hungary Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea, Republic of Mexico

    Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

    C
    25 107 56 96 99 58 18

    Food products, beverages and tobacco

    10-12
    26 NA 50 125 93 57 20

    Food and beverages

    10-11
    NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

    Food products

    10
    25 NA 50 127 NA 57 21

    Beverages

    11
    NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

    Tobacco products

    12
    NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

    Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

    13-15
    21 NA 53 113 NA 60 14

    Textiles and wearing apparel

    13-14
    21 NA 53 114 98 60 14

    Textiles

    13
    25 NA 58 125 NA 55 16

    Wearing apparel

    14
    19 NA 49 106 NA 66 12

    Leather and related products

    15
    20 NA 47 103 NA 53 11

    Wood and paper products and printing

    16-18
    25 NA 46 102 96 53 16

    Wood and wood products, except furniture

    16
    23 NA 54 112 109 64 11

    Paper and paper products

    17
    27 NA 43 89 84 49 14

    Printing and reproduction of recorded media

    18
    25 NA 44 112 98 48 16

    Coke and refined petroleum products

    19
    41 NA NA 92 NA 114 26

    Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

    20-21
    35 NA NA 109 NA 57 26

    Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

    20
    33 NA NA 107 NA 61 25

    Pharmaceutical products

    21
    33 NA 55 110 NA 49 29

    Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

    22-23
    29 NA 54 111 107 54 18

    Rubber and plastics products

    22
    27 NA 53 111 105 51 16

    Other non-metallic mineral products

    23
    30 NA 56 109 110 61 20

    Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

    24-25
    25 NA 48 101 107 62 22

    Basic metals

    24
    30 NA 40 100 110 72 22

    Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

    25
    23 NA 51 101 99 54 19

    Computer, electronic and optical products

    26
    20 NA 60 79 NA 48 10

    Electrical equipment

    27
    22 NA 52 98 NA 51 17

    Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

    28
    25 NA 61 96 NA 48 17

    Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

    29-30
    24 NA 57 82 92 57 17

    Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

    29
    29 NA 42 99 NA 69 21

    Other transport equipment

    30
    21 NA 55 70 NA 47 14

    Furniture

    31
    22 NA 46 104 104 70 14

    Note:
    Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
    Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
    For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
    'NA' means data not available.
    Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

    Table 3d. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, as a percent of costs in the United States (U.S. = 100), 2012
    Industry ISIC Rev.4 Code Netherlands New Zealand Norway Philippines Poland Portugal Singapore

    Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

    C
    111 69 178 6 23 34 68

    Food products, beverages and tobacco

    10-12
    NA NA 207 NA NA 45 NA

    Food and beverages

    10-11
    NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

    Food products

    10
    NA 89 NA NA 27 NA NA

    Beverages

    11
    NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

    Tobacco products

    12
    NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

    Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

    13-15
    NA 89 212 NA 22 36 NA

    Textiles and wearing apparel

    13-14
    NA NA NA NA 22 NA NA

    Textiles

    13
    NA NA NA NA 25 NA NA

    Wearing apparel

    14
    NA NA NA NA 20 NA NA

    Leather and related products

    15
    NA NA NA NA 20 NA NA

    Wood and paper products and printing

    16-18
    NA NA NA NA 25 NA NA

    Wood and wood products, except furniture

    16
    NA 88 200 NA 25 NA NA

    Paper and paper products

    17
    NA NA 153 NA 25 NA NA

    Printing and reproduction of recorded media

    18
    NA 78 201 NA 31 NA NA

    Coke and refined petroleum products

    19
    NA NA NA NA 31 NA NA

    Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

    20-21
    NA NA NA NA 27 NA NA

    Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

    20
    NA NA 182 NA 27 NA NA

    Pharmaceutical products

    21
    NA NA 151 NA 27 NA NA

    Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

    22-23
    NA NA 195 NA 28 NA NA

    Rubber and plastics products

    22
    NA 86 NA NA 27 NA NA

    Other non-metallic mineral products

    23
    NA 77 NA NA 28 40 NA

    Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

    24-25
    NA NA NA NA 27 39 NA

    Basic metals

    24
    NA 80 187 NA 27 NA NA

    Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

    25
    NA 79 195 NA 27 NA NA

    Computer, electronic and optical products

    26
    NA NA NA NA 16 NA NA

    Electrical equipment

    27
    NA NA NA NA 25 NA NA

    Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

    28
    NA NA 188 NA 24 NA NA

    Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

    29-30
    NA 62 157 NA 21 NA NA

    Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

    29
    NA NA NA NA 25 NA NA

    Other transport equipment

    30
    NA NA NA NA 18 NA NA

    Furniture

    31
    NA NA NA NA 24 NA NA

    Note:
    Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
    Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
    For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
    'NA' means data not available.
    Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

    Table 3e. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, as a percent of costs in the United States (U.S. = 100), 2012
    Industry ISIC Rev.4 Code Slovakia Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan United Kingdom

    Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

    C
    32 75 140 162 27 88

    Food products, beverages and tobacco

    10-12
    NA 85 157 NA NA 99

    Food and beverages

    10-11
    NA NA NA NA NA NA

    Food products

    10
    NA 82 NA NA NA 97

    Beverages

    11
    NA NA NA NA NA NA

    Tobacco products

    12
    NA NA NA NA NA NA

    Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

    13-15
    NA 79 173 NA NA 99

    Textiles and wearing apparel

    13-14
    NA 83 NA NA NA 99

    Textiles

    13
    NA 85 NA NA 30 103

    Wearing apparel

    14
    NA 81 NA NA NA 92

    Leather and related products

    15
    NA 61 NA NA NA 96

    Wood and paper products and printing

    16-18
    NA 79 144 NA NA 90

    Wood and wood products, except furniture

    16
    NA 82 159 NA NA 92

    Paper and paper products

    17
    NA 80 134 NA 20 85

    Printing and reproduction of recorded media

    18
    NA 79 138 NA 25 93

    Coke and refined petroleum products

    19
    NA 92 119 NA 36 87

    Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

    20-21
    NA 84 160 NA NA 91

    Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

    20
    NA 85 NA NA NA 92

    Pharmaceutical products

    21
    NA 82 NA NA NA 88

    Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

    22-23
    NA 90 145 NA 26 92

    Rubber and plastics products

    22
    NA 93 145 NA 27 90

    Other non-metallic mineral products

    23
    NA 86 144 NA 25 96

    Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

    24-25
    NA 80 140 NA 26 88

    Basic metals

    24
    NA 84 140 NA 29 90

    Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

    25
    NA 79 136 NA 24 86

    Computer, electronic and optical products

    26
    NA 62 NA NA 22 75

    Electrical equipment

    27
    NA 84 NA NA NA 79

    Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

    28
    NA 76 NA NA NA 87

    Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

    29-30
    NA 74 113 NA 22 84

    Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

    29
    NA 86 NA NA 27 94

    Other transport equipment

    30
    NA 72 NA NA 18 76

    Furniture

    31
    NA NA NA NA 26 93

    Note:
    Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
    Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
    For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
    'NA' means data not available.
    Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

    Last Modified Date: August 9, 2013

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