Economic News Release

Quarterly Data Series on Business Employment Dynamics News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. EST 				USDL-13-0140
Tuesday, January 29, 2013	

Technical information: (202) 691-6553  *  BDMInfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/bdm

Media contact:	       (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov	


	  BUSINESS EMPLOYMENT DYNAMICS:  SECOND QUARTER 2012
	
From March 2012 to June 2012 gross job gains from opening and 
expanding private sector establishments were 7.0 million, an increase 
of 69,000 from the previous quarter, the U.S. Bureau of Labor 
Statistics reported today. Over this period, gross job losses from
closing and contracting private sector establishments were 6.4 million,
an increase of 301,000 from the previous quarter.

The difference between the number of gross job gains and the number 
of gross job losses yielded a net employment gain of 582,000 jobs 
in the private sector during the second quarter of 2012.  
(See table 1.)

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of 
increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses 
in the economy. Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track
these changes in employment at private business units from the third
month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains
are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing 
units and the addition of new jobs at opening units. Gross job losses
are the result of contractions in employment at existing units and the
loss of jobs at closing units. The difference between the number of 
gross job gains and the number of gross job losses is the net change 
in employment. (See the Technical Note for more information.) 

The BED data series include gross job gains and gross job losses at the 
establishment level by industry subsector and for the 50 states, the 
District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, as well as 
gross job gains and gross job losses at the firm level by employer size 
class.

Gross job gains at expanding establishments totaled 5.7 million in 
second quarter 2012, an increase of 38,000 from the previous quarter.

Opening establishments accounted for 1.3 million jobs gained in second 
quarter 2012, an increase of 31,000 from the previous quarter.

Contracting establishments lost 5.2 million jobs in second quarter 
2012. This is an increase of 278,000 from the prior quarter.

In second quarter 2012, closing establishments lost 1.2 million jobs, 
an increase of 23,000 from the previous quarter.  (See tables 1 and 3.)

Gross job gains represented 6.3 percent of private sector employment 
in second quarter 2012, while gross job losses represented 5.8 percent 
of private sector employment.  (See table 2.)

In second quarter 2012, the number of establishment births (a subset of 
the openings data, see the Technical Note for more information) fell by 
2,000 to 191,000. These new establishments accounted for 759,000 jobs, 
an increase of 11,000 from the previous quarter.  (See table 8.)

Data for establishment deaths (a subset of the closings data) are 
available through third quarter 2011, when 674,000 jobs were lost at 
187,000 establishments. These figures represent decreases from the 
prior quarter when 677,000 jobs were lost at 190,000 establishments.

During second quarter 2012, gross job gains exceeded gross job losses 
in all industry sectors except construction, information, and 
utilities. Manufacturing experienced its ninth consecutive quarter 
of net employment gains. The manufacturing industry experienced a net
job gain of 85,000 jobs, representing the largest increase in net job 
creation in that industry since fourth quarter 1997. (See table 3.)

Gross job losses increased in all three major firm size classes during 
the second quarter 2012. Additionally, gross job gains in the smallest 
size class, firms with 1-49 employees, decreased by 115,000. Firms 
with 250 or more employees accounted for 44 percent of the total net
change in employment for second quarter 2012.  (See tables 4 and 5.)

Table A.  Three-month private sector gross job gains and losses, 
seasonally adjusted 

Category                                 3 months ended

                                June    Sept.   Dec.    Mar.    June
                                2011    2011    2011    2012    2012

                                      Levels (in thousands)
                                      
Gross job gains................ 6,942   7,136   6,909   6,935  7,004
 At expanding establishments... 5,646   5,776   5,557   5,706  5,744
 At opening establishments..... 1,296   1,360   1,352   1,229  1,260

Gross job losses............... 6,339   6,342   6,520   6,121  6,422
 At contracting establishments. 5,111   5,194   5,238   4,935  5,213
 At closing establishments..... 1,228   1,148   1,282   1,186  1,209

Net employment change(1).......   603     794     389     814    582
								
                                         Rates (percent)

Gross job gains................   6.5     6.7     6.3     6.3    6.3
 At expanding establishments...   5.3     5.4     5.1     5.2    5.2
 At opening establishments.....   1.2     1.3     1.2     1.1    1.1

Gross job losses...............   5.9     5.9     6.0     5.6    5.8
 At contracting establishments.   4.8     4.8     4.8     4.5    4.7
 At closing establishments.....   1.1     1.1     1.2     1.1    1.1

Net employment change(1).......    .6      .8      .3      .7     .5

    (1) The net employment change is the difference between total 
    gross job gains and total gross job losses.  See the Technical 
    Note for further information.
    
In the second quarter of 2012, gross job gains exceeded gross job 
losses in 41 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. 
California had the largest net employment gain of 108,383 jobs, 
followed by Texas with 89,160 jobs and New York with 33,889 jobs. 
(See table 6.)  Alaska had the largest rate of gross job gains as a 
percent of employment at 11.1 percent, well above the U.S. average 
of 6.3 percent. Massachusetts had the lowest rate of gross job losses 
as a percent of employment at 4.9 percent, well below the U.S. average
of 5.8 percent. (See table 7.)

More Information
Additional information on gross job gains and gross job losses are 
available online at www.bls.gov/bdm. This information includes data 
on the levels and rates of gross job gains and gross job losses by 
firm size, not seasonally adjusted data and other seasonally adjusted 
time series not presented in this release, charts of gross job gains 
and gross job losses by industry and firm size, and frequently asked 
questions on firm-size data. Additional information about the Business 
Employment Dynamics data can be found in the Technical Note of this 
release or may be obtained by e-mailing BDMinfo@bls.gov.



 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
| The Business Employment Dynamics for Third Quarter 2012 are scheduled  |
| to be released on Wednesday, May 1, 2013 at 10:00 a.m. (EDT).          |
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------








                                                                 
Technical Note

   
   The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-
state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages
(QCEW).  The BED data are compiled by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
(BLS) from existing quarterly state unemployment insurance (UI) records.
Most employers in the U.S. are required to file quarterly reports on the
employment and wages of workers covered by UI laws, and to pay quarterly UI
taxes.  The quarterly UI reports are sent by the State Employment Security
Agencies (SESAs) to BLS and form the basis of the Bureau's establishment
universe sampling frame.  These reports also are used to produce the
quarterly QCEW data on total employment and wages and the longitudinal BED
data on gross job gains and losses.  Other important BLS uses of the UI
reports are in the Current Employment Statistics (CES) program.
                                     
   In the BED program, the quarterly UI records are linked across quarters
to provide a longitudinal history for each establishment.  The linkage
process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment
level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and
expanding units and jobs lost at closing and contracting units.

Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES employment measures

   The BLS publishes three different establishment-based employment mea-
sures for any given quarter.  Each of these measures--QCEW, BED, and CES--
makes use of the quarterly UI employment reports in producing data; how-
ever, each measure has a somewhat different universe coverage, estimation 
procedure, and publication product.

   Differences in coverage and estimation methods can result in somewhat 
different measures of over-the-quarter employment change.  It is important to 
understand program differences and the intended uses of the program products.  
(See table below.)  Additional information on each program can be obtained 
from the program web sites shown in the table below.

				                                  
Summary of Major Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES Employment Measures
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |         QCEW        |         BED          |         CES
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Source     |--Count of UI admini-|--Count of longitudi- |--Sample survey: 
           |  strative records   |  nally-linked UI ad- |  486,000 establish-
           |  submitted by 9.2   |  ministrative records|  ments
           |  million employers  |  submitted by 6.8    |
           |                     |  million private sec-|
           |                     |  tor employers       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Coverage   |--UI and UCFE cover- |--UI Coverage, exclud-|Nonfarm wage and sal-
           |  age:  all employers|  ing government, pri-|  ary jobs:
           |  subject to state   |  vate households, and|--UI Coverage, exclud-
           |  and federal UI Laws|  establishments with |  ing: agriculture, pri-
           |                     |  zero employment     |  vate households, and
           |                     |                      |  self-employed;
           |                     |                      |  including: railroads,
           |                     |                      |  religious organiza-
           |                     |                      |  tions, and other non-
           |                     |                      |  UI-covered jobs
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Publication|--Quarterly          |--Quarterly           |--Monthly 
frequency  |  -7 months after the|  -8 months after the |  -First Friday
           |   end of each quar- |   end of each quarter|   of following month
           |   ter               |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Use of UI  |--Directly summarizes|--Links each new UI   |--Uses UI file as a sam-
file       |  and publishes each |  quarter to longitu- |  pling frame and annu-
           |  new quarter of UI  |  dinal database and  |  ally realigns (bench-
           |  data               |  directly summarizes |  marks) sample esti-    
           |                     |  gross job gains and |  mates to first quar-  
           |                     |  losses              |  ter UI levels
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Provides a quarter-|--Provides quarterly  |--Provides current month-
products   |  ly and annual uni- |  employer dynamics   |  ly estimates of employ-
           |  verse count of es- |  data on establish-  |  ment, hours, and earn-
           |  tablishments, em-  |  ment openings, clos-|  ings at the MSA, state,
           |  ployment, and wages|  ings, expansions,   |  and national level by
           |  at the county, MSA,|  and contractions at |  industry
           |  State, and national|  the national level  |
           |  levels by detailed |  by NAICS super-     |
           |  industry           |  sectors,3-digit     |
           |                     |  NAICS, and by size  |
           |                     |  of firm, and at the |   
           |                     |  state private-sector|
           |                     |  total level         | 
           |                     |--Future expansions   |
           |                     |  will include        |
           |                     |  data at the county  |
           |                     |  and MSA level       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Major uses include:|--Major uses include: |--Major uses include:
uses       |  -Detailed locality |  -Business cycle     |  -Principal national
           |   data              |   analysis           |   economic indicator
           |  -Periodic universe |  -Analysis of employ-|  -Official time series 
           |   counts for bench- |   er dynamics under- |   for employment change
           |   marking sample    |   lying economic ex- |   measures
           |   survey estimates  |   pansions and con-  |  -Input into other ma-
           |  -Sample frame for  |   tractions          |   jor economic indi-
           |   BLS establishment |  -Analysis of employ-|   cators
           |   surveys           |   ment expansion and |
           |                     |   contraction by size|   
           |                     |   of firm            |
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Program    |--www.bls.gov/cew/   |--www.bls.gov/bdm/    |--www.bls.gov/ces/
Web sites  |                     |                      |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               
                           
Coverage                           

   Employment and wage data for workers covered by state UI and Unemployment 
Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE) laws are compiled from quarterly 
contribution reports submitted to the SESAs by employers.  In addition to the 
quarterly contribution reports, employers who operate multiple establishments 
within a state complete a questionnaire, called the "Multiple Worksite Report,"
which provides detailed information on the location of their establishments. 
These reports are based on place of employment rather than place of residence. 
UI and UCFE coverage is broad and basically comparable from state to state.
   
   Major exclusions from UI coverage are self-employed workers, religious or-
ganizations, most agricultural workers on small farms, all members of the 
Armed Forces, elected officials in most states, most employees of railroads, 
some domestic workers, most student workers at schools, and employees of cer-
tain small nonprofit organizations.
   
   Gross job gains and gross job losses in this release are derived from lon-
gitudinal histories of 6.8 million private sector employer reports out 
of 9.2 million total reports of employment and wages submitted by states to 
BLS in the first quarter of 2012.  Gross job gains and gross job losses data 
in this release do not report estimates for government employees or private 
households (NAICS 814110) and do not include establishments with zero employ-
ment in both previous and current quarters.  Data from Puerto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands (49,972 units rounded to 0.0 million) also are excluded from
the national data.  As an illustration,the table below shows, in millions of 
establishments, the number of establishments excluded from the gross job 
gains and gross job losses data in the first quarter of 2012:


             Number of active establishments included in 
              Business Employment Dynamics data at the
                          national level

                                                                   Millions
                                                                       
Total establishments QCEW program....................................9.2

    Excluded:  Public sector.........................................0.3 
               Private households....................................0.8
               Zero employment.......................................1.3      
               Establishments in Puerto Rico 
                 and the Virgin Islands..............................0.0 

                 
Total establishments included in Business
Employment Dynamics data.............................................6.8

Unit of analysis
   
   Establishments are used in the tabulation of the BED statistics by in-
dustry and firms are used in the tabulation of the BED size class sta-
tistics.  An establishment is defined as an economic unit that produces
goods or services, usually at a single physical location, and engages in
one or predominantly one activity.  A firm is a legal business, either
corporate or otherwise, and may consist of several establishments.  Firm-
level data are compiled based on an aggregation of establishments under
common ownership by a corporate parent using employer tax identification
numbers.  The firm-level aggregation which is consistent with the role of
corporations as the economic decision makers are used for the measurement
of the BED data elements by size class.
   
   Because of the difference in the unit of analysis, total gross job gains
and gross job losses by size class are lower than total gross job gains and
gross job losses by industry, as some establishment gains and losses within
a firm are offset during the aggregation process.  However, the total net
changes in employment are the same for not seasonally adjusted data and are
similar for seasonally adjusted data.
                                 
Concepts and methodology

   The Business Employment Dynamics data measure the net change in employ-
ment at the establishment or firm level.  These changes come about in one 
of four ways.  A net increase in employment can come from either opening 
units or expanding units.  A net decrease in employment can come from either 
closing units or contracting units.  Gross job gains include the sum of all
jobs added at either opening or expanding units.  Gross job losses include
the sum of all jobs lost in either closing or contracting units.  The net
change in employment is the difference between gross job gains and gross
job losses.
   
   The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:                          

   Openings.  These are either units with positive third month employment for
the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or
with positive third month employment in the current quarter following zero em-
ployment in the previous quarter.
                                     
   Expansions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment
over this period.
   
   Closings.  These are units with positive third month employment in the pre-
vious quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the current
quarter.
   
   Contractions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment
over this period.

   Births.  These are units with positive third month employment for the 
first time in the current quarter with no links to the prior quarter, or 
units with positive third month employment in the current quarter and zero
employment in the third month of the previous four quarters. Births are a
subset of openings not including re-openings of seasonal businesses.

   Deaths.  These are units with no employment or zero employment reported in 
the third month of four consecutive quarters following the last quarter with 
positive employment. Deaths are a subset of closings not including temporary 
shutdowns of seasonal businesses.  A unit that closes during the quarter may 
be a death, but we wait three quarters to determine whether it is a permanent
closing or a temporary shutdown. Therefore, there is always a lag of three 
quarters for the publication of death statistics.

   All employment changes are measured from the third month of each quarter.
Not all establishments and firms change their employment levels.  Units with
no change in employment count towards estimates of total employment, but not
for levels of gross job gains and gross job losses.

   Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing 
their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quar-
ters.  This provides a symmetric growth rate.  The rates are calculated for
the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to
form their respective totals.  These rates can be added and subtracted just
as their levels can.  For instance, the difference between the gross job
gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

Establishment Births and Deaths

   For the purpose of BED statistics, births are defined as establishments
that appear in the longitudinal database for the first time with positive
employment in the third month of a quarter, or showed four consecutive
quarters of zero employment in the third month followed by a quarter in
which it shows positive employment in the third month.  Similarly, deaths
are defined as establishments that either drop out of the longitudinal
database or an establishment that had positive employment in the third month
of a given quarter followed by four consecutive quarters of showing zero
employment in the third month.  Although the data for establishment births
and deaths are tabulated independently from the data for openings and
closings, the concepts are not mutually exclusive.  An establishment that
is defined as a birth in a given quarter is necessarily an opening as well,
and an establishment defined as a death in a quarter must also be a closing.
Since openings include seasonal, and other, re-openings and closings include
temporary shutdowns, the not seasonally adjusted values for births and
deaths must be less than those openings and closings.  However, because some
BED series do not have many re-openings or temporary shutdowns, as well as
the fact that births and deaths are independently seasonally adjusted from
openings and closings, there may be instances in which the seasonally
adjusted value of the former is greater than the latter.

Linkage methodology

   Prior to the measurement of gross job gains and gross job losses, QCEW
records are linked across two quarters.  The linkage process matches esta-
blishments' unique SESA identification numbers (SESA-ID).  Between 95 to 97
percent of establishments identified as continuous from quarter to quarter
are matched by SESA-ID.  The rest are linked in one of three ways.  The first
method uses predecessor and successor information, identified by the States,
which relates records with different SESA-IDs across quarters.  Predecessor
and successor relations can come about for a variety of reasons, including
a change in ownership, a firm restructuring, or a UI account restructuring.
If a match cannot be attained in this manner, a probability-based match is
used.  This match attempts to identify two establishments with different SESA-
IDs as continuous.  The match is based upon comparisons such as the same
name, address, and phone number.  Third, an analyst examines unmatched re-
cords individually and makes a possible match.

   In order to ensure the highest possible quality of data, SESAs verify with 
employers and update, if necessary, the industry, location, and ownership 
classification of all establishments on a 4-year cycle.  Changes in establish-
ment classification codes resulting from the verification process are intro-
duced with the data reported for the first quarter of the year.  Changes re-
sulting from improved employer reporting also are introduced in the first 
quarter.   
                              
Sizing methodology
   
   The method of dynamic sizing is used in calculations for the BED size 
class data series.  Dynamic sizing allocates each firm's employment gain or
loss during a quarter to each respective size class in which the change
occurred.  For example, if a firm grew from 2 employees in quarter 1 to 38
employees in quarter 2, then, of the 36-employee increase, 2 would be al-
located to the first size class, 5 to the size class 5 to 9, 10 to size
class 10 to 19, and 19 to size class 20 to 49.
   
   Dynamic sizing provides symmetrical firm-size estimates and eliminates
any systematic effects which may be caused by the transitory and reverting
changes in firms' sizes over time.  Additionally, it allocates each job
gain or loss to the actual size class where it occurred.

Annual Data

   The annual gross job gains and gross job losses measure the net change
in employment at the establishment level from the third month of a quarter
in the previous year to the third month of the same quarter in the current
year.  The BLS publishes annual BED data based on March-to-March changes
once a year with the release of the first quarter BED data.  The annual
data based on over-the-year changes for other quarters of the year are
available upon request.  The definitions and methodology in measuring
annual gross job gains and gross job losses are similar to the quarterly
measures.  The linkage method considers all predecessor and successor
relations that may come about due to changes in ownership and corporate
restructuring over the entire year.  At the establishment level, some of
the quarterly job gains and job losses are offset during the estimation
over the year.  Therefore, the sum of four quarters of gross job gains
and gross job losses are not equal to annual gross job gains and gross
job losses.  The net change in employment over the year, however, is
equal to the sum of four quarterly net changes on a not seasonally
adjusted basis.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the levels of employment and the associated
job flows undergo sharp fluctuations due to such seasonal events as changes
in the weather, reduced or expanded production, harvests, major holidays,
and the opening and closing of schools.  The effect of such seasonal vari-
ation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each 
year, their influence can be eliminated by adjusting these statistics from 
quarter to quarter.  These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as 
declines in economic activity, easier to recognize.  For example, the large 
number of youths taking summer jobs is likely to obscure other changes that 
have taken place in June relative to March, making it difficult to determine 
if the level of economic activity has risen or declined.  However, because
the effect of students finishing school in previous years is known, the 
statistics for the current year can be adjusted to allow for a comparable 
change.  The adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to ana-
lyze changes in economic activity.

   The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contract-
ing units are independently seasonally adjusted; net changes are calculated
based on the difference between gross job gains and gross job losses.  Simi-
larly, for industry data, the establishment counts data series for opening,
expanding, closing, and contracting establishments are independently adjusted,
and the net changes are calculated based on the difference between the number
of opening and closing establishments.  Additionally establishment and em-
ployment levels are independently seasonally adjusted to calculate the sea-
sonally adjusted rates.  Concurrent seasonal adjustment is run using X-12
ARIMA.  Seasonally adjusted data series for total private are the sum of 
seasonally adjusted data of all sectors including the unclassified sector,
which is not separately published.
   
   The net over-the-quarter change derived by summing the BED component series 
will differ from the net employment change estimated from the seasonally ad-
justed total private employment series from the CES program.  The intended use 
of BED statistics is to show the dynamic labor market changes that underlie 
the net employment change statistic.  As such, data users interested particu-
larly in the net employment change and not in the gross job flows underlying 
this change should refer to CES data for over-the-quarter net employment
changes.
   
Reliability of the data
   
   Since the data series on Business Employment Dynamics are based on admini-
strative rather than sample data, there are no issues related to sampling 
error.  Nonsampling error, however, still exists.  Nonsampling errors can oc-
cur for many reasons, such as the employer submitting corrected employment 
data after the end of the quarter or typographical errors made by businesses 
when providing information.  Such errors, however, are likely to be distri-
buted randomly throughout the dataset.
   
   Changes in administrative data sometimes create complications for the 
linkage process.  This can result in overstating openings and closings while 
understating expansions and contractions.  The BLS continues to refine methods 
for improving the linkage process to alleviate the effects of these compli-
cations.
   
   The BED data series are subject to periodic minor changes based on correc-
tions in QCEW records, updates on predecessors and successors information, and
seasonal adjustment revisions.

Annual revisions are published each year with the release of the first quarter
data.  These revisions cover the last four quarters of not seasonally adjusted
data and 5 years of seasonally adjusted data.
                      
Additional statistics and other information
   
   Several other programs within BLS produce closely related information.  
The QCEW program provides both quarterly and annual estimates of employment
by state, county, and detailed industry.  News releases on quarterly county
employment and wages and an annual bulletin: Employment and Wages Annual
Averages, are available upon request from the Division of Administrative
Statistics and Labor Turnover, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department
of Labor, Washington, DC 20212; telephone 202-691-6567;
(http://www.bls.gov/cew/); (e-mail: QCEWInfo@bls.gov).
                                     
   The CES program produces monthly estimates of employment, its net change, 
and earnings by detailed industry.  These estimates are part of the Employ-
ment Situation report put out monthly by BLS.
                                     
   The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) program provides month-
ly measures of job openings, as well as employee hires and separations.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired in-
dividuals upon request.  Voice phone:  202-691-5200; TDD message referral 
number: 1-800-877-8339.






Table 1.  Private sector gross job gains and job losses, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(In thousands)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(1) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2002  March                -10      8,071       6,298         1,773       8,081       6,434           1,647
      June                 -30      7,868       6,145         1,723       7,898       6,274           1,624
      September           -151      7,630       6,039         1,591       7,781       6,248           1,533
      December            -241      7,483       5,938         1,545       7,724       6,185           1,539

2003  March               -393      7,467       5,928         1,539       7,860       6,307           1,553
      June                 -90      7,398       5,929         1,469       7,488       6,030           1,458
      September            204      7,392       5,923         1,469       7,188       5,828           1,360
      December             297      7,521       6,005         1,516       7,224       5,800           1,424

2004  March                470      7,715       6,204         1,511       7,245       5,795           1,450
      June                 644      7,754       6,235         1,519       7,110       5,639           1,471
      September            206      7,633       6,060         1,573       7,427       5,888           1,539
      December             757      7,844       6,243         1,601       7,087       5,663           1,424

2005  March                384      7,620       6,131         1,489       7,236       5,801           1,435
      June                 593      7,774       6,231         1,543       7,181       5,776           1,405
      September            677      7,965       6,387         1,578       7,288       5,844           1,444
      December             494      7,807       6,252         1,555       7,313       5,948           1,365

2006  March                874      7,797       6,354         1,443       6,923       5,636           1,287
      June                 371      7,758       6,246         1,512       7,387       6,015           1,372
      September             52      7,499       6,061         1,438       7,447       6,097           1,350
      December             455      7,740       6,223         1,517       7,285       5,941           1,344

2007  March                549      7,727       6,297         1,430       7,178       5,881           1,297
      June                 149      7,632       6,222         1,410       7,483       6,079           1,404
      September           -252      7,318       5,847         1,471       7,570       6,215           1,355
      December             299      7,658       6,196         1,462       7,359       6,012           1,347

2008  March               -227      7,233       5,826         1,407       7,460       6,095           1,365
      June                -575      7,257       5,851         1,406       7,832       6,354           1,478
      September           -968      6,879       5,515         1,364       7,847       6,462           1,385
      December          -1,793      6,712       5,360         1,352       8,505       7,022           1,483

2009  March             -2,706      5,834       4,648         1,186       8,540       7,122           1,418
      June              -1,656      6,395       5,093         1,302       8,051       6,669           1,382
      September           -899      6,335       5,119         1,216       7,234       5,874           1,360
      December            -217      6,651       5,325         1,326       6,868       5,583           1,285

2010  March               -266      6,245       5,078         1,167       6,511       5,308           1,203
      June                 722      6,972       5,690         1,282       6,250       5,087           1,163
      September            187      6,669       5,416         1,253       6,482       5,253           1,229
      December             609      7,027       5,651         1,376       6,418       5,193           1,225

2011  March                292      6,437       5,272         1,165       6,145       5,010           1,135
      June                 603      6,942       5,646         1,296       6,339       5,111           1,228
      September            794      7,136       5,776         1,360       6,342       5,194           1,148
      December             389      6,909       5,557         1,352       6,520       5,238           1,282

2012  March                814      6,935       5,706         1,229       6,121       4,935           1,186
      June                 582      7,004       5,744         1,260       6,422       5,213           1,209

(1) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 2.  Private sector gross job gains and losses, as a percent of employment(1), seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Percent)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(2) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2002  March                 .0       7.5         5.9           1.6         7.5          6.0            1.5
      June                  .0       7.3         5.7           1.6         7.3          5.8            1.5
      September            -.1       7.1         5.6           1.5         7.2          5.8            1.4
      December             -.3       6.9         5.5           1.4         7.2          5.8            1.4

2003  March                -.5       6.9         5.5           1.4         7.4          5.9            1.5
      June                  .0       7.0         5.6           1.4         7.0          5.6            1.4
      September             .1       6.9         5.5           1.4         6.8          5.5            1.3
      December              .3       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3

2004  March                 .5       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3
      June                  .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.2            1.4
      September             .3       7.1         5.6           1.5         6.8          5.4            1.4
      December              .7       7.2         5.7           1.5         6.5          5.2            1.3

2005  March                 .4       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      June                  .6       7.1         5.7           1.4         6.5          5.2            1.3
      September             .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      December              .4       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.6          5.4            1.2

2006  March                 .9       7.0         5.7           1.3         6.1          5.0            1.1
      June                  .3       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September             .1       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.6          5.4            1.2
      December              .3       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2007  March                 .5       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.3          5.2            1.1
      June                  .2       6.7         5.5           1.2         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September            -.3       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.7          5.5            1.2
      December              .2       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2008  March                -.2       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.5          5.3            1.2
      June                 -.6       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.9          5.6            1.3
      September            -.8       6.1         4.9           1.2         6.9          5.7            1.2
      December            -1.6       6.0         4.8           1.2         7.6          6.3            1.3

2009  March               -2.4       5.4         4.3           1.1         7.8          6.5            1.3
      June                -1.5       6.0         4.8           1.2         7.5          6.2            1.3
      September            -.9       5.9         4.8           1.1         6.8          5.5            1.3
      December             -.1       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2010  March                -.2       5.9         4.8           1.1         6.1          5.0            1.1
      June                  .7       6.6         5.4           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1
      September             .1       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.2          5.0            1.2
      December              .5       6.6         5.3           1.3         6.1          4.9            1.2

2011  March                 .2       6.0         4.9           1.1         5.8          4.7            1.1
      June                  .6       6.5         5.3           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1
      September             .8       6.7         5.4           1.3         5.9          4.8            1.1
      December              .3       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.0          4.8            1.2

2012  March                 .7       6.3         5.2           1.1         5.6          4.5            1.1
      June                  .5       6.3         5.2           1.1         5.8          4.7            1.1

(1) The rates measure gross job gains and gross job losses as a percentage
    of the previous and current quarter employment levels.

(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 3. Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   June    Sept    Dec.    Mar.    June   June   Sept   Dec.   Mar.   June  
                                   2011    2011    2011    2012    2012   2011   2011   2011   2012   2012
Total private(1)

Gross job gains                   6,942   7,136   6,909   6,935   7,004    6.5    6.7    6.3    6.3    6.3
 At expanding establishments      5,646   5,776   5,557   5,706   5,744    5.3    5.4    5.1    5.2    5.2
 At opening establishments        1,296   1,360   1,352   1,229   1,260    1.2    1.3    1.2    1.1    1.1
Gross job losses                  6,339   6,342   6,520   6,121   6,422    5.9    5.9    6.0    5.6    5.8
 At contracting establishments    5,111   5,194   5,238   4,935   5,213    4.8    4.8    4.8    4.5    4.7
 At closing establishments        1,228   1,148   1,282   1,186   1,209    1.1    1.1    1.2    1.1    1.1
Net employment change               603     794     389     814     582     .6     .8     .3     .7     .5

Goods-producing

Gross job gains                   1,413   1,461   1,363   1,386   1,388    7.5    7.6    7.0    7.1    7.1
 At expanding establishments      1,194   1,233   1,144   1,184   1,186    6.3    6.4    5.9    6.1    6.1
 At opening establishments          219     228     219     202     202    1.2    1.2    1.1    1.0    1.0
Gross job losses                  1,275   1,271   1,356   1,241   1,304    6.7    6.6    7.0    6.4    6.7
 At contracting establishments    1,041   1,061   1,121   1,027   1,078    5.5    5.5    5.8    5.3    5.5
 At closing establishments          234     210     235     214     226    1.2    1.1    1.2    1.1    1.2
Net employment change               138     190       7     145      84     .8    1.0     .0     .7     .4

Natural resources and mining

Gross job gains                     285     306     298     288     298   15.4   16.2   15.4   14.5   15.0
 At expanding establishments        245     262     253     250     259   13.2   13.9   13.1   12.6   13.0
 At opening establishments           40      44      45      38      39    2.2    2.3    2.3    1.9    2.0
Gross job losses                    260     242     270     258     296   14.1   12.9   13.9   13.0   14.9
 At contracting establishments      216     211     235     221     250   11.7   11.2   12.1   11.1   12.6
 At closing establishments           44      31      35      37      46    2.4    1.7    1.8    1.9    2.3
Net employment change                25      64      28      30       2    1.3    3.3    1.5    1.5     .1

Construction

Gross job gains                     669     691     632     662     631   12.3   12.6   11.4   11.9   11.3
 At expanding establishments        529     549     498     538     508    9.7   10.0    9.0    9.7    9.1
 At opening establishments          140     142     134     124     123    2.6    2.6    2.4    2.2    2.2
Gross job losses                    634     619     659     616     634   11.6   11.3   11.9   11.1   11.4
 At contracting establishments      495     489     513     487     507    9.1    8.9    9.3    8.8    9.1
 At closing establishments          139     130     146     129     127    2.5    2.4    2.6    2.3    2.3
Net employment change                35      72     -27      46      -3     .7    1.3    -.5     .8    -.1

Manufacturing

Gross job gains                     459     464     433     436     459    3.9    4.0    3.6    3.6    3.8
 At expanding establishments        420     422     393     396     419    3.6    3.6    3.3    3.3    3.5
 At opening establishments           39      42      40      40      40     .3     .4     .3     .3     .3
Gross job losses                    381     410     427     367     374    3.2    3.5    3.7    3.1    3.1
 At contracting establishments      330     361     373     319     321    2.8    3.1    3.2    2.7    2.7
 At closing establishments           51      49      54      48      53     .4     .4     .5     .4     .4
Net employment change                78      54       6      69      85     .7     .5    -.1     .5     .7

Service-providing(1)

Gross job gains                   5,529   5,675   5,546   5,549   5,616    6.2    6.4    6.2    6.1    6.2
 At expanding establishments      4,452   4,543   4,413   4,522   4,558    5.0    5.1    4.9    5.0    5.0
 At opening establishments        1,077   1,132   1,133   1,027   1,058    1.2    1.3    1.3    1.1    1.2
Gross job losses                  5,064   5,071   5,164   4,880   5,118    5.7    5.8    5.8    5.4    5.7
 At contracting establishments    4,070   4,133   4,117   3,908   4,135    4.6    4.7    4.6    4.3    4.6
 At closing establishments          994     938   1,047     972     983    1.1    1.1    1.2    1.1    1.1
Net employment change               465     604     382     669     498     .5     .6     .4     .7     .5

Wholesale trade

Gross job gains                     286     288     276     282     288    5.1    5.2    4.9    5.1    5.0
 At expanding establishments        234     232     223     234     240    4.2    4.2    4.0    4.2    4.2
 At opening establishments           52      56      53      48      48     .9    1.0     .9     .9     .8
Gross job losses                    244     255     250     244     254    4.4    4.6    4.5    4.3    4.5
 At contracting establishments      186     202     191     186     192    3.4    3.6    3.4    3.3    3.4
 At closing establishments           58      53      59      58      62    1.0    1.0    1.1    1.0    1.1
Net employment change                42      33      26      38      34     .7     .6     .4     .8     .5

Retail trade

Gross job gains                     904     880     898     883     891    6.2    5.9    6.1    5.9    6.0
 At expanding establishments        773     741     776     761     760    5.3    5.0    5.3    5.1    5.1
 At opening establishments          131     139     122     122     131     .9     .9     .8     .8     .9
Gross job losses                    779     866     821     845     813    5.3    5.8    5.6    5.7    5.5
 At contracting establishments      659     757     695     738     710    4.5    5.1    4.7    5.0    4.8
 At closing establishments          120     109     126     107     103     .8     .7     .9     .7     .7
Net employment change               125      14      77      38      78     .9     .1     .5     .2     .5

Transportation and warehousing

Gross job gains                     222     230     244     213     218    5.4    5.6    5.9    5.2    5.3
 At expanding establishments        188     193     210     181     186    4.6    4.7    5.1    4.4    4.5
 At opening establishments           34      37      34      32      32     .8     .9     .8     .8     .8
Gross job losses                    198     197     203     219     202    4.9    4.8    4.9    5.2    4.8
 At contracting establishments      161     164     166     185     167    4.0    4.0    4.0    4.4    4.0
 At closing establishments           37      33      37      34      35     .9     .8     .9     .8     .8
Net employment change                24      33      41      -6      16     .5     .8    1.0     .0     .5

Utilities

Gross job gains                      12      11      12      11      11    2.2    2.0    2.2    2.0    2.0
 At expanding establishments         10      10      10      10      10    1.8    1.8    1.8    1.8    1.8
 At opening establishments            2       1       2       1       1     .4     .2     .4     .2     .2
Gross job losses                     13      12      12      10      12    2.4    2.2    2.2    1.8    2.2
 At contracting establishments       12      11      11       8      10    2.2    2.0    2.0    1.4    1.8
 At closing establishments            1       1       1       2       2     .2     .2     .2     .4     .4
Net employment change                -1      -1       0       1      -1    -.2    -.2     .0     .2    -.2

Information

Gross job gains                     124     125     124     114     123    4.6    4.7    4.6    4.2    4.6
 At expanding establishments        105     104      99      95     106    3.9    3.9    3.7    3.5    4.0
 At opening establishments           19      21      25      19      17     .7     .8     .9     .7     .6
Gross job losses                    128     122     136     115     124    4.8    4.5    5.1    4.3    4.7
 At contracting establishments      102     103     102      93     101    3.8    3.8    3.8    3.5    3.8
 At closing establishments           26      19      34      22      23    1.0     .7    1.3     .8     .9
Net employment change                -4       3     -12      -1      -1    -.2     .2    -.5    -.1    -.1

Financial activities

Gross job gains                     349     372     361     349     362    4.7    5.1    4.9    4.7    4.8
 At expanding establishments        277     294     281     282     295    3.7    4.0    3.8    3.8    3.9
 At opening establishments           72      78      80      67      67    1.0    1.1    1.1     .9     .9
Gross job losses                    349     339     353     330     334    4.8    4.6    4.7    4.5    4.5
 At contracting establishments      271     261     268     243     253    3.7    3.5    3.6    3.3    3.4
 At closing establishments           78      78      85      87      81    1.1    1.1    1.1    1.2    1.1
Net employment change                 0      33       8      19      28    -.1     .5     .2     .2     .3

Professional and business services

Gross job gains                   1,316   1,380   1,354   1,301   1,349    7.7    7.9    7.8    7.3    7.5
 At expanding establishments      1,066   1,116   1,081   1,068   1,110    6.2    6.4    6.2    6.0    6.2
 At opening establishments          250     264     273     233     239    1.5    1.5    1.6    1.3    1.3
Gross job losses                  1,217   1,167   1,255   1,174   1,221    7.0    6.7    7.2    6.7    6.8
 At contracting establishments      952     925     983     911     947    5.5    5.3    5.6    5.2    5.3
 At closing establishments          265     242     272     263     274    1.5    1.4    1.6    1.5    1.5
Net employment change                99     213      99     127     128     .7    1.2     .6     .6     .7

Education and health services

Gross job gains                     786     853     811     812     791    4.1    4.4    4.2    4.2    4.1
 At expanding establishments        663     714     676     697     677    3.5    3.7    3.5    3.6    3.5
 At opening establishments          123     139     135     115     114     .6     .7     .7     .6     .6
Gross job losses                    751     706     740     697     773    4.0    3.7    3.8    3.6    4.0
 At contracting establishments      619     586     604     568     642    3.3    3.1    3.1    2.9    3.3
 At closing establishments          132     120     136     129     131     .7     .6     .7     .7     .7
Net employment change                35     147      71     115      18     .1     .7     .4     .6     .1

Leisure and hospitality

Gross job gains                   1,178   1,186   1,115   1,214   1,197    8.9    8.9    8.3    9.0    8.7
 At expanding establishments        905     916     842     960     932    6.8    6.9    6.3    7.1    6.8
 At opening establishments          273     270     273     254     265    2.1    2.0    2.0    1.9    1.9
Gross job losses                  1,098   1,112   1,106     964   1,097    8.3    8.3    8.2    7.1    8.0
 At contracting establishments      903     906     886     775     902    6.8    6.8    6.6    5.7    6.6
 At closing establishments          195     206     220     189     195    1.5    1.5    1.6    1.4    1.4
Net employment change                80      74       9     250     100     .6     .6     .1    1.9     .7

Other services

Gross job gains                     283     280     263     275     287    7.5    7.4    6.9    7.2    7.5
 At expanding establishments        222     215     205     221     231    5.9    5.7    5.4    5.8    6.0
 At opening establishments           61      65      58      54      56    1.6    1.7    1.5    1.4    1.5
Gross job losses                    261     270     262     250     257    6.9    7.1    6.9    6.6    6.7
 At contracting establishments      199     212     205     194     202    5.3    5.6    5.4    5.1    5.3
 At closing establishments           62      58      57      56      55    1.6    1.5    1.5    1.5    1.4
Net employment change                22      10       1      25      30     .6     .3     .0     .6     .8

(1) Includes unclassified sector, not shown separately

Table 4.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

(In thousands)

                      Total private by firm(1)       Firm size 1 - 49 employees      Firm size 50 - 249 employees      Firm size 250 or more employees
Year  3 months        Net        Gross job            Net          Gross job          Net           Gross job           Net           Gross job
        ended      change(2,3)  gains   losses       change      gains   losses      change       gains   losses       change       gains   losses

2002  March             70      6,602    6,532          54       3,402    3,348        -52        1,194    1,246          68        2,006    1,938
      June             -61      6,416    6,477          69       3,379    3,310         -7        1,191    1,198        -123        1,846    1,969
      September       -176      6,190    6,366          20       3,335    3,315        -46        1,144    1,190        -150        1,711    1,861
      December        -247      6,114    6,361          -3       3,299    3,302        -73        1,106    1,179        -171        1,709    1,880

2003  March           -326      6,112    6,438        -135       3,257    3,392        -56        1,127    1,183        -135        1,728    1,863
      June            -137      6,108    6,245         112       3,346    3,234        -26        1,133    1,159        -223        1,629    1,852
      September        193      6,162    5,969         120       3,327    3,207         21        1,127    1,106          52        1,708    1,656
      December         310      6,218    5,908         146       3,340    3,194         32        1,128    1,096         132        1,750    1,618

2004  March            430      6,306    5,876         153       3,392    3,239        137        1,194    1,057         140        1,720    1,580
      June             621      6,471    5,850         169       3,387    3,218        141        1,196    1,055         311        1,888    1,577
      September        197      6,243    6,046          88       3,379    3,291         88        1,175    1,087          21        1,689    1,668
      December         759      6,494    5,735         274       3,480    3,206        101        1,172    1,071         384        1,842    1,458

2005  March            368      6,320    5,952          66       3,416    3,350         97        1,161    1,064         205        1,743    1,538
      June             570      6,435    5,865         243       3,476    3,233        146        1,198    1,052         181        1,761    1,580
      September        701      6,672    5,971         218       3,510    3,292         85        1,195    1,110         398        1,967    1,569
      December         506      6,406    5,900         169       3,462    3,293         45        1,140    1,095         292        1,804    1,512

2006  March            788      6,433    5,645         334       3,547    3,213        222        1,213      991         232        1,673    1,441
      June             375      6,349    5,974         117       3,434    3,317        110        1,190    1,080         148        1,725    1,577
      September         43      6,103    6,060         -14       3,329    3,343         27        1,127    1,100          30        1,647    1,617
      December         447      6,375    5,928         117       3,393    3,276         74        1,147    1,073         256        1,835    1,579

2007  March            466      6,300    5,834         189       3,451    3,262         99        1,153    1,054         178        1,696    1,518
      June             174      6,256    6,082         -31       3,337    3,368        108        1,180    1,072          97        1,739    1,642
      September       -269      5,891    6,160        -132       3,252    3,384        -53        1,073    1,126         -84        1,566    1,650
      December         298      6,254    5,956           8       3,315    3,307         63        1,140    1,077         227        1,799    1,572

2008  March           -277      5,807    6,084        -138       3,238    3,376        -11        1,073    1,084        -128        1,496    1,624
      June            -547      5,861    6,408        -287       3,179    3,466        -37        1,098    1,135        -223        1,584    1,807
      September     -1,035      5,483    6,518        -359       3,039    3,398       -160        1,013    1,173        -516        1,431    1,947
      December      -1,850      5,341    7,191        -693       2,907    3,600       -370          946    1,316        -787        1,488    2,275

2009  March         -2,643      4,582    7,225        -967       2,724    3,691       -611          806    1,417      -1,065        1,052    2,117
      June          -1,766      5,174    6,940        -475       2,949    3,424       -275          956    1,231      -1,016        1,269    2,285
      September       -979      5,119    6,098        -388       2,814    3,202       -127          927    1,054        -464        1,378    1,842
      December        -277      5,408    5,685        -161       2,937    3,098        -42          963    1,005         -74        1,508    1,582

2010  March           -231      5,094    5,325        -185       2,863    3,048         -1          909      910         -45        1,322    1,367
      June             689      5,818    5,129         233       3,094    2,861        211        1,079      868         245        1,645    1,400
      September        157      5,478    5,321          11       2,933    2,922         71          992      921          75        1,553    1,478
      December         534      5,789    5,255          86       3,045    2,959         99        1,035      936         349        1,709    1,360

2011  March            329      5,339    5,010         108       2,979    2,871        122          964      842          99        1,396    1,297
      June             550      5,765    5,215         195       3,078    2,883        178        1,072      894         177        1,615    1,438
      September        793      5,928    5,135         247       3,116    2,869        152        1,058      906         394        1,754    1,360
      December         332      5,615    5,283          39       2,967    2,928         46          985      939         247        1,663    1,416

2012  March            830      5,748    4,918         362       3,119    2,757        216        1,046      830         252        1,583    1,331
      June             572      5,797    5,225         158       3,004    2,846        161        1,080      919         253        1,713    1,460


(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower
    than total gross job gains and gross job losses by establishment,
    as some establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.
(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.
(3) Net change totals for firm-level data shown differ from the establishment-level data
    due to independent seasonal adjustment of the series.
NOTE: See http://www.bls.gov/bdm/bdmfirmsize.htm for additional firm size class data.

Table 5. Components of private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   June    Sept    Dec.    Mar.    June   June   Sept   Dec.   Mar.   June  
                                   2011    2011    2011    2012    2012   2011   2011   2011   2012   2012
Total private by firm(1)

Gross job gains                   5,765   5,928   5,615   5,748   5,797    5.4    5.5    5.2    5.2    5.3
 At expanding firms               4,839   4,966   4,689   4,848   4,929    4.5    4.6    4.3    4.4    4.5
 At opening firms                   926     962     926     900     868     .9     .9     .9     .8     .8

Gross job losses                  5,215   5,135   5,283   4,918   5,225    4.8    4.8    4.9    4.5    4.8
 At contracting firms             4,324   4,307   4,399   4,081   4,380    4.0    4.0    4.1    3.7    4.0
 At closing firms                   891     828     884     837     845     .8     .8     .8     .8     .8

Net employment change               550     793     332     830     572     .6     .7     .3     .7     .5


Firm size 1 to 49 employees

Gross job gains                   3,078   3,116   2,967   3,119   3,004    9.8    9.9    9.4    9.8    9.5
 At expanding firms               2,195   2,199   2,085   2,253   2,176    7.0    7.0    6.6    7.1    6.9
 At opening firms                   883     917     882     866     828    2.8    2.9    2.8    2.7    2.6

Gross job losses                  2,883   2,869   2,928   2,757   2,846    9.2    9.1    9.3    8.8    9.0
 At contracting firms             2,029   2,072   2,086   1,953   2,055    6.5    6.6    6.6    6.2    6.5
 At closing firms                   854     797     842     804     791    2.7    2.5    2.7    2.6    2.5

Net employment change               195     247      39     362     158     .6     .8     .1    1.0     .5


Firm size 50 to 249 employees

Gross job gains                   1,072   1,058     985   1,046   1,080    5.4    5.3    4.9    5.1    5.4
 At expanding firms               1,035   1,020     948   1,016   1,046    5.2    5.1    4.7    5.0    5.2
 At opening firms                    37      38      37      30      34     .2     .2     .2     .1     .2

Gross job losses                    894     906     939     830     919    4.5    4.5    4.7    4.1    4.6
 At contracting firms               866     879     906     803     887    4.4    4.4    4.5    4.0    4.4
 At closing firms                    28      27      33      27      32     .1     .1     .2     .1     .2

Net employment change               178     152      46     216     161     .9     .8     .2    1.0     .8


Firm size 250 or more employees

Gross job gains                   1,615   1,754   1,663   1,583   1,713    2.9    3.1    2.9    2.7    2.9
 At expanding firms               1,609   1,747   1,656   1,579   1,707    2.9    3.1    2.9    2.7    2.9
 At opening firms                     6       7       7       4       6     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Gross job losses                  1,438   1,360   1,416   1,331   1,460    2.5    2.4    2.5    2.3    2.5
 At contracting firms             1,429   1,356   1,407   1,325   1,438    2.5    2.4    2.5    2.3    2.5
 At closing firms                     9       4       9       6      22     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Net employment change               177     394     247     252     253     .4     .7     .4     .4     .4


(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower
    than total gross job gains and gross job losses by establishment,
    as some establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.

Table 6.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by state, seasonally adjusted

                                         Gross job gains                                          Gross job losses
State                                    (3 months ended)                                         (3 months ended)
                        June       Sept.      Dec.        Mar.      June       June         Sept.      Dec.        Mar.      June 
                        2011       2011       2011        2012      2012       2011         2011       2011        2012      2012

United States(1)...  6,942,000  7,136,000  6,909,000   6,935,000  7,004,000  6,339,000   6,342,000   6,520,000  6,121,000  6,422,000

Alabama.....            87,574     91,559     85,633      91,147     84,920     88,662      82,789      87,650     80,326     81,715
Alaska.....             26,784     24,812     23,440      26,381     27,630     23,540      23,195      26,155     21,997     23,362
Arizona.....           127,292    137,767    139,367     128,843    128,712    122,145     118,548     123,249    121,081    124,788
Arkansas.....           55,855     63,861     60,670      53,381     50,617     57,197      54,625      50,505     52,324     52,617
California.....        846,247    914,096    870,675     842,341    887,477    776,879     818,110     785,705    760,027    779,094
Colorado.....          131,680    131,330    128,255     125,797    138,109    114,477     115,453     122,714    115,062    119,234
Connecticut.....        77,763     73,986     73,072      77,422     76,257     67,802      69,679      71,692     68,197     69,468
Delaware.....           22,649     24,900     21,735      22,107     21,752     23,703      23,534      21,334     20,468     22,610
District of Columbia    28,275     26,457     26,595      29,723     26,871     26,730      24,172      24,771     20,338     26,196
Florida.....           430,098    443,009    439,908     414,219    421,896    397,725     392,137     413,449    365,900    395,061

Georgia.....           205,097    207,102    203,099     219,814    214,145    198,267     198,380     202,265    191,090    202,986
Hawaii.....             24,232     28,145     25,587      24,551     26,632     27,713      21,684      21,986     25,568     24,763
Idaho.....              37,475     41,371     37,097      38,404     40,213     37,313      34,042      37,811     38,352     37,611
Illinois.....          274,249    273,629    267,916     263,987    263,873    246,459     252,813     258,824    235,357    241,807
Indiana.....           136,497    149,786    143,961     150,073    140,314    128,921     128,437     134,950    121,345    131,698
Iowa.....               72,760     74,872     71,492      75,925     70,865     66,992      65,617      69,343     62,833     64,030
Kansas.....             63,223     66,046     65,220      72,837     63,539     61,712      61,132      61,690     57,228     60,718
Kentucky.....           87,112     90,120     87,855      91,719     88,548     81,250      79,336      82,301     81,151     80,639
Louisiana.....          98,184    111,331    102,234     109,747    101,281    104,009      91,783      97,984     98,510    104,363
Maine.....              37,250     36,545     33,221      34,867     38,293     35,339      32,781      35,125     34,497     32,974

Maryland.....          131,740    133,277    129,484     135,839    128,787    127,048     125,888     122,326    115,922    122,287
Massachusetts.....     162,202    171,807    148,370     154,973    164,077    143,127     147,245     150,490    138,173    137,487
Michigan.....          219,739    228,665    203,971     208,109    209,535    197,064     187,570     196,273    178,757    195,190
Minnesota.....         141,622    144,467    125,820     152,204    139,597    117,623     117,056     131,726    133,973    121,250
Mississippi.....        52,096     54,563     52,282      54,928     49,378     57,038      52,513      50,544     47,226     55,417
Missouri.....          129,437    128,571    134,687     133,117    133,106    122,632     123,306     125,738    119,773    139,829
Montana.....            27,397     28,750     28,553      27,783     28,905     25,750      24,191      26,686     26,305     26,502
Nebraska.....           42,526     42,922     43,876      44,064     43,321     40,558      39,735      40,167     38,030     39,828
Nevada.....             61,593     59,847     57,485      58,879     63,846     55,390      57,587      55,150     53,065     54,370
New Hampshire.....      35,572     35,820     35,844      34,876     36,985     33,955      33,688      33,640     32,250     33,680

New Jersey.....        220,012    206,286    208,879     204,354    212,859    194,831     201,210     199,863    187,241    189,236
New Mexico.....         40,332     41,197     37,929      41,334     40,590     39,305      38,765      40,581     35,306     41,465
New York.....          463,532    458,293    438,220     467,340    468,789    406,332     419,493     427,473    403,623    434,900
North Carolina.....    203,609    203,290    205,605     210,182    201,581    195,073     190,395     192,401    179,134    192,592
North Dakota.....       22,217     31,466     32,285      34,563     26,998     20,543      18,453      19,885     20,145     22,002
Ohio.....              257,740    262,885    255,010     257,935    253,436    228,857     227,149     239,343    222,736    229,340
Oklahoma.....           74,882     79,418     76,516      75,110     73,855     66,711      68,589      70,641     68,149     67,598
Oregon.....             88,299    101,905     93,674      92,985     93,491     85,658      79,591      92,363     87,056     88,921
Pennsylvania.....      276,842    267,145    278,996     287,205    264,484    249,142     267,068     249,261    246,934    264,265
Rhode Island.....       26,202     23,368     24,067      26,209     25,198     24,051      23,238      24,900     22,040     23,293

South Carolina.....     92,609     90,699     91,266      90,984     89,452     85,374      87,584      82,761     79,437     86,675
South Dakota.....       21,468     22,187     21,563      21,765     22,642     19,082      18,855      19,365     19,933     21,199
Tennessee.....         128,589    129,598    135,832     132,991    133,201    111,745     116,827     117,380    113,095    125,811
Texas.....             513,561    543,801    523,866     537,062    546,168    440,989     446,936     457,961    446,708    457,008
Utah.....               69,011     69,809     69,692      70,120     71,955     62,066      59,043      61,984     59,307     59,459
Vermont.....            18,558     18,899     20,232      17,597     18,259     18,271      18,672      16,430     17,256     18,263
Virginia.....          173,624    174,323    179,267     175,338    169,857    164,804     160,823     177,063    161,214    167,758
Washington.....        156,967    172,752    163,991     157,863    172,704    148,279     134,881     164,123    146,884    147,566
West Virginia.....      35,911     37,531     38,129      40,657     35,411     33,362      34,120      32,964     34,872     40,026
Wisconsin.....         134,150    134,241    127,238     136,446    133,227    121,110     121,924     130,485    120,565    121,972

Wyoming.....            18,008     20,337     20,004      18,242     17,093     18,269      15,490      17,496     18,379     19,021
Puerto Rico.....        38,424     44,263     45,535      41,000     45,398     42,219      38,359      38,101     41,093     38,884
Virgin Islands.....      1,885      1,861      1,929       1,558      1,750      2,539       2,225       1,891      1,996      4,042

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 7.  Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted

                        Gross job gains as a percent of employment    Gross job losses as a percent of employment
State                              (3 months ended)                               (3 months ended)

                        June    Sept.    Dec.     Mar.    June        June     Sept.     Dec.    Mar.     June 
                        2011    2011     2011     2012    2012        2011     2011      2011    2012     2012

United States(1)...      6.5     6.7      6.3      6.3     6.3         5.9      5.9       6.0      5.6     5.8

Alabama.....             6.1     6.3      5.9      6.3     5.8         6.2      5.7       6.0      5.5     5.6
Alaska.....             11.0    10.1      9.6     10.8    11.1         9.6      9.5      10.7      8.9     9.4
Arizona.....             6.4     6.9      6.9      6.3     6.3         6.2      6.0       6.2      6.0     6.1
Arkansas.....            6.0     6.8      6.5      5.6     5.3         6.2      5.9       5.4      5.5     5.6
California.....          7.1     7.6      7.2      6.9     7.2         6.5      6.8       6.5      6.2     6.3
Colorado.....            7.2     7.1      6.9      6.7     7.3         6.3      6.2       6.6      6.2     6.3
Connecticut.....         5.7     5.4      5.3      5.6     5.5         5.0      5.1       5.3      5.0     5.0
Delaware.....            6.6     7.3      6.4      6.4     6.3         6.9      6.8       6.2      5.9     6.6
District of Columbia..   6.2     5.8      5.8      6.4     5.8         5.9      5.3       5.4      4.4     5.6
Florida.....             7.0     7.2      7.1      6.7     6.8         6.5      6.3       6.7      5.9     6.3

Georgia.....             6.6     6.6      6.5      7.0     6.7         6.4      6.3       6.4      6.0     6.4
Hawaii.....              5.2     5.9      5.4      5.2     5.5         5.9      4.6       4.6      5.3     5.2
Idaho.....               7.6     8.3      7.4      7.7     8.0         7.6      6.9       7.6      7.7     7.5
Illinois.....            5.8     5.7      5.6      5.5     5.5         5.2      5.3       5.4      4.8     5.0
Indiana.....             5.8     6.3      6.1      6.2     5.8         5.5      5.5       5.7      5.0     5.4
Iowa.....                6.0     6.2      5.9      6.2     5.8         5.5      5.4       5.7      5.1     5.2
Kansas.....              6.0     6.2      6.1      6.8     5.9         5.9      5.8       5.8      5.3     5.7
Kentucky.....            6.1     6.4      6.1      6.4     6.1         5.8      5.6       5.7      5.6     5.5
Louisiana.....           6.5     7.4      6.7      7.1     6.6         6.9      6.1       6.5      6.5     6.7
Maine.....               7.8     7.6      6.8      7.2     7.9         7.3      6.9       7.3      7.1     6.8

Maryland.....            6.7     6.7      6.5      6.7     6.3         6.4      6.4       6.1      5.8     6.1
Massachusetts.....       5.9     6.2      5.4      5.6     5.8         5.3      5.3       5.5      5.0     4.9
Michigan.....            6.7     7.0      6.1      6.2     6.2         6.1      5.7       6.0      5.4     5.8
Minnesota.....           6.3     6.4      5.5      6.8     6.2         5.3      5.2       5.8      6.0     5.3
Mississippi.....         6.2     6.6      6.3      6.5     5.8         6.8      6.3       6.1      5.6     6.6
Missouri.....            6.0     6.0      6.2      6.1     6.2         5.7      5.8       5.9      5.5     6.4
Montana.....             8.1     8.5      8.4      8.0     8.3         7.6      7.2       7.8      7.6     7.7
Nebraska.....            5.7     5.7      5.9      5.9     5.7         5.5      5.4       5.4      5.1     5.3
Nevada.....              6.3     6.1      6.0      6.0     6.5         5.7      5.9       5.7      5.5     5.5
New Hampshire.....       6.8     6.9      6.9      6.7     7.1         6.6      6.5       6.5      6.1     6.4

New Jersey.....          6.9     6.5      6.5      6.4     6.7         6.1      6.3       6.3      5.9     5.9
New Mexico.....          6.8     6.9      6.4      6.9     6.8         6.6      6.5       6.8      5.9     6.9
New York.....            6.6     6.5      6.1      6.6     6.5         5.7      5.9       6.0      5.7     6.0
North Carolina.....      6.4     6.4      6.5      6.5     6.2         6.2      6.0       6.0      5.6     6.0
North Dakota.....        7.2    10.1     10.0     10.3     7.8         6.7      5.9       6.2      6.0     6.4
Ohio.....                6.1     6.1      6.0      6.0     5.9         5.5      5.4       5.6      5.2     5.3
Oklahoma.....            6.3     6.7      6.4      6.3     6.1         5.7      5.8       5.8      5.7     5.5
Oregon.....              6.6     7.6      6.9      6.9     6.9         6.4      5.9       6.8      6.4     6.6
Pennsylvania.....        5.7     5.5      5.7      5.9     5.4         5.2      5.5       5.1      5.1     5.4
Rhode Island.....        6.7     6.0      6.2      6.7     6.4         6.2      5.9       6.4      5.6     5.9

South Carolina.....      6.4     6.2      6.2      6.2     6.1         5.9      6.0       5.6      5.4     5.9
South Dakota.....        6.7     6.8      6.6      6.6     6.8         6.0      5.9       5.9      6.1     6.4
Tennessee.....           5.9     5.9      6.1      5.9     5.9         5.1      5.4       5.3      5.1     5.7
Texas.....               6.0     6.3      6.0      6.1     6.2         5.1      5.1       5.3      5.0     5.1
Utah.....                7.1     7.2      7.2      7.1     7.2         6.4      6.1       6.3      6.0     6.0
Vermont.....             7.7     7.8      8.3      7.2     7.4         7.6      7.7       6.8      7.0     7.4
Virginia.....            6.1     6.1      6.2      6.0     5.8         5.8      5.6       6.1      5.6     5.8
Washington.....          7.0     7.6      7.2      6.8     7.4         6.5      6.0       7.1      6.3     6.4
West Virginia.....       6.5     6.7      6.8      7.2     6.3         6.0      6.1       5.8      6.1     7.0
Wisconsin.....           6.0     5.9      5.6      5.9     5.8         5.3      5.3       5.7      5.3     5.3

Wyoming.....             8.7     9.8      9.4      8.5     8.1         8.8      7.4       8.2      8.6     9.0
Puerto Rico.....         5.7     6.6      6.7      6.0     6.6         6.3      5.7       5.7      6.0     5.7
Virgin Islands.....      6.0     6.0      6.3      5.1     5.9         8.0      7.1       6.1      6.5    13.7

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 8.  Private sector establishment births and deaths, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Levels in thousands)

                              Number of Establishments                     Employment
                             Births             Deaths(1)            Births             Deaths
Year  3 months ended     Level    Rate(2)   Level    Rate       Level      Rate    Level      Rate

2002  March               204      3.2       190     3.0        1,175       1.1    1,089       1.0
      June                208      3.3       187     2.9        1,189       1.1    1,080       1.0
      September           199      3.1       184     2.9        1,051       1.0    1,023       1.0
      December            201      3.1       191     3.0        1,023       1.0    1,021       1.0
  
2003  March               193      3.0       186     2.9        1,004        .9    1,011        .9
      June                191      3.0       186     2.9          964        .9      951        .9
      September           193      3.0       179     2.8          954        .9      884        .8
      December            200      3.1       180     2.8          998        .9      910        .9
  
2004  March               207      3.2       180     2.8        1,000        .9      917        .9
      June                203      3.1       185     2.8          980        .9      909        .8
      September           209      3.2       186     2.8        1,016        .9      953        .9
      December            210      3.2       180     2.7          997        .9      894        .8
  
2005  March               209      3.1       185     2.8          944        .9      852        .8
      June                216      3.2       180     2.7          951        .9      841        .8
      September           221      3.3       186     2.8          996        .9      884        .8
      December            221      3.3       186     2.8          979        .9      846        .8
  
2006  March               220      3.2       180     2.6          924        .8      748        .7
      June                221      3.2       194     2.8          973        .9      841        .7
      September           210      3.1       196     2.9          927        .8      836        .7
      December            221      3.2       194     2.8          959        .8      804        .7
  
2007  March               214      3.1       193     2.8          897        .8      771        .7
      June                206      3.0       202     2.9          884        .8      850        .7
      September           216      3.1       203     2.9          941        .8      836        .7
      December            208      3.0       206     2.9          902        .8      825        .7
  
2008  March               207      3.0       211     3.0          897        .8      813        .7
      June                201      2.9       228     3.3          876        .8      934        .8
      September           191      2.7       223     3.2          827        .7      880        .8
      December            188      2.7       240     3.5          799        .7      947        .8
  
2009  March               172      2.5       236     3.4          703        .6      850        .8
      June                177      2.6       227     3.3          742        .7      831        .8
      September           169      2.5       215     3.2          692        .7      787        .7
      December            183      2.7       200     3.0          712        .7      739        .7
  
2010  March               175      2.6       194     2.9          685        .7      667        .6
      June                179      2.7       185     2.7          713        .7      650        .6
      September           188      2.8       189     2.8          741        .7      694        .7
      December            200      2.9       186     2.7          790        .7      689        .6
  
2011  March               189      2.8       184     2.7          695        .7      610        .6
      June                192      2.8       190     2.8          748        .7      677        .6
      September           198      2.9       187     2.7          790        .7      674        .6
      December            202      2.9       N/A     N/A          802        .7      N/A       N/A
  
2012  March               193      2.8       N/A     N/A          748        .7      N/A       N/A
      June                191      2.8       N/A     N/A          759        .7      N/A       N/A

(1) Values for deaths are not available for the most recent three quarters
    by definition.  See the Technical Note for more information.

(2) The rates measure births and deaths as a percentage
    of the average of the previous and current quarter employment levels or
    total number of establishments.

Last Modified Date: January 29, 2013
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