Economic News Release

Quarterly Data Series on Business Employment Dynamics News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. EDT 				USDL-12-0813
Tuesday, May 1, 2012	

Technical information: (202) 691-6553  *  BDMInfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/bdm

Media contact:	       (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov	


	  BUSINESS EMPLOYMENT DYNAMICS:  THIRD QUARTER 2011
	
From June to September 2011 gross job gains from opening and expanding
private sector establishments were 7.1 million, an increase of 166,000
jobs from the previous quarter, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
reported today.  Over this period, gross job losses from closing and
contracting private sector establishments were 6.3 million, a decrease
of 9,000 jobs from the previous quarter.

The difference between the number of gross job gains and gross job
losses yielded a net employment change of 753,000 jobs in the private
sector during the third quarter of 2011. This is the largest net job
gain since the first quarter of 2006.  (See table 1.)

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of 
increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses
in the economy. Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track
these changes in employment at private business units from the third 
month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains 
are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing 
units and the addition of new jobs at opening units. Gross job losses
are the result of contractions in employment at existing units and the
loss of jobs at closing units. The difference between the number of 
gross job gains and the number of gross job losses is the net change 
in employment. (See the Technical Note for more information.) 

The BED data series include gross job gains and gross job losses at the 
establishment level by industry subsector and for the 50 states, the 
District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, as well as 
gross job gains and gross job losses at the firm level by employer size 
class.

Job gains at expanding establishments totaled 5.7 million in third 
quarter 2011, an increase from the previous quarter’s gain of 5.6 
million jobs.

Opening establishments accounted for 1.3 million jobs gained in third
quarter 2011, an increase of 48,000 jobs from the previous quarter.

Contracting establishments lost 5.2 million jobs in the third quarter 
of 2011. This was an increase from the prior quarter when contracting 
establishments lost 5.1 million jobs.

In the third quarter of 2011, closing establishments lost 1.1 million
jobs.  This was 86,000 fewer jobs lost at closing establishments
than in the previous quarter.  (See tables 1 and 3.)

Gross job gains represented 6.5 percent of private sector employment in 
third quarter 2011, while gross job losses represented 5.9 percent of 
private sector employment. (See table 2.)

In third quarter 2011, the number of establishment births (a subset of 
the openings data, see the Technical Note for more information) rose by 
4,000 to 191,000. These new establishments accounted for 763,000 jobs, 
an increase of 36,000 from the previous quarter.

Data for establishment deaths (a subset of the closings data) are 
available through fourth quarter 2010, when 691,000 jobs were lost at 
186,000 establishments. These figures represent a decrease from the
prior quarter when 695,000 jobs were lost at 189,000
establishments. (See table 8.)

From June to September 2011, gross job gains exceeded gross job losses
in all industry sectors except utilities. The manufacturing industry 
experienced the sixth consecutive quarter of positive net employment
change.  This comes after 16 straight quarters of net losses for
this sector.  Professional and business services, which include
temporary help services, accounted for 27 percent of the total net job
growth in the third quarter of 2011.  Although the retail trade sector
showed positive net employment growth in third quarter, the number of
gross jobs lost from contracting establishments increased by 106,000
from the prior quarter to 754,000.  (See table 3.)

Table A.  Three-month private sector gross job gains and losses, 
seasonally adjusted 

Category                                 3 months ended

                                Sept.   Dec.    Mar.    June    Sept.
                                2010    2010    2011    2011    2011

                                      Levels (in thousands)
                                      
Gross job gains................ 6,685   7,009   6,338   6,892  7,058
 At expanding establishments... 5,427   5,631   5,230   5,627  5,745
 At opening establishments..... 1,258   1,378   1,108   1,265  1,313

Gross job losses............... 6,480   6,427   6,086   6,314  6,305
 At contracting establishments. 5,255   5,199   4,969   5,083  5,160
 At closing establishments..... 1,225   1,228   1,117   1,231  1,145

Net employment change(1).......   205     582     252     578    753
								
                                         Rates (percent)

Gross job gains................   6.3     6.6     5.9     6.4    6.5
 At expanding establishments...   5.1     5.3     4.9     5.2    5.3
 At opening establishments.....   1.2     1.3     1.0     1.2    1.2

Gross job losses...............   6.2     6.1     5.7     5.8    5.9
 At contracting establishments.   5.0     4.9     4.7     4.7    4.8
 At closing establishments.....   1.2     1.2     1.0     1.1    1.1

Net employment change(1).......    .1      .5      .2      .6     .6

    (1) The net employment change is the difference between total 
    gross job gains and total gross job losses.  See the Technical 
    Note for further information.
    
Gross job gains exceeded gross job losses in each of the three aggregate
firm size classes in the third quarter of 2011. Firms with 250 or more
employees experienced the largest increase in gross job gains, and this
size class comprised 52 percent of the total net change in employment
for the quarter.  (See tables 4 and 5.)

In the third quarter of 2011, gross job gains exceeded gross job losses 
in 47 states and the District of Columbia.  Texas had the largest net
employment gain of 98,278 jobs, followed by California with 83,825 jobs.  
(See table 6.) Eleven states had both a rate of gross job gains of at
least 6.5 percent (the U.S. average) and a rate of gross job losses
that was the same or below the national average of 5.9 percent.
(See table 7.)

More Information
Additional information on gross job gains and gross job losses are 
available online at www.bls.gov/bdm. This information includes data 
on the levels and rates of gross job gains and gross job losses by 
firm size, not seasonally adjusted data and other seasonally adjusted 
time series not presented in this release, charts of gross job gains 
and gross job losses by industry and firm size, and frequently asked 
questions on firm-size data. Additional information about the Business 
Employment Dynamics data can be found in the Technical Note of this 
release or may be obtained by e-mailing BDMinfo@bls.gov.



 ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
| The Business Employment Dynamics for Fourth Quarter 2011 are scheduled |
| to  be released on Thursday, August 2, 2012 at 10:00 a.m. (EDT).       | 
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------








                                                                 
Technical Note

   
   The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-
state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages
(QCEW), or the ES-202 program.  The BED data are compiled by the U.S.
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) from existing quarterly state unemployment
insurance (UI) records.  Most employers in the U.S. are required to file
quarterly reports on the employment and wages of workers covered by UI
laws, and to pay quarterly UI taxes.  The quarterly UI reports are sent by
the State Workforce Agencies (SWAs) to BLS and form the basis of the BLS 
establishment universe sampling frame.  These reports also are used to pro-
duce the quarterly QCEW data on total employment and wages and the longitu-
dinal BED data on gross job gains and losses.  Other important BLS uses 
of the UI reports are in the Current Employment Statistics (CES) program. 
(See table below for differences between QCEW, CES, and BED.)
                                     
   In the BED program, the quarterly UI records are linked across quarters
to provide a longitudinal history for each establishment.  The linkage
process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment
level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and
expanding establishments and jobs lost at closing and contracting establish-
ments.

Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES employment measures

   The BLS publishes three different establishment-based employment mea-
sures for any given quarter.  Each of these measures--QCEW, BED, and CES--
makes use of the quarterly UI employment reports in producing data; how-
ever, each measure has a somewhat different universe coverage, estimation 
procedure, and publication product.

   Differences in coverage and estimation methods can result in somewhat 
different measures of over-the-quarter employment change.  It is important to 
understand program differences and the intended uses of the program products.  
(See table below.)  Additional information on each program can be obtained 
from the program Web sites shown in the table.

				                                  
Summary of Major Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES Employment Measures
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |         QCEW        |         BED          |         CES
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Source     |--Count of UI admini-|--Count of longitudi- |--Sample survey: 
           |  strative records   |  nally-linked UI ad- |  440,000 establish-
           |  submitted by 9.1   |  ministrative records|  ments
           |  million employers  |  submitted by 6.7    |
           |                     |  million private sec-|
           |                     |  tor employers       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Coverage   |--UI and UCFE cover- |--UI Coverage, exclud-|Nonfarm wage and sal-
           |  age:  all employers|  ing government, pri-|  ary jobs:
           |  subject to state   |  vate households, and|--UI Coverage, exclud-
           |  and federal UI Laws|  establishments with |  ing agriculture, pri-
           |                     |  zero employment     |  vate households, and
           |                     |                      |  self-employed workers
           |                     |                      |--Other employment, in-
           |                     |                      |  cluding railroads, 
           |                     |                      |  religious organiza-
           |                     |                      |  tions, and other non-
           |                     |                      |  UI-covered jobs
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Publication|--Quarterly          |--Quarterly           |--Monthly 
frequency  |  -6 months after the|  -7 months after the |  -Usually first Friday
           |   end of each quar- |   end of each quarter|   of following month
           |   ter               |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Use of UI  |--Directly summarizes|--Links each new UI   |--Uses UI file as a sam-
file       |  and publishes each |  quarter to longitu- |  pling frame and annu-
           |  new quarter of UI  |  dinal database and  |  ally realigns (bench-
           |  data               |  directly summarizes |  marks) sample esti-    
           |                     |  gross job gains and |  mates to first quar-  
           |                     |  losses              |  ter UI levels
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Provides a quarter-|--Provides quarterly  |--Provides current month-
products   |  ly and annual uni- |  employer dynamics   |  ly estimates of employ-
           |  verse count of es- |  data on establish-  |  ment, hours, and earn-
           |  tablishments, em-  |  ment openings, clos-|  ings at the MSA, state,
           |  ployment, and wages|  ings, expansions,   |  and national level by
           |  at the county, MSA,|  and contractions at |  industry
           |  state, and national|  the national level  |
           |  levels by detailed |  by NAICS super-     |
           |  industry           |  sectors and by size |
           |                     |  of firm, and at the |   
           |                     |  state private-sector|
           |                     |  total level         | 
           |                     |--Future expansions   |
           |                     |  will include data   |
           |                     |  with greater in-    |
           |                     |  dustry detail and   |
           |                     |  data at the county  |
           |                     |  and MSA level       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Major uses include:|--Major uses include: |--Major uses include:
uses       |  -Detailed locality |  -Business cycle     |  -Principal national
           |   data              |   analysis           |   economic indicator
           |  -Periodic universe |  -Analysis of employ-|  -Official time series 
           |   counts for bench- |   er dynamics under- |   for employment change
           |   marking sample    |   lying economic ex- |   measures
           |   survey estimates  |   pansions and con-  |  -Input into other ma-
           |  -Sample frame for  |   tractions          |   jor economic indi-
           |   BLS establishment |  -Analysis of employ-|   cators
           |   surveys           |   ment expansion and |
           |                     |   contraction by size|   
           |                     |   of firm            |
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Program    |--www.bls.gov/cew/   |--www.bls.gov/bdm/    |--www.bls.gov/ces/
Web sites  |                     |                      |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               
                           
Coverage                           

   Employment and wage data for workers covered by state UI and Unemployment 
Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE) laws are compiled from quarterly 
contribution reports submitted to the SWAs by employers.  In addition to the 
quarterly contribution reports, employers who operate multiple establishments 
within a state complete a questionnaire, called the "Multiple Worksite Report,"
which provides detailed information on the location of their establishments. 
These reports are based on place of employment rather than place of residence. 
UI and UCFE coverage is broad and basically comparable from state to state.
   
   Major exclusions from UI coverage are self-employed workers, religious or-
ganizations, most agricultural workers on small farms, all members of the 
Armed Forces, elected officials in most states, most employees of railroads, 
some domestic workers, most student workers at schools, and employees of cer-
tain small nonprofit organizations.
   
   Gross job gains and gross job losses in this release are derived from lon-
gitudinal histories of 6.7 million private sector employer reports out 
of 9.1 million total reports of employment and wages submitted by states to 
BLS in the first quarter of 2011.  Gross job gains and gross job losses data 
in this release do not report estimates for government employees or private 
households (NAICS 814110) and do not include establishments with zero employ-
ment in both previous and current quarters.  Data from Puerto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands also are excluded from the national data.  As an illustration, 
the table below shows, in millions of establishments, the number of establish-
ments excluded from the gross job gains and gross job losses data in the
first quarter of 2011:


             Number of active establishments included in 
              Business Employment Dynamics data at the
                          national level

                                                                   Millions
                                                                       
Total establishments QCEW program....................................9.1

    Excluded:  Public sector.........................................0.3 
               Private households....................................0.7
               Zero employment.......................................1.3      
               Establishments in Puerto Rico 
                 and the Virgin Islands..............................0.1 

                 
Total establishments included in Business
Employment Dynamics data.............................................6.7

Unit of analysis
   
   Establishments are used in the tabulation of the BED statistics by in-
dustry and firms are used in the tabulation of the BED size class sta-
tistics.  An establishment is defined as an economic unit that produces
goods or services, usually at a single physical location, and engages in
one or predominantly one activity.  A firm is a legal business, either
corporate or otherwise, and may consist of several establishments.  Firm-
level data are compiled based on an aggregation of establishments under
common ownership by a corporate parent using employer tax identification
numbers.  The firm-level aggregation, which is consistent with the role of
corporations as the economic decision makers, is used for the measurement
of the BED data elements by size class.
   
   Because of the difference in the unit of analysis, total gross job gains
and gross job losses by size class are lower than total gross job gains and
gross job losses by industry, as some establishment gains and losses within
a firm are offset during the aggregation process.  However, the total net
changes in employment are the same for not seasonally adjusted data and are
similar for seasonally adjusted data.
                                 
Concepts and methodology

   The Business Employment Dynamics data measure the net change in employ-
ment at the establishment or firm level.  These changes come about in one 
of four ways.  A net increase in employment can come from either opening 
units or expanding units.  A net decrease in employment can come from either 
closing units or contracting units.  Gross job gains include the sum of all
jobs added at either opening or expanding units.  Gross job losses include
the sum of all jobs lost in either closing or contracting units.  The net
change in employment is the difference between gross job gains and gross
job losses.
   
   The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:                          

   Openings.  These are either units with positive third month employment for
the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or
with positive third month employment in the current quarter, following zero em-
ployment in the previous quarter.
                                     
   Expansions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment
over this period.
   
   Closings.  These are units with positive third month employment in the pre-
vious quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the current
quarter.
   
   Contractions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment
over this period.

   Births.  These are units with positive third month employment for the 
first time in the current quarter with no links to the prior quarter, or 
units with positive third month employment in the current quarter and zero
employment in the third month of the previous four quarters. Births are a
subset of openings not including re-openings of seasonal businesses.

   Deaths.  These are units with no employment or zero employment reported in 
the third month of four consecutive quarters following the last quarter with 
positive employment. Deaths are a subset of closings not including temporary 
shutdowns of seasonal businesses.  A unit that closes during the quarter may 
be a death, but we wait three quarters to determine whether it is a permanent
closing or a temporary shutdown. Therefore, there is always a lag of three 
quarters for the publication of death statistics.

   All establishment-level employment changes are measured from the third 
month of each quarter.  Not all establishments and firms change their em-
ployment levels.  Units with no change in employment count towards estimates
of total employment, but not for levels of gross employment job gains and 
gross job losses.

   Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing 
their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quar-
ters.  This provides a symmetric growth rate.  The rates are calculated for
the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to
form their respective totals.  These rates can be added and subtracted just
as their levels can.  For instance, the difference between the gross job
gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

Establishment Births and Deaths

   For the purpose of BED statistics, births are defined as establishments
that appear in the longitudinal database for the first time with positive
employment in the third month of a quarter, or showed four consecutive
quarters of zero employment in the third month followed by a quarter in
which it shows positive employment in the third month.  Similarly, deaths
are defined as establishments that either drop out of the longitudinal
database or an establishment that had positive employment in the third month
of a given quarter followed by four consecutive quarters of showing zero
employment in the third month.  Although the data for establishment births
and deaths are tabulated independently from the data for openings and
closings, the concepts are not mutually exclusive.  An establishment that
is defined as a birth in a given quarter is necessarily an opening as well,
and an establishment defined as a death in a quarter must also be a closing.
Since openings include seasonal, and other, re-openings and closings include
temporary shutdowns, the not seasonally adjusted values for births and
deaths must be less than those openings and closings.  However, because some
BED series do not have many re-openings or temporary shutdowns, as well as
the fact that births and deaths are independently seasonally adjusted from
openings and closings, there may be instances in which the seasonally
adjusted value of the former is greater than the latter.

Linkage methodology

   Prior to the measurement of gross job gains and gross job losses, QCEW
records are linked across two quarters.  The linkage process matches esta-
blishments' unique SWA identification numbers (SWA-ID).  Between 95 to 97
percent of establishments identified as continuous from quarter to quarter
are matched by SWA-ID.  The rest are linked in one of three ways.  The first
method uses predecessor and successor information, identified by the states,
which relates records with different SWA-IDs across quarters.  Predecessor
and successor relations can come about for a variety of reasons, including
a change in ownership, a firm restructuring, or a UI account restructuring.
If a match cannot be attained in this manner, a probability-based match is
used.  This match attempts to identify two establishments with different SWA-
IDs as continuous.  The match is based upon comparisons such as the same
name, address, and phone number.  Third, an analyst examines unmatched re-
cords individually and makes a possible match.

   In order to ensure the highest possible quality of data, SWAs verify with 
employers and update, if necessary, the industry, location, and ownership 
classification of all establishments on a 3-year cycle.  Changes in establish-
ment classification codes resulting from the verification process are intro-
duced with the data reported for the first quarter of the year.  Changes re-
sulting from improved employer reporting also are introduced in the first 
quarter.   
                              
Sizing methodology
   
   The method of dynamic sizing is used in calculations for the BED size-
class data series.  Dynamic sizing allocates each firm's employment gain or
loss during a quarter to each respective size class in which the change
occurred.  For example, if a firm grew from 2 employees in quarter 1 to 38
employees in quarter 2, then, of the 36-employee increase, 2 would be al-
located to the first size class, 5 to the size class 5 to 9, 10 to size
class 10 to 19, and 19 to size class 20 to 49.
   
   Dynamic sizing provides symmetrical firm-size estimates and eliminates
any systematic effects which may be caused by the transitory and reverting
changes in firms' sizes over time.  Additionally, it allocates each job
gain or loss to the actual size class where it occurred.

Annual Data

   The annual gross job gains and gross job losses measure the net change
in employment at the establishment level from the third month of a quarter
in the previous year to the third month of the same quarter in the current
year.  The BLS publishes annual BED data based on March-to-March changes
once a year with the release of the first quarter BED data.  The annual
data based on over-the-year changes for other quarters of the year are
available upon request.  The definitions and methodology in measuring
annual gross job gains and gross job losses are similar to the quarterly
measures.  The linkage method considers all predecessor and successor
relations that may come about due to changes in ownership and corporate
restructuring over the entire year.  At the establishment level, some of
the quarterly job gains and job losses are offset during the estimation
over the year.  Therefore, the sum of four quarters of gross job gains
and gross job losses are not equal to annual gross job gains and gross
job losses.  The net change in employment over the year, however, is
equal to the sum of four quarterly net changes on a not seasonally
adjusted basis.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the levels of employment and the associated
job flows undergo sharp fluctuations due to such seasonal events as changes
in the weather, reduced or expanded production, harvests, major holidays,
and the opening and closing of schools.  The effect of such seasonal vari-
ation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each 
year, their influence can be eliminated by adjusting these statistics from 
quarter to quarter.  These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as 
declines in economic activity, easier to recognize.  For example, the large 
number of youths taking summer jobs is likely to obscure other changes that 
have taken place in June relative to March, making it difficult to determine 
if the level of economic activity has risen or declined.  However, because
the effect of students finishing school in previous years is known, the 
statistics for the current year can be adjusted to allow for a comparable 
change.  The adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to ana-
lyze changes in economic activity.

   The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contract-
ing units are independently seasonally adjusted; net changes are calculated
based on the difference between gross job gains and gross job losses.  Simi-
larly, for industry data, the establishment counts data series for opening,
expanding, closing, and contracting establishments are independently adjusted,
and the net changes are calculated based on the difference between the number
of opening and closing establishments.  Additionally, establishment and em-
ployment levels are independently seasonally adjusted to calculate the sea-
sonally adjusted rates.  Concurrent seasonal adjustment is run using X-12
ARIMA.  Seasonally adjusted data series for the total private sector are cal-
culated by summing the seasonally adjusted data for all sectors, including
the unclassified sector, which is not published separately.
   
   The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contracting 
units for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia are seasonally
adjusted at the total private level only.  The sum of the state series for
opening, expanding, closing, and contracting units will not necessarily be
equal to the national total private series because of the independent seasonal
adjustment of these series.
   
   The net over-the-quarter change derived by summing the BED component series 
will differ from the net employment change estimated from the seasonally ad-
justed total private employment series from the CES program.  The intended use 
of BED statistics is to show the dynamic labor market changes that underlie 
the net employment change statistic.  As such, data users interested particu-
larly in the net employment change and not in the gross job flows underlying 
this change should refer to CES data for over-the-quarter net employment
changes.
   
Reliability of the data
   
   Since the data series on Business Employment Dynamics are based on admini-
strative rather than sample data, there are no issues related to sampling 
error.  Nonsampling error, however, still exists.  Nonsampling errors can oc-
cur for many reasons, such as the employer submitting corrected employment 
data after the end of the quarter or typographical errors made by businesses 
when providing information.  Such errors, however, are likely to be distri-
buted randomly throughout the dataset.
   
   Changes in administrative data sometimes create complications for the 
linkage process.  This can result in overstating openings and closings while 
understating expansions and contractions.  The BLS continues to refine methods 
for improving the linkage process to alleviate the effects of these compli-
cations.
   
   The BED data series are subject to periodic minor changes based on correc-
tions in QCEW records, updates on predecessors and successors information, and
seasonal adjustment revisions.

Annual revisions are published each year with the release of the first quarter
data.  These revisions cover the last four quarters of not seasonally adjusted
data and 5 years of seasonally adjusted data.
                      
Additional statistics and other information
   
   Several other programs within BLS produce closely related information.  
The QCEW program, also known as the ES-202 program, provides both quarterly 
and annual estimates of employment by state, county, and detailed industry. 
News releases on quarterly county employment and wages are available upon 
request from the Division of Administrative Statistics and Labor Turnover, 
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC 20212; 
telephone 202-691-6567; (http://www.bls.gov/cew/); (e-mail: QCEWInfo@bls.gov).
                                     
   The CES program produces monthly estimates of employment, its net change, 
and earnings by detailed industry.  These estimates are part of the Employ-
ment Situation report put out monthly by BLS.
                                     
   The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) program provides month-
ly measures of job openings, as well as employee hires and separations.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired in-
dividuals upon request.  Voice phone:  202-691-5200; TDD message referral 
number: 1-800-877-8339.






Table 1.  Private sector gross job gains and job losses, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(In thousands)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(1) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2001  March               -119      8,491       6,728         1,763       8,610       6,717           1,893
      June                -780      7,991       6,302         1,689       8,771       7,036           1,735
      September         -1,148      7,630       5,945         1,685       8,778       6,990           1,788
      December          -1,009      7,547       5,912         1,635       8,556       6,870           1,686

2002  March                -10      8,071       6,298         1,773       8,081       6,434           1,647
      June                 -30      7,868       6,145         1,723       7,898       6,274           1,624
      September           -151      7,630       6,039         1,591       7,781       6,248           1,533
      December            -241      7,483       5,938         1,545       7,724       6,185           1,539

2003  March               -393      7,467       5,928         1,539       7,860       6,307           1,553
      June                 -90      7,398       5,929         1,469       7,488       6,030           1,458
      September            204      7,392       5,923         1,469       7,188       5,828           1,360
      December             297      7,521       6,005         1,516       7,224       5,800           1,424

2004  March                470      7,715       6,204         1,511       7,245       5,795           1,450
      June                 644      7,754       6,235         1,519       7,110       5,639           1,471
      September            206      7,633       6,060         1,573       7,427       5,888           1,539
      December             757      7,844       6,243         1,601       7,087       5,663           1,424

2005  March                384      7,620       6,131         1,489       7,236       5,801           1,435
      June                 593      7,774       6,231         1,543       7,181       5,776           1,405
      September            677      7,965       6,387         1,578       7,288       5,844           1,444
      December             494      7,807       6,252         1,555       7,313       5,948           1,365

2006  March                874      7,797       6,354         1,443       6,923       5,636           1,287
      June                 371      7,758       6,246         1,512       7,387       6,015           1,372
      September             52      7,499       6,061         1,438       7,447       6,097           1,350
      December             455      7,740       6,223         1,517       7,285       5,941           1,344

2007  March                555      7,723       6,303         1,420       7,168       5,871           1,297
      June                 155      7,630       6,222         1,408       7,475       6,073           1,402
      September           -240      7,333       5,858         1,475       7,573       6,219           1,354
      December             274      7,642       6,178         1,464       7,368       6,016           1,352

2008  March               -215      7,234       5,831         1,403       7,449       6,086           1,363
      June                -574      7,255       5,851         1,404       7,829       6,351           1,478
      September           -955      6,893       5,526         1,367       7,848       6,467           1,381
      December          -1,819      6,698       5,342         1,356       8,517       7,030           1,487

2009  March             -2,696      5,830       4,651         1,179       8,526       7,109           1,417
      June              -1,653      6,395       5,091         1,304       8,048       6,661           1,387
      September           -893      6,345       5,127         1,218       7,238       5,881           1,357
      December            -238      6,634       5,306         1,328       6,872       5,586           1,286

2010  March               -254      6,246       5,084         1,162       6,500       5,299           1,201
      June                 721      6,969       5,687         1,282       6,248       5,086           1,162
      September            205      6,685       5,427         1,258       6,480       5,255           1,225
      December             582      7,009       5,631         1,378       6,427       5,199           1,228

2011  March                252      6,338       5,230         1,108       6,086       4,969           1,117
      June                 578      6,892       5,627         1,265       6,314       5,083           1,231
      September            753      7,058       5,745         1,313       6,305       5,160           1,145

(1) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 2.  Private sector gross job gains and losses, as a percent of employment(1), seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Percent)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(2) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2001  March                -.1       7.7         6.1           1.6         7.8          6.1            1.7
      June                 -.8       7.2         5.7           1.5         8.0          6.4            1.6
      September           -1.1       6.9         5.4           1.5         8.0          6.4            1.6
      December            -1.0       7.0         5.5           1.5         8.0          6.4            1.6

2002  March                 .0       7.5         5.9           1.6         7.5          6.0            1.5
      June                  .0       7.3         5.7           1.6         7.3          5.8            1.5
      September            -.1       7.1         5.6           1.5         7.2          5.8            1.4
      December             -.3       6.9         5.5           1.4         7.2          5.8            1.4

2003  March                -.5       6.9         5.5           1.4         7.4          5.9            1.5
      June                  .0       7.0         5.6           1.4         7.0          5.6            1.4
      September             .1       6.9         5.5           1.4         6.8          5.5            1.3
      December              .3       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3

2004  March                 .5       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3
      June                  .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.2            1.4
      September             .3       7.1         5.6           1.5         6.8          5.4            1.4
      December              .7       7.2         5.7           1.5         6.5          5.2            1.3

2005  March                 .4       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      June                  .6       7.1         5.7           1.4         6.5          5.2            1.3
      September             .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      December              .4       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.6          5.4            1.2

2006  March                 .9       7.0         5.7           1.3         6.1          5.0            1.1
      June                  .3       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September             .1       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.6          5.4            1.2
      December              .3       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2007  March                 .4       6.7         5.5           1.2         6.3          5.2            1.1
      June                  .2       6.7         5.5           1.2         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September            -.3       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.7          5.5            1.2
      December              .2       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2008  March                -.2       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.5          5.3            1.2
      June                 -.6       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.9          5.6            1.3
      September            -.8       6.1         4.9           1.2         6.9          5.7            1.2
      December            -1.6       6.0         4.8           1.2         7.6          6.3            1.3

2009  March               -2.4       5.4         4.3           1.1         7.8          6.5            1.3
      June                -1.5       6.0         4.8           1.2         7.5          6.2            1.3
      September            -.9       6.0         4.8           1.2         6.9          5.6            1.3
      December             -.2       6.3         5.0           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2010  March                -.2       5.9         4.8           1.1         6.1          5.0            1.1
      June                  .7       6.6         5.4           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1
      September             .1       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.2          5.0            1.2
      December              .5       6.6         5.3           1.3         6.1          4.9            1.2

2011  March                 .2       5.9         4.9           1.0         5.7          4.7            1.0
      June                  .6       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1
      September             .6       6.5         5.3           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1

(1) The rates measure gross job gains and gross job losses as a percentage
    of the previous and current quarter employment levels.

(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 3. Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   Sept    Dec.    Mar.    June    Sept   Sept   Dec.   Mar.   June   Sept  
                                   2010    2010    2011    2011    2011   2010   2010   2011   2011   2011
Total private(1)

Gross job gains                   6,685   7,009   6,338   6,892   7,058    6.3    6.6    5.9    6.4    6.5
 At expanding establishments      5,427   5,631   5,230   5,627   5,745    5.1    5.3    4.9    5.2    5.3
 At opening establishments        1,258   1,378   1,108   1,265   1,313    1.2    1.3    1.0    1.2    1.2
Gross job losses                  6,480   6,427   6,086   6,314   6,305    6.2    6.1    5.7    5.8    5.9
 At contracting establishments    5,255   5,199   4,969   5,083   5,160    5.0    4.9    4.7    4.7    4.8
 At closing establishments        1,225   1,228   1,117   1,231   1,145    1.2    1.2    1.0    1.1    1.1
Net employment change               205     582     252     578     753     .1     .5     .2     .6     .6

Goods-producing

Gross job gains                   1,378   1,364   1,296   1,396   1,437    7.3    7.2    6.9    7.3    7.5
 At expanding establishments      1,162   1,138   1,107   1,184   1,222    6.2    6.0    5.9    6.2    6.4
 At opening establishments          216     226     189     212     215    1.1    1.2    1.0    1.1    1.1
Gross job losses                  1,331   1,406   1,268   1,264   1,259    7.1    7.5    6.8    6.6    6.6
 At contracting establishments    1,092   1,160   1,049   1,029   1,049    5.8    6.2    5.6    5.4    5.5
 At closing establishments          239     246     219     235     210    1.3    1.3    1.2    1.2    1.1
Net employment change                47     -42      28     132     178     .2    -.3     .1     .7     .9

Natural resources and mining

Gross job gains                     270     284     261     276     301   14.9   15.6   14.2   15.0   16.0
 At expanding establishments        234     240     225     239     259   12.9   13.2   12.2   13.0   13.8
 At opening establishments           36      44      36      37      42    2.0    2.4    2.0    2.0    2.2
Gross job losses                    267     278     260     259     239   14.7   15.2   14.1   14.0   12.8
 At contracting establishments      230     241     225     214     208   12.7   13.2   12.2   11.6   11.1
 At closing establishments           37      37      35      45      31    2.0    2.0    1.9    2.4    1.7
Net employment change                 3       6       1      17      62     .2     .4     .1    1.0    3.2

Construction

Gross job gains                     658     638     613     662     678   11.9   11.6   11.3   12.2   12.3
 At expanding establishments        518     499     493     526     544    9.4    9.1    9.1    9.7    9.9
 At opening establishments          140     139     120     136     134    2.5    2.5    2.2    2.5    2.4
Gross job losses                    658     697     638     626     613   12.0   12.8   11.8   11.5   11.2
 At contracting establishments      510     541     499     488     483    9.3    9.9    9.2    9.0    8.8
 At closing establishments          148     156     139     138     130    2.7    2.9    2.6    2.5    2.4
Net employment change                 0     -59     -25      36      65    -.1   -1.2    -.5     .7    1.1

Manufacturing

Gross job gains                     450     442     422     458     458    3.9    3.9    3.6    3.9    3.9
 At expanding establishments        410     399     389     419     419    3.6    3.5    3.3    3.6    3.6
 At opening establishments           40      43      33      39      39     .3     .4     .3     .3     .3
Gross job losses                    406     431     370     379     407    3.6    3.8    3.2    3.2    3.4
 At contracting establishments      352     378     325     327     358    3.1    3.3    2.8    2.8    3.0
 At closing establishments           54      53      45      52      49     .5     .5     .4     .4     .4
Net employment change                44      11      52      79      51     .3     .1     .4     .7     .5

Service-providing(1)

Gross job gains                   5,307   5,645   5,042   5,496   5,621    6.1    6.4    5.7    6.2    6.3
 At expanding establishments      4,265   4,493   4,123   4,443   4,523    4.9    5.1    4.7    5.0    5.1
 At opening establishments        1,042   1,152     919   1,053   1,098    1.2    1.3    1.0    1.2    1.2
Gross job losses                  5,149   5,021   4,818   5,050   5,046    5.9    5.7    5.5    5.7    5.7
 At contracting establishments    4,163   4,039   3,920   4,054   4,111    4.8    4.6    4.5    4.6    4.6
 At closing establishments          986     982     898     996     935    1.1    1.1    1.0    1.1    1.1
Net employment change               158     624     224     446     575     .2     .7     .2     .5     .6

Wholesale trade

Gross job gains                     268     281     258     285     283    4.9    5.2    4.7    5.2    5.1
 At expanding establishments        218     223     214     235     230    4.0    4.1    3.9    4.3    4.1
 At opening establishments           50      58      44      50      53     .9    1.1     .8     .9    1.0
Gross job losses                    259     253     246     243     256    4.8    4.6    4.4    4.3    4.6
 At contracting establishments      200     197     189     185     202    3.7    3.6    3.4    3.3    3.6
 At closing establishments           59      56      57      58      54    1.1    1.0    1.0    1.0    1.0
Net employment change                 9      28      12      42      27     .1     .6     .3     .9     .5

Retail trade

Gross job gains                     799     893     805     895     870    5.5    6.2    5.5    6.1    5.9
 At expanding establishments        671     763     698     769     736    4.6    5.3    4.8    5.2    5.0
 At opening establishments          128     130     107     126     134     .9     .9     .7     .9     .9
Gross job losses                    890     812     814     768     864    6.1    5.6    5.6    5.2    5.8
 At contracting establishments      778     692     704     648     754    5.3    4.8    4.8    4.4    5.1
 At closing establishments          112     120     110     120     110     .8     .8     .8     .8     .7
Net employment change               -91      81      -9     127       6    -.6     .6    -.1     .9     .1

Transportation and warehousing

Gross job gains                     216     253     204     220     227    5.4    6.3    5.1    5.4    5.6
 At expanding establishments        183     217     173     187     192    4.6    5.4    4.3    4.6    4.7
 At opening establishments           33      36      31      33      35     .8     .9     .8     .8     .9
Gross job losses                    196     193     223     200     196    4.9    4.8    5.5    4.9    4.8
 At contracting establishments      159     160     190     164     163    4.0    4.0    4.7    4.0    4.0
 At closing establishments           37      33      33      36      33     .9     .8     .8     .9     .8
Net employment change                20      60     -19      20      31     .5    1.5    -.4     .5     .8

Utilities

Gross job gains                      10      12      11      12      11    1.8    2.2    2.0    2.2    2.0
 At expanding establishments          9      10      10      10      10    1.6    1.8    1.8    1.8    1.8
 At opening establishments            1       2       1       2       1     .2     .4     .2     .4     .2
Gross job losses                     12      11       9      13      12    2.2    2.0    1.7    2.4    2.2
 At contracting establishments       11      10       8      12      11    2.0    1.8    1.5    2.2    2.0
 At closing establishments            1       1       1       1       1     .2     .2     .2     .2     .2
Net employment change                -2       1       2      -1      -1    -.4     .2     .3    -.2    -.2

Information

Gross job gains                     134     127     111     124     123    4.9    4.8    4.1    4.7    4.6
 At expanding establishments        114     104      95     106     102    4.2    3.9    3.5    4.0    3.8
 At opening establishments           20      23      16      18      21     .7     .9     .6     .7     .8
Gross job losses                    137     138     130     129     122    5.0    5.1    4.8    4.8    4.5
 At contracting establishments      115     114     110     103     103    4.2    4.2    4.1    3.8    3.8
 At closing establishments           22      24      20      26      19     .8     .9     .7    1.0     .7
Net employment change                -3     -11     -19      -5       1    -.1    -.3    -.7    -.1     .1

Financial activities

Gross job gains                     350     369     317     346     370    4.7    5.0    4.3    4.6    5.0
 At expanding establishments        277     282     257     277     294    3.7    3.8    3.5    3.7    4.0
 At opening establishments           73      87      60      69      76    1.0    1.2     .8     .9    1.0
Gross job losses                    370     346     334     352     336    5.0    4.7    4.5    4.8    4.6
 At contracting establishments      275     263     255     272     258    3.7    3.6    3.4    3.7    3.5
 At closing establishments           95      83      79      80      78    1.3    1.1    1.1    1.1    1.1
Net employment change               -20      23     -17      -6      34    -.3     .3    -.2    -.2     .4

Professional and business services

Gross job gains                   1,285   1,387   1,219   1,300   1,359    7.6    8.2    7.1    7.6    7.8
 At expanding establishments      1,042   1,116   1,013   1,063   1,109    6.2    6.6    5.9    6.2    6.4
 At opening establishments          243     271     206     237     250    1.4    1.6    1.2    1.4    1.4
Gross job losses                  1,189   1,176   1,134   1,212   1,152    7.1    6.9    6.6    7.0    6.7
 At contracting establishments      937     918     907     948     915    5.6    5.4    5.3    5.5    5.3
 At closing establishments          252     258     227     264     237    1.5    1.5    1.3    1.5    1.4
Net employment change                96     211      85      88     207     .5    1.3     .5     .6    1.1

Education and health services

Gross job gains                     798     842     733     777     841    4.3    4.5    3.8    4.1    4.4
 At expanding establishments        668     697     630     660     710    3.6    3.7    3.3    3.5    3.7
 At opening establishments          130     145     103     117     131     .7     .8     .5     .6     .7
Gross job losses                    731     704     668     751     707    3.9    3.8    3.6    4.0    3.7
 At contracting establishments      600     580     558     618     588    3.2    3.1    3.0    3.3    3.1
 At closing establishments          131     124     110     133     119     .7     .7     .6     .7     .6
Net employment change                67     138      65      26     134     .4     .7     .2     .1     .7

Leisure and hospitality

Gross job gains                   1,111   1,131   1,037   1,166   1,170    8.5    8.6    7.9    8.8    8.8
 At expanding establishments        864     862     814     903     914    6.6    6.6    6.2    6.8    6.9
 At opening establishments          247     269     223     263     256    1.9    2.0    1.7    2.0    1.9
Gross job losses                  1,069   1,100     985   1,095   1,104    8.2    8.4    7.4    8.3    8.2
 At contracting establishments      873     893     799     901     899    6.7    6.8    6.0    6.8    6.7
 At closing establishments          196     207     186     194     205    1.5    1.6    1.4    1.5    1.5
Net employment change                42      31      52      71      66     .3     .2     .5     .5     .6

Other services

Gross job gains                     268     272     258     280     277    7.2    7.3    6.9    7.4    7.3
 At expanding establishments        209     210     206     222     215    5.6    5.6    5.5    5.9    5.7
 At opening establishments           59      62      52      58      62    1.6    1.7    1.4    1.5    1.6
Gross job losses                    275     267     249     259     270    7.4    7.2    6.7    6.9    7.2
 At contracting establishments      211     207     193     196     211    5.7    5.6    5.2    5.2    5.6
 At closing establishments           64      60      56      63      59    1.7    1.6    1.5    1.7    1.6
Net employment change                -7       5       9      21       7    -.2     .1     .2     .5     .1

(1) Includes unclassified sector, not shown separately

Table 4.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

(In thousands)

                      Total private by firm(1)       Firm size 1 - 49 employees      Firm size 50 - 249 employees      Firm size 250 or more employees
Year  3 months        Net        Gross job            Net          Gross job          Net           Gross job           Net           Gross job
        ended      change(2,3)  gains   losses       change      gains   losses      change       gains   losses       change       gains   losses

2001  March             52      7,033    6,981          23       3,508    3,485        -87        1,277    1,364         116        2,248    2,132
      June            -843      6,432    7,275        -123       3,393    3,516       -180        1,223    1,403        -540        1,816    2,356
      September     -1,214      6,124    7,338        -271       3,333    3,604       -253        1,142    1,395        -690        1,649    2,339
      December      -1,041      6,146    7,187        -118       3,325    3,443       -200        1,138    1,338        -723        1,683    2,406

2002  March             70      6,602    6,532          54       3,402    3,348        -52        1,194    1,246          68        2,006    1,938
      June             -61      6,416    6,477          69       3,379    3,310         -7        1,191    1,198        -123        1,846    1,969
      September       -176      6,190    6,366          20       3,335    3,315        -46        1,144    1,190        -150        1,711    1,861
      December        -247      6,114    6,361          -3       3,299    3,302        -73        1,106    1,179        -171        1,709    1,880

2003  March           -326      6,112    6,438        -135       3,257    3,392        -56        1,127    1,183        -135        1,728    1,863
      June            -137      6,108    6,245         112       3,346    3,234        -26        1,133    1,159        -223        1,629    1,852
      September        193      6,162    5,969         120       3,327    3,207         21        1,127    1,106          52        1,708    1,656
      December         310      6,218    5,908         146       3,340    3,194         32        1,128    1,096         132        1,750    1,618

2004  March            430      6,306    5,876         153       3,392    3,239        137        1,194    1,057         140        1,720    1,580
      June             621      6,471    5,850         169       3,387    3,218        141        1,196    1,055         311        1,888    1,577
      September        197      6,243    6,046          88       3,379    3,291         88        1,175    1,087          21        1,689    1,668
      December         759      6,494    5,735         274       3,480    3,206        101        1,172    1,071         384        1,842    1,458

2005  March            368      6,320    5,952          66       3,416    3,350         97        1,161    1,064         205        1,743    1,538
      June             570      6,435    5,865         243       3,476    3,233        146        1,198    1,052         181        1,761    1,580
      September        701      6,672    5,971         218       3,510    3,292         85        1,195    1,110         398        1,967    1,569
      December         506      6,406    5,900         169       3,462    3,293         45        1,140    1,095         292        1,804    1,512

2006  March            788      6,433    5,645         334       3,547    3,213        222        1,213      991         232        1,673    1,441
      June             375      6,349    5,974         117       3,434    3,317        110        1,190    1,080         148        1,725    1,577
      September         43      6,103    6,060         -14       3,329    3,343         27        1,127    1,100          30        1,647    1,617
      December         447      6,375    5,928         117       3,393    3,276         74        1,147    1,073         256        1,835    1,579

2007  March            481      6,301    5,820         196       3,454    3,258        109        1,155    1,046         176        1,692    1,516
      June             170      6,260    6,090         -28       3,340    3,368        106        1,181    1,075          92        1,739    1,647
      September       -252      5,907    6,159        -129       3,256    3,385        -53        1,075    1,128         -70        1,576    1,646
      December         259      6,231    5,972         -10       3,304    3,314         51        1,133    1,082         218        1,794    1,576

2008  March           -259      5,810    6,069        -132       3,240    3,372          0        1,076    1,076        -127        1,494    1,621
      June            -552      5,862    6,414        -282       3,181    3,463        -38        1,100    1,138        -232        1,581    1,813
      September     -1,016      5,499    6,515        -354       3,045    3,399       -161        1,015    1,176        -501        1,439    1,940
      December      -1,880      5,323    7,203        -706       2,898    3,604       -380          941    1,321        -794        1,484    2,278

2009  March         -2,626      4,582    7,208        -962       2,725    3,687       -600          807    1,407      -1,064        1,050    2,114
      June          -1,776      5,176    6,952        -472       2,952    3,424       -276          958    1,234      -1,028        1,266    2,294
      September       -957      5,134    6,091        -382       2,818    3,200       -127          928    1,055        -448        1,388    1,836
      December        -310      5,389    5,699        -176       2,928    3,104        -52          957    1,009         -82        1,504    1,586

2010  March           -213      5,096    5,309        -177       2,866    3,043          7          910      903         -43        1,320    1,363
      June             686      5,819    5,133         236       3,096    2,860        211        1,080      869         239        1,643    1,404
      September        175      5,493    5,318          14       2,935    2,921         72          995      923          89        1,563    1,474
      December         502      5,769    5,267          74       3,036    2,962         87        1,029      942         341        1,704    1,363

2011  March            300      5,270    4,970          95       2,931    2,836        120          954      834          85        1,385    1,300
      June             513      5,727    5,214         174       3,043    2,869        174        1,066      892         165        1,618    1,453
      September        747      5,869    5,122         207       3,061    2,854        150        1,052      902         390        1,756    1,366


(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower
    than total gross job gains and gross job losses by establishment,
    as some establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.
(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.
(3) Net change totals for firm-level data shown differ from the establishment-level data
    due to independent seasonal adjustment of the series.
NOTE: See http://www.bls.gov/bdm/bdmfirmsize.htm for additional firm size class data.

Table 5. Components of private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   Sept    Dec.    Mar.    June    Sept   Sept   Dec.   Mar.   June   Sept  
                                   2010    2010    2011    2011    2011   2010   2010   2011   2011   2011
Total private by firm(1)

Gross job gains                   5,493   5,769   5,270   5,727   5,869    5.2    5.4    4.9    5.3    5.5
 At expanding firms               4,606   4,792   4,414   4,829   4,952    4.4    4.5    4.1    4.5    4.6
 At opening firms                   887     977     856     898     917     .8     .9     .8     .8     .9

Gross job losses                  5,318   5,267   4,970   5,214   5,122    5.0    4.9    4.7    4.8    4.8
 At contracting firms             4,441   4,392   4,122   4,320   4,292    4.2    4.1    3.9    4.0    4.0
 At closing firms                   877     875     848     894     830     .8     .8     .8     .8     .8

Net employment change               175     502     300     513     747     .2     .5     .2     .5     .7


Firm size 1 to 49 employees

Gross job gains                   2,935   3,036   2,931   3,043   3,061    9.4    9.8    9.5    9.7    9.8
 At expanding firms               2,091   2,105   2,102   2,188   2,186    6.7    6.8    6.8    7.0    7.0
 At opening firms                   844     931     829     855     875    2.7    3.0    2.7    2.7    2.8

Gross job losses                  2,921   2,962   2,836   2,869   2,854    9.4    9.6    9.1    9.2    9.2
 At contracting firms             2,088   2,128   2,020   2,009   2,053    6.7    6.9    6.5    6.4    6.6
 At closing firms                   833     834     816     860     801    2.7    2.7    2.6    2.8    2.6

Net employment change                14      74      95     174     207     .0     .2     .4     .5     .6


Firm size 50 to 249 employees

Gross job gains                     995   1,029     954   1,066   1,052    5.1    5.3    4.8    5.4    5.3
 At expanding firms                 961     990     930   1,030   1,016    4.9    5.1    4.7    5.2    5.1
 At opening firms                    34      39      24      36      36     .2     .2     .1     .2     .2

Gross job losses                    923     942     834     892     902    4.8    4.8    4.2    4.5    4.5
 At contracting firms               892     906     807     865     877    4.6    4.6    4.1    4.4    4.4
 At closing firms                    31      36      27      27      25     .2     .2     .1     .1     .1

Net employment change                72      87     120     174     150     .3     .5     .6     .9     .8


Firm size 250 or more employees

Gross job gains                   1,563   1,704   1,385   1,618   1,756    2.8    3.1    2.5    2.9    3.1
 At expanding firms               1,554   1,697   1,382   1,611   1,750    2.8    3.1    2.5    2.9    3.1
 At opening firms                     9       7       3       7       6     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Gross job losses                  1,474   1,363   1,300   1,453   1,366    2.6    2.4    2.3    2.6    2.4
 At contracting firms             1,461   1,358   1,295   1,446   1,362    2.6    2.4    2.3    2.6    2.4
 At closing firms                    13       5       5       7       4     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Net employment change                89     341      85     165     390     .2     .7     .2     .3     .7


(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower
    than total gross job gains and gross job losses by establishment,
    as some establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.

Table 6.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by state, seasonally adjusted

                                         Gross job gains                                          Gross job losses
State                                    (3 months ended)                                         (3 months ended)
                        Sept.      Dec.       Mar.        June      Sept.      Sept.        Dec.       Mar.        June      Sept.
                        2010       2010       2011        2011      2011       2010         2010       2011        2011      2011

United States1.....  6,685,000  7,009,000  6,338,000   6,892,000  7,058,000  6,480,000   6,427,000   6,086,000  6,314,000  6,305,000

Alabama.....            90,264     92,703     84,637      85,592     89,163     94,906      89,303      84,577     88,057     80,766
Alaska.....             22,975     23,714     23,704      26,682     24,543     23,241      25,098      21,076     23,216     23,016
Arizona.....           124,877    141,959    116,287     126,242    137,222    130,151     113,441     119,945    122,634    117,282
Arkansas.....           55,487     53,841     56,325      53,865     61,843     58,187      57,528      54,661     59,326     55,999
California.....        786,424    869,765    752,097     829,483    891,979    810,591     768,114     743,843    779,015    808,154
Colorado.....          124,670    130,478    122,766     131,469    131,059    123,623     121,381     115,795    114,903    116,008
Connecticut.....        72,097     73,952     68,916      77,071     73,048     66,807      71,930      69,652     66,307     68,789
Delaware.....           23,266     21,865     21,934      22,247     24,591     20,546      22,473      20,460     23,686     23,409
District of Columbia    25,101     27,326     32,551      28,237     25,787     30,253      24,844      21,185     25,721     24,632
Florida.....           414,729    449,196    379,849     425,637    434,967    428,424     410,096     363,736    394,012    388,491

Georgia.....           215,055    213,709    209,182     204,074    205,602    199,545     197,217     189,167    197,983    199,107
Hawaii.....             28,262     26,710     24,022      23,772     27,275     25,051      23,085      23,055     28,239     22,296
Idaho.....              39,899     40,396     35,101      37,182     41,201     35,230      38,004      37,154     37,510     33,989
Illinois.....          253,972    283,029    243,874     273,748    274,868    251,471     250,035     237,315    242,868    253,937
Indiana.....           138,523    147,601    134,570     134,642    147,420    130,517     130,056     116,631    127,648    128,058
Iowa.....               69,343     76,155     66,167      71,914     73,955     68,571      67,853      67,143     65,640     64,523
Kansas.....             61,693     71,306     59,023      63,561     66,004     63,683      59,548      60,921     62,431     61,473
Kentucky.....           83,581     92,394     81,058      86,726     88,635     81,231      80,264      83,398     80,396     78,431
Louisiana.....         103,912    104,538    101,107      96,036    105,596     97,860     101,157      91,929    103,403     88,932
Maine.....              35,816     35,285     31,923      36,874     36,194     33,975      35,153      33,587     34,606     32,251

Maryland.....          127,203    129,128    120,590     130,489    131,940    128,763     124,276     119,259    124,892    122,518
Massachusetts.....     156,158    157,256    140,586     159,052    167,845    152,843     149,093     140,876    142,030    146,737
Michigan.....          217,321    210,265    197,929     218,137    227,785    188,388     205,916     181,677    200,177    190,661
Minnesota.....         124,575    133,344    127,308     141,827    143,523    122,050     128,021     119,396    120,988    117,440
Mississippi.....        56,719     56,206     54,905      51,146     53,661     57,429      55,128      52,004     56,420     52,391
Missouri.....          125,861    125,381    124,161     128,455    128,195    123,358     118,878     121,614    122,957    127,272
Montana.....            27,160     27,412     24,773      27,613     28,498     24,919      27,464      24,600     25,488     24,128
Nebraska.....           43,265     42,503     40,626      42,236     42,691     41,575      41,662      39,873     40,384     39,740
Nevada.....             55,696     68,182     57,570      61,627     64,218     63,154      58,354      55,923     61,678     57,425
New Hampshire.....      33,342     36,320     32,184      35,249     35,229     33,978      33,028      32,166     33,877     33,518

New Jersey.....        189,493    204,445    187,187     220,220    204,955    199,642     192,833     196,954    191,595    195,289
New Mexico.....         39,847     40,203     35,792      39,688     40,942     40,345      38,293      36,000     38,632     37,790
New York.....          431,838    443,101    415,350     464,287    460,896    406,411     413,552     388,706    407,215    420,817
North Carolina.....    202,561    208,892    201,177     201,804    197,920    192,491     193,313     179,918    186,868    189,164
North Dakota.....       22,768     25,477     24,301      22,027     31,013     17,153      17,817      18,710     20,698     18,430
Ohio.....              241,090    263,829    232,634     255,425    258,434    221,788     248,000     225,754    224,156    224,984
Oklahoma.....           75,615     78,140     70,542      72,898     77,646     72,681      63,495      72,208     66,793     70,215
Oregon.....             95,435     93,768     90,387      87,393    100,035     84,423      91,329      85,528     84,050     78,502
Pennsylvania.....      273,300    287,353    256,356     276,634    264,527    252,845     255,340     245,437    249,470    265,920
Rhode Island.....       25,000     23,892     21,940      26,431     23,227     23,610      24,293      23,049     24,728     23,335

South Carolina.....     90,256     90,254     86,054      91,667     90,563     85,926      82,846      79,478     85,150     87,749
South Dakota.....       20,828     21,290     19,073      21,404     22,160     19,343      19,484      20,405     19,116     18,938
Tennessee.....         122,892    129,496    121,094     126,896    128,156    126,457     113,331     108,222    110,348    117,113
Texas.....             495,120    521,355    487,171     512,733    540,240    450,591     434,541     430,556    442,173    441,962
Utah.....               66,278     69,949     64,660      68,917     68,859     64,393      62,878      60,897     61,092     56,810
Vermont.....            18,827     19,007     15,834      18,615     18,533     16,631      16,786      17,121     18,265     18,741
Virginia.....          176,758    177,039    163,055     173,719    172,449    175,662     166,124     155,930    163,481    158,109
Washington.....        162,186    165,022    152,331     156,143    172,347    147,976     158,113     145,613    149,155    132,961
West Virginia.....      36,469     34,909     35,855      35,737     36,863     33,894      34,879      32,383     33,306     33,902
Wisconsin.....         132,457    138,480    126,622     133,862    131,978    123,344     128,104     123,857    122,475    123,201

Wyoming.....            20,392     19,363     16,627      17,857     19,903     16,440      18,449      17,712     18,183     15,437
Puerto Rico.....        40,256     45,464     36,260      38,389     41,592     41,715      37,113      41,528     41,232     36,646
Virgin Islands.....      2,442      2,417      2,134       1,848      1,772      1,771       1,774       2,192      2,836      2,213

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 7.  Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted

                        Gross job gains as a percent of employment    Gross job losses as a percent of employment
State                              (3 months ended)                               (3 months ended)

                        Sept.   Dec.     Mar.     June    Sept.       Sept.    Dec.      Mar.    June     Sept.
                        2010    2010     2011     2011    2011        2010     2010      2011    2011     2011

United States1.....      6.3     6.6      5.9      6.4     6.5         6.2      6.1       5.7      5.8     5.9

Alabama.....             6.2     6.4      5.8      5.9     6.2         6.5      6.1       5.9      6.1     5.6
Alaska.....              9.6    10.0      9.8     11.0    10.0         9.8     10.5       8.8      9.5     9.4
Arizona.....             6.4     7.2      5.9      6.4     6.9         6.6      5.8       6.1      6.2     5.9
Arkansas.....            6.0     5.8      6.1      5.8     6.7         6.2      6.1       5.9      6.4     6.0
California.....          6.7     7.3      6.3      7.0     7.4         6.8      6.5       6.3      6.6     6.7
Colorado.....            6.9     7.2      6.8      7.2     7.1         6.9      6.7       6.4      6.2     6.3
Connecticut.....         5.3     5.4      5.1      5.7     5.3         4.9      5.3       5.2      4.8     5.0
Delaware.....            6.8     6.4      6.4      6.5     7.2         6.1      6.6       6.0      6.9     6.8
District of Columbia..   5.6     6.2      7.2      6.2     5.7         6.9      5.6       4.7      5.6     5.4
Florida.....             6.9     7.4      6.3      7.0     7.0         7.0      6.7       6.0      6.4     6.3

Georgia.....             6.9     6.9      6.7      6.6     6.6         6.4      6.4       6.0      6.3     6.4
Hawaii.....              6.0     5.7      5.1      5.1     5.8         5.3      5.0       4.9      6.0     4.7
Idaho.....               8.1     8.2      7.1      7.5     8.3         7.2      7.7       7.5      7.6     6.8
Illinois.....            5.5     6.0      5.1      5.8     5.7         5.3      5.3       5.0      5.1     5.4
Indiana.....             6.0     6.4      5.8      5.8     6.2         5.7      5.6       5.0      5.4     5.4
Iowa.....                5.8     6.3      5.5      6.0     6.1         5.8      5.7       5.5      5.4     5.3
Kansas.....              5.9     6.8      5.6      6.1     6.2         6.1      5.7       5.7      5.9     5.9
Kentucky.....            6.0     6.5      5.8      6.1     6.2         5.8      5.7       5.9      5.7     5.5
Louisiana.....           7.0     7.0      6.7      6.3     7.0         6.6      6.8       6.1      6.9     5.9
Maine.....               7.5     7.4      6.7      7.7     7.5         7.2      7.4       7.0      7.2     6.7

Maryland.....            6.5     6.6      6.1      6.6     6.6         6.5      6.3       6.0      6.3     6.1
Massachusetts.....       5.8     5.8      5.2      5.9     6.1         5.7      5.5       5.2      5.2     5.3
Michigan.....            6.8     6.5      6.1      6.7     7.0         5.9      6.4       5.7      6.1     5.8
Minnesota.....           5.7     6.1      5.8      6.4     6.4         5.5      5.8       5.4      5.5     5.2
Mississippi.....         6.8     6.7      6.5      6.1     6.4         6.8      6.6       6.2      6.7     6.3
Missouri.....            5.9     5.9      5.8      6.0     6.0         5.8      5.6       5.7      5.7     5.9
Montana.....             8.1     8.1      7.4      8.2     8.4         7.4      8.1       7.3      7.5     7.1
Nebraska.....            5.9     5.7      5.5      5.7     5.7         5.7      5.7       5.4      5.5     5.4
Nevada.....              5.8     7.1      6.0      6.3     6.7         6.6      6.1       5.8      6.4     5.9
New Hampshire.....       6.5     7.0      6.2      6.8     6.7         6.6      6.4       6.2      6.6     6.4

New Jersey.....          6.0     6.5      5.9      7.0     6.4         6.4      6.2       6.2      6.0     6.2
New Mexico.....          6.8     6.8      6.0      6.6     6.9         6.8      6.5       6.1      6.5     6.4
New York.....            6.2     6.4      6.0      6.6     6.5         5.9      6.0       5.5      5.8     5.9
North Carolina.....      6.6     6.7      6.5      6.4     6.3         6.2      6.3       5.7      5.9     6.0
North Dakota.....        7.8     8.5      8.0      7.2     9.9         5.9      6.0       6.1      6.8     5.9
Ohio.....                5.8     6.3      5.5      6.1     6.1         5.3      5.9       5.4      5.3     5.3
Oklahoma.....            6.5     6.6      6.0      6.2     6.5         6.3      5.4       6.1      5.6     5.9
Oregon.....              7.3     7.1      6.8      6.6     7.5         6.5      6.9       6.5      6.3     5.9
Pennsylvania.....        5.7     6.0      5.4      5.8     5.5         5.3      5.4       5.1      5.2     5.5
Rhode Island.....        6.5     6.1      5.6      6.8     6.0         6.1      6.3       6.0      6.4     6.0

South Carolina.....      6.3     6.3      6.0      6.4     6.2         6.0      5.8       5.5      5.9     6.0
South Dakota.....        6.5     6.7      6.0      6.7     6.8         6.1      6.1       6.3      6.0     5.9
Tennessee.....           5.7     6.0      5.6      5.8     5.9         5.9      5.3       5.0      5.1     5.3
Texas.....               5.9     6.2      5.7      6.0     6.3         5.4      5.2       5.1      5.1     5.1
Utah.....                7.0     7.3      6.7      7.2     7.1         6.8      6.6       6.4      6.3     5.9
Vermont.....             7.9     7.9      6.5      7.7     7.7         7.0      7.0       7.1      7.6     7.7
Virginia.....            6.2     6.2      5.7      6.1     6.0         6.2      5.8       5.4      5.7     5.5
Washington.....          7.2     7.3      6.7      7.0     7.6         6.6      7.1       6.4      6.6     5.8
West Virginia.....       6.7     6.3      6.4      6.4     6.6         6.2      6.3       5.8      6.0     6.1
Wisconsin.....           5.9     6.1      5.6      5.9     5.8         5.5      5.7       5.5      5.4     5.4

Wyoming.....            10.0     9.3      8.0      8.6     9.6         8.0      8.9       8.5      8.7     7.4
Puerto Rico.....         6.0     6.8      5.4      5.8     6.2         6.2      5.5       6.2      6.2     5.4
Virgin Islands.....      7.9     7.7      6.7      5.8     5.6         5.7      5.6       6.9      9.0     7.1

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 8.  Private sector establishment births and deaths, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Levels in thousands)

                              Number of Establishments                     Employment
                             Births             Deaths(1)            Births             Deaths
Year  3 months ended     Level    Rate(2)   Level    Rate       Level      Rate    Level      Rate

2001  March               206      3.3       203     3.2        1,187       1.1    1,303       1.2
      June                204      3.2       204     3.2        1,146       1.0    1,226       1.1
      September           204      3.2       207     3.3        1,151       1.1    1,219       1.1
      December            194      3.1       200     3.2        1,109       1.0    1,142       1.1
  
2002  March               204      3.2       190     3.0        1,175       1.1    1,089       1.0
      June                208      3.3       187     2.9        1,189       1.1    1,080       1.0
      September           199      3.1       184     2.9        1,051       1.0    1,023       1.0
      December            201      3.1       191     3.0        1,023       1.0    1,021       1.0
  
2003  March               193      3.0       186     2.9        1,004        .9    1,011        .9
      June                191      3.0       186     2.9          964        .9      951        .9
      September           193      3.0       179     2.8          954        .9      884        .8
      December            200      3.1       180     2.8          998        .9      910        .9
  
2004  March               207      3.2       180     2.8        1,000        .9      917        .9
      June                203      3.1       185     2.8          980        .9      909        .8
      September           209      3.2       186     2.8        1,016        .9      953        .9
      December            210      3.2       180     2.7          997        .9      894        .8
  
2005  March               209      3.1       185     2.8          944        .9      852        .8
      June                216      3.2       180     2.7          951        .9      841        .8
      September           221      3.3       186     2.8          996        .9      884        .8
      December            221      3.3       186     2.8          979        .9      846        .8
  
2006  March               220      3.2       180     2.6          924        .8      748        .7
      June                221      3.2       194     2.8          973        .9      841        .7
      September           210      3.1       196     2.9          927        .8      836        .7
      December            221      3.2       194     2.8          959        .8      804        .7
  
2007  March               214      3.1       193     2.8          896        .8      768        .7
      June                206      3.0       202     2.9          883        .8      851        .7
      September           216      3.1       203     2.9          944        .8      837        .7
      December            208      3.0       207     3.0          903        .8      830        .7
  
2008  March               207      3.0       211     3.0          894        .8      810        .7
      June                200      2.9       228     3.3          876        .8      934        .8
      September           191      2.7       223     3.2          830        .7      881        .8
      December            188      2.7       240     3.5          801        .7      953        .9
  
2009  March               172      2.5       235     3.4          701        .6      846        .8
      June                177      2.6       226     3.3          741        .7      832        .8
      September           169      2.5       215     3.2          694        .7      786        .7
      December            182      2.7       200     3.0          713        .7      741        .7
  
2010  March               175      2.6       194     2.9          684        .7      664        .6
      June                179      2.7       185     2.7          713        .7      652        .6
      September           188      2.8       189     2.8          743        .7      695        .7
      December            200      2.9       186     2.7          792        .7      691        .7
  
2011  March               183      2.7       N/A     N/A          660        .6      N/A       N/A
      June                187      2.7       N/A     N/A          727        .7      N/A       N/A
      September           191      2.8       N/A     N/A          763        .7      N/A       N/A

(1) Values for deaths are not available for the most recent three quarters
    by definition.  See the Technical Note for more information.

(2) The rates measure births and deaths as a percentage
    of the average of the previous and current quarter employment levels or
    total number of establishments.

Last Modified Date: May 01, 2012
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