Economic News Release

Quarterly Data Series on Business Employment Dynamics News Release

For release: 10:00 A.M. EDT                                      USDL 11-0620
Tuesday, May 3, 2011

Technical information: (202) 691-6553  *  BDMinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/bdm

Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


          BUSINESS EMPLOYMENT DYNAMICS:  THIRD QUARTER 2010    

From June to September 2010 the number of gross job gains from opening
and expanding private sector establishments decreased to 6.6 million, 
the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today.  Over this period,
gross job losses from closing and contracting private sector 
establishments increased to 6.4 million. 

Firms in all size classes experienced a decrease in gross job gains and
an increase in gross job losses in the third quarter of 2010.  

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of 
increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses
in the economy.  Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track
these changes in employment at private business units from the third 
month of one quarter to the third month of the next.  Gross job gains 
are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing 
units and the addition of new jobs at opening units.  Gross job losses
are the result of contractions in employment at existing units and the
loss of jobs at closing units.  The difference between the number of 
gross job gains and the number of gross job losses is the net change 
in employment.  (See the Technical Note for more information.) 

The BED data series include gross job gains and gross job losses at the
establishment level by industry subsector and for the 50 states, the 
District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, as well as 
gross job gains and gross job losses at the firm level by employer size
class.

 --------------------------------------------------------------------
|                Changes to Firm Size Data Tables                    |
| Firm size class data in tables 4 and 5 have been redesigned to     |
| summarize data for firms with 1 to 49 employees, 50 to 249         |
| employees,and 250 or more employees.  The more detailed firm size  |
| data are still available at http://www.bls.gov/bdm/bdmfirmsize.htm.|
 --------------------------------------------------------------------

Contracting establishments lost 5.2 million jobs in the third quarter 
of 2010, reversing a downward trend in this series that began in June 
2009. 

Job gains at expanding establishments fell to 5.4 million in the third
quarter 2010 after rising in the second quarter. 

From June 2010 to September 2010 closing establishments lost 1.2 
million jobs, an increase from the previous quarter’s loss of 1.1 
million.  

Opening establishments gained 1.2 million jobs in the third quarter 
2010, a decrease from the previous quarter when opening establishments
created 1.3 million jobs. (See tables 1 and 3.)

In third quarter 2010, the number of establishment births (a subset of 
the openings data, see the Technical Note for more information) rose by
10,000 to 182,000.  These new establishments accounted for 714,000 
jobs, an increase of 16,000 from the previous quarter.  

Data for establishment deaths (a subset of the closings data) are 
available through December 2009, when 745,000 jobs were lost at 200,000
establishments.  (See table 8.)

The difference between the number of gross jobs gained and the number 
of gross jobs lost yielded a net change of 151,000 jobs in the private
sector for third quarter 2010. (See table 1.)

Gross job gains represented 6.2 percent of private sector employment 
in third quarter 2010, while gross job losses represented 6.0 percent 
of private sector employment.  (See table 2.)

The financial activities, utilities, construction, retail trade, 
information, and other services sectors posted net decreases in 
employment during third quarter 2010.  Gross job gains in the 
service-providing sector decreased from 5,474,000 in June 2010 to 
5,233,000 in September 2010.  The retail trade sector experienced a 
drop in employment with a net decrease of 96,000 as a result of smaller
gross job gains (788,000) and larger gross job losses (884,000).  This
net decrease in employment was notable after this sector recorded a net
increase of 123,000 in June 2010.  The manufacturing sector has
recorded two consecutive quarters of net employment increases after 15
consecutive quarters of net decreases from third quarter 2006 to first
quarter 2010. (See table 3.)

Firms with less than 50 employees had a net loss of 28,000 jobs, while
firms with 50 to 249 employees and firms with 250 or more employees
had net gains of 64,000 and 85,000 jobs respectively. 
(See tables 4 and 5.)



Table A.  Three-month private sector gross job gains and losses, 
seasonally adjusted 

Category                                 3 months ended

                                Sept.   Dec.    Mar.    June    Sept.
                                2009    2009    2010    2010    2010

                                      Levels (in thousands)
                                      
Gross job gains................ 6,341   6,662   6,110   6,935   6,593
 At expanding establishments... 5,124   5,326   4,996   5,682   5,388
 At opening establishments..... 1,217   1,336   1,114   1,253   1,205

Gross job losses............... 7,241   6,890   6,421   6,207   6,442
 At contracting establishments. 5,883   5,598   5,231   5,064   5,226
 At closing establishments..... 1,358   1,292   1,190   1,143   1,216

Net employment change(1).......  -900    -228    -311     728     151
								
                                         Rates (percent)

Gross job gains................   5.9     6.4     5.8     6.6     6.2
 At expanding establishments...   4.8     5.1     4.7     5.4     5.1
 At opening establishments.....   1.1     1.3     1.1     1.2     1.1

Gross job losses...............   6.9     6.5     6.1     5.9     6.0
 At contracting establishments.   5.6     5.3     5.0     4.8     4.9
 At closing establishments.....   1.3     1.2     1.1     1.1     1.1

Net employment change(1).......  -1.0     -.1     -.3      .7      .2

    (1) The net employment change is the difference between total 
    gross job gains and total gross job losses.  See the Technical 
    Note for further information.


In the third quarter of 2010, twenty states and the District of 
Columbia experienced a net loss in employment, which is an increase
from 6 states in the second quarter 2010.   After a notable net gain of
102,764 jobs in second quarter 2010, California had the largest net
decrease in jobs of any state in third quarter 2010 (-30,093).  
Texas experienced the largest net job gain (45,790) of any state in 
third quarter 2010. (See table 6.)  From June 2010 to September 2010, 
gross job gains as a percent of total employment increased or remained
unchanged in 12 states, while 38 states and the District of Columbia 
showed a decrease. (See table 7.)

More Information
Additional information on gross job gains and gross job losses are
available online at http://www.bls.gov/bdm.  This information 
includes data on the levels and rates of gross job gains and gross
job losses by firm size, the not seasonally adjusted data and other
seasonally adjusted time series not presented in this release, 
charts of gross job gains and gross job losses by industry and firm
size, and frequently asked questions on firm-size data.  Additional 
information about the Business Employment Dynamics data can be 
found in the Technical Note of this release or may be obtained by 
e-mailing BDMinfo@bls.gov. 
	
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
| The Business Employment Dynamics for Fourth Quarter 2010 are            |
| scheduled to be released on Tuesday, August 2, 2011 at 10:00 a.m. (EDT) |
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 






                                                                 
Technical Note

   
   The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-
state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages
(QCEW), or the ES-202 program.  The BED data are compiled by the U.S.
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) from existing quarterly state unemployment
insurance (UI) records.  Most employers in the U.S. are required to file
quarterly reports on the employment and wages of workers covered by UI
laws, and to pay quarterly UI taxes.  The quarterly UI reports are sent by
the State Workforce Agencies (SWAs) to BLS and form the basis of the BLS 
establishment universe sampling frame.  These reports also are used to pro-
duce the quarterly QCEW data on total employment and wages and the longitu-
dinal BED data on gross job gains and losses.  Other important BLS uses 
of the UI reports are in the Current Employment Statistics (CES) program. 
(See table below for differences between QCEW, CES, and BED.)
                                     
   In the BED program, the quarterly UI records are linked across quarters
to provide a longitudinal history for each establishment.  The linkage
process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment
level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and
expanding establishments and jobs lost at closing and contracting establish-
ments.

Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES employment measures

   The BLS publishes three different establishment-based employment mea-
sures for any given quarter.  Each of these measures--QCEW, BED, and CES--
makes use of the quarterly UI employment reports in producing data; how-
ever, each measure has a somewhat different universe coverage, estimation 
procedure, and publication product.

   Differences in coverage and estimation methods can result in somewhat 
different measures of over-the-quarter employment change.  It is important to 
understand program differences and the intended uses of the program products.  
(See table below.)  Additional information on each program can be obtained 
from the program Web sites shown in the table.

				                                  
Summary of Major Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES Employment Measures
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |         QCEW        |         BED          |         CES
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Source     |--Count of UI admini-|--Count of longitudi- |--Sample survey: 
           |  strative records   |  nally-linked UI ad- |  410,000 establish-
           |  submitted by 9.0   |  ministrative records|  ments
           |  million employers  |  submitted by 6.7    |
           |                     |  million private sec-|
           |                     |  tor employers       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Coverage   |--UI and UCFE cover- |--UI Coverage, exclud-|Nonfarm wage and sal-
           |  age:  all employers|  ing government, pri-|  ary jobs:
           |  subject to state   |  vate households, and|--UI Coverage, exclud-
           |  and federal UI Laws|  establishments with |  ing agriculture, pri-
           |                     |  zero employment     |  vate households, and
           |                     |                      |  self-employed workers
           |                     |                      |--Other employment, in-
           |                     |                      |  cluding railroads, 
           |                     |                      |  religious organiza-
           |                     |                      |  tions, and other non-
           |                     |                      |  UI-covered jobs
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Publication|--Quarterly          |--Quarterly           |--Monthly 
frequency  |  -7 months after the|  -8 months after the |  -Usually first Friday
           |   end of each quar- |   end of each quarter|   of following month
           |   ter               |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Use of UI  |--Directly summarizes|--Links each new UI   |--Uses UI file as a sam-
file       |  and publishes each |  quarter to longitu- |  pling frame and annu-
           |  new quarter of UI  |  dinal database and  |  ally realigns (bench-
           |  data               |  directly summarizes |  marks) sample esti-    
           |                     |  gross job gains and |  mates to first quar-  
           |                     |  losses              |  ter UI levels
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Provides a quarter-|--Provides quarterly  |--Provides current month-
products   |  ly and annual uni- |  employer dynamics   |  ly estimates of employ-
           |  verse count of es- |  data on establish-  |  ment, hours, and earn-
           |  tablishments, em-  |  ment openings, clos-|  ings at the MSA, state,
           |  ployment, and wages|  ings, expansions,   |  and national level by
           |  at the county, MSA,|  and contractions at |  industry
           |  state, and national|  the national level  |
           |  levels by detailed |  by NAICS super-     |
           |  industry           |  sectors and by size |
           |                     |  of firm, and at the |   
           |                     |  state private-sector|
           |                     |  total level         | 
           |                     |--Future expansions   |
           |                     |  will include data   |
           |                     |  with greater in-    |
           |                     |  dustry detail and   |
           |                     |  data at the county  |
           |                     |  and MSA level       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Major uses include:|--Major uses include: |--Major uses include:
uses       |  -Detailed locality |  -Business cycle     |  -Principal national
           |   data              |   analysis           |   economic indicator
           |  -Periodic universe |  -Analysis of employ-|  -Official time series 
           |   counts for bench- |   er dynamics under- |   for employment change
           |   marking sample    |   lying economic ex- |   measures
           |   survey estimates  |   pansions and con-  |  -Input into other ma-
           |  -Sample frame for  |   tractions          |   jor economic indi-
           |   BLS establishment |  -Analysis of employ-|   cators
           |   surveys           |   ment expansion and |
           |                     |   contraction by size|   
           |                     |   of firm            |
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Program    |--www.bls.gov/cew/   |--www.bls.gov/bdm/    |--www.bls.gov/ces/
Web sites  |                     |                      |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               
                           
Coverage                           

   Employment and wage data for workers covered by state UI and Unemployment 
Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE) laws are compiled from quarterly 
contribution reports submitted to the SWAs by employers.  In addition to the 
quarterly contribution reports, employers who operate multiple establishments 
within a state complete a questionnaire, called the "Multiple Worksite Report,"
which provides detailed information on the location of their establishments. 
These reports are based on place of employment rather than place of residence. 
UI and UCFE coverage is broad and basically comparable from state to state.
   
   Major exclusions from UI coverage are self-employed workers, religious or-
ganizations, most agricultural workers on small farms, all members of the 
Armed Forces, elected officials in most states, most employees of railroads, 
some domestic workers, most student workers at schools, and employees of cer-
tain small nonprofit organizations.
   
   Gross job gains and gross job losses in this release are derived from lon-
gitudinal histories of 6.7 million private sector employer reports out 
of 9.0 million total reports of employment and wages submitted by states to 
BLS in the first quarter of 2010.  Gross job gains and gross job losses data 
in this release do not report estimates for government employees or private 
households (NAICS 814110) and do not include establishments with zero employ-
ment in both previous and current quarters.  Data from Puerto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands also are excluded from the national data.  As an illustration, 
the table below shows, in millions of establishments, the number of establish-
ments excluded from the gross job gains and gross job losses data in the
first quarter of 2010:


             Number of active establishments included in 
              Business Employment Dynamics data at the
                          national level

                                                                   Millions
                                                                       
Total establishments QCEW program....................................9.0

    Excluded:  Public sector.........................................0.3 
               Private households....................................0.7
               Zero employment.......................................1.3      
               Establishments in Puerto Rico 
                 and the Virgin Islands..............................0.0 
                 (less than 50,000)
                 
Total establishments included in Business
Employment Dynamics data.............................................6.7

Unit of analysis
   
   Establishments are used in the tabulation of the BED statistics by in-
dustry and firms are used in the tabulation of the BED size class sta-
tistics.  An establishment is defined as an economic unit that produces
goods or services, usually at a single physical location, and engages in
one or predominantly one activity.  A firm is a legal business, either
corporate or otherwise, and may consist of several establishments.  Firm-
level data are compiled based on an aggregation of establishments under
common ownership by a corporate parent using employer tax identification
numbers.  The firm-level aggregation, which is consistent with the role of
corporations as the economic decision makers, is used for the measurement
of the BED data elements by size class.
   
   Because of the difference in the unit of analysis, total gross job gains
and gross job losses by size class are lower than total gross job gains and
gross job losses by industry, as some establishment gains and losses within
a firm are offset during the aggregation process.  However, the total net
changes in employment are the same for not seasonally adjusted data and are
similar for seasonally adjusted data.
                                 
Concepts and methodology

   The Business Employment Dynamics data measure the net change in employ-
ment at the establishment or firm level.  These changes come about in one 
of four ways.  A net increase in employment can come from either opening 
units or expanding units.  A net decrease in employment can come from either 
closing units or contracting units.  Gross job gains include the sum of all
jobs added at either opening or expanding units.  Gross job losses include
the sum of all jobs lost in either closing or contracting units.  The net
change in employment is the difference between gross job gains and gross
job losses.
   
   The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:                          

   Openings.  These are either units with positive third month employment for
the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or
with positive third month employment in the current quarter, following zero em-
ployment in the previous quarter.
                                     
   Expansions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment
over this period.
   
   Closings.  These are units with positive third month employment in the pre-
vious quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the current
quarter.
   
   Contractions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment
over this period.

   Births.  These are units with positive third month employment for the 
first time in the current quarter with no links to the prior quarter, or 
units with positive third month employment in the current quarter and zero
employment in the third month of the previous four quarters. Births are a
subset of openings not including re-openings of seasonal businesses.

   Deaths.  These are units with no employment or zero employment reported in 
the third month of four consecutive quarters following the last quarter with 
positive employment. Deaths are a subset of closings not including temporary 
shutdowns of seasonal businesses.  A unit that closes during the quarter may 
be a death, but we wait three quarters to determine whether it is a permanent
closing or a temporary shutdown. Therefore, there is always a lag of three 
quarters for the publication of death statistics.

   All establishment-level employment changes are measured from the third 
month of each quarter.  Not all establishments and firms change their em-
ployment levels.  Units with no change in employment count towards estimates
of total employment, but not for levels of gross employment job gains and 
gross job losses.

   Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing 
their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quar-
ters.  This provides a symmetric growth rate.  The rates are calculated for
the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to
form their respective totals.  These rates can be added and subtracted just
as their levels can.  For instance, the difference between the gross job
gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

Establishment Births and Deaths

   For the purpose of BED statistics, births are defined as establishments
that appear in the longitudinal database for the first time with positive
employment in the third month of a quarter, or showed four consecutive
quarters of zero employment in the third month followed by a quarter in
which it shows positive employment in the third month.  Similarly, deaths
are defined as establishments that either drop out of the longitudinal
database or an establishment that had positive employment in the third month
of a given quarter followed by four consecutive quarters of showing zero
employment in the third month.  Although the data for establishment births
and deaths are tabulated independently from the data for openings and
closings, the concepts are not mutually exclusive.  An establishment that
is defined as a birth in a given quarter is necessarily an opening as well,
and an establishment defined as a death in a quarter must also be a closing.
Since openings include seasonal, and other, re-openings and closings include
temporary shutdowns, the not seasonally adjusted values for births and
deaths must be less than those openings and closings.  However, because some
BED series do not have many re-openings or temporary shutdowns, as well as
the fact that births and deaths are independently seasonally adjusted from
openings and closings, there may be instances in which the seasonally
adjusted value of the former is greater than the latter.

Linkage methodology

   Prior to the measurement of gross job gains and gross job losses, QCEW
records are linked across two quarters.  The linkage process matches esta-
blishments' unique SWA identification numbers (SWA-ID).  Between 95 to 97
percent of establishments identified as continuous from quarter to quarter
are matched by SWA-ID.  The rest are linked in one of three ways.  The first
method uses predecessor and successor information, identified by the states,
which relates records with different SWA-IDs across quarters.  Predecessor
and successor relations can come about for a variety of reasons, including
a change in ownership, a firm restructuring, or a UI account restructuring.
If a match cannot be attained in this manner, a probability-based match is
used.  This match attempts to identify two establishments with different SWA-
IDs as continuous.  The match is based upon comparisons such as the same
name, address, and phone number.  Third, an analyst examines unmatched re-
cords individually and makes a possible match.

   In order to ensure the highest possible quality of data, SWAs verify with 
employers and update, if necessary, the industry, location, and ownership 
classification of all establishments on a 3-year cycle.  Changes in establish-
ment classification codes resulting from the verification process are intro-
duced with the data reported for the first quarter of the year.  Changes re-
sulting from improved employer reporting also are introduced in the first 
quarter.   
                              
Sizing methodology
   
   The method of dynamic sizing is used in calculations for the BED size-
class data series.  Dynamic sizing allocates each firm's employment gain or
loss during a quarter to each respective size class in which the change
occurred.  For example, if a firm grew from 2 employees in quarter 1 to 38
employees in quarter 2, then, of the 36-employee increase, 2 would be al-
located to the first size class, 5 to the size class 5 to 9, 10 to size
class 10 to 19, and 19 to size class 20 to 49.
   
   Dynamic sizing provides symmetrical firm-size estimates and eliminates
any systematic effects which may be caused by the transitory and reverting
changes in firms' sizes over time.  Additionally, it allocates each job
gain or loss to the actual size class where it occurred.

Annual Data

   The annual gross job gains and gross job losses measure the net change
in employment at the establishment level from the third month of a quarter
in the previous year to the third month of the same quarter in the current
year.  The BLS publishes annual BED data based on March-to-March changes
once a year with the release of the first quarter BED data.  The annual
data based on over-the-year changes for other quarters of the year are
available upon request.  The definitions and methodology in measuring
annual gross job gains and gross job losses are similar to the quarterly
measures.  The linkage method considers all predecessor and successor
relations that may come about due to changes in ownership and corporate
restructuring over the entire year.  At the establishment level, some of
the quarterly job gains and job losses are offset during the estimation
over the year.  Therefore, the sum of four quarters of gross job gains
and gross job losses are not equal to annual gross job gains and gross
job losses.  The net change in employment over the year, however, is
equal to the sum of four quarterly net changes on a not seasonally
adjusted basis.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the levels of employment and the associated
job flows undergo sharp fluctuations due to such seasonal events as changes
in the weather, reduced or expanded production, harvests, major holidays,
and the opening and closing of schools.  The effect of such seasonal vari-
ation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each 
year, their influence can be eliminated by adjusting these statistics from 
quarter to quarter.  These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as 
declines in economic activity, easier to recognize.  For example, the large 
number of youths taking summer jobs is likely to obscure other changes that 
have taken place in June relative to March, making it difficult to determine 
if the level of economic activity has risen or declined.  However, because
the effect of students finishing school in previous years is known, the 
statistics for the current year can be adjusted to allow for a comparable 
change.  The adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to ana-
lyze changes in economic activity.

   The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contract-
ing units are independently seasonally adjusted; net changes are calculated
based on the difference between gross job gains and gross job losses.  Simi-
larly, for industry data, the establishment counts data series for opening,
expanding, closing, and contracting establishments are independently adjusted,
and the net changes are calculated based on the difference between the number
of opening and closing establishments.  Additionally, establishment and em-
ployment levels are independently seasonally adjusted to calculate the sea-
sonally adjusted rates.  Concurrent seasonal adjustment is run using X-12
ARIMA.  Seasonally adjusted data series for the total private sector are cal-
culated by summing the seasonally adjusted data for all sectors, including
the unclassified sector, which is not published separately.
   
   The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contracting 
units for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia are seasonally
adjusted at the total private level only.  The sum of the state series for
opening, expanding, closing, and contracting units will not necessarily be
equal to the national total private series because of the independent seasonal
adjustment of these series.
   
   The net over-the-quarter change derived by summing the BED component series 
will differ from the net employment change estimated from the seasonally ad-
justed total private employment series from the CES program.  The intended use 
of BED statistics is to show the dynamic labor market changes that underlie 
the net employment change statistic.  As such, data users interested particu-
larly in the net employment change and not in the gross job flows underlying 
this change should refer to CES data for over-the-quarter net employment
changes.
   
Reliability of the data
   
   Since the data series on Business Employment Dynamics are based on admini-
strative rather than sample data, there are no issues related to sampling 
error.  Nonsampling error, however, still exists.  Nonsampling errors can oc-
cur for many reasons, such as the employer submitting corrected employment 
data after the end of the quarter or typographical errors made by businesses 
when providing information.  Such errors, however, are likely to be distri-
buted randomly throughout the dataset.
   
   Changes in administrative data sometimes create complications for the 
linkage process.  This can result in overstating openings and closings while 
understating expansions and contractions.  The BLS continues to refine methods 
for improving the linkage process to alleviate the effects of these compli-
cations.
   
   The BED data series are subject to periodic minor changes based on correc-
tions in QCEW records, updates on predecessors and successors information, and
seasonal adjustment revisions.

Annual revisions are published each year with the release of the first quarter
data.  These revisions cover the last four quarters of not seasonally adjusted
data and 5 years of seasonally adjusted data.
                      
Additional statistics and other information
   
   Several other programs within BLS produce closely related information.  
The QCEW program, also known as the ES-202 program, provides both quarterly 
and annual estimates of employment by state, county, and detailed industry. 
News releases on quarterly county employment and wages are available upon 
request from the Division of Administrative Statistics and Labor Turnover, 
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC 20212; 
telephone 202-691-6567; (http://www.bls.gov/cew/); (e-mail: QCEWInfo@bls.gov).
                                     
   The CES program produces monthly estimates of employment, its net change, 
and earnings by detailed industry.  These estimates are part of the Employ-
ment Situation report put out monthly by BLS.
                                     
   The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) program provides month-
ly measures of job openings, as well as employee hires and separations.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired in-
dividuals upon request.  Voice phone:  202-691-5200; TDD message referral 
number: 1-800-877-8339.






Table 1.  Private sector gross job gains and job losses, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(In thousands)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(1) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2000  March                827      8,849       6,960         1,889       8,022       6,342           1,680
      June                 503      8,479       6,794         1,685       7,976       6,373           1,603
      September            324      8,525       6,756         1,769       8,201       6,479           1,722
      December             251      8,351       6,673         1,678       8,100       6,444           1,656

2001  March               -119      8,491       6,728         1,763       8,610       6,717           1,893
      June                -780      7,991       6,302         1,689       8,771       7,036           1,735
      September         -1,148      7,630       5,945         1,685       8,778       6,990           1,788
      December          -1,009      7,547       5,912         1,635       8,556       6,870           1,686

2002  March                -10      8,071       6,298         1,773       8,081       6,434           1,647
      June                 -30      7,868       6,145         1,723       7,898       6,274           1,624
      September           -151      7,630       6,039         1,591       7,781       6,248           1,533
      December            -241      7,483       5,938         1,545       7,724       6,185           1,539

2003  March               -393      7,467       5,928         1,539       7,860       6,307           1,553
      June                 -90      7,398       5,929         1,469       7,488       6,030           1,458
      September            204      7,392       5,923         1,469       7,188       5,828           1,360
      December             297      7,521       6,005         1,516       7,224       5,800           1,424

2004  March                470      7,715       6,204         1,511       7,245       5,795           1,450
      June                 644      7,754       6,235         1,519       7,110       5,639           1,471
      September            206      7,633       6,060         1,573       7,427       5,888           1,539
      December             757      7,844       6,243         1,601       7,087       5,663           1,424

2005  March                384      7,620       6,131         1,489       7,236       5,801           1,435
      June                 593      7,774       6,231         1,543       7,181       5,776           1,405
      September            677      7,965       6,387         1,578       7,288       5,844           1,444
      December             494      7,807       6,252         1,555       7,313       5,948           1,365

2006  March                806      7,726       6,293         1,433       6,920       5,635           1,285
      June                 424      7,789       6,273         1,516       7,365       5,998           1,367
      September             45      7,495       6,057         1,438       7,450       6,098           1,352
      December             462      7,765       6,241         1,524       7,303       5,954           1,349

2007  March                491      7,657       6,243         1,414       7,166       5,870           1,296
      June                 207      7,661       6,250         1,411       7,454       6,056           1,398
      September           -249      7,328       5,855         1,473       7,577       6,223           1,354
      December             286      7,670       6,197         1,473       7,384       6,028           1,356

2008  March               -275      7,172       5,778         1,394       7,447       6,083           1,364
      June                -520      7,285       5,878         1,407       7,805       6,332           1,473
      September           -966      6,888       5,521         1,367       7,854       6,469           1,385
      December          -1,814      6,720       5,357         1,363       8,534       7,041           1,493

2009  March             -2,741      5,783       4,611         1,172       8,524       7,109           1,415
      June              -1,604      6,421       5,117         1,304       8,025       6,644           1,381
      September           -900      6,341       5,124         1,217       7,241       5,883           1,358
      December            -228      6,662       5,326         1,336       6,890       5,598           1,292

2010  March               -311      6,110       4,996         1,114       6,421       5,231           1,190
      June                 728      6,935       5,682         1,253       6,207       5,064           1,143
      September            151      6,593       5,388         1,205       6,442       5,226           1,216

(1) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 2.  Private sector gross job gains and losses, as a percent of employment(1), seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Percent)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(2) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2000  March                 .8       8.1         6.4           1.7         7.3          5.8            1.5
      June                  .4       7.7         6.2           1.5         7.3          5.8            1.5
      September             .2       7.7         6.1           1.6         7.5          5.9            1.6
      December              .2       7.5         6.0           1.5         7.3          5.8            1.5

2001  March                -.1       7.7         6.1           1.6         7.8          6.1            1.7
      June                 -.8       7.2         5.7           1.5         8.0          6.4            1.6
      September           -1.1       6.9         5.4           1.5         8.0          6.4            1.6
      December            -1.0       7.0         5.5           1.5         8.0          6.4            1.6

2002  March                 .0       7.5         5.9           1.6         7.5          6.0            1.5
      June                  .0       7.3         5.7           1.6         7.3          5.8            1.5
      September            -.1       7.1         5.6           1.5         7.2          5.8            1.4
      December             -.3       6.9         5.5           1.4         7.2          5.8            1.4

2003  March                -.5       6.9         5.5           1.4         7.4          5.9            1.5
      June                  .0       7.0         5.6           1.4         7.0          5.6            1.4
      September             .1       6.9         5.5           1.4         6.8          5.5            1.3
      December              .3       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3

2004  March                 .5       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3
      June                  .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.2            1.4
      September             .3       7.1         5.6           1.5         6.8          5.4            1.4
      December              .7       7.2         5.7           1.5         6.5          5.2            1.3

2005  March                 .4       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      June                  .6       7.1         5.7           1.4         6.5          5.2            1.3
      September             .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      December              .4       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.6          5.4            1.2

2006  March                 .8       6.9         5.6           1.3         6.1          5.0            1.1
      June                  .4       6.9         5.6           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September             .1       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.6          5.4            1.2
      December              .3       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2007  March                 .4       6.7         5.5           1.2         6.3          5.2            1.1
      June                  .2       6.7         5.5           1.2         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September            -.3       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.7          5.5            1.2
      December              .2       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2008  March                -.2       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.5          5.3            1.2
      June                 -.5       6.4         5.2           1.2         6.9          5.6            1.3
      September            -.8       6.1         4.9           1.2         6.9          5.7            1.2
      December            -1.6       6.0         4.8           1.2         7.6          6.3            1.3

2009  March               -2.5       5.3         4.2           1.1         7.8          6.5            1.3
      June                -1.5       6.0         4.8           1.2         7.5          6.2            1.3
      September           -1.0       5.9         4.8           1.1         6.9          5.6            1.3
      December             -.1       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2010  March                -.3       5.8         4.7           1.1         6.1          5.0            1.1
      June                  .7       6.6         5.4           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1
      September             .2       6.2         5.1           1.1         6.0          4.9            1.1

(1) The rates measure gross job gains and gross job losses as a percentage
    of the previous and current quarter employment levels.

(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 3. Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   Sept    Dec.    Mar.    June    Sept   Sept   Dec.   Mar.   June   Sept  
                                   2009    2009    2010    2010    2010   2009   2009   2010   2010   2010
Total private(1)

Gross job gains                   6,341   6,662   6,110   6,935   6,593    5.9    6.4    5.8    6.6    6.2
 At expanding establishments      5,124   5,326   4,996   5,682   5,388    4.8    5.1    4.7    5.4    5.1
 At opening establishments        1,217   1,336   1,114   1,253   1,205    1.1    1.3    1.1    1.2    1.1
Gross job losses                  7,241   6,890   6,421   6,207   6,442    6.9    6.5    6.1    5.9    6.0
 At contracting establishments    5,883   5,598   5,231   5,064   5,226    5.6    5.3    5.0    4.8    4.9
 At closing establishments        1,358   1,292   1,190   1,143   1,216    1.3    1.2    1.1    1.1    1.1
Net employment change              -900    -228    -311     728     151   -1.0    -.1    -.3     .7     .2

Goods-producing

Gross job gains                   1,343   1,313   1,266   1,461   1,360    7.0    6.9    6.7    7.8    7.3
 At expanding establishments      1,136   1,080   1,072   1,238   1,158    5.9    5.7    5.7    6.6    6.2
 At opening establishments          207     233     194     223     202    1.1    1.2    1.0    1.2    1.1
Gross job losses                  1,675   1,590   1,459   1,305   1,315    8.7    8.4    7.8    7.0    7.0
 At contracting establishments    1,385   1,321   1,204   1,082   1,082    7.2    7.0    6.4    5.8    5.8
 At closing establishments          290     269     255     223     233    1.5    1.4    1.4    1.2    1.2
Net employment change              -332    -277    -193     156      45   -1.7   -1.5   -1.1     .8     .3

Natural resources and mining

Gross job gains                     256     285     270     305     268   14.5   16.3   15.4   17.2   14.8
 At expanding establishments        222     243     235     263     234   12.6   13.9   13.4   14.8   12.9
 At opening establishments           34      42      35      42      34    1.9    2.4    2.0    2.4    1.9
Gross job losses                    287     292     271     235     263   16.3   16.7   15.4   13.2   14.5
 At contracting establishments      250     253     232     202     228   14.2   14.5   13.2   11.3   12.6
 At closing establishments           37      39      39      33      35    2.1    2.2    2.2    1.9    1.9
Net employment change               -31      -7      -1      70       5   -1.8    -.4     .0    4.0     .3

Construction

Gross job gains                     614     615     591     677     644   10.5   10.9   10.7   12.3   11.8
 At expanding establishments        481     470     466     534     514    8.2    8.3    8.4    9.7    9.4
 At opening establishments          133     145     125     143     130    2.3    2.6    2.3    2.6    2.4
Gross job losses                    814     773     728     676     647   13.9   13.6   13.1   12.3   11.8
 At contracting establishments      634     606     570     535     503   10.8   10.7   10.3    9.7    9.2
 At closing establishments          180     167     158     141     144    3.1    2.9    2.8    2.6    2.6
Net employment change              -200    -158    -137       1      -3   -3.4   -2.7   -2.4     .0     .0

Manufacturing

Gross job gains                     473     413     405     479     448    4.0    3.6    3.5    4.1    3.9
 At expanding establishments        433     367     371     441     410    3.7    3.2    3.2    3.8    3.6
 At opening establishments           40      46      34      38      38     .3     .4     .3     .3     .3
Gross job losses                    574     525     460     394     405    4.9    4.5    4.0    3.4    3.5
 At contracting establishments      501     462     402     345     351    4.3    4.0    3.5    3.0    3.0
 At closing establishments           73      63      58      49      54     .6     .5     .5     .4     .5
Net employment change              -101    -112     -55      85      43    -.9    -.9    -.5     .7     .4

Service-providing(1)

Gross job gains                   4,998   5,349   4,844   5,474   5,233    5.8    6.2    5.6    6.3    6.1
 At expanding establishments      3,988   4,246   3,924   4,444   4,230    4.6    4.9    4.5    5.1    4.9
 At opening establishments        1,010   1,103     920   1,030   1,003    1.2    1.3    1.1    1.2    1.2
Gross job losses                  5,566   5,300   4,962   4,902   5,127    6.4    6.2    5.8    5.7    5.9
 At contracting establishments    4,498   4,277   4,027   3,982   4,144    5.2    5.0    4.7    4.6    4.8
 At closing establishments        1,068   1,023     935     920     983    1.2    1.2    1.1    1.1    1.1
Net employment change              -568      49    -118     572     106    -.6     .0    -.2     .6     .2

Wholesale trade

Gross job gains                     235     259     248     280     263    4.3    4.7    4.6    5.2    4.8
 At expanding establishments        188     203     201     232     216    3.4    3.7    3.7    4.3    3.9
 At opening establishments           47      56      47      48      47     .9    1.0     .9     .9     .9
Gross job losses                    306     283     274     248     259    5.5    5.1    5.0    4.5    4.7
 At contracting establishments      238     220     213     191     199    4.3    4.0    3.9    3.5    3.6
 At closing establishments           68      63      61      57      60    1.2    1.1    1.1    1.0    1.1
Net employment change               -71     -24     -26      32       4   -1.2    -.4    -.4     .7     .1

Retail trade

Gross job gains                     832     816     784     892     788    5.7    5.7    5.4    6.2    5.4
 At expanding establishments        700     702     676     766     666    4.8    4.9    4.7    5.3    4.6
 At opening establishments          132     114     108     126     122     .9     .8     .7     .9     .8
Gross job losses                    940     936     805     769     884    6.5    6.5    5.6    5.3    6.1
 At contracting establishments      800     808     690     665     772    5.5    5.6    4.8    4.6    5.3
 At closing establishments          140     128     115     104     112    1.0     .9     .8     .7     .8
Net employment change              -108    -120     -21     123     -96    -.8    -.8    -.2     .9    -.7

Transportation and warehousing

Gross job gains                     188     220     183     216     211    4.7    5.5    4.7    5.4    5.4
 At expanding establishments        159     187     157     183     181    4.0    4.7    4.0    4.6    4.6
 At opening establishments           29      33      26      33      30     .7     .8     .7     .8     .8
Gross job losses                    238     222     223     189     195    6.0    5.7    5.6    4.8    4.9
 At contracting establishments      196     184     190     156     158    4.9    4.7    4.8    4.0    4.0
 At closing establishments           42      38      33      33      37    1.1    1.0     .8     .8     .9
Net employment change               -50      -2     -40      27      16   -1.3    -.2    -.9     .6     .5

Utilities

Gross job gains                      12      11       9      11       9    2.2    2.0    1.6    2.0    1.7
 At expanding establishments         11      10       8      10       8    2.0    1.8    1.4    1.8    1.5
 At opening establishments            1       1       1       1       1     .2     .2     .2     .2     .2
Gross job losses                     12      14       9      12      12    2.2    2.5    1.6    2.2    2.2
 At contracting establishments       11      12       8      11      11    2.0    2.1    1.4    2.0    2.0
 At closing establishments            1       2       1       1       1     .2     .4     .2     .2     .2
Net employment change                 0      -3       0      -1      -3     .0    -.5     .0    -.2    -.5

Information

Gross job gains                     113     123     106     128     135    4.0    4.4    3.8    4.7    5.0
 At expanding establishments         95      97      89     107     116    3.4    3.5    3.2    3.9    4.3
 At opening establishments           18      26      17      21      19     .6     .9     .6     .8     .7
Gross job losses                    161     144     130     129     136    5.8    5.2    4.7    4.7    5.0
 At contracting establishments      131     121     111     109     114    4.7    4.4    4.0    4.0    4.2
 At closing establishments           30      23      19      20      22    1.1     .8     .7     .7     .8
Net employment change               -48     -21     -24      -1      -1   -1.8    -.8    -.9     .0     .0

Financial activities

Gross job gains                     327     356     326     347     346    4.4    4.8    4.3    4.6    4.7
 At expanding establishments        254     267     263     277     275    3.4    3.6    3.5    3.7    3.7
 At opening establishments           73      89      63      70      71    1.0    1.2     .8     .9    1.0
Gross job losses                    420     400     369     372     369    5.6    5.4    5.0    5.0    5.0
 At contracting establishments      322     305     281     288     275    4.3    4.1    3.8    3.9    3.7
 At closing establishments           98      95      88      84      94    1.3    1.3    1.2    1.1    1.3
Net employment change               -93     -44     -43     -25     -23   -1.2    -.6    -.7    -.4    -.3

Professional and business services

Gross job gains                   1,152   1,368   1,125   1,340   1,258    7.1    8.3    6.8    8.1    7.5
 At expanding establishments        929   1,100     920   1,096   1,029    5.7    6.7    5.6    6.6    6.1
 At opening establishments          223     268     205     244     229    1.4    1.6    1.2    1.5    1.4
Gross job losses                  1,302   1,184   1,130   1,144   1,185    8.0    7.2    6.8    6.9    7.1
 At contracting establishments    1,031     920     898     890     933    6.3    5.6    5.4    5.4    5.6
 At closing establishments          271     264     232     254     252    1.7    1.6    1.4    1.5    1.5
Net employment change              -150     184      -5     196      73    -.9    1.1     .0    1.2     .4

Education and health services

Gross job gains                     769     825     730     767     784    4.1    4.5    3.9    4.1    4.2
 At expanding establishments        650     685     619     655     664    3.5    3.7    3.3    3.5    3.6
 At opening establishments          119     140     111     112     120     .6     .8     .6     .6     .6
Gross job losses                    727     677     690     718     729    4.0    3.7    3.7    3.8    3.9
 At contracting establishments      601     555     578     601     597    3.3    3.0    3.1    3.2    3.2
 At closing establishments          126     122     112     117     132     .7     .7     .6     .6     .7
Net employment change                42     148      40      49      55     .1     .8     .2     .3     .3

Leisure and hospitality

Gross job gains                   1,047   1,032   1,000   1,143   1,089    8.0    7.9    7.7    8.8    8.4
 At expanding establishments        796     783     783     890     859    6.1    6.0    6.0    6.9    6.6
 At opening establishments          251     249     217     253     230    1.9    1.9    1.7    1.9    1.8
Gross job losses                  1,135   1,141   1,037   1,043   1,062    8.8    8.8    8.0    8.0    8.2
 At contracting establishments      932     933     845     868     870    7.2    7.2    6.5    6.7    6.7
 At closing establishments          203     208     192     175     192    1.6    1.6    1.5    1.3    1.5
Net employment change               -88    -109     -37     100      27    -.8    -.9    -.3     .8     .2

Other services

Gross job gains                     250     262     247     278     259    6.7    7.0    6.7    7.5    7.0
 At expanding establishments        195     202     196     220     207    5.2    5.4    5.3    5.9    5.6
 At opening establishments           55      60      51      58      52    1.5    1.6    1.4    1.6    1.4
Gross job losses                    293     272     263     253     274    7.8    7.3    7.1    6.8    7.3
 At contracting establishments      229     211     205     197     210    6.1    5.7    5.5    5.3    5.6
 At closing establishments           64      61      58      56      64    1.7    1.6    1.6    1.5    1.7
Net employment change               -43     -10     -16      25     -15   -1.1    -.3    -.4     .7    -.3

(1) Includes unclassified sector, not shown separately

Table 4.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

(In thousands)

                      Total private by firm(1)       Firm size 1 - 49 employees      Firm size 50 - 249 employees      Firm size 250 or more employees
Year  3 months        Net        Gross job            Net          Gross job          Net           Gross job           Net           Gross job
        ended      change(2,3)  gains   losses       change      gains   losses      change       gains   losses       change       gains   losses

2000  March            910      7,443    6,533         308       3,745    3,437        191        1,417    1,226         411        2,281    1,870
      June             460      6,972    6,512          43       3,528    3,485         80        1,322    1,242         337        2,122    1,785
      September        316      7,062    6,746          76       3,627    3,551         92        1,348    1,256         148        2,087    1,939
      December         266      6,885    6,619          33       3,512    3,479         60        1,300    1,240         173        2,073    1,900

2001  March             52      7,033    6,981          23       3,508    3,485        -87        1,277    1,364         116        2,248    2,132
      June            -843      6,432    7,275        -123       3,393    3,516       -180        1,223    1,403        -540        1,816    2,356
      September     -1,214      6,124    7,338        -271       3,333    3,604       -253        1,142    1,395        -690        1,649    2,339
      December      -1,041      6,146    7,187        -118       3,325    3,443       -200        1,138    1,338        -723        1,683    2,406

2002  March             70      6,602    6,532          54       3,402    3,348        -52        1,194    1,246          68        2,006    1,938
      June             -61      6,416    6,477          69       3,379    3,310         -7        1,191    1,198        -123        1,846    1,969
      September       -176      6,190    6,366          20       3,335    3,315        -46        1,144    1,190        -150        1,711    1,861
      December        -247      6,114    6,361          -3       3,299    3,302        -73        1,106    1,179        -171        1,709    1,880

2003  March           -326      6,112    6,438        -135       3,257    3,392        -56        1,127    1,183        -135        1,728    1,863
      June            -137      6,108    6,245         112       3,346    3,234        -26        1,133    1,159        -223        1,629    1,852
      September        193      6,162    5,969         120       3,327    3,207         21        1,127    1,106          52        1,708    1,656
      December         310      6,218    5,908         146       3,340    3,194         32        1,128    1,096         132        1,750    1,618

2004  March            430      6,306    5,876         153       3,392    3,239        137        1,194    1,057         140        1,720    1,580
      June             621      6,471    5,850         169       3,387    3,218        141        1,196    1,055         311        1,888    1,577
      September        197      6,243    6,046          88       3,379    3,291         88        1,175    1,087          21        1,689    1,668
      December         759      6,494    5,735         274       3,480    3,206        101        1,172    1,071         384        1,842    1,458

2005  March            368      6,320    5,952          66       3,416    3,350         97        1,161    1,064         205        1,743    1,538
      June             570      6,435    5,865         243       3,476    3,233        146        1,198    1,052         181        1,761    1,580
      September        701      6,672    5,971         218       3,510    3,292         85        1,195    1,110         398        1,967    1,569
      December         506      6,406    5,900         169       3,462    3,293         45        1,140    1,095         292        1,804    1,512

2006  March            734      6,372    5,638         316       3,530    3,214        217        1,203      986         201        1,639    1,438
      June             423      6,381    5,958         138       3,446    3,308        122        1,197    1,075         163        1,738    1,575
      September         24      6,099    6,075         -16       3,325    3,341         21        1,128    1,107          19        1,646    1,627
      December         449      6,386    5,937         113       3,396    3,283         68        1,145    1,077         268        1,845    1,577

2007  March            430      6,241    5,811         179       3,438    3,259        107        1,146    1,039         144        1,657    1,513
      June             216      6,288    6,072          -9       3,348    3,357        118        1,188    1,070         107        1,752    1,645
      September       -269      5,904    6,173        -130       3,252    3,382        -61        1,075    1,136         -78        1,577    1,655
      December         264      6,241    5,977         -13       3,307    3,320         48        1,131    1,083         229        1,803    1,574

2008  March           -308      5,755    6,063        -149       3,226    3,375         -4        1,066    1,070        -155        1,463    1,618
      June            -505      5,891    6,396        -263       3,190    3,453        -27        1,106    1,133        -215        1,595    1,810
      September     -1,034      5,496    6,530        -355       3,041    3,396       -168        1,015    1,183        -511        1,440    1,951
      December      -1,883      5,334    7,217        -712       2,901    3,613       -385          941    1,326        -786        1,492    2,278

2009  March         -2,652      4,545    7,197        -974       2,715    3,689       -598          801    1,399      -1,080        1,029    2,109
      June          -1,735      5,198    6,933        -452       2,960    3,412       -266          963    1,229      -1,017        1,275    2,292
      September       -977      5,131    6,108        -386       2,815    3,201       -134          928    1,062        -457        1,388    1,845
      December        -306      5,399    5,705        -179       2,931    3,110        -55          956    1,011         -72        1,512    1,584

2010  March           -270      4,998    5,268        -220       2,809    3,029          3          899      896         -53        1,290    1,343
      June             688      5,802    5,114         237       3,070    2,833        217        1,081      864         234        1,651    1,417
      September        121      5,432    5,311         -28       2,879    2,907         64          988      924          85        1,565    1,480


(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower
    than total gross job gains and gross job losses by establishment,
    as some establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.
(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.
(3) Net change totals for firm-level data shown differ from the establishment-level data
    due to independent seasonal adjustment of the series.
NOTE: See http://www.bls.gov/bdm/bdmfirmsize.htm for additional firm size class data.

Table 5. Components of private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   Sept    Dec.    Mar.    June    Sept   Sept   Dec.   Mar.   June   Sept  
                                   2009    2009    2010    2010    2010   2009   2009   2010   2010   2010
Total private by firm(1)

Gross job gains                   5,131   5,399   4,998   5,802   5,432    4.8    5.1    4.7    5.4    5.1
 At expanding establishments      4,277   4,441   4,147   4,907   4,589    4.0    4.2    3.9    4.6    4.3
 At opening establishments          854     958     851     895     843     .8     .9     .8     .8     .8

Gross job losses                  6,108   5,705   5,268   5,114   5,311    5.7    5.4    5.1    4.9    5.0
 At contracting establishments    5,126   4,783   4,372   4,295   4,439    4.8    4.5    4.2    4.1    4.2
 At closing establishments          982     922     896     819     872     .9     .9     .9     .8     .8

Net employment change              -977    -306    -270     688     121    -.9    -.3    -.4     .5     .1


Firm size 1 to 49 employees

Gross job gains                   2,815   2,931   2,809   3,070   2,879    9.0    9.4    9.0    9.9    9.3
 At expanding establishments      2,001   2,017   1,993   2,221   2,074    6.4    6.5    6.4    7.2    6.7
 At opening establishments          814     914     816     849     805    2.6    2.9    2.6    2.7    2.6

Gross job losses                  3,201   3,110   3,029   2,833   2,907   10.2   10.0    9.8    9.1    9.4
 At contracting establishments    2,265   2,233   2,163   2,045   2,074    7.2    7.2    7.0    6.6    6.7
 At closing establishments          936     877     866     788     833    3.0    2.8    2.8    2.5    2.7

Net employment change              -386    -179    -220     237     -28   -1.2    -.6    -.8     .8    -.1


Firm size 50 to 249 employees

Gross job gains                     928     956     899   1,081     988    4.8    4.9    4.6    5.6    5.1
 At expanding establishments        892     918     871   1,043     957    4.6    4.7    4.5    5.4    4.9
 At opening establishments           36      38      28      38      31     .2     .2     .1     .2     .2

Gross job losses                  1,062   1,011     896     864     924    5.5    5.2    4.6    4.4    4.7
 At contracting establishments    1,027     974     869     837     895    5.3    5.0    4.5    4.3    4.6
 At closing establishments           35      37      27      27      29     .2     .2     .1     .1     .1

Net employment change              -134     -55       3     217      64    -.7    -.3     .0    1.2     .4


Firm size 250 or more employees

Gross job gains                   1,388   1,512   1,290   1,651   1,565    2.5    2.8    2.3    3.0    2.8
 At expanding establishments      1,384   1,506   1,283   1,643   1,558    2.5    2.8    2.3    3.0    2.8
 At opening establishments            4       6       7       8       7     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Gross job losses                  1,845   1,584   1,343   1,417   1,480    3.3    2.9    2.4    2.6    2.7
 At contracting establishments    1,834   1,576   1,340   1,413   1,470    3.3    2.9    2.4    2.6    2.7
 At closing establishments           11       8       3       4      10     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Net employment change              -457     -72     -53     234      85    -.8    -.1    -.1     .4     .1


(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower
    than total gross job gains and gross job losses by establishment,
    as some establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.

Table 6.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by state, seasonally adjusted

                                         Gross job gains                                          Gross job losses
State                                    (3 months ended)                                         (3 months ended)
                        Sept.      Dec.       Mar.        June      Sept.      Sept.        Dec.       Mar.        June      Sept.
                        2009       2009       2010        2010      2010       2009         2009       2010        2010      2010

United States1.....  6,341,000  6,662,000  6,110,000   6,935,000  6,593,000  7,241,000   6,890,000   6,421,000  6,207,000  6,442,000

Alabama.....            86,122     86,379     82,695      90,438     88,544    103,661      92,544      83,327     83,971     93,826
Alaska.....             22,773     24,288     25,078      26,302     22,312     24,951      25,288      23,147     21,772     23,678
Arizona.....           127,354    131,273    116,334     120,892    125,191    143,497     140,298     123,728    126,749    128,620
Arkansas.....           55,002     57,989     52,233      59,161     54,065     62,142      54,247      49,809     52,001     57,243
California.....        760,570    845,478    759,025     877,920    778,595    942,350     831,793     816,085    775,156    808,688
Colorado.....          117,376    122,327    117,669     134,977    123,839    138,028     132,705     124,210    125,355    123,841
Connecticut.....        70,301     70,946     66,227      84,589     71,786     80,384      77,470      81,300     67,402     66,409
Delaware.....           18,960     20,397     19,505      23,200     22,394     23,740      24,289      20,984     18,817     20,947
District of Columbia    23,127     26,592     23,480      26,793     24,765     26,867      24,332      21,514     23,153     28,738
Florida.....           404,628    440,522    362,571     417,808    404,527    484,765     448,286     370,546    398,220    419,712

Georgia.....           190,528    204,380    197,155     210,870    214,910    229,914     215,423     195,344    206,776    201,871
Hawaii.....             24,230     24,368     23,639      23,154     27,664     27,797      25,953      25,062     27,020     25,508
Idaho.....              39,554     38,431     35,560      36,170     39,190     38,929      40,220      38,578     39,976     35,182
Illinois.....          236,220    255,104    229,254     268,855    254,225    285,983     275,576     243,415    231,470    248,499
Indiana.....           143,632    134,249    129,707     144,840    138,311    142,079     135,204     125,181    130,048    129,856
Iowa.....               66,045     68,771     63,734      66,021     67,723     72,674      74,300      65,573     64,302     68,074
Kansas.....             57,332     62,377     55,897      62,950     60,969     67,642      67,646      61,303     60,033     64,595
Kentucky.....           84,435     89,347     77,786      86,562     82,611     90,271      86,416      83,376     80,238     81,243
Louisiana.....          98,620    100,019     95,060     103,774     99,254    112,255     103,173      94,395     99,189     99,829
Maine.....              36,365     35,430     30,442      37,089     35,485     36,687      37,779      34,497     35,250     34,301

Maryland.....          117,084    119,515    124,598     137,676    125,059    137,169     132,550     125,093    118,452    129,294
Massachusetts.....     147,604    145,704    145,413     161,032    155,260    160,301     160,961     143,996    137,623    152,522
Michigan.....          232,306    210,533    183,635     221,292    216,561    222,019     228,170     191,162    184,025    191,483
Minnesota.....         126,020    123,644    120,648     137,671    122,151    139,662     132,265     131,091    113,426    123,654
Mississippi.....        51,467     51,744     50,450      55,735     55,347     58,923      52,347      49,877     53,286     57,549
Missouri.....          124,865    122,278    123,242     131,143    128,842    143,070     132,033     129,143    129,992    124,464
Montana.....            25,345     27,841     25,855      26,844     27,113     27,383      29,098      27,670     26,442     24,859
Nebraska.....           39,640     40,153     39,893      44,594     43,235     42,323      46,789      40,899     39,950     42,344
Nevada.....             58,646     68,915     51,824      60,877     54,879     74,075      66,626      65,187     55,657     62,955
New Hampshire.....      33,238     33,650     34,318      36,515     32,944     36,849      36,107      35,737     33,092     33,520

New Jersey.....        187,286    196,657    176,313     224,190    191,225    217,472     210,510     193,790    190,949    197,695
New Mexico.....         39,429     37,662     37,821      40,218     38,901     42,791      42,496      37,739     40,379     40,590
New York.....          402,733    420,489    373,307     460,370    427,213    440,840     428,924     390,777    398,109    410,850
North Carolina.....    189,566    196,885    182,350     203,715    197,026    213,945     213,043     188,187    187,704    193,011
North Dakota.....       19,688     19,816     19,787      20,384     22,672     18,154      19,189      18,824     18,476     17,083
Ohio.....              236,910    234,522    219,390     249,715    240,319    262,345     255,910     228,984    217,712    222,822
Oklahoma.....           67,384     68,999     66,668      74,136     74,038     84,628      76,133      66,249     63,918     75,077
Oregon.....             87,415     89,357     87,342      87,560     93,583     94,954      96,934      87,279     85,849     82,215
Pennsylvania.....      255,221    267,074    249,634     280,379    265,581    286,693     274,524     248,312    234,954    252,791
Rhode Island.....       22,109     23,191     22,628      26,103     24,288     26,578      24,865      21,893     25,469     23,157

South Carolina.....     84,871     85,984     87,466      96,184     91,029     96,487      92,731      82,707     86,190     85,292
South Dakota.....       19,792     19,762     19,139      21,984     20,768     21,277      21,189      21,608     19,021     19,553
Tennessee.....         116,655    121,455    108,572     134,652    122,885    136,883     119,337     111,023    118,770    125,005
Texas.....             441,368    476,502    467,608     492,190    494,933    512,968     484,059     434,114    448,103    449,143
Utah.....               63,095     65,512     63,614      66,317     66,278     71,601      67,768      63,688     63,939     63,404
Vermont.....            16,606     19,496     15,542      17,791     18,480     17,421      18,017      17,756     20,659     16,402
Virginia.....          160,078    166,982    151,244     186,533    173,108    183,506     168,916     162,007    166,993    176,544
Washington.....        158,859    151,742    153,771     156,299    161,355    171,447     181,151     155,633    146,072    145,950
West Virginia.....      33,315     37,101     33,246      37,055     36,236     37,630      34,836      34,478     35,887     33,719
Wisconsin.....         122,694    130,553    125,693     134,910    131,286    141,594     138,015     129,422    121,104    126,228

Wyoming.....            17,008     16,108     17,159      17,405     19,989     18,099      18,573      18,274     17,953     16,365
Puerto Rico.....        41,636     45,647     38,617      37,160     39,838     44,872      41,169      44,755     43,997     40,417
Virgin Islands.....      1,931      2,361      2,632       2,006      2,327      2,190       1,899       1,897      2,825      1,758

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 7.  Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted

                        Gross job gains as a percent of employment    Gross job losses as a percent of employment
State                              (3 months ended)                               (3 months ended)

                        Sept.   Dec.     Mar.     June    Sept.       Sept.    Dec.      Mar.    June     Sept.
                        2009    2009     2010     2010    2010        2009     2009      2010    2010     2010

United States1.....      5.9     6.4      5.8      6.6     6.2         6.9      6.5       6.1      5.9     6.0

Alabama.....             6.0     6.0      5.8      6.3     6.1         7.1      6.4       5.8      5.8     6.5
Alaska.....              9.7    10.3     10.6     11.1     9.4        10.7     10.8       9.8      9.2    10.0
Arizona.....             6.4     6.7      5.9      6.2     6.4         7.2      7.1       6.3      6.4     6.5
Arkansas.....            6.0     6.3      5.7      6.3     5.8         6.7      5.9       5.4      5.6     6.1
California.....          6.4     7.2      6.5      7.5     6.6         8.0      7.1       7.0      6.6     6.8
Colorado.....            6.5     6.8      6.5      7.5     6.9         7.6      7.3       6.9      7.0     6.9
Connecticut.....         5.2     5.3      4.9      6.3     5.3         5.9      5.7       6.0      5.0     4.9
Delaware.....            5.5     6.0      5.8      6.9     6.6         7.0      7.2       6.3      5.6     6.1
District of Columbia..   5.3     6.0      5.3      6.0     5.6         6.2      5.5       4.9      5.2     6.5
Florida.....             6.7     7.3      6.1      7.0     6.7         7.9      7.4       6.2      6.6     6.9

Georgia.....             6.2     6.6      6.4      6.9     7.0         7.4      7.0       6.4      6.7     6.6
Hawaii.....              5.2     5.2      5.1      5.0     6.0         5.9      5.5       5.4      5.8     5.5
Idaho.....               8.0     7.8      7.2      7.4     8.0         7.8      8.1       7.8      8.2     7.2
Illinois.....            5.0     5.5      4.9      5.7     5.4         6.1      5.9       5.3      4.9     5.3
Indiana.....             6.3     5.8      5.7      6.3     6.0         6.2      5.9       5.5      5.7     5.6
Iowa.....                5.5     5.8      5.4      5.5     5.7         6.1      6.2       5.5      5.4     5.7
Kansas.....              5.5     6.0      5.4      6.0     5.9         6.4      6.5       5.8      5.7     6.2
Kentucky.....            6.0     6.4      5.6      6.2     5.8         6.5      6.2       5.9      5.7     5.8
Louisiana.....           6.7     6.7      6.4      7.0     6.7         7.5      7.0       6.4      6.7     6.7
Maine.....               7.6     7.4      6.4      7.8     7.5         7.6      8.0       7.3      7.4     7.2

Maryland.....            5.9     6.1      6.4      7.0     6.4         6.9      6.8       6.4      6.0     6.5
Massachusetts.....       5.5     5.5      5.4      6.0     5.7         6.0      6.0       5.4      5.1     5.7
Michigan.....            7.4     6.7      5.9      7.0     6.8         7.1      7.2       6.1      5.8     6.0
Minnesota.....           5.8     5.7      5.6      6.3     5.6         6.4      6.1       6.1      5.2     5.7
Mississippi.....         6.2     6.3      6.1      6.7     6.6         7.1      6.4       6.0      6.4     6.9
Missouri.....            5.8     5.7      5.8      6.1     6.0         6.6      6.2       6.0      6.1     5.9
Montana.....             7.5     8.3      7.7      8.1     8.1         8.1      8.6       8.2      7.9     7.5
Nebraska.....            5.4     5.5      5.4      6.0     5.9         5.7      6.3       5.6      5.4     5.7
Nevada.....              6.0     7.2      5.4      6.4     5.8         7.6      6.9       6.7      5.8     6.6
New Hampshire.....       6.5     6.6      6.7      7.1     6.4         7.1      7.0       7.0      6.5     6.5

New Jersey.....          5.9     6.2      5.6      7.2     6.0         6.8      6.7       6.2      6.1     6.2
New Mexico.....          6.6     6.3      6.4      6.8     6.6         7.2      7.1       6.4      6.8     6.9
New York.....            5.9     6.1      5.5      6.7     6.2         6.4      6.3       5.7      5.7     6.0
North Carolina.....      6.1     6.4      5.9      6.6     6.4         6.9      6.9       6.1      6.0     6.2
North Dakota.....        6.9     7.0      7.0      7.1     7.7         6.4      6.7       6.5      6.4     5.8
Ohio.....                5.7     5.6      5.3      6.0     5.7         6.2      6.2       5.5      5.3     5.4
Oklahoma.....            5.8     6.0      5.8      6.4     6.3         7.3      6.6       5.8      5.5     6.4
Oregon.....              6.7     6.8      6.7      6.7     7.1         7.2      7.4       6.6      6.6     6.3
Pennsylvania.....        5.4     5.7      5.3      5.9     5.6         6.0      5.9       5.3      5.0     5.3
Rhode Island.....        5.7     6.1      5.9      6.8     6.2         6.9      6.5       5.6      6.6     6.0

South Carolina.....      6.0     6.1      6.3      6.8     6.4         6.9      6.6       5.9      6.0     6.0
South Dakota.....        6.2     6.3      6.1      7.0     6.6         6.7      6.7       6.8      6.0     6.1
Tennessee.....           5.5     5.7      5.1      6.3     5.7         6.4      5.6       5.2      5.6     5.8
Texas.....               5.3     5.8      5.7      5.9     5.9         6.2      5.8       5.3      5.4     5.4
Utah.....                6.6     6.9      6.8      7.1     7.0         7.6      7.2       6.8      6.8     6.7
Vermont.....             6.9     8.2      6.5      7.5     7.7         7.3      7.5       7.4      8.8     6.8
Virginia.....            5.6     5.9      5.4      6.6     6.1         6.5      5.9       5.8      5.9     6.2
Washington.....          7.1     6.7      6.9      7.0     7.2         7.6      8.1       7.0      6.6     6.5
West Virginia.....       6.1     6.8      6.0      6.7     6.6         6.8      6.4       6.3      6.6     6.2
Wisconsin.....           5.4     5.9      5.6      6.1     5.9         6.3      6.2       5.8      5.5     5.7

Wyoming.....             8.3     7.8      8.4      8.6     9.8         8.8      9.0       8.9      8.8     8.0
Puerto Rico.....         6.2     6.7      5.7      5.5     6.0         6.7      6.1       6.7      6.5     6.1
Virgin Islands.....      6.4     7.8      8.5      6.5     7.5         7.2      6.3       6.1      9.1     5.6

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 8.  Private sector establishment births and deaths, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Levels in thousands)

                              Number of Establishments                     Employment
                             Births             Deaths(1)            Births             Deaths
Year  3 months ended     Level    Rate(2)   Level    Rate       Level      Rate    Level      Rate

2000  March               213      3.4       186     3.0        1,235       1.1    1,125       1.0
      June                204      3.3       180     2.9        1,137       1.0    1,058       1.0
      September           209      3.3       199     3.2        1,159       1.1    1,160       1.1
      December            200      3.2       194     3.1        1,139       1.0    1,105       1.0
  
2001  March               206      3.3       203     3.2        1,187       1.1    1,303       1.2
      June                204      3.2       204     3.2        1,146       1.0    1,226       1.1
      September           204      3.2       207     3.3        1,151       1.1    1,219       1.1
      December            194      3.1       200     3.2        1,109       1.0    1,142       1.1
  
2002  March               204      3.2       190     3.0        1,175       1.1    1,089       1.0
      June                208      3.3       187     2.9        1,189       1.1    1,080       1.0
      September           199      3.1       184     2.9        1,051       1.0    1,023       1.0
      December            201      3.1       191     3.0        1,023       1.0    1,021       1.0
  
2003  March               193      3.0       186     2.9        1,004        .9    1,011        .9
      June                191      3.0       186     2.9          964        .9      951        .9
      September           193      3.0       179     2.8          954        .9      884        .8
      December            200      3.1       180     2.8          998        .9      910        .9
  
2004  March               207      3.2       180     2.8        1,000        .9      917        .9
      June                203      3.1       185     2.8          980        .9      909        .8
      September           209      3.2       186     2.8        1,016        .9      953        .9
      December            210      3.2       180     2.7          997        .9      894        .8
  
2005  March               209      3.1       185     2.8          944        .9      852        .8
      June                216      3.2       180     2.7          951        .9      841        .8
      September           221      3.3       186     2.8          996        .9      884        .8
      December            221      3.3       186     2.8          979        .9      846        .8
  
2006  March               220      3.2       180     2.6          922        .8      743        .7
      June                219      3.2       194     2.8          973        .9      843        .7
      September           210      3.1       196     2.9          927        .8      837        .7
      December            221      3.2       193     2.8          966        .9      809        .7
  
2007  March               214      3.1       193     2.8          891        .8      764        .7
      June                204      2.9       201     2.9          883        .8      851        .7
      September           218      3.1       203     2.9          945        .8      840        .7
      December            209      3.0       207     3.0          906        .8      831        .7
  
2008  March               207      3.0       210     3.0          889        .8      809        .7
      June                199      2.9       228     3.3          876        .8      936        .8
      September           192      2.8       223     3.2          831        .7      882        .8
      December            188      2.7       240     3.5          806        .7      952        .9
  
2009  March               172      2.5       235     3.4          696        .6      844        .8
      June                176      2.6       226     3.3          740        .7      831        .8
      September           169      2.5       216     3.2          693        .7      793        .7
      December            184      2.7       200     3.0          716        .7      745        .7
  
2010  March               172      2.5       N/A     N/A          661        .6      N/A       N/A
      June                172      2.6       N/A     N/A          698        .7      N/A       N/A
      September           182      2.7       N/A     N/A          714        .7      N/A       N/A

(1) Values for deaths are not available for the most recent three quarters
    by definition.  See the Technical Note for more information.

(2) The rates measure births and deaths as a percentage
    of the average of the previous and current quarter employment levels or
    total number of establishments.

Last Modified Date: May 03, 2011
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