Economic News Release

Quarterly Data Series on Business Employment Dynamics News Release



 
 
 
 

Technical Information:  (202) 691-6467      USDL 08-0686
                http://www.bls.gov/bdm/
                
                                            For release: 10:00 A.M. EDT
Media Contact:          (202) 691-5902      Wednesday, May 21, 2008



      (NOTE:  This news release was reissued on Thursday,
   May 22, 2008, to correct a data value shown in table A.  The
   value for private sector contracting establishments in the
   fourth quarter 2006 was corrected from 6,943 to 5,943.  Data
   in the other tables and other figures in the text were not
   affected by this correction.)



          BUSINESS EMPLOYMENT DYNAMICS:  THIRD QUARTER 2007
          

   From June 2007 to September 2007, the number of job gains from
opening and expanding private sector establishments was 7.2 million,
and the number of job losses from closing and contracting
establishments was 7.5 million, according to data released today by
the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U.S. Department of Labor.  This 
is the first quarter since June 2003 where gross job losses 
have exceeded gross job gains.  (See charts 1 and 2 and table 3.)  
Over this period, firms with 1,000 or more employees accounted for 
the largest share of gross job gains (16.9 percent) as well as the 
largest share of gross job losses (16.4 percent).  (See tables D 
and 4 and chart 3.)
     
   The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data series include gross
job gains and gross job losses at the establishment level by major
industry sector and for the 50 states, the District of Columbia,
Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, as well as gross job gains and
gross job losses at the firm level by employer size class.
     
   The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of
increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses in
the economy.  BED statistics track these changes in employment at
private business units from the third month of one quarter to the
third month of the next.  Gross job gains are the sum of increases in
employment from expansions at existing units and the addition of new 
jobs at opening units.  Gross job losses are the result of contractions 
in employment at existing units and the loss of jobs at closing units. 
The difference between the number of gross jobs gained and the number
of gross jobs lost is the net change in employment. (See the Technical
Note for more information.)


Private Sector Establishment-Level Gross Job Gains and Job Losses

   Opening and expanding private sector business establishments
gained 7.2 million jobs in the third quarter of 2007, a decrease of
395,000 from the previous quarter.  Over the quarter, expanding
establishments added 5.8 million jobs, while opening establishments
added 1.4 million jobs. 

   Gross job losses totaled 7.5 million, an increase of 81,000 from the
previous quarter.  During the quarter, contracting establishments lost 
6.1 million jobs, while closing establishments lost 1.4 million jobs. 
(See tables A, 1, and 3, and chart 2.)
   
   The difference between the number of gross jobs gained and the
number of gross jobs lost yielded a net change of -235,000 jobs in
the private sector for third quarter 2007. This is the first quarter
of net job losses since the second quarter of 2003.





Table A.  Three-month private sector gross job gains and losses,
seasonally adjusted

------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                  |            3 months ended           
                                  |-------------------------------------
                                  |  Sept.| Dec. | March| June | Sept. 
           Category               |  2006 | 2006 | 2007 | 2007 | 2007   
                                  |-------------------------------------
                                  |         Levels (in thousands)       
----------------------------------|-------------------------------------
                                  |       |      |      |      |        
Gross job gains...................|  7,473| 7,809| 7,509| 7,644| 7,249
  At expanding establishments.....|  6,032| 6,271| 6,158| 6,257| 5,821
  At opening establishments.......|  1,441| 1,538| 1,351| 1,387| 1,428
                                  |       |      |      |      |        
Gross job losses..................|  7,462| 7,297| 7,071| 7,403| 7,484
  At contracting establishments...|  6,110| 5,943| 5,796| 6,008| 6,134 
  At closing establishments.......|  1,352| 1,354| 1,275| 1,395| 1,350 
                                  |       |      |      |      |        
Net employment change (1).........|    11 |   512|   438|   241|  -235 
                                  |-------------------------------------
                                  |           Rates (percent)           
                                  |-------------------------------------
Gross job gains...................|    6.7|   7.0|   6.6|   6.7|   6.4 
  At expanding establishments.....|    5.4|   5.6|   5.4|   5.5|   5.1 
  At opening establishments.......|    1.3|   1.4|   1.2|   1.2|   1.3 
                                  |       |      |      |      |        
Gross job losses..................|    6.6|   6.5|   6.2|   6.5|   6.6 
  At contracting establishments...|    5.4|   5.3|   5.1|   5.3|   5.4 
  At closing establishments.......|    1.2|   1.2|   1.1|   1.2|   1.2 
                                  |       |      |      |      |        
Net employment change (1).........|     .1|    .5|    .4|    .2|   -.2 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
   1 The net employment change is the difference between total gross job
gains and total gross job losses.  See the Technical Note for further
information.


   From June 2007 to September 2007, gross job gains represented 6.4
percent of private sector employment, while gross job losses
represented 6.6 percent of private sector employment.  (See tables
A and 2.)  These gross job gain and loss statistics demonstrate that
a sizable number of jobs appear and disappear in the relatively short
time frame of one quarter.


Major Industry Sector Gross Job Gains and Gross Job Losses
  
   Net losses were seen this quarter in all but three sectors of the
economy: utilities, wholesale trade, and education and health
services.  These industries showed gains of 1,000, 2,000, and 113,000
jobs, respectively. (See tables B and 3.)
  
  Goods-producing.  Expanding and opening establishments in the
goods-producing sector accounted for 1,486,000 jobs gained, and
contracting and closing establishments accounted for 1,703,000 jobs
lost.  This net loss of 217,000 jobs was the fifth consecutive
quarter of net loss in this sector.
  
  Construction.  In construction, gross job gains fell over the
quarter to 762,000 and gross job losses increased to 869,000,
resulting in a net loss of 107,000 jobs, the largest net loss since
this series began in 1992.  Additionally, this sector experienced net
losses in four of the five previous quarters.
  
  Manufacturing.  Gross job gains and gross job losses in
manufacturing fell to levels of 467,000 and 564,000 jobs,
respectively, in the third quarter of 2007.  Despite the drop in
gross job losses, this sector experienced a net loss of 97,000 jobs,
the largest net loss in 15 quarters.


Table B.  Three-month private sector gross job gains and losses by industry,
seasonally adjusted

(In thousands)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       |       Gross job gains       |      Gross job losses       
                       |       (3 months ended)      |      (3 months ended)       
       Industry        |-----------------------------|-----------------------------
                       |Sept.|Dec. |Mar. |June |Sept.|Sept.|Dec. |Mar. |June |Sept.
                       |2006 |2006 |2007 |2007 |2007 |2006 |2006 |2007 |2007 |2007 
-----------------------|-----|-----|-----|-----|-----|-----|-----|-----|-----|-----
                       |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     
  Total private1       |7,473|7,809|7,509|7,644|7,429|7,462|7,297|7,071|7,403|7,484
 Goods-Producing.......|1,572|1,636|1,629|1,622|1,486|1,739|1,719|1,682|1,691|1,703
  Natural resources    |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     
    and mining.........|  269|  287|  279|  286|  257|  263|  266|  287|  269|  270
  Construction ........|  791|  825|  850|  814|  762|  868|  845|  816|  855|  869
  Manufacturing .......|  512|  524|  500|  522|  467|  608|  608|  579|  567|  564
 Service-Providing1....|5,901|6,173|5,880|6,022|5,763|5,723|5,578|5,389|5,712|5,781
  Wholesale trade......|  311|  322|  314|  318|  305|  305|  303|  296|  300|  303
  Retail trade ........|1,030|1,081|1,087|1,023|  996|1,085|1,004|  971|1,028|1,055
  Transportation and   |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     
    warehousing........|  241|  269|  224|  242|  220|  224|  225|  245|  222|  228
  Utilities............|   15|   19|   11|   14|   13|   15|   18|   11|   12|   12
  Information..........|  148|  167|  138|  160|  153|  171|  146|  132|  137|	155
  Financial activities.|  446|  457|  421|  436|  408|  445|  444|  418|  467|	470
  Professional and     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     
    business services..|1,335|1,427|1,276|1,389|1,301|1,279|1,313|1,242|1,322|1,315
  Education and        |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     
    health services....|  784|  795|  799|  785|  797|  674|  692|  655|  697|	684
  Leisure and          |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     
    hospitality........|1,180|1,223|1,165|1,219|1,158|1,184|1,105|1,096|1,196|1,215
  Other services.......|  295|  299|  292|  304|  288|  305|  291|  278|  287|	307
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   1 Includes unclassified sector, not shown separately.
   
   
  Service-providing.   In the service-providing sector, gross job 
gains totaled 5,763,000 and gross job losses totaled 5,781,000, 
resulting in a net loss 18,000 jobs.  This is the first net loss 
since the first quarter of 2003. 
  
  Education and Health Services.  The education and health services
sector gained 797,000 jobs and lost 684,000 jobs in the third quarter
of 2007, for a net gain of 113,000.  This industry has experienced a
net job growth every quarter since this series began in 1992.

  Retail Trade.  In retail trade, gross job gains decreased again
this quarter to 996,000 and gross job losses rose to 1,055,000,
resulting in a net loss of 59,000 jobs.
  
  Leisure and Hospitality.  The leisure and hospitality industry
gained 1,158,000 jobs and lost 1,215,000 jobs in the third quarter of
2007, for a net loss of 57,000 jobs.
  
  Financial Activities.  The financial activities sector experienced
gross job gains of 408,000 and gross job losses of 470,000, resulting
in a net loss of 62,000 jobs.  This was the second net loss in this
sector since the fourth quarter of 2003.

  
Number of Establishments Gaining and Losing Employment

   Another way to look at the dynamics of business activities is to
monitor the number and proportion of business units that are growing
and declining.  In the third quarter of 2007, the number of
establishments losing jobs exceeded the number of establishments
gaining jobs for the second consecutive quarter.  Out of 7.0 million
active private-sector establishments, a total of 1,944,000
establishments lost jobs from June 2007 to September 2007. This is an
increase of 6,000 establishments from last quarter.  (See table C.)
Of these establishments losing jobs, 1,585,000 were contracting
establishments and 359,000 were closing establishments.  During the
quarter, 1,519,000 establishments expanded and 367,000 establishments
opened, resulting in 1,886,000 establishments gaining jobs.  The
number of active private sector establishments increased by 8,000
during the quarter.  This change is the difference between the number
of opening establishments and the number of closing establishments.



Table C.  Number of private sector establishments by direction of
employment change, seasonally adjusted

(In thousands)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                  |             3 months ended           
                                  |--------------------------------------
             Category             | Sept. | Dec.  | March| June | Sept.
                                  | 2006  | 2006  | 2007 | 2007 | 2007 
----------------------------------|-------|-------|------|------|--------
Establishments gaining jobs.......| 1,891 | 1,954 | 1,935| 1,907| 1,886
  Expanding establishments........| 1,535 | 1,562 | 1,577| 1,555| 1,519
  Opening establishments..........|   356 |   392 |   358|   352|   367
                                  |       |       |      |      |      
Establishments losing jobs........| 1,909 | 1,892 | 1,900| 1,938| 1,944
  Contracting establishments......| 1,558 | 1,542 | 1,545| 1,574| 1,585
  Closing establishments..........|   351 |   350 |   355|   364|   359
                                  |       |       |      |      |      
Net establishment change (1)......|     5 |    42 |     3|   -12|     8
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
   1 The net establishment change is the difference between the number of
opening establishments and the number of closing establishments.  See the
Technical Note for further information.

Firm-level Gross Job Gains and Gross Job Losses by Size Class

   From June 2007 to September 2007, firms with 1,000 or more
employees accounted for the largest share of gross job gains (16.9
percent) as well as the largest share of gross job losses (16.4
percent). (See tables D and 4, and chart 3.)
     
   Small firms, those with 1-4, 5-9, and 10-19 employees, showed an
increase in their proportion of gross job gains over the quarter,
with shares dropping for all other size classes.  The gain was most
significant for firms with 1-4 employees, whose share of gross job
gains grew from 14.8 percent to 16.0 percent in the third quarter.
     
   The firms with 1-4, 5-9, and 10-19 employees along with the largest 
size class, firms with 1,000 or more employees, were the only classes 
to show a drop in share of gross job losses.  Despite the drop, size
class 1,000 or more employees maintains the largest share of gross
job losses in the third quarter. (See table D.)
     
    Firms with 1-4 employees continued to have the largest shares of
both job gains at opening firms and job losses at closing firms, with
59.8 percent and 59.7 percent respectively, in the third quarter of
2007.  (See table 4.)




Table D.  Three-month private sector share (1) of gross job gains and losses by firm
size, seasonally adjusted

(Percent)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       |   Share of gross job gains   |   Share of gross job losses  
                       |        (3 months ended)      |        (3 months ended)      
       Firm size       |------------------------------|------------------------------
                       |Sept.| Dec. |Mar. |June |Sept.| Sept.| Dec.|Mar. |June |Sept.
                       |2006 | 2006 |2007 |2007 |2007 | 2006 | 2006|2007 |2007 |2007 
-----------------------|-----|------|-----|-----|-----|------|-----|-----|-----|-----
                       |     |      |     |     |     |      |     |     |     |     
   1  -   4 employees..| 15.6| 15.8 | 15.7| 14.8| 16.0| 15.8 | 15.9| 16.7| 16.2| 15.8
   5  -   9 employees..| 12.1| 11.6 | 12.3| 11.6| 12.1| 12.2 | 12.4| 12.6| 12.4| 12.2
  10  -  19 employees..| 12.3| 11.7 | 12.5| 12.1| 12.2| 12.4 | 12.4| 12.5| 12.5| 12.4
  20  -  49 employees..| 14.4| 13.8 | 14.6| 14.6| 14.3| 14.5 | 14.4| 14.4| 14.3| 14.6
  50  -  99 employees..|  9.1|  8.7 |  9.0|  9.2|  8.9|  8.9 |  8.9|  8.8|  8.7|  9.0
 100  - 249 employees..|  9.3|  9.2 |  9.4|  9.9|  9.3|  9.3 |  9.3|  9.0|  8.8|  9.5
 250  - 499 employees..|  5.8|  5.5 |  5.5|  5.9|  5.6|  5.5 |  5.8|  5.3|  5.3|  5.6
 500  - 999 employees..|  4.6|  4.5 |  4.5|  4.8|  4.7|  4.5 |  4.6|  4.1|  4.4|  4.5
1,000 or more employees| 16.8| 19.2 | 16.5| 17.1| 16.9| 16.9 | 16.3| 16.6| 17.4| 16.4
                       |     |      |     |     |     |      |     |     |     |     
   Total...............|100.0| 100.0|100.0|100.0|100.0|100.0 |100.0|100.0|100.0|100.0
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   1 Share measures the percent of the category represented by firm size.
   
  
Gross Job Gains and Losses by State

   Over the quarter, Wyoming had the highest rate of gross job gains
(9.8 percent) and Alaska had the highest rate of gross job losses
(11.1 percent).  Hawaii had the lowest rate of gross job gains (5.1
percent), while Illinois and Pennsylvania had the lowest rate of gross
job losses (5.7 percent each).  (See table 6.)  Gross job losses
exceeded gross job gains in 34 states, the District of Columbia and
the Virgin Islands, resulting in net losses in total private sector
employment.  (See table 5.)

More Information

    Additional information on gross job gains and gross job losses
are available at the Business Employment Dynamics Web page on the BLS
Web site at http://www.bls.gov/bdm.  This information includes data
on the levels and rates of gross job gains and gross job losses by
firm size, the not seasonally adjusted data and other seasonally
adjusted time series not presented in this release, charts of gross
job gains and gross job losses by industry and firm size, and
frequently asked questions on firm-size data.  Additional information
about the Business Employment Dynamics data can be found in the Technical
Note of this release or may be obtained by e-mailing BDMinfo@bls.gov.


 ------------------------------------------------------------------
|     Comparing Business Employment Dynamics Data with Current     |
|     Employment Statistics and Quarterly Census of Employment     |
|                           and Wages Data                         |
|                                                                  |
|    The net change in employment from Business Employment         |
| Dynamics (BED) data series will not match the net change in      |
| employment from the monthly Current Employment Statistics (CES)  |
| survey.  The CES estimates are based on monthly surveys from a   |
| sample of establishments, while gross job gains and gross job    |
| losses are based on a quarterly census of administrative records.|
| In addition, the CES has a different coverage, excluding the     |
| agriculture sector but including establishments not covered by   |
| the unemployment insurance program.  The net over-the-quarter    |
| changes derived by aggregating component series in the BED data  |
| may be different from the net employment change estimated from   |
| the CES seasonally adjusted total employment series.  The in-    |
| tended use of the BED statistics is to show the dynamic labor    |
| market flows that underlie the net changes in aggregate employ-  |
| ment levels; data users who want to track net changes in aggre-  |
| gate employment levels over time should refer to CES data.       |
|                                                                  |
|    BED data have a more limited scope than the Quarterly Census  |
| of Employment and Wages (QCEW) data.  The data in this release,  |
| in contrast to the QCEW data, exclude government employees,      |
| private households (NAICS 814110), and establishments with zero  |
| employment.                                                      |
|                                                                  |
|    See the Technical Note for further information.               |
 ------------------------------------------------------------------ 







                                                                 
Technical Note

   
   The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-
state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages
(QCEW), or the ES-202 program.  The BED data are compiled by the U.S.
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) from existing quarterly state unemployment
insurance (UI) records.  Most employers in the U.S. are required to file
quarterly reports on the employment and wages of workers covered by UI
laws, and to pay quarterly UI taxes.  The quarterly UI reports are sent by
the State Workforce Agencies (SWAs) to BLS and form the basis of the BLS 
establishment universe sampling frame.  These reports also are used to pro-
duce the quarterly QCEW data on total employment and wages and the longitu-
dinal BED data on gross job gains and losses.  Other important BLS uses 
of the UI reports are in the Current Employment Statistics (CES) program. 
(See table below for differences between QCEW, CES, and BED.)
                                     
   In the BED program, the quarterly UI records are linked across quarters
to provide a longitudinal history for each establishment.  The linkage
process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment
level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and
expanding establishments and jobs lost at closing and contracting establish-
ments.

Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES employment measures

   The BLS publishes three different establishment-based employment mea-
sures for any given quarter.  Each of these measures--QCEW, BED, and CES--
makes use of the quarterly UI employment reports in producing data; how-
ever, each measure has a somewhat different universe coverage, estimation 
procedure, and publication product.

   Differences in coverage and estimation methods can result in somewhat 
different measures of over-the-quarter employment change.  It is important to 
understand program differences and the intended uses of the program products.  
(See table below.)  Additional information on each program can be obtained 
from the program Web sites shown in the table.

				                                  
Summary of Major Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES Employment Measures
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |         QCEW        |         BED          |         CES
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Source     |--Count of UI admini-|--Count of longitudi- |--Sample survey: 
           |  strative records   |  nally-linked UI ad- |  400,000 establish-
           |  submitted by 9.0   |  ministrative records|  ments
           |  million employers  |  submitted by 7.0    |
           |                     |  million private sec-|
           |                     |  tor employers       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Coverage   |--UI and UCFE cover- |--UI Coverage, exclud-|Nonfarm wage and sal-
           |  age:  all employers|  ing government, pri-|  ary jobs:
           |  subject to state   |  vate households, and|--UI Coverage, exclud-
           |  and federal UI Laws|  establishments with |  ing agriculture, pri-
           |                     |  zero employment     |  vate households, and
           |                     |                      |  self-employed workers
           |                     |                      |--Other employment, in-
           |                     |                      |  cluding railroads, 
           |                     |                      |  religious organiza-
           |                     |                      |  tions, and other non-
           |                     |                      |  UI-covered jobs
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Publication|--Quarterly          |--Quarterly           |--Monthly 
frequency  |  -7 months after the|  -8 months after the |  -Usually first Friday
           |   end of each quar- |   end of each quarter|   of following month
           |   ter               |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Use of UI  |--Directly summarizes|--Links each new UI   |--Uses UI file as a sam-
file       |  and publishes each |  quarter to longitu- |  pling frame and annu-
           |  new quarter of UI  |  dinal database and  |  ally realigns (bench-
           |  data               |  directly summarizes |  marks) sample esti-    
           |                     |  gross job gains and |  mates to first quar-  
           |                     |  losses              |  ter UI levels
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Provides a quarter-|--Provides quarterly  |--Provides current month-
products   |  ly and annual uni- |  employer dynamics   |  ly estimates of employ-
           |  verse count of es- |  data on establish-  |  ment, hours, and earn-
           |  tablishments, em-  |  ment openings, clos-|  ings at the MSA, state,
           |  ployment, and wages|  ings, expansions,   |  and national level by
           |  at the county, MSA,|  and contractions at |  industry
           |  state, and national|  the national level  |
           |  levels by detailed |  by NAICS super-     |
           |  industry           |  sectors and by size |
           |                     |  of firm, and at the |   
           |                     |  state private-sector|
           |                     |  total level         | 
           |                     |--Future expansions   |
           |                     |  will include data   |
           |                     |  with greater in-    |
           |                     |  dustry detail and   |
           |                     |  data at the county  |
           |                     |  and MSA level       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Major uses include:|--Major uses include: |--Major uses include:
uses       |  -Detailed locality |  -Business cycle     |  -Principal national
           |   data              |   analysis           |   economic indicator
           |  -Periodic universe |  -Analysis of employ-|  -Official time series 
           |   counts for bench- |   er dynamics under- |   for employment change
           |   marking sample    |   lying economic ex- |   measures
           |   survey estimates  |   pansions and con-  |  -Input into other ma-
           |  -Sample frame for  |   tractions          |   jor economic indi-
           |   BLS establishment |  -Analysis of employ-|   cators
           |   surveys           |   ment expansion and |
           |                     |   contraction by size|   
           |                     |   of firm            |
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Program    |--www.bls.gov/cew/   |--www.bls.gov/bdm/    |--www.bls.gov/ces/
Web sites  |                     |                      |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               
                           
Coverage                           

   Employment and wage data for workers covered by state UI and Unemployment 
Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE) laws are compiled from quarterly 
contribution reports submitted to the SWAs by employers.  In addition to the 
quarterly contribution reports, employers who operate multiple establishments 
within a state complete a questionnaire, called the "Multiple Worksite Report,"
which provides detailed information on the location of their establishments. 
These reports are based on place of employment rather than place of residence. 
UI and UCFE coverage is broad and basically comparable from state to state.
   
   Major exclusions from UI coverage are self-employed workers, religious or-
ganizations, most agricultural workers on small farms, all members of the 
Armed Forces, elected officials in most states, most employees of railroads, 
some domestic workers, most student workers at schools, and employees of cer-
tain small nonprofit organizations.
   
   Gross job gains and gross job losses in this release are derived from lon-
gitudinal histories of over 7.0 million private sector employer reports out 
of 9.0 million total reports of employment and wages submitted by states to 
BLS in the third quarter of 2007.  Gross job gains and gross job losses data 
in this release do not report estimates for government employees or private 
households (NAICS 814110) and do not include establishments with zero employ-
ment in both previous and current quarters.  Data from Puerto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands also are excluded from the national data.  As an illustration, 
the table below shows, in millions of establishments, the number of establish-
ments excluded from the gross job gains and gross job losses data in the third 
quarter of 2007:


             Number of active establishments included in 
              Business Employment Dynamics data at the
                          national level

                                                                   Millions
                                                                       
Total establishments QCEW program....................................9.0

    Excluded:  Public sector.........................................0.3 
               Private households....................................0.6
               Zero employment.......................................1.0      
               Establishments in Puerto Rico 
                 and the Virgin Islands..............................0.1 
         
Total establishments included in Business
Employment Dynamics data.............................................7.0

Unit of analysis
   
   Establishments are used in the tabulation of the BED statistics by in-
dustry and firms are used in the tabulation of the BED size class sta-
tistics.  An establishment is defined as an economic unit that produces
goods or services, usually at a single physical location, and engages in
one or predominantly one activity.  A firm is a legal business, either
corporate or otherwise, and may consist of several establishments.  Firm-
level data are compiled based on an aggregation of establishments under
common ownership by a corporate parent using employer tax identification
numbers.  The firm-level aggregation, which is consistent with the role of
corporations as the economic decision makers, is used for the measurement
of the BED data elements by size class.
   
   Because of the difference in the unit of analysis, total gross job gains
and gross job losses by size class are lower than total gross job gains and
gross job losses by industry, as some establishment gains and losses within
a firm are offset during the aggregation process.  However, the total net
changes in employment are the same for not seasonally adjusted data and are
similar for seasonally adjusted data.
                                 
Concepts and methodology

   The Business Employment Dynamics data measure the net change in employ-
ment at the establishment or firm level.  These changes come about in one 
of four ways.  A net increase in employment can come from either opening 
units or expanding units.  A net decrease in employment can come from either 
closing units or contracting units.  Gross job gains include the sum of all
jobs added at either opening or expanding units.  Gross job losses include
the sum of all jobs lost in either closing or contracting units.  The net
change in employment is the difference between gross job gains and gross
job losses.
   
   The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:                          

   Openings.  These are either units with positive third-month employment for
the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or
with positive third-month employment in the current quarter, following zero em-
ployment in the previous quarter.
                                     
   Expansions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment
over this period.
   
   Closings.  These are units with positive third-month employment in the pre-
vious quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the current
quarter.
   
   Contractions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment
over this period.

   All establishment-level employment changes are measured from the third 
month of each quarter.  Not all establishments and firms change their em-
ployment levels.  Units with no change in employment count towards estimates
of total employment, but not for levels of gross employment job gains and 
gross job losses.

   Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing 
their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quar-
ters.  This provides a symmetric growth rate.  The rates are calculated for
the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to
form their respective totals.  These rates can be added and subtracted just
as their levels can.  For instance, the difference between the gross job
gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

Linkage methodology

   Prior to the measurement of gross job gains and gross job losses, QCEW
records are linked across two quarters.  The linkage process matches esta-
blishments' unique SWA identification numbers (SWA-ID).  Between 95 to 97
percent of establishments identified as continuous from quarter to quarter
are matched by SWA-ID.  The rest are linked in one of three ways.  The first
method uses predecessor and successor information, identified by the states,
which relates records with different SWA-IDs across quarters.  Predecessor
and successor relations can come about for a variety of reasons, including
a change in ownership, a firm restructuring, or a UI account restructuring.
If a match cannot be attained in this manner, a probability-based match is
used.  This match attempts to identify two establishments with different SWA-
IDs as continuous.  The match is based upon comparisons such as the same
name, address, and phone number.  Third, an analyst examines unmatched re-
cords individually and makes a possible match.

   In order to ensure the highest possible quality of data, SWAs verify with 
employers and update, if necessary, the industry, location, and ownership 
classification of all establishments on a 3-year cycle.  Changes in establish-
ment classification codes resulting from the verification process are intro-
duced with the data reported for the first quarter of the year.  Changes re-
sulting from improved employer reporting also are introduced in the first 
quarter.   
                              
Sizing methodology
   
   The method of dynamic sizing is used in calculations for the BED size-
class data series.  Dynamic sizing allocates each firm's employment gain or
loss during a quarter to each respective size class in which the change
occurred.  For example, if a firm grew from 2 employees in quarter 1 to 38
employees in quarter 2, then, of the 36-employee increase, 2 would be al-
located to the first size class, 5 to the size class 5 to 9, 10 to size
class 10 to 19, and 19 to size class 20 to 49.
   
   Dynamic sizing provides symmetrical firm-size estimates and eliminates
any systematic effects which may be caused by the transitory and reverting
changes in firms' sizes over time.  Additionally, it allocates each job
gain or loss to the actual size class where it occurred.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the levels of employment and the associated
job flows undergo sharp fluctuations due to such seasonal events as changes
in the weather, reduced or expanded production, harvests, major holidays,
and the opening and closing of schools.  The effect of such seasonal vari-
ation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each 
year, their influence can be eliminated by adjusting these statistics from 
quarter to quarter.  These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as 
declines in economic activity, easier to recognize.  For example, the large 
number of youths taking summer jobs is likely to obscure other changes that 
have taken place in June relative to March, making it difficult to determine 
if the level of economic activity has risen or declined.  However, because
the effect of students finishing school in previous years is known, the 
statistics for the current year can be adjusted to allow for a comparable 
change.  The adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to ana-
lyze changes in economic activity.

   The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contract-
ing units are independently seasonally adjusted; net changes are calculated
based on the difference between gross job gains and gross job losses.  Simi-
larly, for industry data, the establishment counts data series for opening,
expanding, closing, and contracting establishments are independently adjusted,
and the net changes are calculated based on the difference between the number
of opening and closing establishments.  Additionally, establishment and em-
ployment levels are independently seasonally adjusted to calculate the sea-
sonally adjusted rates.  Concurrent seasonal adjustment is run using X-12
ARIMA.  Seasonally adjusted data series for the total private sector are cal-
culated by summing the seasonally adjusted data for all sectors, including
the unclassified sector, which is not published separately.
   
   The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contracting 
units for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia are seasonally
adjusted at the total private level only.  The sum of the state series for
opening, expanding, closing, and contracting units will not necessarily be
equal to the national total private series because of the independent seasonal
adjustment of these series.
   
   The net over-the-quarter change derived by summing the BED component series 
will differ from the net employment change estimated from the seasonally ad-
justed total private employment series from the CES program.  The intended use 
of BED statistics is to show the dynamic labor market changes that underlie 
the net employment change statistic.  As such, data users interested particu-
larly in the net employment change and not in the gross job flows underlying 
this change should refer to CES data for over-the-quarter net employment
changes.
   
Reliability of the data
   
   Since the data series on Business Employment Dynamics are based on admini-
strative rather than sample data, there are no issues related to sampling 
error.  Nonsampling error, however, still exists.  Nonsampling errors can oc-
cur for many reasons, such as the employer submitting corrected employment 
data after the end of the quarter or typographical errors made by businesses 
when providing information.  Such errors, however, are likely to be distri-
buted randomly throughout the dataset.
   
   Changes in administrative data sometimes create complications for the 
linkage process.  This can result in overstating openings and closings while 
understating expansions and contractions.  The BLS continues to refine methods 
for improving the linkage process to alleviate the effects of these compli-
cations.
   
   The BED data series are subject to periodic minor changes based on correc-
tions in QCEW records, updates on predecessors and successors information, and
seasonal adjustment revisions.
                      
Additional statistics and other information
   
   Several other programs within BLS produce closely related information.  
The QCEW program, also known as the ES-202 program, provides both quarterly 
and annual estimates of employment by state, county, and detailed industry. 
News releases on quarterly county employment and wages are available upon 
request from the Division of Administrative Statistics and Labor Turnover, 
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC 20212; 
telephone 202-691-6567; (http://www.bls.gov/cew/); (e-mail: QCEWInfo@bls.gov).
                                     
   The CES program produces monthly estimates of employment, its net change, 
and earnings by detailed industry.  These estimates are part of the Employ-
ment Situation report put out monthly by BLS.
                                     
   The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) program provides month-
ly measures of job openings, as well as employee hires and separations.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired in-
dividuals upon request.  Voice phone:  202-691-5200; TDD message referral 
number: 1-800-877-8339.







Table 1.  Private sector gross job gains and job losses, seasonally adjusted

Total private                                

(In thousands)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change (1) Total    Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

1992  September            599      7,329       5,688         1,641       6,730       5,308           1,422
      December             123      6,986       5,452         1,534       6,863       5,484           1,379
  
1993  March                288      7,117       5,404         1,713       6,829       5,364           1,465
      June                 734      7,275       5,782         1,493       6,541       5,155           1,386
      September            965      7,539       5,926         1,613       6,574       5,265           1,309
      December             603      7,375       5,822         1,553       6,772       5,411           1,361
  
1994  March                559      7,381       5,800         1,581       6,822       5,401           1,421
      June                 905      7,709       6,041         1,668       6,804       5,315           1,489
      September          1,288      8,002       6,277         1,725       6,714       5,426           1,288
      December             460      7,535       5,978         1,557       7,075       5,642           1,433
  
1995  March                758      7,787       6,124         1,663       7,029       5,652           1,377
      June                 358      7,666       6,006         1,660       7,308       5,840           1,468
      September            845      7,983       6,341         1,642       7,138       5,645           1,493
      December             378      7,830       6,140         1,690       7,452       5,929           1,523
  
1996  March                457      7,933       6,179         1,754       7,476       5,967           1,509
      June                 631      8,051       6,282         1,769       7,420       5,903           1,517
      September            704      8,177       6,373         1,804       7,473       5,942           1,531
      December             816      8,206       6,396         1,810       7,390       5,875           1,515
  
1997  March                784      8,214       6,407         1,807       7,430       5,886           1,544
      June                 584      8,055       6,330         1,725       7,471       5,931           1,540
      September            901      8,515       6,718         1,797       7,614       5,927           1,687
      December             708      8,617       6,697         1,920       7,909       6,024           1,885
  
1998  March                711      8,648       6,599         2,049       7,937       6,077           1,860
      June                 610      8,629       6,552         2,077       8,019       6,224           1,795
      September            742      8,508       6,607         1,901       7,766       6,093           1,673
      December             768      8,475       6,737         1,738       7,707       6,025           1,682
  
1999  March                353      8,585       6,626         1,959       8,232       6,395           1,837
      June                 644      8,539       6,661         1,878       7,895       6,210           1,685
      September            588      8,571       6,734         1,837       7,983       6,250           1,733
      December           1,005      8,749       6,956         1,793       7,744       6,076           1,668
  
2000  March                789      8,792       6,924         1,868       8,003       6,341           1,662
      June                 492      8,499       6,814         1,685       8,007       6,387           1,620
      September            296      8,506       6,728         1,778       8,210       6,483           1,727
      December             295      8,400       6,702         1,698       8,105       6,433           1,672
  
2001  March               -156      8,436       6,694         1,742       8,592       6,717           1,875
      June                -792      8,009       6,319         1,690       8,801       7,050           1,751
      September         -1,184      7,608       5,917         1,691       8,792       6,991           1,801
      December            -960      7,591       5,932         1,659       8,551       6,858           1,693
  
2002  March                -39      8,049       6,259         1,790       8,088       6,424           1,664
      June                 -38      7,890       6,164         1,726       7,928       6,290           1,638
      September           -171      7,608       6,015         1,593       7,779       6,248           1,531
      December            -198      7,522       5,960         1,562       7,720       6,171           1,549
  
2003  March               -420      7,423       5,901         1,522       7,843       6,306           1,537
      June                 -96      7,415       5,944         1,471       7,511       6,040           1,471
      September            180      7,369       5,898         1,471       7,189       5,828           1,361
      December             332      7,560       6,027         1,533       7,228       5,792           1,436
  
2004  March                439      7,669       6,174         1,495       7,230       5,796           1,434
      June                 636      7,771       6,251         1,520       7,135       5,651           1,484
      September            182      7,612       6,036         1,576       7,430       5,889           1,541
      December             797      7,883       6,268         1,615       7,086       5,655           1,431
  
2005  March                352      7,578       6,107         1,471       7,226       5,800           1,426
      June                 590      7,796       6,248         1,548       7,206       5,789           1,417
      September            651      7,943       6,362         1,581       7,292       5,846           1,446
      December             539      7,846       6,278         1,568       7,307       5,936           1,371
  
2006  March                774      7,679       6,261         1,418       6,905       5,633           1,272
      June                 416      7,811       6,292         1,519       7,395       6,015           1,380
      September             11      7,473       6,032         1,441       7,462       6,110           1,352
      December             512      7,809       6,271         1,538       7,297       5,943           1,354
  
2007  March                438      7,509       6,158         1,351       7,071       5,796           1,275
      June                 241      7,644       6,257         1,387       7,403       6,008           1,395
      September           -235      7,249       5,821         1,428       7,484       6,134           1,350

(1) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.







Table 2.  Private sector gross job gains and losses, as a percent of employment, (1) seasonally adjusted

Total private                                

(Percent)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change (2) Total    Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

1992  September            0.7        8.2         6.4           1.8         7.5         5.9             1.6
      December             0.2        7.8         6.1           1.7         7.6         6.1             1.5
  
1993  March                0.3        7.9         6.0           1.9         7.6         6.0             1.6
      June                 0.8        8.0         6.4           1.6         7.2         5.7             1.5
      September            1.1        8.3         6.5           1.8         7.2         5.8             1.4
      December             0.6        8.0         6.3           1.7         7.4         5.9             1.5
  
1994  March                0.7        8.0         6.3           1.7         7.3         5.8             1.5
      June                 1.0        8.3         6.5           1.8         7.3         5.7             1.6
      September            1.3        8.4         6.6           1.8         7.1         5.7             1.4
      December             0.5        7.9         6.3           1.6         7.4         5.9             1.5
  
1995  March                0.8        8.1         6.4           1.7         7.3         5.9             1.4
      June                 0.3        7.9         6.2           1.7         7.6         6.1             1.5
      September            0.9        8.2         6.5           1.7         7.3         5.8             1.5
      December             0.3        8.0         6.3           1.7         7.7         6.1             1.6
  
1996  March                0.5        8.1         6.3           1.8         7.6         6.1             1.5
      June                 0.7        8.2         6.4           1.8         7.5         6.0             1.5
      September            0.7        8.2         6.4           1.8         7.5         6.0             1.5
      December             0.8        8.2         6.4           1.8         7.4         5.9             1.5
  
1997  March                0.9        8.2         6.4           1.8         7.3         5.8             1.5
      June                 0.6        7.9         6.2           1.7         7.3         5.8             1.5
      September            1.0        8.4         6.6           1.8         7.4         5.8             1.6
      December             0.8        8.4         6.5           1.9         7.6         5.8             1.8
  
1998  March                0.7        8.4         6.4           2.0         7.7         5.9             1.8
      June                 0.6        8.3         6.3           2.0         7.7         6.0             1.7
      September            0.7        8.1         6.3           1.8         7.4         5.8             1.6
      December             0.7        8.0         6.4           1.6         7.3         5.7             1.6
  
1999  March                0.3        8.0         6.2           1.8         7.7         6.0             1.7
      June                 0.6        8.0         6.2           1.8         7.4         5.8             1.6
      September            0.6        8.0         6.3           1.7         7.4         5.8             1.6
      December             1.0        8.1         6.4           1.7         7.1         5.6             1.5
  
2000  March                0.7        8.0         6.3           1.7         7.3         5.8             1.5
      June                 0.4        7.7         6.2           1.5         7.3         5.8             1.5
      September            0.2        7.7         6.1           1.6         7.5         5.9             1.6
      December             0.3        7.6         6.1           1.5         7.3         5.8             1.5
  
2001  March               -0.1        7.7         6.1           1.6         7.8         6.1             1.7
      June                -0.8        7.2         5.7           1.5         8.0         6.4             1.6
      September           -1.2        6.9         5.4           1.5         8.1         6.4             1.7
      December            -0.9        7.0         5.5           1.5         7.9         6.3             1.6
  
2002  March                0.0        7.5         5.8           1.7         7.5         6.0             1.5
      June                 0.0        7.3         5.7           1.6         7.3         5.8             1.5
      September           -0.1        7.1         5.6           1.5         7.2         5.8             1.4
      December             0.0        7.1         5.6           1.5         7.1         5.7             1.4
  
2003  March               -0.4        6.9         5.5           1.4         7.3         5.9             1.4
      June                -0.1        7.0         5.6           1.4         7.1         5.7             1.4
      September            0.1        6.9         5.5           1.4         6.8         5.5             1.3
      December             0.3        7.0         5.6           1.4         6.7         5.4             1.3
  
2004  March                0.4        7.1         5.7           1.4         6.7         5.4             1.3
      June                 0.6        7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6         5.2             1.4
      September            0.3        7.1         5.6           1.5         6.8         5.4             1.4
      December             0.8        7.3         5.8           1.5         6.5         5.2             1.3
  
2005  March                0.3        6.9         5.6           1.3         6.6         5.3             1.3
      June                 0.5        7.1         5.7           1.4         6.6         5.3             1.3
      September            0.6        7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6         5.3             1.3
      December             0.6        7.1         5.7           1.4         6.5         5.3             1.2
  
2006  March                0.8        6.9         5.6           1.3         6.1         5.0             1.1
      June                 0.4        6.9         5.6           1.3         6.5         5.3             1.2
      September            0.1        6.7         5.4           1.3         6.6         5.4             1.2
      December             0.5        7.0         5.6           1.4         6.5         5.3             1.2
  
2007  March                0.4        6.6         5.4           1.2         6.2         5.1             1.1
      June                 0.2        6.7         5.5           1.2         6.5         5.3             1.2
      September           -0.2        6.4         5.1           1.3         6.6         5.4             1.2

(1) The rates measure gross job gains and job losses as a percentage of the average of the previous and current employment.
(2) See footnote 1, table 1.






Table 3: Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, seasonally adjusted

                                     Gross job gains and job losses        Gross job gains and job losses
                                             (in thousands)                  as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                        3 months ended

                                   Sept.   Dec.    March   June    Sept.  Sept.  Dec.   March  June   Sept.
                                   2006    2006    2007    2007    2007   2006   2006   2007   2007   2007
Total private(1)

Gross job gains                   7,473   7,809   7,509   7,644   7,249    6.7    7.0    6.6    6.7    6.4
 At expanding establishments      6,032   6,271   6,158   6,257   5,821    5.4    5.6    5.4    5.5    5.1
 At opening establishments        1,441   1,538   1,351   1,387   1,428    1.3    1.4    1.2    1.2    1.3
Gross job losses                  7,462   7,297   7,071   7,403   7,484    6.6    6.5    6.2    6.5    6.6
 At contracting establishments    6,110   5,943   5,796   6,008   6,134    5.4    5.3    5.1    5.3    5.4
 At closing establishments        1,352   1,354   1,275   1,395   1,350    1.2    1.2    1.1    1.2    1.2
Net employment change                11     512     438     241    -235    0.1    0.5    0.4    0.2   -0.2

Goods-producing

Gross job gains                   1,572   1,636   1,629   1,622   1,486    6.6    7.0    6.9    6.9    6.4
 At expanding establishments      1,329   1,381   1,398   1,385   1,256    5.6    5.9    5.9    5.9    5.4
 At opening establishments          243     255     231     237     230    1.0    1.1    1.0    1.0    1.0
Gross job losses                  1,739   1,719   1,682   1,691   1,703    7.4    7.3    7.1    7.2    7.3
 At contracting establishments    1,463   1,452   1,421   1,415   1,436    6.2    6.2    6.0    6.0    6.2
 At closing establishments          276     267     261     276     267    1.2    1.1    1.1    1.2    1.1
Net employment change              -167     -83     -53     -69    -217   -0.8   -0.3   -0.2   -0.3   -0.9

Natural resources and mining

Gross job gains                     269     287     279     286     257   15.1   15.9   15.3   15.7   14.2
 At expanding establishments        230     245     241     248     221   12.9   13.6   13.2   13.6   12.2
 At opening establishments           39      42      38      38      36    2.2    2.3    2.1    2.1    2.0
Gross job losses                    263     266     287     269     270   14.8   14.7   15.6   14.7   14.9
 At contracting establishments      223     230     248     230     230   12.5   12.7   13.5   12.6   12.7
 At closing establishments           40      36      39      39      40    2.3    2.0    2.1    2.1    2.2
Net employment change                 6      21      -8      17     -13    0.3    1.2   -0.3    1.0   -0.7

Construction

Gross job gains                     791     825     850     814     762   10.3   10.8   11.1   10.6   10.1
 At expanding establishments        636     663     699     658     614    8.3    8.7    9.1    8.6    8.1
 At opening establishments          155     162     151     156     148    2.0    2.1    2.0    2.0    2.0
Gross job losses                    868     845     816     855     869   11.4   11.1   10.6   11.2   11.5
 At contracting establishments      702     683     655     688     704    9.2    9.0    8.5    9.0    9.3
 At closing establishments          166     162     161     167     165    2.2    2.1    2.1    2.2    2.2
Net employment change               -77     -20      34     -41    -107   -1.1   -0.3    0.5   -0.6   -1.4

Manufacturing

Gross job gains                     512     524     500     522     467    3.6    3.8    3.6    3.7    3.3
 At expanding establishments        463     473     458     479     421    3.3    3.4    3.3    3.4    3.0
 At opening establishments           49      51      42      43      46    0.3    0.4    0.3    0.3    0.3
Gross job losses                    608     608     579     567     564    4.3    4.3    4.1    4.1    4.0
 At contracting establishments      538     539     518     497     502    3.8    3.8    3.7    3.6    3.6
 At closing establishments           70      69      61      70      62    0.5    0.5    0.4    0.5    0.4
Net employment change               -96     -84     -79     -45     -97   -0.7   -0.5   -0.5   -0.4   -0.7

Service-providing(1)

Gross job gains                   5,901   6,173   5,880   6,022   5,763    6.6    6.9    6.5    6.7    6.3
 At expanding establishments      4,703   4,890   4,760   4,872   4,565    5.3    5.5    5.3    5.4    5.0
 At opening establishments        1,198   1,283   1,120   1,150   1,198    1.3    1.4    1.2    1.3    1.3
Gross job losses                  5,723   5,578   5,389   5,712   5,781    6.4    6.2    6.0    6.3    6.4
 At contracting establishments    4,647   4,491   4,375   4,593   4,698    5.2    5.0    4.9    5.1    5.2
 At closing establishments        1,076   1,087   1,014   1,119   1,083    1.2    1.2    1.1    1.2    1.2
Net employment change               178     595     491     310     -18    0.2    0.7    0.5    0.4   -0.1

Wholesale trade

Gross job gains                     311     322     314     318     305    5.3    5.4    5.3    5.3    5.1
 At expanding establishments        253     262     256     264     245    4.3    4.4    4.3    4.4    4.1
 At opening establishments           58      60      58      54      60    1.0    1.0    1.0    0.9    1.0
Gross job losses                    305     303     296     300     303    5.1    5.1    5.0    5.1    5.0
 At contracting establishments      238     236     230     231     240    4.0    4.0    3.9    3.9    4.0
 At closing establishments           67      67      66      69      63    1.1    1.1    1.1    1.2    1.0
Net employment change                 6      19      18      18       2    0.2    0.3    0.3    0.2    0.1

Retail trade

Gross job gains                   1,030   1,081   1,087   1,023     996    6.7    7.0    7.0    6.6    6.3
 At expanding establishments        850     898     941     872     817    5.5    5.8    6.1    5.6    5.2
 At opening establishments          180     183     146     151     179    1.2    1.2    0.9    1.0    1.1
Gross job losses                  1,085   1,004     971   1,028   1,055    7.0    6.5    6.2    6.6    6.8
 At contracting establishments      923     857     827     890     918    6.0    5.5    5.3    5.7    5.9
 At closing establishments          162     147     144     138     137    1.0    1.0    0.9    0.9    0.9
Net employment change               -55      77     116      -5     -59   -0.3    0.5    0.8    0.0   -0.5

Transportation and warehousing

Gross job gains                     241     269     224     242     220    5.7    6.3    5.2    5.6    5.0
 At expanding establishments        207     231     192     208     188    4.9    5.4    4.5    4.8    4.3
 At opening establishments           34      38      32      34      32    0.8    0.9    0.7    0.8    0.7
Gross job losses                    224     225     245     222     228    5.3    5.2    5.7    5.2    5.3
 At contracting establishments      186     185     211     185     190    4.4    4.3    4.9    4.3    4.4
 At closing establishments           38      40      34      37      38    0.9    0.9    0.8    0.9    0.9
Net employment change                17      44     -21      20      -8    0.4    1.1   -0.5    0.4   -0.3

Utilities

Gross job gains                      15      19      11      14      13    2.8    3.5    2.0    2.6    2.4
 At expanding establishments         14      13      10      13      12    2.6    2.4    1.8    2.4    2.2
 At opening establishments            1       6       1       1       1    0.2    1.1    0.2    0.2    0.2
Gross job losses                     15      18      11      12      12    2.8    3.3    2.0    2.2    2.2
 At contracting establishments       13      13      10      10      10    2.4    2.4    1.8    1.8    1.8
 At closing establishments            2       5       1       2       2    0.4    0.9    0.2    0.4    0.4
Net employment change                 0       1       0       2       1    0.0    0.2    0.0    0.4    0.2

Information

Gross job gains                     148     167     138     160     153    4.8    5.5    4.6    5.3    5.1
 At expanding establishments        123     138     118     137     127    4.0    4.5    3.9    4.5    4.2
 At opening establishments           25      29      20      23      26    0.8    1.0    0.7    0.8    0.9
Gross job losses                    171     146     132     137     155    5.6    4.7    4.4    4.6    5.1
 At contracting establishments      142     114     108     111     130    4.7    3.7    3.6    3.7    4.3
 At closing establishments           29      32      24      26      25    0.9    1.0    0.8    0.9    0.8
Net employment change               -23      21       6      23      -2   -0.8    0.8    0.2    0.7    0.0

Financial activities

Gross job gains                     446     457     421     436     408    5.5    5.5    5.1    5.3    5.0
 At expanding establishments        350     347     335     353     318    4.3    4.2    4.1    4.3    3.9
 At opening establishments           96     110      86      83      90    1.2    1.3    1.0    1.0    1.1
Gross job losses                    445     444     418     467     470    5.4    5.4    5.1    5.7    5.7
 At contracting establishments      343     338     320     360     354    4.2    4.1    3.9    4.4    4.3
 At closing establishments          102     106      98     107     116    1.2    1.3    1.2    1.3    1.4
Net employment change                 1      13       3     -31     -62    0.1    0.1    0.0   -0.4   -0.7

Professional and business services

Gross job gains                   1,335   1,427   1,276   1,389   1,301    7.6    8.1    7.2    7.7    7.3
 At expanding establishments      1,093   1,149   1,064   1,148   1,054    6.2    6.5    6.0    6.4    5.9
 At opening establishments          242     278     212     241     247    1.4    1.6    1.2    1.3    1.4
Gross job losses                  1,279   1,313   1,242   1,322   1,315    7.3    7.4    7.0    7.4    7.3
 At contracting establishments    1,029   1,057     996   1,022   1,056    5.9    6.0    5.6    5.7    5.9
 At closing establishments          250     256     246     300     259    1.4    1.4    1.4    1.7    1.4
Net employment change                56     114      34      67     -14    0.3    0.7    0.2    0.3    0.0

Education and health services

Gross job gains                     784     795     799     785     797    4.6    4.7    4.6    4.5    4.6
 At expanding establishments        665     666     678     673     674    3.9    3.9    3.9    3.9    3.9
 At opening establishments          119     129     121     112     123    0.7    0.8    0.7    0.6    0.7
Gross job losses                    674     692     655     697     684    4.0    4.1    3.8    4.0    3.9
 At contracting establishments      561     558     540     579     563    3.3    3.3    3.1    3.3    3.2
 At closing establishments          113     134     115     118     121    0.7    0.8    0.7    0.7    0.7
Net employment change               110     103     144      88     113    0.6    0.6    0.8    0.5    0.7

Leisure and hospitality

Gross job gains                   1,180   1,223   1,165   1,219   1,158    9.1    9.3    8.8    9.1    8.7
 At expanding establishments        896     932     903     940     884    6.9    7.1    6.8    7.0    6.6
 At opening establishments          284     291     262     279     274    2.2    2.2    2.0    2.1    2.1
Gross job losses                  1,184   1,105   1,096   1,196   1,215    9.0    8.4    8.3    8.9    9.1
 At contracting establishments      959     892     902     965     983    7.3    6.8    6.8    7.2    7.4
 At closing establishments          225     213     194     231     232    1.7    1.6    1.5    1.7    1.7
Net employment change                -4     118      69      23     -57    0.1    0.9    0.5    0.2   -0.4

Other services

Gross job gains                     295     299     292     304     288    7.7    7.8    7.6    7.8    7.4
 At expanding establishments        235     238     239     247     229    6.1    6.2    6.2    6.3    5.9
 At opening establishments           60      61      53      57      59    1.6    1.6    1.4    1.5    1.5
Gross job losses                    305     291     278     287     307    7.9    7.5    7.2    7.3    7.9
 At contracting establishments      240     228     217     224     242    6.2    5.9    5.6    5.7    6.2
 At closing establishments           65      63      61      63      65    1.7    1.6    1.6    1.6    1.7
Net employment change               -10       8      14      17     -19   -0.2    0.3    0.4    0.5   -0.5

(1) Includes unclassified sector, not shown separately.







Table 4.  Private sector percentage share (1) of gross job gains and losses, seasonally adjusted

(Percent)

                                                         3 months ended

                              Sept. 2006     Dec.  2006      March 2007      June  2007      Sept. 2007

Total private.................
Gross job gains...............  100.0           100.0           100.0           100.0           100.0
   Expanding firms............  100.0           100.0           100.0           100.0           100.0
   Opening firms..............  100.0           100.0           100.0           100.0           100.0
Gross job losses..............  100.0           100.0           100.0           100.0           100.0
   Contracting firms..........  100.0           100.0           100.0           100.0           100.0
   Closing firms..............  100.0           100.0           100.0           100.0           100.0

Firm size 1 - 4 employees

Gross job gains...............   15.6            15.7            15.7            14.7            15.9
   Expanding firms............    7.4             7.1             7.4             7.0             7.4
   Opening firms..............   58.5            60.5            60.3            58.7            59.7
Gross job losses..............   15.7            15.9            16.6            16.2            15.8
   Contracting firms..........    7.7             7.9             8.1             7.9             7.7
   Closing firms..............   58.7            58.4            60.6            59.5            59.7

Firm size 5 - 9 employees

Gross job gains...............   12.1            11.6            12.2            11.6            12.1
   Expanding firms............   11.2            10.8            11.4            10.7            11.2
   Opening firms..............   16.6            15.7            16.6            16.5            16.4
Gross job losses..............   12.2            12.3            12.5            12.4            12.1
   Contracting firms..........   11.5            11.6            11.9            11.6            11.4
   Closing firms..............   15.9            16.1            15.9            16.6            16.2

Firm size 10 - 19 employees

Gross job gains...............   12.2            11.7            12.5            12.1            12.1
   Expanding firms............   12.5            12.0            12.8            12.2            12.4
   Opening firms..............   10.9            10.3            10.7            11.3            10.6
Gross job losses..............   12.3            12.4            12.5            12.4            12.4
   Contracting firms..........   12.7            12.7            12.9            12.7            12.7
   Closing firms..............   10.5            10.5            10.2            10.9            10.6

Firm size 20 - 49 employees

Gross job gains...............   14.4            13.8            14.5            14.5            14.2
   Expanding firms............   15.5            14.9            15.8            15.6            15.5
   Opening firms..............    8.3             7.9             7.6             8.5             7.6
Gross job losses..............   14.5            14.4            14.3            14.2            14.5
   Contracting firms..........   15.7            15.6            15.7            15.5            15.8
   Closing firms..............    8.0             8.0             7.4             7.8             7.9

Firm size 50 - 99 employees

Gross job gains...............    9.0             8.6             8.9             9.2             8.9
   Expanding firms............   10.2             9.7            10.1            10.3            10.1
   Opening firms..............    3.0             2.9             2.4             2.8             2.7
Gross job losses..............    8.8             8.9             8.8             8.6             8.9
   Contracting firms..........    9.9            10.0             9.9             9.7            10.1
   Closing firms..............    3.1             3.0             2.8             2.6             2.7

Firm size 100 - 249 employees

Gross job gains...............    9.3             9.1             9.4             9.8             9.2
   Expanding firms............   10.8            10.6            10.9            11.3            10.7
   Opening firms..............    1.5             1.5             1.0             1.2             1.4
Gross job losses..............    9.3             9.2             9.0             8.8             9.4
   Contracting firms..........   10.6            10.6            10.4            10.2            10.8
   Closing firms..............    1.9             1.9             1.7             1.3             1.6

Firm size 250 - 499 employees

Gross job gains...............    5.7             5.4             5.4             5.9             5.6
   Expanding firms............    6.7             6.4             6.4             6.8             6.6
   Opening firms..............     .4              .4              .3              .3              .5
Gross job losses..............    5.5             5.8             5.3             5.2             5.5
   Contracting firms..........    6.4             6.8             6.2             6.1             6.4
   Closing firms..............     .7              .6              .5              .5              .5

Firm size 500 - 999 employees

Gross job gains...............    4.6             4.5             4.4             4.8             4.7
   Expanding firms............    5.4             5.3             5.2             5.6             5.6
   Opening firms..............     .4              .1              .2              .2              .2
Gross job losses..............    4.4             4.5             4.0             4.4             4.5
   Contracting firms..........    5.2             5.3             4.8             5.2             5.3
   Closing firms..............     .2              .4              .3              .3              .2

Firm size 1,000 or more employees

Gross job gains...............   16.7            19.2            16.5            17.0            16.9
   Expanding firms............   19.9            22.8            19.5            20.0            20.1
   Opening firms..............     .1              .1              .5              .1              .5
Gross job losses..............   16.9            16.2            16.5            17.3            16.4
   Contracting firms..........   19.9            19.1            19.7            20.6            19.4
   Closing firms..............     .5              .7              .3              .2              .3


(1) Share measures the percent of the category represented by each firm size class,
    and rates may not sum to 100.0 due to rounding.






Table 5.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by state, seasonally adjusted

                                         Gross job gains                                          Gross job losses
State                                    (3 months ended)                                         (3 months ended)
                         Sept.       Dec.       March       June      Sept.      Sept.        Dec.       March       June      Sept.
                          2006       2006       2007        2007       2007       2006        2006        2007       2007       2007

United States1.....  7,473,000  7,809,000  7,509,000   7,644,000  7,249,000  7,462,000   7,297,000   7,071,000  7,403,000  7,484,000

Alabama.....           100,446    106,892    112,765      99,726     99,906    103,700     104,477      89,364    105,984    101,198
Alaska.....             22,123     25,702     24,244      27,957     22,188     26,742      26,432      22,400     23,632     26,070
Arizona.....           174,546    161,693    156,804     154,110    155,205    152,200     165,067     153,133    158,011    160,904
Arkansas.....           58,160     62,275     60,704      54,946     56,127     63,784      58,778      52,796     61,452     56,475
California.....        910,172    982,478    947,540     932,830    906,739    927,374     907,888     912,613    966,693    923,409
Colorado.....          142,546    150,220    146,688     150,523    148,053    142,570     138,889     131,774    135,876    144,857
Connecticut.....        81,794     85,126     75,957      89,363     77,587     82,496      77,497      81,107     75,883     82,650
Delaware.....           23,470     26,159     29,733      24,896     23,502     27,718      23,392      28,414     23,872     27,334
District of Columbia    27,044     25,599     28,423      27,543     26,296     25,381      26,443      23,213     26,428     28,871
Florida.....           508,541    501,285    464,050     493,122    490,069    493,363     522,827     451,580    513,917    542,595

Georgia.....           247,388    263,872    249,091     243,732    242,926    251,362     252,232     227,479    250,468    240,332
Hawaii.....             28,211     27,446     27,483      29,341     25,956     26,129      26,250      26,630     27,098     30,711
Idaho.....              45,061     47,395     48,396      44,803     41,792     41,378      40,019      40,735     44,881     45,176
Illinois.....          278,177    293,431    281,177     301,138    269,429    288,515     281,099     268,855    270,862    286,551
Indiana.....           148,107    153,325    145,342     153,439    142,702    154,760     148,985     140,603    146,834    152,980
Iowa.....               75,093     79,518     72,577      79,866     71,751     74,910      73,886      73,448     72,256     74,880
Kansas.....             78,985     85,024     78,808      71,219     75,069     74,864      68,067      67,661     76,280     67,646
Kentucky.....           92,740    106,958    101,623      96,978     86,047     96,675      90,552      95,549     92,980     95,032
Louisiana.....         120,127    123,095    121,990     109,826    107,177    108,558     104,159      99,462    113,176    104,800
Maine.....              35,951     40,832     37,283      40,238     37,722     39,975      37,567      37,189     38,294     39,681

Maryland.....          131,708    136,491    130,873     129,262    136,177    136,408     130,083     125,994    128,857    138,351
Massachusetts.....     167,647    166,346    154,124     180,439    164,658    169,849     163,458     157,024    148,702    174,134
Michigan.....          226,583    229,109    216,604     239,038    225,219    255,227     261,024     234,035    229,300    248,071
Minnesota.....         138,439    146,430    140,915     151,477    149,125    165,270     147,210     133,393    144,135    139,939
Mississippi.....        68,823     67,302     60,198      59,332     62,205     62,884      58,428      62,486     65,842     58,290
Missouri.....          137,786    151,637    148,426     142,012    144,851    142,506     144,042     133,861    144,000    144,113
Montana.....            27,503     32,922     32,066      30,014     28,913     29,606      26,893      26,215     30,643     29,185
Nebraska.....           47,050     47,973     44,773      48,229     48,216     44,754      45,236      41,131     43,827     43,706
Nevada.....             73,442     80,115     79,439      74,310     69,465     76,814      77,068      70,468     76,036     82,366
New Hampshire.....      37,381     39,715     36,043      40,902     35,921     40,708      37,503      37,188     37,071     39,656

New Jersey.....        217,626    226,397    200,823     242,670    214,184    230,836     221,251     216,208    212,994    227,208
New Mexico.....         46,361     49,483     45,658      43,638     45,901     46,285      45,992      39,391     47,327     46,835
New York.....          451,199    491,296    439,880     501,731    444,186    454,776     436,426     450,887    469,097    469,763
North Carolina.....    228,819    271,718    238,694     230,301    221,288    222,867     209,905     203,669    223,702    219,644
North Dakota.....       19,561     19,077     19,613      19,321     19,514     17,615      18,029      17,877     18,673     17,975
Ohio.....              266,494    273,486    259,261     283,177    249,393    286,805     285,789     260,711    266,721    276,817
Oklahoma.....           85,999     87,109     85,616      85,428     82,042     80,220      80,850      73,657     89,207     78,243
Oregon.....            103,167    107,374    104,745     101,225    100,856     94,670      97,684      96,037    104,666     98,132
Pennsylvania.....      281,640    286,900    282,273     302,265    266,822    278,525     278,568     266,506    270,874    285,414
Rhode Island.....       28,749     28,621     25,073      28,796     23,339     28,340      28,374      27,137     26,256     29,513

South Carolina.....    124,764    109,561    113,532     105,523     99,544    103,809      97,192      98,842    107,074    100,422
South Dakota.....       21,559     22,548     21,003      21,989     20,788     20,198      19,873      19,153     19,784     20,345
Tennessee.....         143,225    156,388    148,938     142,856    140,708    143,136     157,013     144,012    139,122    139,828
Texas.....             545,573    566,668    542,825     553,947    538,651    480,295     476,908     461,745    485,096    497,118
Utah.....               77,218     79,960     80,804      77,611     73,755     68,620      64,989      62,978     70,542     74,169
Vermont.....            16,515     18,861     16,966      19,085     18,877     18,832      18,099      18,899     19,073     20,024
Virginia.....          181,450    193,009    192,908     192,077    176,798    196,437     181,525     174,760    184,266    190,227
Washington.....        176,707    184,842    190,639     183,840    168,602    170,405     166,948     154,634    165,511    174,458
West Virginia.....      37,841     40,697     38,687      37,037     35,591     40,489      36,849      37,621     37,733     38,633
Wisconsin.....         143,515    146,759    144,613     146,916    127,659    146,137     143,350     141,179    134,163    144,918

Wyoming.....            20,984     22,692     22,362      18,932     20,910     19,491      16,482      18,199     21,853     19,706
Puerto Rico.....        50,294     56,039     43,159      47,784     51,566     56,054      47,988      55,059     50,761     50,852
Virgin Islands.....      2,727      2,358      2,091       3,531      2,119      2,766       1,980       2,501      2,376      3,282

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.






Table 6.  Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted

                        Gross job gains as a percent of employment    Gross job losses as a percent of employment
State                              (3 months ended)                               (3 months ended)

                      Sept.    Dec.     March    June    Sept.      Sept.     Dec.      March    June   Sept.
                       2006    2006     2007     2007     2007       2006     2006      2007     2007    2007

United States1.....     6.7     7.0      6.6      6.7     6.4         6.6      6.5       6.2      6.5     6.6

Alabama.....            6.4     6.8      7.1      6.2     6.3         6.6      6.7       5.7      6.7     6.3
Alaska.....             9.4    11.0     10.3     11.9     9.4        11.5     11.4       9.5     10.0    11.1
Arizona.....            7.8     7.2      7.0      6.8     6.9         6.7      7.3       6.8      7.0     7.1
Arkansas.....           5.9     6.4      6.2      5.6     5.7         6.6      6.0       5.4      6.3     5.8
California.....         7.1     7.6      7.3      7.2     7.0         7.2      7.0       7.0      7.4     7.1
Colorado.....           7.5     7.9      7.6      7.8     7.7         7.5      7.3       6.8      7.0     7.4
Connecticut.....        5.7     6.0      5.3      6.2     5.4         5.8      5.4       5.7      5.3     5.8
Delaware.....           6.5     7.2      8.1      6.8     6.5         7.6      6.4       7.7      6.6     7.5
District of Columbia..  6.2     5.9      6.4      6.1     6.0         5.8      6.0       5.2      5.9     6.5
Florida.....            7.4     7.3      6.7      7.1     7.1         7.1      7.5       6.6      7.4     7.8

Georgia.....            7.3     7.8      7.3      7.1     7.1         7.4      7.4       6.7      7.3     7.1
Hawaii.....             5.6     5.4      5.5      5.8     5.1         5.1      5.2       5.2      5.4     6.0
Idaho.....              8.5     8.7      8.8      8.1     7.6         7.7      7.4       7.4      8.1     8.2
Illinois.....           5.5     5.8      5.5      5.9     5.3         5.8      5.6       5.4      5.3     5.7
Indiana.....            5.9     6.1      5.8      6.1     5.7         6.2      6.0       5.6      5.8     6.1
Iowa.....               6.1     6.4      5.8      6.4     5.7         6.1      5.9       5.9      5.8     6.0
Kansas.....             7.3     7.8      7.1      6.4     6.8         6.9      6.2       6.1      6.9     6.1
Kentucky.....           6.3     7.2      6.8      6.4     5.7         6.6      6.1       6.4      6.2     6.3
Louisiana.....          8.1     8.2      8.0      7.2     7.0         7.4      7.0       6.5      7.4     6.8
Maine.....              7.2     8.2      7.4      8.0     7.6         8.1      7.5       7.4      7.6     7.9

Maryland.....           6.3     6.6      6.3      6.2     6.5         6.5      6.3       6.1      6.1     6.6
Massachusetts.....      6.1     6.0      5.6      6.4     5.9         6.1      5.8       5.6      5.3     6.2
Michigan.....           6.2     6.4      6.1      6.7     6.3         7.0      7.2       6.5      6.4     6.9
Minnesota.....          6.1     6.4      6.1      6.5     6.4         7.2      6.4       5.8      6.2     6.0
Mississippi.....        7.7     7.5      6.7      6.6     7.0         7.0      6.5       7.0      7.3     6.5
Missouri.....           6.1     6.6      6.5      6.2     6.3         6.3      6.3       5.8      6.3     6.3
Montana.....            7.9     9.4      9.0      8.4     8.1         8.5      7.7       7.4      8.6     8.2
Nebraska.....           6.3     6.4      6.0      6.3     6.3         6.0      6.0       5.4      5.8     5.8
Nevada.....             6.5     7.1      6.9      6.5     6.1         6.8      6.8       6.2      6.7     7.3
New Hampshire.....      6.9     7.3      6.6      7.5     6.6         7.5      6.9       6.8      6.8     7.2

New Jersey.....         6.5     6.8      6.0      7.2     6.4         6.9      6.6       6.4      6.3     6.8
New Mexico.....         7.3     7.9      7.1      6.8     7.2         7.3      7.3       6.2      7.3     7.3
New York.....           6.5     7.0      6.2      7.0     6.2         6.5      6.2       6.3      6.6     6.6
North Carolina.....     7.0     8.1      7.1      6.8     6.6         6.8      6.3       6.1      6.6     6.5
North Dakota.....       7.2     7.0      7.0      7.0     7.0         6.5      6.6       6.5      6.8     6.5
Ohio.....               5.8     6.0      5.7      6.2     5.5         6.2      6.3       5.7      5.8     6.0
Oklahoma.....           7.2     7.2      7.0      7.0     6.7         6.7      6.8       6.1      7.3     6.4
Oregon.....             7.2     7.4      7.1      6.9     6.9         6.6      6.8       6.5      7.1     6.7
Pennsylvania.....       5.7     5.8      5.7      6.1     5.4         5.7      5.7       5.4      5.5     5.7
Rhode Island.....       6.9     6.8      5.9      6.8     5.6         6.8      6.7       6.4      6.2     7.0

South Carolina.....     8.2     7.1      7.3      6.7     6.3         6.8      6.2       6.3      6.9     6.4
South Dakota.....       6.9     7.1      6.5      6.8     6.4         6.5      6.2       5.9      6.1     6.3
Tennessee.....          6.1     6.7      6.4      6.1     6.0         6.1      6.7       6.1      6.0     6.0
Texas.....              6.6     6.8      6.4      6.5     6.3         5.8      5.7       5.5      5.7     5.8
Utah.....               7.8     8.0      8.0      7.6     7.2         7.0      6.5       6.2      6.9     7.2
Vermont.....            6.6     7.6      6.8      7.6     7.5         7.5      7.3       7.6      7.7     8.0
Virginia.....           6.1     6.5      6.5      6.3     5.9         6.6      6.1       5.9      6.1     6.3
Washington.....         7.6     7.9      8.0      7.7     7.0         7.4      7.1       6.5      6.9     7.3
West Virginia.....      6.7     7.2      6.8      6.5     6.2         7.1      6.5       6.6      6.6     6.8
Wisconsin.....          6.0     6.2      6.0      6.1     5.4         6.1      6.0       5.9      5.6     6.0

Wyoming.....           10.1    10.7     10.2      8.8     9.8         9.4      7.8       8.4     10.0     9.1
Puerto Rico.....        6.7     7.5      5.8      6.4     7.0         7.5      6.4       7.4      6.9     6.9
Virgin Islands.....     8.3     7.1      6.4     10.6     6.4         8.4      6.0       7.6      7.2     9.8

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.





Last Modified Date: May 22, 2008
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