Economic News Release

Quarterly Data Series on Business Employment Dynamics News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) 				USDL-13-1524
Tuesday, July 30, 2013	

Technical information: (202) 691-6553  *  BDMInfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/bdm

Media contact:	       (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov	


	  BUSINESS EMPLOYMENT DYNAMICS:  FOURTH QUARTER 2012
	
From September 2012 to December 2012 gross job gains from opening 
and expanding private sector establishments were 7.1 million, an 
increase of 238,000 jobs from the previous quarter, the U.S. Bureau
of Labor Statistics reported today. Over this period, gross job losses
from closing and contracting private sector establishments were 6.4 
million, a decrease of 231,000 jobs from the previous quarter.

The difference between the number of gross job gains and the number 
of gross job losses yielded a net employment gain of 668,000 jobs in 
the private sector during the fourth quarter of 2012.   (See table 1.)

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of 
increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses 
in the economy. Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track
these changes in employment at private business units from the third
month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains
are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing
units and the addition of new jobs at opening units. Gross job losses
are the result of contractions in employment at existing units and the
loss of jobs at closing units. The difference between the number of 
gross job gains and the number of gross job losses is the net change 
in employment. (See the Technical Note for more information.) 

The BED data series include gross job gains and gross job losses at the 
establishment level by industry subsector and for the 50 states, the 
District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, as well as
gross job gains and gross job losses at the firm level by employer size 
class.

Gross job gains at expanding establishments totaled 5.8 million in 
fourth quarter 2012, an increase of 207,000 jobs from the previous 
quarter.

Opening establishments accounted for 1.3 million jobs gained in fourth 
quarter 2012, an increase of 31,000 jobs from the previous quarter.

Contracting establishments lost 5.2 million jobs in fourth quarter 
2012. This is a decrease of 206,000 jobs from the prior quarter.

In the fourth quarter of 2012, closing establishments lost 1.2 million
jobs, a decrease of 25,000 jobs from the previous quarter.  
(See tables 1 and 3.)

Gross job gains represented 6.4 percent of private sector employment 
in fourth quarter 2012, while gross job losses represented 5.8 percent
of private sector employment.  (See table 2.)

In the fourth quarter of 2012, the number of establishment births 
(a subset of the openings data, see the Technical Note for more 
information) decreased by 1,000 to 192,000. These new establishments
accounted for 766,000 jobs, a decrease of 23,000 from the previous 
quarter.  (See table 8.)

Data for establishment deaths (a subset of the closings data) are 
available through first quarter 2012, when 605,000 jobs were lost at
181,000 establishments. These figures represent decreases from the 
prior quarter when 750,000 jobs were lost at 191,000 establishments.  

During the fourth quarter of 2012, gross job losses exceeded gross 
job gains in only two industry sectors: natural resources and mining,
and manufacturing. The manufacturing sector experienced its first 
negative net change since March 2010, losing 11,000 jobs.  The 
information sector had gross job gains of 141,000 and gross job losses
of 120,000, which resulted in a positive net change of 21,000 jobs.  
This is the largest increase in the information sector since third 
quarter 2000 and only the second increase in the last five years. 
(See table 3.)

Gross job gains exceeded gross job losses in all three major firm size
classes during fourth quarter 2012.  Firms with 250 or more employees
experienced the largest net increase of 379,000 jobs.   
(See tables 4 and 5.)


Table A.  Three-month private sector gross job gains and losses, 
seasonally adjusted 

Category                                 3 months ended

                                Dec.    Mar.    June    Sept.   Dec.
                                2011    2012    2012    2012    2012

                                      Levels (in thousands)
                                      
Gross job gains................ 6,909   6,935   7,004   6,813  7,051
 At expanding establishments... 5,557   5,706   5,744   5,545  5,752
 At opening establishments..... 1,352   1,229   1,260   1,268  1,299

Gross job losses............... 6,520   6,121   6,422   6,614  6,383
 At contracting establishments. 5,238   4,935   5,213   5,386  5,180
 At closing establishments..... 1,282   1,186   1,209   1,228  1,203

Net employment change(1).......   389     814     582     199    668
								
                                         Rates (percent)

Gross job gains................   6.3     6.3     6.3     6.2    6.4
 At expanding establishments...   5.1     5.2     5.2     5.0    5.2
 At opening establishments.....   1.2     1.1     1.1     1.2    1.2

Gross job losses...............   6.0     5.6     5.8     6.0    5.8
 At contracting establishments.   4.8     4.5     4.7     4.9    4.7
 At closing establishments.....   1.2     1.1     1.1     1.1    1.1

Net employment change(1).......    .3      .7      .5      .2     .6

    (1) The net employment change is the difference between total 
    gross job gains and total gross job losses.  See the Technical 
    Note for further information.

In the fourth quarter of 2012, gross job gains exceeded gross job 
losses in 47 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the 
Virgin Islands. California had the largest net employment gain of 
134,544 jobs.  Two states, Alaska and Wyoming, tied for the highest 
rate of gross job gains as a percent of employment at 9.5 percent, 
above the U.S. national rate of 6.4 percent. Hawaii had the lowest 
rate of gross job losses as a percent of employment at 4.4 percent, 
below the national rate of 5.8 percent. (See tables 6 and 7.)    

More Information
Additional information on gross job gains and gross job losses are 
available online at www.bls.gov/bdm. This information includes data 
on the levels and rates of gross job gains and gross job losses by 
firm size, not seasonally adjusted data and other seasonally adjusted 
time series not presented in this release, charts of gross job gains 
and gross job losses by industry and firm size, and frequently asked 
questions on firm size data. Additional information about the Business 
Employment Dynamics data can be found in the Technical Note of this 
release or may be obtained by e-mailing BDMinfo@bls.gov.


The Business Employment Dynamics for First Quarter 2013 are scheduled 
to be released on Tuesday, November 19, 2013 at 10:00 a.m. (EST).  

 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
|           Changes to Business Employment Dynamics (BED) Data           |
|Data in the next release, published on Tuesday, November 19, 2013, will |
|incorporate annual revisions to the BED series.  Annual revisions are   |
|published each year with the release of first quarter data. These       |
|revisions will cover the last four quarters of not seasonally adjusted  |
|data and five years of seasonally adjusted data.                        |
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------








                                                                 
Technical Note

   
   The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-
state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages 
(QCEW).  The BED data are compiled by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 
(BLS) from existing QCEW records.  Most employers in the U.S. are required 
to file quarterly reports on the employment and wages of workers covered by 
unemployment insurance (UI) laws, and to pay quarterly UI taxes. The QCEW 
is based largely on quarterly UI reports which are sent by businesses to 
the State Employment Security Agencies (SESAs). These UI reports are 
supplemented by two additional BLS data collections to render administrative
data into economic statistics. Together these data comprise the QCEW  and 
form the basis of the Bureau’s establishment universe sampling frame.
   
   These reports are used to produce the quarterly QCEW data on total 
employment and wages and the longitudinal BED data on gross job gains and
losses. The QCEW is also the employment benchmark for  the Current
Employment Statistics (CES), Occupational Employment Statistics (OES), and 
Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) programs and is a major input
to the Bureau of Economic Analysis’s Personal Income Accounts.
   
   In the BED program, the quarterly QCEW records are linked across quarters
to provide a longitudinal   history for each establishment.  The linkage 
process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment
level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and 
expanding units and jobs lost at closing and contracting units.                                     

Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES employment measures

   The Bureau publishes three different establishment-based employment mea-
sures for any given quarter.  Each of these measures -- QCEW, BED, and CES--
makes use of the quarterly UI employment reports in producing data; how-
ever, each measure has a somewhat different universe coverage, estimation
procedure, and publication product.

   Differences in coverage and estimation methods can result in somewhat 
different measures of over-the-quarter employment change. It is important to
understand program differences and the intended uses of the program products.
(See table below.)

   Additional information on each program can be obtained from the program 
web sites shown in the table below.

				                                  
Summary of Major Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES Employment Measures
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |         QCEW        |         BED          |         CES
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Source     |--Count of UI admini-|--Count of longitudi- |--Sample survey: 
           |  strative records   |  nally-linked UI ad- |  486,000 establish-
           |  submitted by 9.2   |  ministrative records|  ments
           |  million employers  |  submitted by 6.8    |
           |                     |  million private sec-|
           |                     |  tor employers       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Coverage   |--UI and UCFE cover- |--UI Coverage, exclud-|Nonfarm wage and sal-
           |  age:  all employers|  ing government, pri-|  ary jobs:
           |  subject to state   |  vate households, and|--UI Coverage, exclud-
           |  and federal UI Laws|  establishments with |  ing: agriculture, pri-
           |                     |  zero employment     |  vate households, and
           |                     |                      |  self-employed;
           |                     |                      |  including: railroads,
           |                     |                      |  religious organiza-
           |                     |                      |  tions, and other non-
           |                     |                      |  UI-covered jobs
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Publication|--Quarterly          |--Quarterly           |--Monthly 
frequency  |  -7 months after the|  -8 months after the |  -First Friday
           |   end of each quar- |   end of each quarter|   of following month
           |   ter               |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Use of UI  |--Directly summarizes|--Links each new UI   |--Uses UI file as a sam-
file       |  and publishes each |  quarter to longitu- |  pling frame and annu-
           |  new quarter of UI  |  dinal database and  |  ally realigns (bench-
           |  data               |  directly summarizes |  marks) sample esti-    
           |                     |  gross job gains and |  mates to first quar-  
           |                     |  losses              |  ter UI levels
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Provides a quarter-|--Provides quarterly  |--Provides current month-
products   |  ly and annual uni- |  employer dynamics   |  ly estimates of employ-
           |  verse count of es- |  data on establish-  |  ment, hours, and earn-
           |  tablishments, em-  |  ment openings, clos-|  ings at the MSA, state,
           |  ployment, and wages|  ings, expansions,   |  and national level by
           |  at the county, MSA,|  and contractions at |  industry
           |  State, and national|  the national level  |
           |  levels by detailed |  by NAICS super-     |
           |  industry           |  sectors,3-digit     |
           |                     |  NAICS, and by size  |
           |                     |  of firm, and at the |   
           |                     |  state private-sector|
           |                     |  total level         | 
           |                     |--Future expansions   |
           |                     |  will include        |
           |                     |  data at the county  |
           |                     |  and MSA level       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Major uses include:|--Major uses include: |--Major uses include:
uses       |  -Detailed locality |  -Business cycle     |  -Principal national
           |   data              |   analysis           |   economic indicator
           |  -Periodic universe |  -Analysis of employ-|  -Official time series 
           |   counts for bench- |   er dynamics under- |   for employment change
           |   marking sample    |   lying economic ex- |   measures
           |   survey estimates  |   pansions and con-  |  -Input into other ma-
           |  -Sample frame for  |   tractions          |   jor economic indi-
           |   BLS establishment |  -Analysis of employ-|   cators
           |   surveys           |   ment expansion and |
           |                     |   contraction by size|   
           |                     |   of firm            |
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Program    |--www.bls.gov/cew/   |--www.bls.gov/bdm/    |--www.bls.gov/ces/
Web sites  |                     |                      |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               
                           
Coverage                           

   Employment and wage data for workers covered by state UI and Unemployment 
Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE) laws are compiled from quarterly 
contribution reports submitted to the SESAs by employers.  In addition to the
quarterly contribution reports, employers who operate multiple establishments 
within a state complete a questionnaire, called the "Multiple Worksite Report,"
which provides detailed information on the location of their establishments.    
These reports are based on place of employment rather than place of residence. 
UI and UCFE coverage is broad and basically comparable from state to state.

   Major exclusions from UI coverage are self-employed workers, religious or-
ganizations, most agricultural workers on small farms, all members of the 
Armed Forces, elected officials in most states, most employees of railroads, 
some domestic workers, most student workers at schools, and employees of cer-
tain small nonprofit organizations.   
   
   Gross job gains and gross job losses in this release are derived from lon-
gitudinal histories of 6.8 million private sector employer reports out 
of 9.2 million total reports of employment and wages submitted by states to 
BLS in the first quarter of 2012.  Gross job gains and gross job losses data 
in this release do not report estimates for government employees or private 
households (NAICS 814110), and do not include establishments with zero employ-
ment in both previous and current quarters. Data from Puerto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands (49,972 units rounded to 0.0 million) also are excluded from
the national data. As an illustration, the table below shows, in millions of
establishments, the number of establishments excluded from the national gross
job gains and gross job losses data in the first quarter 2012:

             Number of active establishments included in 
              Business Employment Dynamics data at the
                          national level

                                                                   Millions
                                                                       
Total establishments QCEW program....................................9.2

    Excluded:  Public sector.........................................0.3 
               Private households....................................0.8
               Zero employment.......................................1.3      
               Establishments in Puerto Rico 
                 and the Virgin Islands..............................0.0 

                 
Total establishments included in Business
Employment Dynamics data.............................................6.8

Unit of analysis
   
   Establishments are used in the tabulation of the BED statistics by in-
dustry and firms are used in the tabulation of the BED size class sta-
tistics. An establishment is defined as an economic unit that produces 
goods or services, usually at a single physical location, and engages in
one or predominantly one activity. A firm is a legal business, either 
corporate or otherwise, and may consist of several establishments. Firm-
level data are compiled based on an aggregation of establishments under
common ownership by a corporate parent using employer tax identification
numbers.  The firm level aggregation which is consistent with the role of
corporations as the economic decision makers are used for the measurement
of the BED data elements by size class.
   
   Because of the difference in the unit of analysis, total gross job gains 
and gross job losses by size class are lower than total gross job gains and 
gross job losses by industry, as some establishment gains and losses within 
a firm are offset during the aggregation process.  However, the total net 
changes in employment are the same for not seasonally adjusted data and are
similar for seasonally adjusted data.
                                 
Concepts and methodology

   The Business Employment Dynamics data measure the net change in employ-
ment at the establishment or firm level.  These changes come about in one 
of four ways.  A net increase in employment can come from either opening 
units or expanding units.  A net decrease in employment can come from either
closing units or contracting units.  Gross job gains include the sum of all
jobs added at either opening or expanding units.  Gross job losses include
the sum of all jobs lost in either closing or contracting units.  The net 
change in employment is the difference between gross job gains and gross 
job losses.
   
   The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:                          

   Openings.  These are either units with positive third month employment for 
the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or 
with positive third month employment in the current quarter following zero em-
ployment in the previous quarter.
                                     
   Expansions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month 
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment
over this period.
   
   Closings.  These are either units with positive third month employment in 
the previous quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the 
current quarter.
   Contractions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment
over this period.   

   Births.  These are units with positive third month employment for the 
first time in the current quarter with no links to the prior quarter, or 
units with positive third month employment in the current quarter and zero 
employment in the third month of the previous four quarters. Births are a 
subset of openings not including re-openings of seasonal businesses.

   Deaths.  These are units with no employment or zero employment reported in
the third month of four consecutive quarters following the last quarter with 
positive employment.  Deaths are a subset of closings not including temporary
shutdowns of seasonal businesses.  A unit that closes during the quarter may
be a death, but we wait three quarters to determine whether it is a permanent
closing or a temporary shutdown.  Therefore, there is always a lag of three 
quarters for the publication of death statistics.

   All employment changes are measured from the third month of the previous 
quarter to the third month of the current quarter. Not all establishments and
firms change their employment levels.  Units with no change in employment 
count towards estimates of total employment, but not for levels of gross job
gains and gross job losses.

   Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing 
their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quar-
ters. This provides a symmetric growth rate. The rates are calculated for 
the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to 
form their respective totals. These rates can be added and subtracted just 
as their levels can.  For instance, the difference between the gross job 
gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

Establishment Births and Deaths

   For the purpose of BED statistics, births are defined as establishments 
that appear in the longitudinal database for the first time with positive 
employment in the third month of a quarter, or showed four consecutive 
quarters of zero employment in the third month followed by a quarter in 
which it shows positive employment in the third month.  Similarly, deaths 
are defined as establishments that either drop out of the longitudinal 
database or an establishment that had positive employment in the third 
month of a given quarter followed by four consecutive quarters of showing
zero employment in the third month.  Although the data for establishment 
births and deaths are tabulated independently from the data for openings 
and closings, the concepts are not mutually exclusive.  An establishment 
that is defined as a birth in a given quarter is necessarily an opening 
as well, and an establishment defined as a death in a quarter must also be
a closing.  Since openings include seasonal and other re-openings and 
closings include temporary shutdowns, the not seasonally adjusted values 
for births and deaths must be less than those for openings and closings.  
However, because some BED series do not have many re-openings or temporary
shutdowns, as well as the fact that births and deaths are independently 
seasonally adjusted from openings and closings, there may be instances in
which the seasonally adjusted value of the former is greater than the latter.
 

Linkage methodology

   Prior to the measurement of gross job gains and gross job losses, QCEW 
records are linked across two quarters. The linkage process matches estab-
lishments' unique SESA identification numbers (SESA-ID).  Between 95 to 97
percent of establishments identified as continuous from quarter to quarter 
are matched by SESA-ID.  The rest are linked in one of three ways.  The first
method uses predecessor and successor information, identified by the States,
which relates records with different SESA-IDs across quarters.  Predecessor
and successor relations can come about for a variety of reasons, including 
a change in ownership, a firm restructuring, or a UI account restructuring. 
If a match cannot be attained in this manner, a probability-based match is 
used.  This match attempts to identify two establishments with different SESA-
IDs as continuous.  The match is based upon comparisons such as the same 
name, address, and phone number.  Third, an analyst examines unmatched re-
cords individually and makes a possible match.

   In order to ensure the highest possible quality of data, SESAs verify with 
employers and update, if necessary, the industry, location, and ownership 
classification of all establishments on a 4-year cycle.  Changes in establish-
ment classification codes resulting from the verification process are intro-
duced with the data reported for the first quarter of the year.  Changes re-
sulting from improved employer reporting also are introduced in the first 
quarter. 
                              
Sizing methodology
   
   The method of dynamic sizing is used in calculations for the BED size 
class data series.  Dynamic sizing allocates each firm’s employment gain or 
loss during a quarter to each respective size class in which the change 
occurred.  For example, if a firm grew from 2 employees in quarter 1 to 38 
employees in quarter 2, then, of the 36-employee increase, 2 would be al-
located to the first size class, 5 to the size class 5 to 9, 10 to size 
class 10 to 19, and 19 to size class 20 to 49.

   Dynamic sizing provides symmetrical firm size estimates and eliminates 
any systematic effects which may be caused by the transitory and reverting 
changes in firms’ sizes over time.  Additionally, it allocates each job 
gain or loss to the actual size class where it occurred.

Annual Data

   The annual gross job gains and gross job losses measure the net change 
in employment at the establishment level from the third month of a quarter
in the previous year to the third month of the same quarter in the current 
year. The BLS publishes annual BED data based on March-to-March changes 
once a year with the release of the first quarter BED data. The annual 
data based on over-the-year changes for other quarters of the year are 
available upon request.  The definitions and methodology in measuring 
annual gross job gains and gross job losses are similar to the quarterly 
measures. The linkage method considers all predecessor and successor 
relations that may come about due to changes in ownership and corporate 
restructuring over the entire year. At the establishment level, some of 
the quarterly job gains and job losses are offset during the estimation
over the year. Therefore, the sum of four quarters of gross job gains 
and gross job losses are not equal to annual gross job gains and gross 
job losses. The net change in employment over the year, however, is 
equal to the sum of four quarterly net changes on a not seasonally 
adjusted basis.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the levels of employment and the associated 
job flows undergo sharp fluctuations due to such seasonal events as changes 
in the weather, reduced or expanded production, harvests, major holidays, 
and the opening and closing of schools.  The effect of such seasonal vari-
ation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each 
year, their influence can be eliminated by adjusting these statistics from
quarter to quarter.  These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in economic activity, easier to recognize.  For example, the large 
number of youths taking summer jobs is likely to obscure other changes that 
have taken place in June relative to March, making it difficult to determine 
if the level of economic activity has risen or declined.  However, because 
the effect of students finishing school in previous years is known, the 
statistics for the current year can be adjusted to allow for a comparable 
change. The adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to ana-
lyze changes in economic activity.

   The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contrac-
ting units are independently seasonally adjusted; net changes are calculated 
based on the difference between gross job gains and gross job losses. Simi-
larly, for industry data, the establishment counts data series for opening,
expanding, closing, and contracting establishments are independently adjusted, 
and the net changes are calculated based on the difference between the number 
of opening and closing establishments.  Additionally establishment and em-
ployment levels are independently seasonally adjusted to calculate the sea-
sonally adjusted rates. Concurrent seasonal adjustment is run using X-12 
ARIMA.  Seasonally adjusted data series for total private are the sum of 
seasonally adjusted data of all sectors including the unclassified sector, 
which is not separately published.

   The net over-the-quarter change derived by summing the BED component series 
will differ from the net employment change estimated from the seasonally ad-
justed total private employment series from the CES program. The intended use 
of BED statistics is to show the dynamic labor market changes that underlie 
the net employment change statistic. As such, data users interested particu-
larly in the net employment change and not in the gross job flows underlying 
this change should refer to CES data for over-the-quarter net employment 
changes.
   
Reliability of the data
   
   Since the data series on Business Employment Dynamics are based on admini-
strative rather than sample data, there are no issues related to sampling 
error. Nonsampling error, however, still exists.  Nonsampling errors can oc-
cur for many reasons, such as the employer submitting corrected employment 
data after the end of the quarter or typographical errors made by businesses
when providing information. Such errors, however, are likely to be distri-
buted randomly throughout the dataset. 
   
   Changes in administrative data sometimes create complications for the 
linkage process. This can result in overstating openings and closings while 
understating expansions and contractions. The BLS continues to refine methods
for improving the linkage process to alleviate the effects of these compli-
cations.
   
   The BED data series are subject to periodic minor changes based on correc-
tions in QCEW records, updates on predecessors and successors information, and
seasonal adjustment revisions.

   Annual revisions are published each year with the release of the first qua-
rter data. These revisions cover the last four quarters of not seasonally adj-
usted data and 5 years of seasonally adjusted data.
                      
Additional statistics and other information
   
   Several other programs within BLS produce closely related information.	
The QCEW program provides both quarterly and annual estimates of employment 
by state, county, and detailed industry. News releases on quarterly county e
mployment and wages and an annual bulletin: Employment and Wages Annual 
Averages, are available upon request from the Division of Administrative 
Statistics and Labor Turnover, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department 
of Labor, Washington, DC 20212; telephone 202-691-6567; 
(http://www.bls.gov/cew/);  (e-mail: QCEWInfo@bls.gov).   
                                      
   The CES program produces monthly estimates of employment, its net change,
and earnings by detailed industry.  These estimates are part of the Employ-
ment Situation report put out monthly by BLS.  
                                     
   The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) program provides month-
ly measures of job openings, as well as employee hires and separations.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired in-
dividuals upon request. Voice phone:  202-691-5200; TDD message referral 
number: 1-800-877-8339.


Table 1.  Private sector gross job gains and job losses, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(In thousands)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(1) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2002  March                -10      8,071       6,298         1,773       8,081       6,434           1,647
      June                 -30      7,868       6,145         1,723       7,898       6,274           1,624
      September           -151      7,630       6,039         1,591       7,781       6,248           1,533
      December            -241      7,483       5,938         1,545       7,724       6,185           1,539

2003  March               -393      7,467       5,928         1,539       7,860       6,307           1,553
      June                 -90      7,398       5,929         1,469       7,488       6,030           1,458
      September            204      7,392       5,923         1,469       7,188       5,828           1,360
      December             297      7,521       6,005         1,516       7,224       5,800           1,424

2004  March                470      7,715       6,204         1,511       7,245       5,795           1,450
      June                 644      7,754       6,235         1,519       7,110       5,639           1,471
      September            206      7,633       6,060         1,573       7,427       5,888           1,539
      December             757      7,844       6,243         1,601       7,087       5,663           1,424

2005  March                384      7,620       6,131         1,489       7,236       5,801           1,435
      June                 593      7,774       6,231         1,543       7,181       5,776           1,405
      September            677      7,965       6,387         1,578       7,288       5,844           1,444
      December             494      7,807       6,252         1,555       7,313       5,948           1,365

2006  March                874      7,797       6,354         1,443       6,923       5,636           1,287
      June                 371      7,758       6,246         1,512       7,387       6,015           1,372
      September             52      7,499       6,061         1,438       7,447       6,097           1,350
      December             455      7,740       6,223         1,517       7,285       5,941           1,344

2007  March                549      7,727       6,297         1,430       7,178       5,881           1,297
      June                 149      7,632       6,222         1,410       7,483       6,079           1,404
      September           -252      7,318       5,847         1,471       7,570       6,215           1,355
      December             299      7,658       6,196         1,462       7,359       6,012           1,347

2008  March               -227      7,233       5,826         1,407       7,460       6,095           1,365
      June                -575      7,257       5,851         1,406       7,832       6,354           1,478
      September           -968      6,879       5,515         1,364       7,847       6,462           1,385
      December          -1,793      6,712       5,360         1,352       8,505       7,022           1,483

2009  March             -2,706      5,834       4,648         1,186       8,540       7,122           1,418
      June              -1,656      6,395       5,093         1,302       8,051       6,669           1,382
      September           -899      6,335       5,119         1,216       7,234       5,874           1,360
      December            -217      6,651       5,325         1,326       6,868       5,583           1,285

2010  March               -266      6,245       5,078         1,167       6,511       5,308           1,203
      June                 722      6,972       5,690         1,282       6,250       5,087           1,163
      September            187      6,669       5,416         1,253       6,482       5,253           1,229
      December             609      7,027       5,651         1,376       6,418       5,193           1,225

2011  March                292      6,437       5,272         1,165       6,145       5,010           1,135
      June                 603      6,942       5,646         1,296       6,339       5,111           1,228
      September            794      7,136       5,776         1,360       6,342       5,194           1,148
      December             389      6,909       5,557         1,352       6,520       5,238           1,282

2012  March                814      6,935       5,706         1,229       6,121       4,935           1,186
      June                 582      7,004       5,744         1,260       6,422       5,213           1,209
      September            199      6,813       5,545         1,268       6,614       5,386           1,228
      December             668      7,051       5,752         1,299       6,383       5,180           1,203


(1) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 2.  Private sector gross job gains and losses, as a percent of employment(1), seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Percent)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(2) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2002  March                 .0       7.5         5.9           1.6         7.5          6.0            1.5
      June                  .0       7.3         5.7           1.6         7.3          5.8            1.5
      September            -.1       7.1         5.6           1.5         7.2          5.8            1.4
      December             -.3       6.9         5.5           1.4         7.2          5.8            1.4

2003  March                -.5       6.9         5.5           1.4         7.4          5.9            1.5
      June                  .0       7.0         5.6           1.4         7.0          5.6            1.4
      September             .1       6.9         5.5           1.4         6.8          5.5            1.3
      December              .3       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3

2004  March                 .5       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3
      June                  .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.2            1.4
      September             .3       7.1         5.6           1.5         6.8          5.4            1.4
      December              .7       7.2         5.7           1.5         6.5          5.2            1.3

2005  March                 .4       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      June                  .6       7.1         5.7           1.4         6.5          5.2            1.3
      September             .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      December              .4       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.6          5.4            1.2

2006  March                 .9       7.0         5.7           1.3         6.1          5.0            1.1
      June                  .3       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September             .1       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.6          5.4            1.2
      December              .3       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2007  March                 .5       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.3          5.2            1.1
      June                  .2       6.7         5.5           1.2         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September            -.3       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.7          5.5            1.2
      December              .2       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2008  March                -.2       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.5          5.3            1.2
      June                 -.6       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.9          5.6            1.3
      September            -.8       6.1         4.9           1.2         6.9          5.7            1.2
      December            -1.6       6.0         4.8           1.2         7.6          6.3            1.3

2009  March               -2.4       5.4         4.3           1.1         7.8          6.5            1.3
      June                -1.5       6.0         4.8           1.2         7.5          6.2            1.3
      September            -.9       5.9         4.8           1.1         6.8          5.5            1.3
      December             -.1       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2010  March                -.2       5.9         4.8           1.1         6.1          5.0            1.1
      June                  .7       6.6         5.4           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1
      September             .1       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.2          5.0            1.2
      December              .5       6.6         5.3           1.3         6.1          4.9            1.2

2011  March                 .2       6.0         4.9           1.1         5.8          4.7            1.1
      June                  .6       6.5         5.3           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1
      September             .8       6.7         5.4           1.3         5.9          4.8            1.1
      December              .3       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.0          4.8            1.2

2012  March                 .7       6.3         5.2           1.1         5.6          4.5            1.1
      June                  .5       6.3         5.2           1.1         5.8          4.7            1.1
      September             .2       6.2         5.0           1.2         6.0          4.9            1.1
      December              .6       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1


(1) The rates measure gross job gains and gross job losses as a percentage
    of the previous and current quarter employment levels.

(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 3. Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   Dec.    Mar.    June    Sept    Dec.   Dec.   Mar.   June   Sept   Dec.  
                                   2011    2012    2012    2012    2012   2011   2012   2012   2012   2012
Total private(1)

Gross job gains                   6,909   6,935   7,004   6,813   7,051    6.3    6.3    6.3    6.2    6.4
 At expanding establishments      5,557   5,706   5,744   5,545   5,752    5.1    5.2    5.2    5.0    5.2
 At opening establishments        1,352   1,229   1,260   1,268   1,299    1.2    1.1    1.1    1.2    1.2
Gross job losses                  6,520   6,121   6,422   6,614   6,383    6.0    5.6    5.8    6.0    5.8
 At contracting establishments    5,238   4,935   5,213   5,386   5,180    4.8    4.5    4.7    4.9    4.7
 At closing establishments        1,282   1,186   1,209   1,228   1,203    1.2    1.1    1.1    1.1    1.1
Net employment change               389     814     582     199     668     .3     .7     .5     .2     .6

Goods-producing

Gross job gains                   1,363   1,386   1,388   1,326   1,344    7.0    7.1    7.1    6.8    6.8
 At expanding establishments      1,144   1,184   1,186   1,127   1,142    5.9    6.1    6.1    5.8    5.8
 At opening establishments          219     202     202     199     202    1.1    1.0    1.0    1.0    1.0
Gross job losses                  1,356   1,241   1,304   1,299   1,312    7.0    6.4    6.7    6.6    6.7
 At contracting establishments    1,121   1,027   1,078   1,080   1,095    5.8    5.3    5.5    5.5    5.6
 At closing establishments          235     214     226     219     217    1.2    1.1    1.2    1.1    1.1
Net employment change                 7     145      84      27      32     .0     .7     .4     .2     .1

Natural resources and mining

Gross job gains                     298     288     298     274     272   15.4   14.5   15.0   13.8   13.6
 At expanding establishments        253     250     259     236     234   13.1   12.6   13.0   11.9   11.7
 At opening establishments           45      38      39      38      38    2.3    1.9    2.0    1.9    1.9
Gross job losses                    270     258     296     275     287   13.9   13.0   14.9   13.8   14.5
 At contracting establishments      235     221     250     237     250   12.1   11.1   12.6   11.9   12.6
 At closing establishments           35      37      46      38      37    1.8    1.9    2.3    1.9    1.9
Net employment change                28      30       2      -1     -15    1.5    1.5     .1     .0    -.9

Construction

Gross job gains                     632     662     631     638     659   11.4   11.9   11.3   11.4   11.7
 At expanding establishments        498     538     508     513     532    9.0    9.7    9.1    9.2    9.4
 At opening establishments          134     124     123     125     127    2.4    2.2    2.2    2.2    2.3
Gross job losses                    659     616     634     610     601   11.9   11.1   11.4   10.9   10.6
 At contracting establishments      513     487     507     480     471    9.3    8.8    9.1    8.6    8.3
 At closing establishments          146     129     127     130     130    2.6    2.3    2.3    2.3    2.3
Net employment change               -27      46      -3      28      58    -.5     .8    -.1     .5    1.1

Manufacturing

Gross job gains                     433     436     459     414     413    3.6    3.6    3.8    3.5    3.4
 At expanding establishments        393     396     419     378     376    3.3    3.3    3.5    3.2    3.1
 At opening establishments           40      40      40      36      37     .3     .3     .3     .3     .3
Gross job losses                    427     367     374     414     424    3.7    3.1    3.1    3.4    3.5
 At contracting establishments      373     319     321     363     374    3.2    2.7    2.7    3.0    3.1
 At closing establishments           54      48      53      51      50     .5     .4     .4     .4     .4
Net employment change                 6      69      85       0     -11    -.1     .5     .7     .1    -.1

Service-providing(1)

Gross job gains                   5,546   5,549   5,616   5,487   5,707    6.2    6.1    6.2    6.1    6.3
 At expanding establishments      4,413   4,522   4,558   4,418   4,610    4.9    5.0    5.0    4.9    5.1
 At opening establishments        1,133   1,027   1,058   1,069   1,097    1.3    1.1    1.2    1.2    1.2
Gross job losses                  5,164   4,880   5,118   5,315   5,071    5.8    5.4    5.7    5.8    5.6
 At contracting establishments    4,117   3,908   4,135   4,306   4,085    4.6    4.3    4.6    4.7    4.5
 At closing establishments        1,047     972     983   1,009     986    1.2    1.1    1.1    1.1    1.1
Net employment change               382     669     498     172     636     .4     .7     .5     .3     .7

Wholesale trade

Gross job gains                     276     282     288     266     277    4.9    5.1    5.0    4.6    4.9
 At expanding establishments        223     234     240     218     226    4.0    4.2    4.2    3.8    4.0
 At opening establishments           53      48      48      48      51     .9     .9     .8     .8     .9
Gross job losses                    250     244     254     263     256    4.5    4.3    4.5    4.7    4.5
 At contracting establishments      191     186     192     207     199    3.4    3.3    3.4    3.7    3.5
 At closing establishments           59      58      62      56      57    1.1    1.0    1.1    1.0    1.0
Net employment change                26      38      34       3      21     .4     .8     .5    -.1     .4

Retail trade

Gross job gains                     898     883     891     836     917    6.1    5.9    6.0    5.6    6.2
 At expanding establishments        776     761     760     701     789    5.3    5.1    5.1    4.7    5.3
 At opening establishments          122     122     131     135     128     .8     .8     .9     .9     .9
Gross job losses                    821     845     813     871     823    5.6    5.7    5.5    5.8    5.5
 At contracting establishments      695     738     710     760     703    4.7    5.0    4.8    5.1    4.7
 At closing establishments          126     107     103     111     120     .9     .7     .7     .7     .8
Net employment change                77      38      78     -35      94     .5     .2     .5    -.2     .7

Transportation and warehousing

Gross job gains                     244     213     218     221     263    5.9    5.2    5.3    5.2    6.3
 At expanding establishments        210     181     186     190     231    5.1    4.4    4.5    4.5    5.5
 At opening establishments           34      32      32      31      32     .8     .8     .8     .7     .8
Gross job losses                    203     219     202     204     211    4.9    5.2    4.8    4.8    5.0
 At contracting establishments      166     185     167     169     173    4.0    4.4    4.0    4.0    4.1
 At closing establishments           37      34      35      35      38     .9     .8     .8     .8     .9
Net employment change                41      -6      16      17      52    1.0     .0     .5     .4    1.3

Utilities

Gross job gains                      12      11      11      12      14    2.2    2.0    2.0    2.2    2.6
 At expanding establishments         10      10      10      10      12    1.8    1.8    1.8    1.8    2.2
 At opening establishments            2       1       1       2       2     .4     .2     .2     .4     .4
Gross job losses                     12      10      12      14      13    2.2    1.8    2.2    2.6    2.4
 At contracting establishments       11       8      10      12      11    2.0    1.4    1.8    2.2    2.0
 At closing establishments            1       2       2       2       2     .2     .4     .4     .4     .4
Net employment change                 0       1      -1      -2       1     .0     .2    -.2    -.4     .2

Information

Gross job gains                     124     114     123     132     141    4.6    4.2    4.6    4.9    5.3
 At expanding establishments         99      95     106     112     117    3.7    3.5    4.0    4.2    4.4
 At opening establishments           25      19      17      20      24     .9     .7     .6     .7     .9
Gross job losses                    136     115     124     141     120    5.1    4.3    4.7    5.2    4.5
 At contracting establishments      102      93     101     116      95    3.8    3.5    3.8    4.3    3.6
 At closing establishments           34      22      23      25      25    1.3     .8     .9     .9     .9
Net employment change               -12      -1      -1      -9      21    -.5    -.1    -.1    -.3     .8

Financial activities

Gross job gains                     361     349     362     355     375    4.9    4.7    4.8    4.7    5.0
 At expanding establishments        281     282     295     286     293    3.8    3.8    3.9    3.8    3.9
 At opening establishments           80      67      67      69      82    1.1     .9     .9     .9    1.1
Gross job losses                    353     330     334     339     326    4.7    4.5    4.5    4.5    4.3
 At contracting establishments      268     243     253     261     251    3.6    3.3    3.4    3.5    3.3
 At closing establishments           85      87      81      78      75    1.1    1.2    1.1    1.0    1.0
Net employment change                 8      19      28      16      49     .2     .2     .3     .2     .7

Professional and business services

Gross job gains                   1,354   1,301   1,349   1,322   1,381    7.8    7.3    7.5    7.3    7.6
 At expanding establishments      1,081   1,068   1,110   1,082   1,121    6.2    6.0    6.2    6.0    6.2
 At opening establishments          273     233     239     240     260    1.6    1.3    1.3    1.3    1.4
Gross job losses                  1,255   1,174   1,221   1,262   1,229    7.2    6.7    6.8    7.0    6.8
 At contracting establishments      983     911     947     990     977    5.6    5.2    5.3    5.5    5.4
 At closing establishments          272     263     274     272     252    1.6    1.5    1.5    1.5    1.4
Net employment change                99     127     128      60     152     .6     .6     .7     .3     .8

Education and health services

Gross job gains                     811     812     791     834     828    4.2    4.2    4.1    4.3    4.3
 At expanding establishments        676     697     677     706     700    3.5    3.6    3.5    3.6    3.6
 At opening establishments          135     115     114     128     128     .7     .6     .6     .7     .7
Gross job losses                    740     697     773     743     712    3.8    3.6    4.0    3.8    3.7
 At contracting establishments      604     568     642     610     584    3.1    2.9    3.3    3.1    3.0
 At closing establishments          136     129     131     133     128     .7     .7     .7     .7     .7
Net employment change                71     115      18      91     116     .4     .6     .1     .5     .6

Leisure and hospitality

Gross job gains                   1,115   1,214   1,197   1,140   1,162    8.3    9.0    8.7    8.3    8.4
 At expanding establishments        842     960     932     884     902    6.3    7.1    6.8    6.4    6.5
 At opening establishments          273     254     265     256     260    2.0    1.9    1.9    1.9    1.9
Gross job losses                  1,106     964   1,097   1,168   1,087    8.2    7.1    8.0    8.4    7.8
 At contracting establishments      886     775     902     956     879    6.6    5.7    6.6    6.9    6.3
 At closing establishments          220     189     195     212     208    1.6    1.4    1.4    1.5    1.5
Net employment change                 9     250     100     -28      75     .1    1.9     .7    -.1     .6

Other services

Gross job gains                     263     275     287     271     266    6.9    7.2    7.5    7.1    6.9
 At expanding establishments        205     221     231     217     209    5.4    5.8    6.0    5.7    5.4
 At opening establishments           58      54      56      54      57    1.5    1.4    1.5    1.4    1.5
Gross job losses                    262     250     257     279     266    6.9    6.6    6.7    7.3    7.0
 At contracting establishments      205     194     202     217     206    5.4    5.1    5.3    5.7    5.4
 At closing establishments           57      56      55      62      60    1.5    1.5    1.4    1.6    1.6
Net employment change                 1      25      30      -8       0     .0     .6     .8    -.2    -.1

(1) Includes unclassified sector, not shown separately

Table 4.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

(In thousands)

                      Total private by firm(1)       Firm size 1 - 49 employees      Firm size 50 - 249 employees      Firm size 250 or more employees
Year  3 months        Net        Gross job            Net          Gross job          Net           Gross job           Net           Gross job
        ended      change(2,3)  gains   losses       change      gains   losses      change       gains   losses       change       gains   losses

2002  March             70      6,602    6,532          54       3,402    3,348        -52        1,194    1,246          68        2,006    1,938
      June             -61      6,416    6,477          69       3,379    3,310         -7        1,191    1,198        -123        1,846    1,969
      September       -176      6,190    6,366          20       3,335    3,315        -46        1,144    1,190        -150        1,711    1,861
      December        -247      6,114    6,361          -3       3,299    3,302        -73        1,106    1,179        -171        1,709    1,880

2003  March           -326      6,112    6,438        -135       3,257    3,392        -56        1,127    1,183        -135        1,728    1,863
      June            -137      6,108    6,245         112       3,346    3,234        -26        1,133    1,159        -223        1,629    1,852
      September        193      6,162    5,969         120       3,327    3,207         21        1,127    1,106          52        1,708    1,656
      December         310      6,218    5,908         146       3,340    3,194         32        1,128    1,096         132        1,750    1,618

2004  March            430      6,306    5,876         153       3,392    3,239        137        1,194    1,057         140        1,720    1,580
      June             621      6,471    5,850         169       3,387    3,218        141        1,196    1,055         311        1,888    1,577
      September        197      6,243    6,046          88       3,379    3,291         88        1,175    1,087          21        1,689    1,668
      December         759      6,494    5,735         274       3,480    3,206        101        1,172    1,071         384        1,842    1,458

2005  March            368      6,320    5,952          66       3,416    3,350         97        1,161    1,064         205        1,743    1,538
      June             570      6,435    5,865         243       3,476    3,233        146        1,198    1,052         181        1,761    1,580
      September        701      6,672    5,971         218       3,510    3,292         85        1,195    1,110         398        1,967    1,569
      December         506      6,406    5,900         169       3,462    3,293         45        1,140    1,095         292        1,804    1,512

2006  March            788      6,433    5,645         334       3,547    3,213        222        1,213      991         232        1,673    1,441
      June             375      6,349    5,974         117       3,434    3,317        110        1,190    1,080         148        1,725    1,577
      September         43      6,103    6,060         -14       3,329    3,343         27        1,127    1,100          30        1,647    1,617
      December         447      6,375    5,928         117       3,393    3,276         74        1,147    1,073         256        1,835    1,579

2007  March            466      6,300    5,834         189       3,451    3,262         99        1,153    1,054         178        1,696    1,518
      June             174      6,256    6,082         -31       3,337    3,368        108        1,180    1,072          97        1,739    1,642
      September       -269      5,891    6,160        -132       3,252    3,384        -53        1,073    1,126         -84        1,566    1,650
      December         298      6,254    5,956           8       3,315    3,307         63        1,140    1,077         227        1,799    1,572

2008  March           -277      5,807    6,084        -138       3,238    3,376        -11        1,073    1,084        -128        1,496    1,624
      June            -547      5,861    6,408        -287       3,179    3,466        -37        1,098    1,135        -223        1,584    1,807
      September     -1,035      5,483    6,518        -359       3,039    3,398       -160        1,013    1,173        -516        1,431    1,947
      December      -1,850      5,341    7,191        -693       2,907    3,600       -370          946    1,316        -787        1,488    2,275

2009  March         -2,643      4,582    7,225        -967       2,724    3,691       -611          806    1,417      -1,065        1,052    2,117
      June          -1,766      5,174    6,940        -475       2,949    3,424       -275          956    1,231      -1,016        1,269    2,285
      September       -979      5,119    6,098        -388       2,814    3,202       -127          927    1,054        -464        1,378    1,842
      December        -277      5,408    5,685        -161       2,937    3,098        -42          963    1,005         -74        1,508    1,582

2010  March           -231      5,094    5,325        -185       2,863    3,048         -1          909      910         -45        1,322    1,367
      June             689      5,818    5,129         233       3,094    2,861        211        1,079      868         245        1,645    1,400
      September        157      5,478    5,321          11       2,933    2,922         71          992      921          75        1,553    1,478
      December         534      5,789    5,255          86       3,045    2,959         99        1,035      936         349        1,709    1,360

2011  March            329      5,339    5,010         108       2,979    2,871        122          964      842          99        1,396    1,297
      June             550      5,765    5,215         195       3,078    2,883        178        1,072      894         177        1,615    1,438
      September        793      5,928    5,135         247       3,116    2,869        152        1,058      906         394        1,754    1,360
      December         332      5,615    5,283          39       2,967    2,928         46          985      939         247        1,663    1,416

2012  March            830      5,748    4,918         362       3,119    2,757        216        1,046      830         252        1,583    1,331
      June             572      5,797    5,225         158       3,004    2,846        161        1,080      919         253        1,713    1,460
      September        168      5,516    5,348          -3       2,893    2,896         38          999      961         133        1,624    1,491
      December         593      5,714    5,121         130       2,967    2,837         84        1,004      920         379        1,743    1,364



(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower
    than total gross job gains and gross job losses by establishment,
    as some establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.
(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.
(3) Net change totals for firm-level data shown differ from the establishment-level data
    due to independent seasonal adjustment of the series.
NOTE: See http://www.bls.gov/bdm/bdmfirmsize.htm for additional firm size class data.

Table 5. Components of private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   Dec.    Mar.    June    Sept    Dec.   Dec.   Mar.   June   Sept   Dec.  
                                   2011    2012    2012    2012    2012   2011   2012   2012   2012   2012
Total private by firm(1)

Gross job gains                   5,615   5,748   5,797   5,516   5,714    5.2    5.2    5.3    5.0    5.2
 At expanding firms               4,689   4,848   4,929   4,662   4,826    4.3    4.4    4.5    4.2    4.4
 At opening firms                   926     900     868     854     888     .9     .8     .8     .8     .8

Gross job losses                  5,283   4,918   5,225   5,348   5,121    4.9    4.5    4.8    4.9    4.7
 At contracting firms             4,399   4,081   4,380   4,501   4,276    4.1    3.7    4.0    4.1    3.9
 At closing firms                   884     837     845     847     845     .8     .8     .8     .8     .8

Net employment change               332     830     572     168     593     .3     .7     .5     .1     .5


Firm size 1 to 49 employees

Gross job gains                   2,967   3,119   3,004   2,893   2,967    9.4    9.8    9.5    9.2    9.4
 At expanding firms               2,085   2,253   2,176   2,085   2,112    6.6    7.1    6.9    6.6    6.7
 At opening firms                   882     866     828     808     855    2.8    2.7    2.6    2.6    2.7

Gross job losses                  2,928   2,757   2,846   2,896   2,837    9.3    8.8    9.0    9.2    8.9
 At contracting firms             2,086   1,953   2,055   2,088   2,033    6.6    6.2    6.5    6.6    6.4
 At closing firms                   842     804     791     808     804    2.7    2.6    2.5    2.6    2.5

Net employment change                39     362     158      -3     130     .1    1.0     .5     .0     .5


Firm size 50 to 249 employees

Gross job gains                     985   1,046   1,080     999   1,004    4.9    5.1    5.4    4.9    4.9
 At expanding firms                 948   1,016   1,046     965     974    4.7    5.0    5.2    4.7    4.8
 At opening firms                    37      30      34      34      30     .2     .1     .2     .2     .1

Gross job losses                    939     830     919     961     920    4.7    4.1    4.6    4.7    4.6
 At contracting firms               906     803     887     931     887    4.5    4.0    4.4    4.6    4.4
 At closing firms                    33      27      32      30      33     .2     .1     .2     .1     .2

Net employment change                46     216     161      38      84     .2    1.0     .8     .2     .3


Firm size 250 or more employees

Gross job gains                   1,663   1,583   1,713   1,624   1,743    2.9    2.7    2.9    2.8    3.0
 At expanding firms               1,656   1,579   1,707   1,612   1,740    2.9    2.7    2.9    2.8    3.0
 At opening firms                     7       4       6      12       3     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Gross job losses                  1,416   1,331   1,460   1,491   1,364    2.5    2.3    2.5    2.5    2.3
 At contracting firms             1,407   1,325   1,438   1,482   1,356    2.5    2.3    2.5    2.5    2.3
 At closing firms                     9       6      22       9       8     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Net employment change               247     252     253     133     379     .4     .4     .4     .3     .7


(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower
    than total gross job gains and gross job losses by establishment,
    as some establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.

Table 6.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by state, seasonally adjusted

                                         Gross job gains                                          Gross job losses
State                                    (3 months ended)                                         (3 months ended)
                        Dec.       Mar.       June        Sept.     Dec.       Dec.         Mar.       June        Sept.     Dec. 
                        2011       2012       2012        2012      2012       2011         2012       2012        2012      2012

United States(1)...  6,909,000  6,935,000  7,004,000   6,813,000  7,051,000  6,520,000   6,121,000   6,422,000  6,614,000  6,383,000

Alabama.....            85,633     91,147     84,920      83,127     83,772     87,650      80,326      81,715     82,206     79,513
Alaska.....             23,440     26,381     27,630      22,254     23,664     26,155      21,997      23,362     25,468     25,228
Arizona.....           139,367    128,843    128,712     134,318    142,005    123,249     121,081     124,788    117,424    118,875
Arkansas.....           60,670     53,381     50,617      51,092     55,753     50,505      52,324      52,617     55,826     49,056
California.....        870,675    842,341    887,477     827,492    905,965    785,705     760,027     779,094    783,686    771,421
Colorado.....          128,255    125,797    138,109     131,968    133,994    122,714     115,062     119,234    123,084    116,948
Connecticut.....        73,072     77,422     76,257      71,695     74,526     71,692      68,197      69,468     73,892     70,365
Delaware.....           21,735     22,107     21,752      21,771     23,355     21,334      20,468      22,610     22,138     19,561
District of Columbia    26,595     29,723     26,871      26,693     30,451     24,771      20,338      26,196     27,948     25,459
Florida.....           439,908    414,219    421,896     454,478    451,764    413,449     365,900     395,061    422,223    396,718

Georgia.....           203,099    219,814    214,145     201,804    215,168    202,265     191,090     202,986    200,269    189,181
Hawaii.....             25,587     24,551     26,632      26,273     25,794     21,986      25,568      24,763     23,911     21,529
Idaho.....              37,097     38,404     40,213      40,980     39,975     37,811      38,352      37,611     35,338     36,631
Illinois.....          267,916    263,987    263,873     270,410    257,065    258,824     235,357     241,807    265,131    252,028
Indiana.....           143,961    150,073    140,314     138,449    141,803    134,950     121,345     131,698    134,489    131,743
Iowa.....               71,492     75,925     70,865      69,857     71,066     69,343      62,833      64,030     68,098     67,402
Kansas.....             65,220     72,837     63,539      62,992     68,148     61,690      57,228      60,718     66,891     58,540
Kentucky.....           87,855     91,719     88,548      84,813     91,937     82,301      81,151      80,639     81,943     81,448
Louisiana.....         102,234    109,747    101,281      99,429    104,418     97,984      98,510     104,363    102,944     90,875
Maine.....              33,221     34,867     38,293      32,103     34,205     35,125      34,497      32,974     35,380     36,411

Maryland.....          129,484    135,839    128,787     130,769    127,775    122,326     115,922     122,287    129,010    126,560
Massachusetts.....     148,370    154,973    164,077     148,509    150,023    150,490     138,173     137,487    156,756    148,494
Michigan.....          203,971    208,109    209,535     209,360    204,175    196,273     178,757     195,190    200,789    184,944
Minnesota.....         125,820    152,204    139,597     134,849    134,938    131,726     133,973     121,250    130,627    130,787
Mississippi.....        52,282     54,928     49,378      52,243     57,396     50,544      47,226      55,417     50,729     52,142
Missouri.....          134,687    133,117    133,106     128,913    138,530    125,738     119,773     139,829    129,765    121,856
Montana.....            28,553     27,783     28,905      27,332     29,012     26,686      26,305      26,502     25,375     27,169
Nebraska.....           43,876     44,064     43,321      42,753     44,976     40,167      38,030      39,828     41,943     39,550
Nevada.....             57,485     58,879     63,846      58,103     60,082     55,150      53,065      54,370     56,807     55,939
New Hampshire.....      35,844     34,876     36,985      33,587     34,463     33,640      32,250      33,680     35,919     33,805

New Jersey.....        208,879    204,354    212,859     196,983    203,946    199,863     187,241     189,236    200,646    195,226
New Mexico.....         37,929     41,334     40,590      38,153     42,888     40,581      35,306      41,465     39,338     35,252
New York.....          438,220    467,340    468,789     461,510    464,448    427,473     403,623     434,900    446,526    440,946
North Carolina.....    205,605    210,182    201,581     197,469    207,822    192,401     179,134     192,592    192,634    191,444
North Dakota.....       32,285     34,563     26,998      29,529     29,235     19,885      20,145      22,002     26,071     23,957
Ohio.....              255,010    257,935    253,436     239,722    261,514    239,343     222,736     229,340    254,269    240,528
Oklahoma.....           76,516     75,110     73,855      72,938     79,084     70,641      68,149      67,598     75,201     67,539
Oregon.....             93,674     92,985     93,491      97,240     94,828     92,363      87,056      88,921     86,428     90,642
Pennsylvania.....      278,996    287,205    264,484     262,020    263,211    249,261     246,934     264,265    266,076    247,501
Rhode Island.....       24,067     26,209     25,198      23,568     24,421     24,900      22,040      23,293     24,966     23,582

South Carolina.....     91,266     90,984     89,452      85,659     96,330     82,761      79,437      86,675     87,619     79,404
South Dakota.....       21,563     21,765     22,642      21,022     20,893     19,365      19,933      21,199     20,613     20,457
Tennessee.....         135,832    132,991    133,201     125,916    138,481    117,380     113,095     125,811    124,788    114,847
Texas.....             523,866    537,062    546,168     526,961    551,309    457,961     446,708     457,008    473,008    451,336
Utah.....               69,692     70,120     71,955      70,156     74,427     61,984      59,307      59,459     61,749     60,812
Vermont.....            20,232     17,597     18,259      17,033     18,411     16,430      17,256      18,263     17,368     17,428
Virginia.....          179,267    175,338    169,857     188,452    175,639    177,063     161,214     167,758    181,523    164,816
Washington.....        163,991    157,863    172,704     161,011    166,428    164,123     146,884     147,566    153,641    153,295
West Virginia.....      38,129     40,657     35,411      35,529     35,569     32,964      34,872      40,026     37,266     36,191
Wisconsin.....         127,238    136,446    133,227     122,610    130,639    130,485     120,565     121,972    127,966    121,776

Wyoming.....            20,004     18,242     17,093      17,703     20,169     17,496      18,379      19,021     18,046     17,516
Puerto Rico.....        45,535     41,000     45,398      41,896     47,303     38,101      41,093      38,884     43,256     40,497
Virgin Islands.....      1,929      1,558      1,750       1,415      1,864      1,891       1,996       4,042      2,166      1,570

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 7.  Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted

                        Gross job gains as a percent of employment    Gross job losses as a percent of employment
State                              (3 months ended)                               (3 months ended)

                        Dec.    Mar.     June     Sept.   Dec.        Dec.     Mar.      June    Sept.    Dec. 
                        2011    2012     2012     2012    2012        2011     2012      2012    2012     2012

United States(1)...      6.3     6.3      6.3      6.2     6.4         6.0      5.6       5.8      6.0     5.8

Alabama.....             5.9     6.3      5.8      5.6     5.7         6.0      5.5       5.6      5.6     5.4
Alaska.....              9.6    10.8     11.1      9.0     9.5        10.7      8.9       9.4     10.2    10.1
Arizona.....             6.9     6.3      6.3      6.5     6.8         6.2      6.0       6.1      5.8     5.8
Arkansas.....            6.5     5.6      5.3      5.4     5.9         5.4      5.5       5.6      5.9     5.2
California.....          7.2     6.9      7.2      6.7     7.2         6.5      6.2       6.3      6.3     6.2
Colorado.....            6.9     6.7      7.3      6.9     7.0         6.6      6.2       6.3      6.5     6.2
Connecticut.....         5.3     5.6      5.5      5.2     5.4         5.3      5.0       5.0      5.3     5.1
Delaware.....            6.4     6.4      6.3      6.3     6.8         6.2      5.9       6.6      6.5     5.7
District of Columbia..   5.8     6.4      5.8      5.7     6.5         5.4      4.4       5.6      6.0     5.4
Florida.....             7.1     6.7      6.8      7.1     7.1         6.7      5.9       6.3      6.6     6.2

Georgia.....             6.5     7.0      6.7      6.4     6.7         6.4      6.0       6.4      6.3     5.9
Hawaii.....              5.4     5.2      5.5      5.4     5.3         4.6      5.3       5.2      5.0     4.4
Idaho.....               7.4     7.7      8.0      8.1     7.9         7.6      7.7       7.5      7.0     7.2
Illinois.....            5.6     5.5      5.5      5.6     5.3         5.4      4.8       5.0      5.4     5.2
Indiana.....             6.1     6.2      5.8      5.7     5.9         5.7      5.0       5.4      5.6     5.4
Iowa.....                5.9     6.2      5.8      5.6     5.7         5.7      5.1       5.2      5.6     5.4
Kansas.....              6.1     6.8      5.9      5.9     6.3         5.8      5.3       5.7      6.2     5.4
Kentucky.....            6.1     6.4      6.1      5.9     6.3         5.7      5.6       5.5      5.7     5.6
Louisiana.....           6.7     7.1      6.6      6.4     6.7         6.5      6.5       6.7      6.7     5.9
Maine.....               6.8     7.2      7.9      6.6     7.0         7.3      7.1       6.8      7.2     7.6

Maryland.....            6.5     6.7      6.3      6.5     6.3         6.1      5.8       6.1      6.4     6.2
Massachusetts.....       5.4     5.6      5.8      5.3     5.3         5.5      5.0       4.9      5.6     5.3
Michigan.....            6.1     6.2      6.2      6.2     6.0         6.0      5.4       5.8      6.0     5.4
Minnesota.....           5.5     6.8      6.2      5.9     5.9         5.8      6.0       5.3      5.8     5.8
Mississippi.....         6.3     6.5      5.8      6.2     6.7         6.1      5.6       6.6      6.0     6.1
Missouri.....            6.2     6.1      6.2      6.0     6.4         5.9      5.5       6.4      5.9     5.6
Montana.....             8.4     8.0      8.3      7.9     8.3         7.8      7.6       7.7      7.3     7.7
Nebraska.....            5.9     5.9      5.7      5.7     6.0         5.4      5.1       5.3      5.6     5.2
Nevada.....              6.0     6.0      6.5      5.9     6.0         5.7      5.5       5.5      5.7     5.7
New Hampshire.....       6.9     6.7      7.1      6.4     6.5         6.5      6.1       6.4      6.8     6.4

New Jersey.....          6.5     6.4      6.7      6.2     6.4         6.3      5.9       5.9      6.3     6.0
New Mexico.....          6.4     6.9      6.8      6.4     7.1         6.8      5.9       6.9      6.5     5.9
New York.....            6.1     6.6      6.5      6.4     6.4         6.0      5.7       6.0      6.2     6.1
North Carolina.....      6.5     6.5      6.2      6.2     6.4         6.0      5.6       6.0      6.0     5.9
North Dakota.....       10.0    10.3      7.8      8.5     8.3         6.2      6.0       6.4      7.6     6.8
Ohio.....                6.0     6.0      5.9      5.5     6.0         5.6      5.2       5.3      5.9     5.6
Oklahoma.....            6.4     6.3      6.1      6.0     6.5         5.8      5.7       5.5      6.2     5.5
Oregon.....              6.9     6.9      6.9      7.1     6.9         6.8      6.4       6.6      6.3     6.6
Pennsylvania.....        5.7     5.9      5.4      5.3     5.3         5.1      5.1       5.4      5.4     5.0
Rhode Island.....        6.2     6.7      6.4      6.0     6.2         6.4      5.6       5.9      6.3     6.0

South Carolina.....      6.2     6.2      6.1      5.9     6.5         5.6      5.4       5.9      5.9     5.4
South Dakota.....        6.6     6.6      6.8      6.4     6.3         5.9      6.1       6.4      6.2     6.1
Tennessee.....           6.1     5.9      5.9      5.6     6.2         5.3      5.1       5.7      5.5     5.1
Texas.....               6.0     6.1      6.2      5.8     6.1         5.3      5.0       5.1      5.3     5.0
Utah.....                7.2     7.1      7.2      7.0     7.3         6.3      6.0       6.0      6.1     6.0
Vermont.....             8.3     7.2      7.4      6.9     7.4         6.8      7.0       7.4      7.1     7.1
Virginia.....            6.2     6.0      5.8      6.5     6.0         6.1      5.6       5.8      6.2     5.6
Washington.....          7.2     6.8      7.4      6.9     7.1         7.1      6.3       6.4      6.5     6.5
West Virginia.....       6.8     7.2      6.3      6.2     6.3         5.8      6.1       7.0      6.6     6.5
Wisconsin.....           5.6     5.9      5.8      5.3     5.7         5.7      5.3       5.3      5.5     5.3

Wyoming.....             9.4     8.5      8.1      8.4     9.5         8.2      8.6       9.0      8.5     8.2
Puerto Rico.....         6.7     6.0      6.6      6.1     6.9         5.7      6.0       5.7      6.3     5.8
Virgin Islands.....      6.3     5.1      5.9      5.0     6.6         6.1      6.5      13.7      7.7     5.6

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 8.  Private sector establishment births and deaths, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Levels in thousands)

                              Number of Establishments                     Employment
                             Births             Deaths(1)            Births             Deaths
Year  3 months ended     Level    Rate(2)   Level    Rate       Level      Rate    Level      Rate

2002  March               204      3.2       190     3.0        1,175       1.1    1,089       1.0
      June                208      3.3       187     2.9        1,189       1.1    1,080       1.0
      September           199      3.1       184     2.9        1,051       1.0    1,023       1.0
      December            201      3.1       191     3.0        1,023       1.0    1,021       1.0
  
2003  March               193      3.0       186     2.9        1,004        .9    1,011        .9
      June                191      3.0       186     2.9          964        .9      951        .9
      September           193      3.0       179     2.8          954        .9      884        .8
      December            200      3.1       180     2.8          998        .9      910        .9
  
2004  March               207      3.2       180     2.8        1,000        .9      917        .9
      June                203      3.1       185     2.8          980        .9      909        .8
      September           209      3.2       186     2.8        1,016        .9      953        .9
      December            210      3.2       180     2.7          997        .9      894        .8
  
2005  March               209      3.1       185     2.8          944        .9      852        .8
      June                216      3.2       180     2.7          951        .9      841        .8
      September           221      3.3       186     2.8          996        .9      884        .8
      December            221      3.3       186     2.8          979        .9      846        .8
  
2006  March               220      3.2       180     2.6          924        .8      748        .7
      June                221      3.2       194     2.8          973        .9      841        .7
      September           210      3.1       196     2.9          927        .8      836        .7
      December            221      3.2       194     2.8          959        .8      804        .7
  
2007  March               214      3.1       193     2.8          897        .8      771        .7
      June                206      3.0       202     2.9          884        .8      850        .7
      September           216      3.1       203     2.9          941        .8      836        .7
      December            208      3.0       206     2.9          902        .8      825        .7
  
2008  March               207      3.0       211     3.0          897        .8      813        .7
      June                201      2.9       228     3.3          876        .8      934        .8
      September           191      2.7       223     3.2          827        .7      880        .8
      December            188      2.7       240     3.5          799        .7      947        .8
  
2009  March               172      2.5       236     3.4          703        .6      850        .8
      June                177      2.6       227     3.3          742        .7      831        .8
      September           169      2.5       215     3.2          692        .7      787        .7
      December            183      2.7       200     3.0          712        .7      739        .7
  
2010  March               175      2.6       194     2.9          685        .7      667        .6
      June                179      2.7       185     2.7          713        .7      650        .6
      September           188      2.8       189     2.8          741        .7      694        .7
      December            200      2.9       186     2.7          790        .7      689        .6
  
2011  March               189      2.8       184     2.7          695        .7      610        .6
      June                192      2.8       190     2.8          748        .7      677        .6
      September           198      2.9       187     2.7          790        .7      674        .6
      December            202      2.9       191     2.8          802        .7      750        .7
  
2012  March               193      2.8       181     2.6          748        .7      605        .6
      June                191      2.8       N/A     N/A          759        .7      N/A       N/A
      September           193      2.8       N/A     N/A          789        .7      N/A       N/A
      December            192      2.8       N/A     N/A          766        .7      N/A       N/A
  

(1) Values for deaths are not available for the most recent three quarters
    by definition.  See the Technical Note for more information.

(2) The rates measure births and deaths as a percentage
    of the average of the previous and current quarter employment levels or
    total number of establishments.

Last Modified Date: July 30, 2013
Recommend this page using: