Economic News Release

Quarterly Data Series on Business Employment Dynamics News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. EDT 				USDL-11-1149
Tuesday, August 2, 2011	

Technical information: (202) 691-6553  *  BDMInfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/bdm

Media contact:	       (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov	


	  BUSINESS EMPLOYMENT DYNAMICS:  FOURTH QUARTER 2010
	
From September to December 2010 the number of gross job gains from opening 
and expanding private sector establishments increased to 7.0 million, 
the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today.  Over this period,
the number of gross job losses from closing and contracting private 
sector establishments was essentially unchanged from the previous quarter 
at 6.4 million. 

In the fourth quarter of 2010, large firms with 250 or more employees 
experienced the largest quarter of gross job gains (1.7 million) since 
December 2007.

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of 
increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses
in the economy.  Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track
these changes in employment at private business units from the third 
month of one quarter to the third month of the next.  Gross job gains 
are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing 
units and the addition of new jobs at opening units.  Gross job losses
are the result of contractions in employment at existing units and the
loss of jobs at closing units.  The difference between the number of 
gross job gains and the number of gross job losses is the net change 
in employment.  (See the Technical Note for more information.) 

The BED data series include gross job gains and gross job losses at the 
establishment level by industry subsector and for the 50 states, the 
District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, as well as 
gross job gains and gross job losses at the firm level by employer size 
class.

Contracting establishments lost 5.2 million jobs in the fourth quarter of 
2010, resuming a downward trend in this series that began in the second 
quarter of 2009.

Job gains at expanding establishments rose to 5.6 million in fourth 
quarter 2010 after falling in the third quarter. 

In the fourth qaurter of 2010 closing establishments lost 1.2 million 
jobs, about the same as in the previous quarter.
 
Opening establishments gained 1.3 million jobs in fourth quarter 
2010, an increase from the previous quarter when opening establishments 
created 1.2 million jobs. (See tables 1 and 3.)

In fourth quarter 2010, the number of establishment births (a subset of 
the openings data, see the Technical Note for more information) rose by 
14,000 to 196,000.  These new establishments accounted for 771,000 jobs, 
an increase of 57,000 from the previous quarter. Fourth quarter 2010 
experienced the highest number of establishment births since second 
quarter 2008.

Data for establishment deaths (a subset of the closings data) are 
available through March 2010, when 667,000 jobs were lost at 196,000 
establishments. This quarter represents the lowest number of jobs lost 
since the series began in third quarter 1992, and the lowest number of 
establishment deaths since first quarter 2007.(See table 8.)

The difference between the number of gross jobs gains and the number of 
gross jobs losses yielded a net change of 563,000 jobs in the private 
sector during the fourth quarter 2010. (See table 1.)

Gross job gains represented 6.6 percent of private sector employment in 
fourth quarter 2010, while gross job losses represented 6.1 percent of 
private sector employment.  (See table 2.)

The goods-producing sector experienced gross job gains of 1,350,000 and 
gross job losses of 1,400,000, leading to a net employment loss of -
50,000. Within the goods producing sector, construction contributed all 
of the net employment losses, (-63,000).   The information sector was the 
only other sector to experience a net employment loss in fourth quarter 
2010. Transportation and warehousing had the largest positive rate of net 
employment change, 1.4 percent, followed by professional and business 
services at 1.1 percent. The financial activities sector recorded a net 
employment change of 22,000, reversing a negative trend that began in 
second quarter 2007. (See table 3.)  



Table A.  Three-month private sector gross job gains and losses, 
seasonally adjusted 

Category                                 3 months ended

                                Dec.    Mar.    June    Sept.   Dec.
                                2009    2010    2010    2010    2010

                                      Levels (in thousands)
                                      
Gross job gains................ 6,662   6,110   6,935   6,593  6,954
 At expanding establishments... 5,326   4,996   5,682   5,388  5,609
 At opening establishments..... 1,336   1,114   1,253   1,205  1,345

Gross job losses............... 6,890   6,421   6,207   6,442  6,391
 At contracting establishments. 5,598   5,231   5,064   5,226  5,162
 At closing establishments..... 1,292   1,190   1,143   1,216  1,229

Net employment change(1).......  -228    -311     728     151    563
								
                                         Rates (percent)

Gross job gains................   6.4     5.8     6.6     6.2    6.6
 At expanding establishments...   5.1     4.7     5.4     5.1    5.3
 At opening establishments.....   1.3     1.1     1.2     1.1    1.3

Gross job losses...............   6.5     6.1     5.9     6.0    6.1
 At contracting establishments.   5.3     5.0     4.8     4.9    4.9
 At closing establishments.....   1.2     1.1     1.1     1.1    1.2

Net employment change(1).......   -.1     -.3      .7      .2     .5

    (1) The net employment change is the difference between total 
    gross job gains and total gross job losses.  See the Technical 
    Note for further information.
    

Firms with 250 or more employees accounted for 72.8 percent of total net 
job gains in the fourth quarter of 2010. This is the largest net 
employment gain (351,000) in this size class since September 2005. (See 
tables 4 and 5.) 

In the fourth quarter of 2010, gross job losses exceeded gross job gains 
in eight states, down from 20 states in the previous quarter. California 
had the largest positive quarterly net employment change of 100,811 jobs. 
(See table 6.) North Dakota experienced the largest rate of net 
employment change at 1.9 percent. (See table 7.)


More Information
Additional information on gross job gains and gross job losses are
available online at http://www.bls.gov/bdm.  This information 
includes data on the levels and rates of gross job gains and gross
job losses by firm size, the not seasonally adjusted data and other
seasonally adjusted time series not presented in this release, 
charts of gross job gains and gross job losses by industry and firm
size, and frequently asked questions on firm-size data.  Additional 
information about the Business Employment Dynamics data can be 
found in the Technical Note of this release or may be obtained by 
e-mailing BDMinfo@bls.gov. 

	
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
| The Business Employment Dynamics for First Quarter 2011 are scheduled  |
| to  be released on Thursday, November 17, 2011 at 10:00 a.m. (EST).    | 
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------








                                                                 
Technical Note

   
   The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-
state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages
(QCEW), or the ES-202 program.  The BED data are compiled by the U.S.
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) from existing quarterly state unemployment
insurance (UI) records.  Most employers in the U.S. are required to file
quarterly reports on the employment and wages of workers covered by UI
laws, and to pay quarterly UI taxes.  The quarterly UI reports are sent by
the State Workforce Agencies (SWAs) to BLS and form the basis of the BLS 
establishment universe sampling frame.  These reports also are used to pro-
duce the quarterly QCEW data on total employment and wages and the longitu-
dinal BED data on gross job gains and losses.  Other important BLS uses 
of the UI reports are in the Current Employment Statistics (CES) program. 
(See table below for differences between QCEW, CES, and BED.)
                                     
   In the BED program, the quarterly UI records are linked across quarters
to provide a longitudinal history for each establishment.  The linkage
process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment
level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and
expanding establishments and jobs lost at closing and contracting establish-
ments.

Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES employment measures

   The BLS publishes three different establishment-based employment mea-
sures for any given quarter.  Each of these measures--QCEW, BED, and CES--
makes use of the quarterly UI employment reports in producing data; how-
ever, each measure has a somewhat different universe coverage, estimation 
procedure, and publication product.

   Differences in coverage and estimation methods can result in somewhat 
different measures of over-the-quarter employment change.  It is important to 
understand program differences and the intended uses of the program products.  
(See table below.)  Additional information on each program can be obtained 
from the program Web sites shown in the table.

				                                  
Summary of Major Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES Employment Measures
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |         QCEW        |         BED          |         CES
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Source     |--Count of UI admini-|--Count of longitudi- |--Sample survey: 
           |  strative records   |  nally-linked UI ad- |  410,000 establish-
           |  submitted by 9.0   |  ministrative records|  ments
           |  million employers  |  submitted by 6.7    |
           |                     |  million private sec-|
           |                     |  tor employers       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Coverage   |--UI and UCFE cover- |--UI Coverage, exclud-|Nonfarm wage and sal-
           |  age:  all employers|  ing government, pri-|  ary jobs:
           |  subject to state   |  vate households, and|--UI Coverage, exclud-
           |  and federal UI Laws|  establishments with |  ing agriculture, pri-
           |                     |  zero employment     |  vate households, and
           |                     |                      |  self-employed workers
           |                     |                      |--Other employment, in-
           |                     |                      |  cluding railroads, 
           |                     |                      |  religious organiza-
           |                     |                      |  tions, and other non-
           |                     |                      |  UI-covered jobs
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Publication|--Quarterly          |--Quarterly           |--Monthly 
frequency  |  -7 months after the|  -8 months after the |  -Usually first Friday
           |   end of each quar- |   end of each quarter|   of following month
           |   ter               |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Use of UI  |--Directly summarizes|--Links each new UI   |--Uses UI file as a sam-
file       |  and publishes each |  quarter to longitu- |  pling frame and annu-
           |  new quarter of UI  |  dinal database and  |  ally realigns (bench-
           |  data               |  directly summarizes |  marks) sample esti-    
           |                     |  gross job gains and |  mates to first quar-  
           |                     |  losses              |  ter UI levels
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Provides a quarter-|--Provides quarterly  |--Provides current month-
products   |  ly and annual uni- |  employer dynamics   |  ly estimates of employ-
           |  verse count of es- |  data on establish-  |  ment, hours, and earn-
           |  tablishments, em-  |  ment openings, clos-|  ings at the MSA, state,
           |  ployment, and wages|  ings, expansions,   |  and national level by
           |  at the county, MSA,|  and contractions at |  industry
           |  state, and national|  the national level  |
           |  levels by detailed |  by NAICS super-     |
           |  industry           |  sectors and by size |
           |                     |  of firm, and at the |   
           |                     |  state private-sector|
           |                     |  total level         | 
           |                     |--Future expansions   |
           |                     |  will include data   |
           |                     |  with greater in-    |
           |                     |  dustry detail and   |
           |                     |  data at the county  |
           |                     |  and MSA level       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Major uses include:|--Major uses include: |--Major uses include:
uses       |  -Detailed locality |  -Business cycle     |  -Principal national
           |   data              |   analysis           |   economic indicator
           |  -Periodic universe |  -Analysis of employ-|  -Official time series 
           |   counts for bench- |   er dynamics under- |   for employment change
           |   marking sample    |   lying economic ex- |   measures
           |   survey estimates  |   pansions and con-  |  -Input into other ma-
           |  -Sample frame for  |   tractions          |   jor economic indi-
           |   BLS establishment |  -Analysis of employ-|   cators
           |   surveys           |   ment expansion and |
           |                     |   contraction by size|   
           |                     |   of firm            |
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Program    |--www.bls.gov/cew/   |--www.bls.gov/bdm/    |--www.bls.gov/ces/
Web sites  |                     |                      |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               
                           
Coverage                           

   Employment and wage data for workers covered by state UI and Unemployment 
Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE) laws are compiled from quarterly 
contribution reports submitted to the SWAs by employers.  In addition to the 
quarterly contribution reports, employers who operate multiple establishments 
within a state complete a questionnaire, called the "Multiple Worksite Report,"
which provides detailed information on the location of their establishments. 
These reports are based on place of employment rather than place of residence. 
UI and UCFE coverage is broad and basically comparable from state to state.
   
   Major exclusions from UI coverage are self-employed workers, religious or-
ganizations, most agricultural workers on small farms, all members of the 
Armed Forces, elected officials in most states, most employees of railroads, 
some domestic workers, most student workers at schools, and employees of cer-
tain small nonprofit organizations.
   
   Gross job gains and gross job losses in this release are derived from lon-
gitudinal histories of 6.7 million private sector employer reports out 
of 9.0 million total reports of employment and wages submitted by states to 
BLS in the first quarter of 2010.  Gross job gains and gross job losses data 
in this release do not report estimates for government employees or private 
households (NAICS 814110) and do not include establishments with zero employ-
ment in both previous and current quarters.  Data from Puerto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands also are excluded from the national data.  As an illustration, 
the table below shows, in millions of establishments, the number of establish-
ments excluded from the gross job gains and gross job losses data in the
first quarter of 2010:


             Number of active establishments included in 
              Business Employment Dynamics data at the
                          national level

                                                                   Millions
                                                                       
Total establishments QCEW program....................................9.0

    Excluded:  Public sector.........................................0.3 
               Private households....................................0.7
               Zero employment.......................................1.3      
               Establishments in Puerto Rico 
                 and the Virgin Islands..............................0.0 
                 (less than 50,000)
                 
Total establishments included in Business
Employment Dynamics data.............................................6.7

Unit of analysis
   
   Establishments are used in the tabulation of the BED statistics by in-
dustry and firms are used in the tabulation of the BED size class sta-
tistics.  An establishment is defined as an economic unit that produces
goods or services, usually at a single physical location, and engages in
one or predominantly one activity.  A firm is a legal business, either
corporate or otherwise, and may consist of several establishments.  Firm-
level data are compiled based on an aggregation of establishments under
common ownership by a corporate parent using employer tax identification
numbers.  The firm-level aggregation, which is consistent with the role of
corporations as the economic decision makers, is used for the measurement
of the BED data elements by size class.
   
   Because of the difference in the unit of analysis, total gross job gains
and gross job losses by size class are lower than total gross job gains and
gross job losses by industry, as some establishment gains and losses within
a firm are offset during the aggregation process.  However, the total net
changes in employment are the same for not seasonally adjusted data and are
similar for seasonally adjusted data.
                                 
Concepts and methodology

   The Business Employment Dynamics data measure the net change in employ-
ment at the establishment or firm level.  These changes come about in one 
of four ways.  A net increase in employment can come from either opening 
units or expanding units.  A net decrease in employment can come from either 
closing units or contracting units.  Gross job gains include the sum of all
jobs added at either opening or expanding units.  Gross job losses include
the sum of all jobs lost in either closing or contracting units.  The net
change in employment is the difference between gross job gains and gross
job losses.
   
   The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:                          

   Openings.  These are either units with positive third month employment for
the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or
with positive third month employment in the current quarter, following zero em-
ployment in the previous quarter.
                                     
   Expansions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment
over this period.
   
   Closings.  These are units with positive third month employment in the pre-
vious quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the current
quarter.
   
   Contractions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment
over this period.

   Births.  These are units with positive third month employment for the 
first time in the current quarter with no links to the prior quarter, or 
units with positive third month employment in the current quarter and zero
employment in the third month of the previous four quarters. Births are a
subset of openings not including re-openings of seasonal businesses.

   Deaths.  These are units with no employment or zero employment reported in 
the third month of four consecutive quarters following the last quarter with 
positive employment. Deaths are a subset of closings not including temporary 
shutdowns of seasonal businesses.  A unit that closes during the quarter may 
be a death, but we wait three quarters to determine whether it is a permanent
closing or a temporary shutdown. Therefore, there is always a lag of three 
quarters for the publication of death statistics.

   All establishment-level employment changes are measured from the third 
month of each quarter.  Not all establishments and firms change their em-
ployment levels.  Units with no change in employment count towards estimates
of total employment, but not for levels of gross employment job gains and 
gross job losses.

   Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing 
their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quar-
ters.  This provides a symmetric growth rate.  The rates are calculated for
the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to
form their respective totals.  These rates can be added and subtracted just
as their levels can.  For instance, the difference between the gross job
gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

Establishment Births and Deaths

   For the purpose of BED statistics, births are defined as establishments
that appear in the longitudinal database for the first time with positive
employment in the third month of a quarter, or showed four consecutive
quarters of zero employment in the third month followed by a quarter in
which it shows positive employment in the third month.  Similarly, deaths
are defined as establishments that either drop out of the longitudinal
database or an establishment that had positive employment in the third month
of a given quarter followed by four consecutive quarters of showing zero
employment in the third month.  Although the data for establishment births
and deaths are tabulated independently from the data for openings and
closings, the concepts are not mutually exclusive.  An establishment that
is defined as a birth in a given quarter is necessarily an opening as well,
and an establishment defined as a death in a quarter must also be a closing.
Since openings include seasonal, and other, re-openings and closings include
temporary shutdowns, the not seasonally adjusted values for births and
deaths must be less than those openings and closings.  However, because some
BED series do not have many re-openings or temporary shutdowns, as well as
the fact that births and deaths are independently seasonally adjusted from
openings and closings, there may be instances in which the seasonally
adjusted value of the former is greater than the latter.

Linkage methodology

   Prior to the measurement of gross job gains and gross job losses, QCEW
records are linked across two quarters.  The linkage process matches esta-
blishments' unique SWA identification numbers (SWA-ID).  Between 95 to 97
percent of establishments identified as continuous from quarter to quarter
are matched by SWA-ID.  The rest are linked in one of three ways.  The first
method uses predecessor and successor information, identified by the states,
which relates records with different SWA-IDs across quarters.  Predecessor
and successor relations can come about for a variety of reasons, including
a change in ownership, a firm restructuring, or a UI account restructuring.
If a match cannot be attained in this manner, a probability-based match is
used.  This match attempts to identify two establishments with different SWA-
IDs as continuous.  The match is based upon comparisons such as the same
name, address, and phone number.  Third, an analyst examines unmatched re-
cords individually and makes a possible match.

   In order to ensure the highest possible quality of data, SWAs verify with 
employers and update, if necessary, the industry, location, and ownership 
classification of all establishments on a 3-year cycle.  Changes in establish-
ment classification codes resulting from the verification process are intro-
duced with the data reported for the first quarter of the year.  Changes re-
sulting from improved employer reporting also are introduced in the first 
quarter.   
                              
Sizing methodology
   
   The method of dynamic sizing is used in calculations for the BED size-
class data series.  Dynamic sizing allocates each firm's employment gain or
loss during a quarter to each respective size class in which the change
occurred.  For example, if a firm grew from 2 employees in quarter 1 to 38
employees in quarter 2, then, of the 36-employee increase, 2 would be al-
located to the first size class, 5 to the size class 5 to 9, 10 to size
class 10 to 19, and 19 to size class 20 to 49.
   
   Dynamic sizing provides symmetrical firm-size estimates and eliminates
any systematic effects which may be caused by the transitory and reverting
changes in firms' sizes over time.  Additionally, it allocates each job
gain or loss to the actual size class where it occurred.

Annual Data

   The annual gross job gains and gross job losses measure the net change
in employment at the establishment level from the third month of a quarter
in the previous year to the third month of the same quarter in the current
year.  The BLS publishes annual BED data based on March-to-March changes
once a year with the release of the first quarter BED data.  The annual
data based on over-the-year changes for other quarters of the year are
available upon request.  The definitions and methodology in measuring
annual gross job gains and gross job losses are similar to the quarterly
measures.  The linkage method considers all predecessor and successor
relations that may come about due to changes in ownership and corporate
restructuring over the entire year.  At the establishment level, some of
the quarterly job gains and job losses are offset during the estimation
over the year.  Therefore, the sum of four quarters of gross job gains
and gross job losses are not equal to annual gross job gains and gross
job losses.  The net change in employment over the year, however, is
equal to the sum of four quarterly net changes on a not seasonally
adjusted basis.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the levels of employment and the associated
job flows undergo sharp fluctuations due to such seasonal events as changes
in the weather, reduced or expanded production, harvests, major holidays,
and the opening and closing of schools.  The effect of such seasonal vari-
ation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each 
year, their influence can be eliminated by adjusting these statistics from 
quarter to quarter.  These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as 
declines in economic activity, easier to recognize.  For example, the large 
number of youths taking summer jobs is likely to obscure other changes that 
have taken place in June relative to March, making it difficult to determine 
if the level of economic activity has risen or declined.  However, because
the effect of students finishing school in previous years is known, the 
statistics for the current year can be adjusted to allow for a comparable 
change.  The adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to ana-
lyze changes in economic activity.

   The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contract-
ing units are independently seasonally adjusted; net changes are calculated
based on the difference between gross job gains and gross job losses.  Simi-
larly, for industry data, the establishment counts data series for opening,
expanding, closing, and contracting establishments are independently adjusted,
and the net changes are calculated based on the difference between the number
of opening and closing establishments.  Additionally, establishment and em-
ployment levels are independently seasonally adjusted to calculate the sea-
sonally adjusted rates.  Concurrent seasonal adjustment is run using X-12
ARIMA.  Seasonally adjusted data series for the total private sector are cal-
culated by summing the seasonally adjusted data for all sectors, including
the unclassified sector, which is not published separately.
   
   The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contracting 
units for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia are seasonally
adjusted at the total private level only.  The sum of the state series for
opening, expanding, closing, and contracting units will not necessarily be
equal to the national total private series because of the independent seasonal
adjustment of these series.
   
   The net over-the-quarter change derived by summing the BED component series 
will differ from the net employment change estimated from the seasonally ad-
justed total private employment series from the CES program.  The intended use 
of BED statistics is to show the dynamic labor market changes that underlie 
the net employment change statistic.  As such, data users interested particu-
larly in the net employment change and not in the gross job flows underlying 
this change should refer to CES data for over-the-quarter net employment
changes.
   
Reliability of the data
   
   Since the data series on Business Employment Dynamics are based on admini-
strative rather than sample data, there are no issues related to sampling 
error.  Nonsampling error, however, still exists.  Nonsampling errors can oc-
cur for many reasons, such as the employer submitting corrected employment 
data after the end of the quarter or typographical errors made by businesses 
when providing information.  Such errors, however, are likely to be distri-
buted randomly throughout the dataset.
   
   Changes in administrative data sometimes create complications for the 
linkage process.  This can result in overstating openings and closings while 
understating expansions and contractions.  The BLS continues to refine methods 
for improving the linkage process to alleviate the effects of these compli-
cations.
   
   The BED data series are subject to periodic minor changes based on correc-
tions in QCEW records, updates on predecessors and successors information, and
seasonal adjustment revisions.

Annual revisions are published each year with the release of the first quarter
data.  These revisions cover the last four quarters of not seasonally adjusted
data and 5 years of seasonally adjusted data.
                      
Additional statistics and other information
   
   Several other programs within BLS produce closely related information.  
The QCEW program, also known as the ES-202 program, provides both quarterly 
and annual estimates of employment by state, county, and detailed industry. 
News releases on quarterly county employment and wages are available upon 
request from the Division of Administrative Statistics and Labor Turnover, 
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC 20212; 
telephone 202-691-6567; (http://www.bls.gov/cew/); (e-mail: QCEWInfo@bls.gov).
                                     
   The CES program produces monthly estimates of employment, its net change, 
and earnings by detailed industry.  These estimates are part of the Employ-
ment Situation report put out monthly by BLS.
                                     
   The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) program provides month-
ly measures of job openings, as well as employee hires and separations.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired in-
dividuals upon request.  Voice phone:  202-691-5200; TDD message referral 
number: 1-800-877-8339.






Table 1.  Private sector gross job gains and job losses, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(In thousands)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(1) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2000  March                827      8,849       6,960         1,889       8,022       6,342           1,680
      June                 503      8,479       6,794         1,685       7,976       6,373           1,603
      September            324      8,525       6,756         1,769       8,201       6,479           1,722
      December             251      8,351       6,673         1,678       8,100       6,444           1,656

2001  March               -119      8,491       6,728         1,763       8,610       6,717           1,893
      June                -780      7,991       6,302         1,689       8,771       7,036           1,735
      September         -1,148      7,630       5,945         1,685       8,778       6,990           1,788
      December          -1,009      7,547       5,912         1,635       8,556       6,870           1,686

2002  March                -10      8,071       6,298         1,773       8,081       6,434           1,647
      June                 -30      7,868       6,145         1,723       7,898       6,274           1,624
      September           -151      7,630       6,039         1,591       7,781       6,248           1,533
      December            -241      7,483       5,938         1,545       7,724       6,185           1,539

2003  March               -393      7,467       5,928         1,539       7,860       6,307           1,553
      June                 -90      7,398       5,929         1,469       7,488       6,030           1,458
      September            204      7,392       5,923         1,469       7,188       5,828           1,360
      December             297      7,521       6,005         1,516       7,224       5,800           1,424

2004  March                470      7,715       6,204         1,511       7,245       5,795           1,450
      June                 644      7,754       6,235         1,519       7,110       5,639           1,471
      September            206      7,633       6,060         1,573       7,427       5,888           1,539
      December             757      7,844       6,243         1,601       7,087       5,663           1,424

2005  March                384      7,620       6,131         1,489       7,236       5,801           1,435
      June                 593      7,774       6,231         1,543       7,181       5,776           1,405
      September            677      7,965       6,387         1,578       7,288       5,844           1,444
      December             494      7,807       6,252         1,555       7,313       5,948           1,365

2006  March                806      7,726       6,293         1,433       6,920       5,635           1,285
      June                 424      7,789       6,273         1,516       7,365       5,998           1,367
      September             45      7,495       6,057         1,438       7,450       6,098           1,352
      December             462      7,765       6,241         1,524       7,303       5,954           1,349

2007  March                491      7,657       6,243         1,414       7,166       5,870           1,296
      June                 207      7,661       6,250         1,411       7,454       6,056           1,398
      September           -249      7,328       5,855         1,473       7,577       6,223           1,354
      December             286      7,670       6,197         1,473       7,384       6,028           1,356

2008  March               -275      7,172       5,778         1,394       7,447       6,083           1,364
      June                -520      7,285       5,878         1,407       7,805       6,332           1,473
      September           -966      6,888       5,521         1,367       7,854       6,469           1,385
      December          -1,814      6,720       5,357         1,363       8,534       7,041           1,493

2009  March             -2,741      5,783       4,611         1,172       8,524       7,109           1,415
      June              -1,604      6,421       5,117         1,304       8,025       6,644           1,381
      September           -900      6,341       5,124         1,217       7,241       5,883           1,358
      December            -228      6,662       5,326         1,336       6,890       5,598           1,292

2010  March               -311      6,110       4,996         1,114       6,421       5,231           1,190
      June                 728      6,935       5,682         1,253       6,207       5,064           1,143
      September            151      6,593       5,388         1,205       6,442       5,226           1,216
      December             563      6,954       5,609         1,345       6,391       5,162           1,229


(1) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 2.  Private sector gross job gains and losses, as a percent of employment(1), seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Percent)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(2) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2000  March                 .8       8.1         6.4           1.7         7.3          5.8            1.5
      June                  .4       7.7         6.2           1.5         7.3          5.8            1.5
      September             .2       7.7         6.1           1.6         7.5          5.9            1.6
      December              .2       7.5         6.0           1.5         7.3          5.8            1.5

2001  March                -.1       7.7         6.1           1.6         7.8          6.1            1.7
      June                 -.8       7.2         5.7           1.5         8.0          6.4            1.6
      September           -1.1       6.9         5.4           1.5         8.0          6.4            1.6
      December            -1.0       7.0         5.5           1.5         8.0          6.4            1.6

2002  March                 .0       7.5         5.9           1.6         7.5          6.0            1.5
      June                  .0       7.3         5.7           1.6         7.3          5.8            1.5
      September            -.1       7.1         5.6           1.5         7.2          5.8            1.4
      December             -.3       6.9         5.5           1.4         7.2          5.8            1.4

2003  March                -.5       6.9         5.5           1.4         7.4          5.9            1.5
      June                  .0       7.0         5.6           1.4         7.0          5.6            1.4
      September             .1       6.9         5.5           1.4         6.8          5.5            1.3
      December              .3       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3

2004  March                 .5       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3
      June                  .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.2            1.4
      September             .3       7.1         5.6           1.5         6.8          5.4            1.4
      December              .7       7.2         5.7           1.5         6.5          5.2            1.3

2005  March                 .4       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      June                  .6       7.1         5.7           1.4         6.5          5.2            1.3
      September             .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      December              .4       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.6          5.4            1.2

2006  March                 .8       6.9         5.6           1.3         6.1          5.0            1.1
      June                  .4       6.9         5.6           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September             .1       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.6          5.4            1.2
      December              .3       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2007  March                 .4       6.7         5.5           1.2         6.3          5.2            1.1
      June                  .2       6.7         5.5           1.2         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September            -.3       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.7          5.5            1.2
      December              .2       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2008  March                -.2       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.5          5.3            1.2
      June                 -.5       6.4         5.2           1.2         6.9          5.6            1.3
      September            -.8       6.1         4.9           1.2         6.9          5.7            1.2
      December            -1.6       6.0         4.8           1.2         7.6          6.3            1.3

2009  March               -2.5       5.3         4.2           1.1         7.8          6.5            1.3
      June                -1.5       6.0         4.8           1.2         7.5          6.2            1.3
      September           -1.0       5.9         4.8           1.1         6.9          5.6            1.3
      December             -.1       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2010  March                -.3       5.8         4.7           1.1         6.1          5.0            1.1
      June                  .7       6.6         5.4           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1
      September             .2       6.2         5.1           1.1         6.0          4.9            1.1
      December              .5       6.6         5.3           1.3         6.1          4.9            1.2


(1) The rates measure gross job gains and gross job losses as a percentage
    of the previous and current quarter employment levels.

(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 3. Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   Dec.    Mar.    June    Sept    Dec.   Dec.   Mar.   June   Sept   Dec.  
                                   2009    2010    2010    2010    2010   2009   2010   2010   2010   2010
Total private(1)

Gross job gains                   6,662   6,110   6,935   6,593   6,954    6.4    5.8    6.6    6.2    6.6
 At expanding establishments      5,326   4,996   5,682   5,388   5,609    5.1    4.7    5.4    5.1    5.3
 At opening establishments        1,336   1,114   1,253   1,205   1,345    1.3    1.1    1.2    1.1    1.3
Gross job losses                  6,890   6,421   6,207   6,442   6,391    6.5    6.1    5.9    6.0    6.1
 At contracting establishments    5,598   5,231   5,064   5,226   5,162    5.3    5.0    4.8    4.9    4.9
 At closing establishments        1,292   1,190   1,143   1,216   1,229    1.2    1.1    1.1    1.1    1.2
Net employment change              -228    -311     728     151     563    -.1    -.3     .7     .2     .5

Goods-producing

Gross job gains                   1,313   1,266   1,461   1,360   1,350    6.9    6.7    7.8    7.3    7.2
 At expanding establishments      1,080   1,072   1,238   1,158   1,133    5.7    5.7    6.6    6.2    6.0
 At opening establishments          233     194     223     202     217    1.2    1.0    1.2    1.1    1.2
Gross job losses                  1,590   1,459   1,305   1,315   1,400    8.4    7.8    7.0    7.0    7.4
 At contracting establishments    1,321   1,204   1,082   1,082   1,156    7.0    6.4    5.8    5.8    6.1
 At closing establishments          269     255     223     233     244    1.4    1.4    1.2    1.2    1.3
Net employment change              -277    -193     156      45     -50   -1.5   -1.1     .8     .3    -.2

Natural resources and mining

Gross job gains                     285     270     305     268     279   16.3   15.4   17.2   14.8   15.4
 At expanding establishments        243     235     263     234     236   13.9   13.4   14.8   12.9   13.0
 At opening establishments           42      35      42      34      43    2.4    2.0    2.4    1.9    2.4
Gross job losses                    292     271     235     263     277   16.7   15.4   13.2   14.5   15.2
 At contracting establishments      253     232     202     228     241   14.5   13.2   11.3   12.6   13.2
 At closing establishments           39      39      33      35      36    2.2    2.2    1.9    1.9    2.0
Net employment change                -7      -1      70       5       2    -.4     .0    4.0     .3     .2

Construction

Gross job gains                     615     591     677     644     631   10.9   10.7   12.3   11.8   11.5
 At expanding establishments        470     466     534     514     498    8.3    8.4    9.7    9.4    9.1
 At opening establishments          145     125     143     130     133    2.6    2.3    2.6    2.4    2.4
Gross job losses                    773     728     676     647     694   13.6   13.1   12.3   11.8   12.7
 At contracting establishments      606     570     535     503     539   10.7   10.3    9.7    9.2    9.9
 At closing establishments          167     158     141     144     155    2.9    2.8    2.6    2.6    2.8
Net employment change              -158    -137       1      -3     -63   -2.7   -2.4     .0     .0   -1.2

Manufacturing

Gross job gains                     413     405     479     448     440    3.6    3.5    4.1    3.9    3.9
 At expanding establishments        367     371     441     410     399    3.2    3.2    3.8    3.6    3.5
 At opening establishments           46      34      38      38      41     .4     .3     .3     .3     .4
Gross job losses                    525     460     394     405     429    4.5    4.0    3.4    3.5    3.8
 At contracting establishments      462     402     345     351     376    4.0    3.5    3.0    3.0    3.3
 At closing establishments           63      58      49      54      53     .5     .5     .4     .5     .5
Net employment change              -112     -55      85      43      11    -.9    -.5     .7     .4     .1

Service-providing(1)

Gross job gains                   5,349   4,844   5,474   5,233   5,604    6.2    5.6    6.3    6.1    6.4
 At expanding establishments      4,246   3,924   4,444   4,230   4,476    4.9    4.5    5.1    4.9    5.1
 At opening establishments        1,103     920   1,030   1,003   1,128    1.3    1.1    1.2    1.2    1.3
Gross job losses                  5,300   4,962   4,902   5,127   4,991    6.2    5.8    5.7    5.9    5.7
 At contracting establishments    4,277   4,027   3,982   4,144   4,006    5.0    4.7    4.6    4.8    4.6
 At closing establishments        1,023     935     920     983     985    1.2    1.1    1.1    1.1    1.1
Net employment change                49    -118     572     106     613     .0    -.2     .6     .2     .7

Wholesale trade

Gross job gains                     259     248     280     263     278    4.7    4.6    5.2    4.8    5.0
 At expanding establishments        203     201     232     216     222    3.7    3.7    4.3    3.9    4.0
 At opening establishments           56      47      48      47      56    1.0     .9     .9     .9    1.0
Gross job losses                    283     274     248     259     252    5.1    5.0    4.5    4.7    4.6
 At contracting establishments      220     213     191     199     196    4.0    3.9    3.5    3.6    3.6
 At closing establishments           63      61      57      60      56    1.1    1.1    1.0    1.1    1.0
Net employment change               -24     -26      32       4      26    -.4    -.4     .7     .1     .4

Retail trade

Gross job gains                     816     784     892     788     889    5.7    5.4    6.2    5.4    6.2
 At expanding establishments        702     676     766     666     763    4.9    4.7    5.3    4.6    5.3
 At opening establishments          114     108     126     122     126     .8     .7     .9     .8     .9
Gross job losses                    936     805     769     884     807    6.5    5.6    5.3    6.1    5.5
 At contracting establishments      808     690     665     772     687    5.6    4.8    4.6    5.3    4.7
 At closing establishments          128     115     104     112     120     .9     .8     .7     .8     .8
Net employment change              -120     -21     123     -96      82    -.8    -.2     .9    -.7     .7

Transportation and warehousing

Gross job gains                     220     183     216     211     250    5.5    4.7    5.4    5.4    6.2
 At expanding establishments        187     157     183     181     216    4.7    4.0    4.6    4.6    5.4
 At opening establishments           33      26      33      30      34     .8     .7     .8     .8     .8
Gross job losses                    222     223     189     195     192    5.7    5.6    4.8    4.9    4.8
 At contracting establishments      184     190     156     158     159    4.7    4.8    4.0    4.0    4.0
 At closing establishments           38      33      33      37      33    1.0     .8     .8     .9     .8
Net employment change                -2     -40      27      16      58    -.2    -.9     .6     .5    1.4

Utilities

Gross job gains                      11       9      11       9      11    2.0    1.6    2.0    1.7    2.0
 At expanding establishments         10       8      10       8       9    1.8    1.4    1.8    1.5    1.6
 At opening establishments            1       1       1       1       2     .2     .2     .2     .2     .4
Gross job losses                     14       9      12      12      10    2.5    1.6    2.2    2.2    1.8
 At contracting establishments       12       8      11      11       9    2.1    1.4    2.0    2.0    1.6
 At closing establishments            2       1       1       1       1     .4     .2     .2     .2     .2
Net employment change                -3       0      -1      -3       1    -.5     .0    -.2    -.5     .2

Information

Gross job gains                     123     106     128     135     126    4.4    3.8    4.7    5.0    4.7
 At expanding establishments         97      89     107     116     103    3.5    3.2    3.9    4.3    3.8
 At opening establishments           26      17      21      19      23     .9     .6     .8     .7     .9
Gross job losses                    144     130     129     136     131    5.2    4.7    4.7    5.0    4.9
 At contracting establishments      121     111     109     114     107    4.4    4.0    4.0    4.2    4.0
 At closing establishments           23      19      20      22      24     .8     .7     .7     .8     .9
Net employment change               -21     -24      -1      -1      -5    -.8    -.9     .0     .0    -.2

Financial activities

Gross job gains                     356     326     347     346     368    4.8    4.3    4.6    4.7    4.9
 At expanding establishments        267     263     277     275     283    3.6    3.5    3.7    3.7    3.8
 At opening establishments           89      63      70      71      85    1.2     .8     .9    1.0    1.1
Gross job losses                    400     369     372     369     346    5.4    5.0    5.0    5.0    4.6
 At contracting establishments      305     281     288     275     262    4.1    3.8    3.9    3.7    3.5
 At closing establishments           95      88      84      94      84    1.3    1.2    1.1    1.3    1.1
Net employment change               -44     -43     -25     -23      22    -.6    -.7    -.4    -.3     .3

Professional and business services

Gross job gains                   1,368   1,125   1,340   1,258   1,364    8.3    6.8    8.1    7.5    8.0
 At expanding establishments      1,100     920   1,096   1,029   1,104    6.7    5.6    6.6    6.1    6.5
 At opening establishments          268     205     244     229     260    1.6    1.2    1.5    1.4    1.5
Gross job losses                  1,184   1,130   1,144   1,185   1,171    7.2    6.8    6.9    7.1    6.9
 At contracting establishments      920     898     890     933     911    5.6    5.4    5.4    5.6    5.4
 At closing establishments          264     232     254     252     260    1.6    1.4    1.5    1.5    1.5
Net employment change               184      -5     196      73     193    1.1     .0    1.2     .4    1.1

Education and health services

Gross job gains                     825     730     767     784     835    4.5    3.9    4.1    4.2    4.4
 At expanding establishments        685     619     655     664     697    3.7    3.3    3.5    3.6    3.7
 At opening establishments          140     111     112     120     138     .8     .6     .6     .6     .7
Gross job losses                    677     690     718     729     698    3.7    3.7    3.8    3.9    3.8
 At contracting establishments      555     578     601     597     573    3.0    3.1    3.2    3.2    3.1
 At closing establishments          122     112     117     132     125     .7     .6     .6     .7     .7
Net employment change               148      40      49      55     137     .8     .2     .3     .3     .6

Leisure and hospitality

Gross job gains                   1,032   1,000   1,143   1,089   1,116    7.9    7.7    8.8    8.4    8.6
 At expanding establishments        783     783     890     859     860    6.0    6.0    6.9    6.6    6.6
 At opening establishments          249     217     253     230     256    1.9    1.7    1.9    1.8    2.0
Gross job losses                  1,141   1,037   1,043   1,062   1,097    8.8    8.0    8.0    8.2    8.4
 At contracting establishments      933     845     868     870     892    7.2    6.5    6.7    6.7    6.8
 At closing establishments          208     192     175     192     205    1.6    1.5    1.3    1.5    1.6
Net employment change              -109     -37     100      27      19    -.9    -.3     .8     .2     .2

Other services

Gross job gains                     262     247     278     259     266    7.0    6.7    7.5    7.0    7.2
 At expanding establishments        202     196     220     207     208    5.4    5.3    5.9    5.6    5.6
 At opening establishments           60      51      58      52      58    1.6    1.4    1.6    1.4    1.6
Gross job losses                    272     263     253     274     266    7.3    7.1    6.8    7.3    7.1
 At contracting establishments      211     205     197     210     205    5.7    5.5    5.3    5.6    5.5
 At closing establishments           61      58      56      64      61    1.6    1.6    1.5    1.7    1.6
Net employment change               -10     -16      25     -15       0    -.3    -.4     .7    -.3     .1

(1) Includes unclassified sector, not shown separately

Table 4.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

(In thousands)

                      Total private by firm(1)       Firm size 1 - 49 employees      Firm size 50 - 249 employees      Firm size 250 or more employees
Year  3 months        Net        Gross job            Net          Gross job          Net           Gross job           Net           Gross job
        ended      change(2,3)  gains   losses       change      gains   losses      change       gains   losses       change       gains   losses

2000  March            910      7,443    6,533         308       3,745    3,437        191        1,417    1,226         411        2,281    1,870
      June             460      6,972    6,512          43       3,528    3,485         80        1,322    1,242         337        2,122    1,785
      September        316      7,062    6,746          76       3,627    3,551         92        1,348    1,256         148        2,087    1,939
      December         266      6,885    6,619          33       3,512    3,479         60        1,300    1,240         173        2,073    1,900

2001  March             52      7,033    6,981          23       3,508    3,485        -87        1,277    1,364         116        2,248    2,132
      June            -843      6,432    7,275        -123       3,393    3,516       -180        1,223    1,403        -540        1,816    2,356
      September     -1,214      6,124    7,338        -271       3,333    3,604       -253        1,142    1,395        -690        1,649    2,339
      December      -1,041      6,146    7,187        -118       3,325    3,443       -200        1,138    1,338        -723        1,683    2,406

2002  March             70      6,602    6,532          54       3,402    3,348        -52        1,194    1,246          68        2,006    1,938
      June             -61      6,416    6,477          69       3,379    3,310         -7        1,191    1,198        -123        1,846    1,969
      September       -176      6,190    6,366          20       3,335    3,315        -46        1,144    1,190        -150        1,711    1,861
      December        -247      6,114    6,361          -3       3,299    3,302        -73        1,106    1,179        -171        1,709    1,880

2003  March           -326      6,112    6,438        -135       3,257    3,392        -56        1,127    1,183        -135        1,728    1,863
      June            -137      6,108    6,245         112       3,346    3,234        -26        1,133    1,159        -223        1,629    1,852
      September        193      6,162    5,969         120       3,327    3,207         21        1,127    1,106          52        1,708    1,656
      December         310      6,218    5,908         146       3,340    3,194         32        1,128    1,096         132        1,750    1,618

2004  March            430      6,306    5,876         153       3,392    3,239        137        1,194    1,057         140        1,720    1,580
      June             621      6,471    5,850         169       3,387    3,218        141        1,196    1,055         311        1,888    1,577
      September        197      6,243    6,046          88       3,379    3,291         88        1,175    1,087          21        1,689    1,668
      December         759      6,494    5,735         274       3,480    3,206        101        1,172    1,071         384        1,842    1,458

2005  March            368      6,320    5,952          66       3,416    3,350         97        1,161    1,064         205        1,743    1,538
      June             570      6,435    5,865         243       3,476    3,233        146        1,198    1,052         181        1,761    1,580
      September        701      6,672    5,971         218       3,510    3,292         85        1,195    1,110         398        1,967    1,569
      December         506      6,406    5,900         169       3,462    3,293         45        1,140    1,095         292        1,804    1,512

2006  March            734      6,372    5,638         316       3,530    3,214        217        1,203      986         201        1,639    1,438
      June             423      6,381    5,958         138       3,446    3,308        122        1,197    1,075         163        1,738    1,575
      September         24      6,099    6,075         -16       3,325    3,341         21        1,128    1,107          19        1,646    1,627
      December         449      6,386    5,937         113       3,396    3,283         68        1,145    1,077         268        1,845    1,577

2007  March            430      6,241    5,811         179       3,438    3,259        107        1,146    1,039         144        1,657    1,513
      June             216      6,288    6,072          -9       3,348    3,357        118        1,188    1,070         107        1,752    1,645
      September       -269      5,904    6,173        -130       3,252    3,382        -61        1,075    1,136         -78        1,577    1,655
      December         264      6,241    5,977         -13       3,307    3,320         48        1,131    1,083         229        1,803    1,574

2008  March           -308      5,755    6,063        -149       3,226    3,375         -4        1,066    1,070        -155        1,463    1,618
      June            -505      5,891    6,396        -263       3,190    3,453        -27        1,106    1,133        -215        1,595    1,810
      September     -1,034      5,496    6,530        -355       3,041    3,396       -168        1,015    1,183        -511        1,440    1,951
      December      -1,883      5,334    7,217        -712       2,901    3,613       -385          941    1,326        -786        1,492    2,278

2009  March         -2,652      4,545    7,197        -974       2,715    3,689       -598          801    1,399      -1,080        1,029    2,109
      June          -1,735      5,198    6,933        -452       2,960    3,412       -266          963    1,229      -1,017        1,275    2,292
      September       -977      5,131    6,108        -386       2,815    3,201       -134          928    1,062        -457        1,388    1,845
      December        -306      5,399    5,705        -179       2,931    3,110        -55          956    1,011         -72        1,512    1,584

2010  March           -270      4,998    5,268        -220       2,809    3,029          3          899      896         -53        1,290    1,343
      June             688      5,802    5,114         237       3,070    2,833        217        1,081      864         234        1,651    1,417
      September        121      5,432    5,311         -28       2,879    2,907         64          988      924          85        1,565    1,480
      December         482      5,727    5,245          45       2,996    2,951         86        1,025      939         351        1,706    1,355



(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower
    than total gross job gains and gross job losses by establishment,
    as some establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.
(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.
(3) Net change totals for firm-level data shown differ from the establishment-level data
    due to independent seasonal adjustment of the series.
NOTE: See http://www.bls.gov/bdm/bdmfirmsize.htm for additional firm size class data.

Table 5. Components of private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   Dec.    Mar.    June    Sept    Dec.   Dec.   Mar.   June   Sept   Dec.  
                                   2009    2010    2010    2010    2010   2009   2010   2010   2010   2010
Total private by firm(1)

Gross job gains                   5,399   4,998   5,802   5,432   5,727    5.1    4.7    5.4    5.1    5.4
 At expanding establishments      4,441   4,147   4,907   4,589   4,784    4.2    3.9    4.6    4.3    4.5
 At opening establishments          958     851     895     843     943     .9     .8     .8     .8     .9

Gross job losses                  5,705   5,268   5,114   5,311   5,245    5.4    5.1    4.9    5.0    4.9
 At contracting establishments    4,783   4,372   4,295   4,439   4,373    4.5    4.2    4.1    4.2    4.1
 At closing establishments          922     896     819     872     872     .9     .9     .8     .8     .8

Net employment change              -306    -270     688     121     482    -.3    -.4     .5     .1     .5


Firm size 1 to 49 employees

Gross job gains                   2,931   2,809   3,070   2,879   2,996    9.4    9.0    9.9    9.3    9.7
 At expanding establishments      2,017   1,993   2,221   2,074   2,096    6.5    6.4    7.2    6.7    6.8
 At opening establishments          914     816     849     805     900    2.9    2.6    2.7    2.6    2.9

Gross job losses                  3,110   3,029   2,833   2,907   2,951   10.0    9.8    9.1    9.4    9.5
 At contracting establishments    2,233   2,163   2,045   2,074   2,119    7.2    7.0    6.6    6.7    6.8
 At closing establishments          877     866     788     833     832    2.8    2.8    2.5    2.7    2.7

Net employment change              -179    -220     237     -28      45    -.6    -.8     .8    -.1     .2


Firm size 50 to 249 employees

Gross job gains                     956     899   1,081     988   1,025    4.9    4.6    5.6    5.1    5.2
 At expanding establishments        918     871   1,043     957     988    4.7    4.5    5.4    4.9    5.0
 At opening establishments           38      28      38      31      37     .2     .1     .2     .2     .2

Gross job losses                  1,011     896     864     924     939    5.2    4.6    4.4    4.7    4.8
 At contracting establishments      974     869     837     895     904    5.0    4.5    4.3    4.6    4.6
 At closing establishments           37      27      27      29      35     .2     .1     .1     .1     .2

Net employment change               -55       3     217      64      86    -.3     .0    1.2     .4     .4


Firm size 250 or more employees

Gross job gains                   1,512   1,290   1,651   1,565   1,706    2.8    2.3    3.0    2.8    3.1
 At expanding establishments      1,506   1,283   1,643   1,558   1,700    2.8    2.3    3.0    2.8    3.1
 At opening establishments            6       7       8       7       6     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Gross job losses                  1,584   1,343   1,417   1,480   1,355    2.9    2.4    2.6    2.7    2.4
 At contracting establishments    1,576   1,340   1,413   1,470   1,350    2.9    2.4    2.6    2.7    2.4
 At closing establishments            8       3       4      10       5     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Net employment change               -72     -53     234      85     351    -.1    -.1     .4     .1     .7


(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower
    than total gross job gains and gross job losses by establishment,
    as some establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.

Table 6.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by state, seasonally adjusted

                                         Gross job gains                                          Gross job losses
State                                    (3 months ended)                                         (3 months ended)
                        Dec.       Mar.       June        Sept.     Dec.       Dec.         Mar.       June        Sept.     Dec. 
                        2009       2010       2010        2010      2010       2009         2010       2010        2010      2010

United States1.....  6,662,000  6,110,000  6,935,000   6,593,000  6,954,000  6,890,000   6,421,000   6,207,000  6,442,000  6,391,000

Alabama.....            86,379     82,695     90,438      88,544     90,702     92,544      83,327      83,971     93,826     89,501
Alaska.....             24,288     25,078     26,302      22,312     24,643     25,288      23,147      21,772     23,678     25,148
Arizona.....           131,273    116,334    120,892     125,191    141,383    140,298     123,728     126,749    128,620    113,291
Arkansas.....           57,989     52,233     59,161      54,065     51,200     54,247      49,809      52,001     57,243     52,965
California.....        845,478    759,025    877,920     778,595    865,213    831,793     816,085     775,156    808,688    764,402
Colorado.....          122,327    117,669    134,977     123,839    130,646    132,705     124,210     125,355    123,841    119,650
Connecticut.....        70,946     66,227     84,589      71,786     73,898     77,470      81,300      67,402     66,409     71,286
Delaware.....           20,397     19,505     23,200      22,394     21,906     24,289      20,984      18,817     20,947     22,426
District of Columbia    26,592     23,480     26,793      24,765     27,063     24,332      21,514      23,153     28,738     25,329
Florida.....           440,522    362,571    417,808     404,527    448,586    448,286     370,546     398,220    419,712    409,980

Georgia.....           204,380    197,155    210,870     214,910    212,882    215,423     195,344     206,776    201,871    199,578
Hawaii.....             24,368     23,639     23,154      27,664     26,011     25,953      25,062      27,020     25,508     23,225
Idaho.....              38,431     35,560     36,170      39,190     40,627     40,220      38,578      39,976     35,182     37,883
Illinois.....          255,104    229,254    268,855     254,225    280,923    275,576     243,415     231,470    248,499    254,352
Indiana.....           134,249    129,707    144,840     138,311    144,007    135,204     125,181     130,048    129,856    131,387
Iowa.....               68,771     63,734     66,021      67,723     73,723     74,300      65,573      64,302     68,074     67,678
Kansas.....             62,377     55,897     62,950      60,969     70,888     67,646      61,303      60,033     64,595     60,301
Kentucky.....           89,347     77,786     86,562      82,611     92,103     86,416      83,376      80,238     81,243     80,087
Louisiana.....         100,019     95,060    103,774      99,254    103,225    103,173      94,395      99,189     99,829    102,496
Maine.....              35,430     30,442     37,089      35,485     34,589     37,779      34,497      35,250     34,301     35,896

Maryland.....          119,515    124,598    137,676     125,059    127,919    132,550     125,093     118,452    129,294    124,842
Massachusetts.....     145,704    145,413    161,032     155,260    153,871    160,961     143,996     137,623    152,522    152,222
Michigan.....          210,533    183,635    221,292     216,561    207,002    228,170     191,162     184,025    191,483    213,459
Minnesota.....         123,644    120,648    137,671     122,151    128,848    132,265     131,091     113,426    123,654    130,063
Mississippi.....        51,744     50,450     55,735      55,347     56,747     52,347      49,877      53,286     57,549     54,639
Missouri.....          122,278    123,242    131,143     128,842    126,065    132,033     129,143     129,992    124,464    122,341
Montana.....            27,841     25,855     26,844      27,113     27,675     29,098      27,670      26,442     24,859     27,566
Nebraska.....           40,153     39,893     44,594      43,235     42,866     46,789      40,899      39,950     42,344     42,597
Nevada.....             68,915     51,824     60,877      54,879     68,041     66,626      65,187      55,657     62,955     58,121
New Hampshire.....      33,650     34,318     36,515      32,944     35,973     36,107      35,737      33,092     33,520     34,008

New Jersey.....        196,657    176,313    224,190     191,225    204,741    210,510     193,790     190,949    197,695    195,727
New Mexico.....         37,662     37,821     40,218      38,901     40,319     42,496      37,739      40,379     40,590     37,219
New York.....          420,489    373,307    460,370     427,213    453,107    428,924     390,777     398,109    410,850    420,427
North Carolina.....    196,885    182,350    203,715     197,026    202,887    213,043     188,187     187,704    193,011    193,221
North Dakota.....       19,816     19,787     20,384      22,672     23,787     19,189      18,824      18,476     17,083     17,984
Ohio.....              234,522    219,390    249,715     240,319    256,936    255,910     228,984     217,712    222,822    246,148
Oklahoma.....           68,999     66,668     74,136      74,038     75,680     76,133      66,249      63,918     75,077     63,113
Oregon.....             89,357     87,342     87,560      93,583     94,073     96,934      87,279      85,849     82,215     91,616
Pennsylvania.....      267,074    249,634    280,379     265,581    280,004    274,524     248,312     234,954    252,791    256,214
Rhode Island.....       23,191     22,628     26,103      24,288     23,465     24,865      21,893      25,469     23,157     25,506

South Carolina.....     85,984     87,466     96,184      91,029     89,047     92,731      82,707      86,190     85,292     84,617
South Dakota.....       19,762     19,139     21,984      20,768     21,260     21,189      21,608      19,021     19,553     19,800
Tennessee.....         121,455    108,572    134,652     122,885    127,894    119,337     111,023     118,770    125,005    112,694
Texas.....             476,502    467,608    492,190     494,933    513,948    484,059     434,114     448,103    449,143    440,853
Utah.....               65,512     63,614     66,317      66,278     70,287     67,768      63,688      63,939     63,404     62,171
Vermont.....            19,496     15,542     17,791      18,480     19,035     18,017      17,756      20,659     16,402     16,968
Virginia.....          166,982    151,244    186,533     173,108    177,916    168,916     162,007     166,993    176,544    167,012
Washington.....        151,742    153,771    156,299     161,355    166,765    181,151     155,633     146,072    145,950    161,011
West Virginia.....      37,101     33,246     37,055      36,236     34,319     34,836      34,478      35,887     33,719     35,458
Wisconsin.....         130,553    125,693    134,910     131,286    137,195    138,015     129,422     121,104    126,228    132,336

Wyoming.....            16,108     17,159     17,405      19,989     18,898     18,573      18,274      17,953     16,365     18,402
Puerto Rico.....        45,647     38,617     37,160      39,838     44,957     41,169      44,755      43,997     40,417     36,329
Virgin Islands.....      2,361      2,632      2,006       2,327      2,249      1,899       1,897       2,825      1,758      1,800

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 7.  Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted

                        Gross job gains as a percent of employment    Gross job losses as a percent of employment
State                              (3 months ended)                               (3 months ended)

                        Dec.    Mar.     June     Sept.   Dec.        Dec.     Mar.      June    Sept.    Dec. 
                        2009    2010     2010     2010    2010        2009     2010      2010    2010     2010

United States1.....      6.4     5.8      6.6      6.2     6.6         6.5      6.1       5.9      6.0     6.1

Alabama.....             6.0     5.8      6.3      6.1     6.3         6.4      5.8       5.8      6.5     6.2
Alaska.....             10.3    10.6     11.1      9.4    10.3        10.8      9.8       9.2     10.0    10.6
Arizona.....             6.7     5.9      6.2      6.4     7.2         7.1      6.3       6.4      6.5     5.7
Arkansas.....            6.3     5.7      6.3      5.8     5.5         5.9      5.4       5.6      6.1     5.7
California.....          7.2     6.5      7.5      6.6     7.3         7.1      7.0       6.6      6.8     6.4
Colorado.....            6.8     6.5      7.5      6.9     7.2         7.3      6.9       7.0      6.9     6.6
Connecticut.....         5.3     4.9      6.3      5.3     5.4         5.7      6.0       5.0      4.9     5.3
Delaware.....            6.0     5.8      6.9      6.6     6.4         7.2      6.3       5.6      6.1     6.5
District of Columbia..   6.0     5.3      6.0      5.6     6.1         5.5      4.9       5.2      6.5     5.7
Florida.....             7.3     6.1      7.0      6.7     7.4         7.4      6.2       6.6      6.9     6.8

Georgia.....             6.6     6.4      6.9      7.0     6.9         7.0      6.4       6.7      6.6     6.4
Hawaii.....              5.2     5.1      5.0      6.0     5.6         5.5      5.4       5.8      5.5     4.9
Idaho.....               7.8     7.2      7.4      8.0     8.2         8.1      7.8       8.2      7.2     7.7
Illinois.....            5.5     4.9      5.7      5.4     6.0         5.9      5.3       4.9      5.3     5.4
Indiana.....             5.8     5.7      6.3      6.0     6.2         5.9      5.5       5.7      5.6     5.7
Iowa.....                5.8     5.4      5.5      5.7     6.1         6.2      5.5       5.4      5.7     5.7
Kansas.....              6.0     5.4      6.0      5.9     6.7         6.5      5.8       5.7      6.2     5.7
Kentucky.....            6.4     5.6      6.2      5.8     6.5         6.2      5.9       5.7      5.8     5.6
Louisiana.....           6.7     6.4      7.0      6.7     6.9         7.0      6.4       6.7      6.7     6.9
Maine.....               7.4     6.4      7.8      7.5     7.2         8.0      7.3       7.4      7.2     7.5

Maryland.....            6.1     6.4      7.0      6.4     6.4         6.8      6.4       6.0      6.5     6.4
Massachusetts.....       5.5     5.4      6.0      5.7     5.7         6.0      5.4       5.1      5.7     5.6
Michigan.....            6.7     5.9      7.0      6.8     6.5         7.2      6.1       5.8      6.0     6.7
Minnesota.....           5.7     5.6      6.3      5.6     5.8         6.1      6.1       5.2      5.7     6.0
Mississippi.....         6.3     6.1      6.7      6.6     6.8         6.4      6.0       6.4      6.9     6.6
Missouri.....            5.7     5.8      6.1      6.0     5.9         6.2      6.0       6.1      5.9     5.7
Montana.....             8.3     7.7      8.1      8.1     8.2         8.6      8.2       7.9      7.5     8.2
Nebraska.....            5.5     5.4      6.0      5.9     5.8         6.3      5.6       5.4      5.7     5.8
Nevada.....              7.2     5.4      6.4      5.8     7.1         6.9      6.7       5.8      6.6     6.1
New Hampshire.....       6.6     6.7      7.1      6.4     7.0         7.0      7.0       6.5      6.5     6.6

New Jersey.....          6.2     5.6      7.2      6.0     6.5         6.7      6.2       6.1      6.2     6.2
New Mexico.....          6.3     6.4      6.8      6.6     6.8         7.1      6.4       6.8      6.9     6.3
New York.....            6.1     5.5      6.7      6.2     6.5         6.3      5.7       5.7      6.0     6.1
North Carolina.....      6.4     5.9      6.6      6.4     6.5         6.9      6.1       6.0      6.2     6.2
North Dakota.....        7.0     7.0      7.1      7.7     8.0         6.7      6.5       6.4      5.8     6.1
Ohio.....                5.6     5.3      6.0      5.7     6.1         6.2      5.5       5.3      5.4     5.9
Oklahoma.....            6.0     5.8      6.4      6.3     6.5         6.6      5.8       5.5      6.4     5.4
Oregon.....              6.8     6.7      6.7      7.1     7.2         7.4      6.6       6.6      6.3     6.9
Pennsylvania.....        5.7     5.3      5.9      5.6     5.9         5.9      5.3       5.0      5.3     5.4
Rhode Island.....        6.1     5.9      6.8      6.2     6.1         6.5      5.6       6.6      6.0     6.6

South Carolina.....      6.1     6.3      6.8      6.4     6.3         6.6      5.9       6.0      6.0     6.0
South Dakota.....        6.3     6.1      7.0      6.6     6.7         6.7      6.8       6.0      6.1     6.2
Tennessee.....           5.7     5.1      6.3      5.7     5.9         5.6      5.2       5.6      5.8     5.3
Texas.....               5.8     5.7      5.9      5.9     6.1         5.8      5.3       5.4      5.4     5.2
Utah.....                6.9     6.8      7.1      7.0     7.4         7.2      6.8       6.8      6.7     6.6
Vermont.....             8.2     6.5      7.5      7.7     7.9         7.5      7.4       8.8      6.8     7.1
Virginia.....            5.9     5.4      6.6      6.1     6.3         5.9      5.8       5.9      6.2     5.9
Washington.....          6.7     6.9      7.0      7.2     7.5         8.1      7.0       6.6      6.5     7.2
West Virginia.....       6.8     6.0      6.7      6.6     6.2         6.4      6.3       6.6      6.2     6.4
Wisconsin.....           5.9     5.6      6.1      5.9     6.1         6.2      5.8       5.5      5.7     5.9

Wyoming.....             7.8     8.4      8.6      9.8     9.1         9.0      8.9       8.8      8.0     8.9
Puerto Rico.....         6.7     5.7      5.5      6.0     6.7         6.1      6.7       6.5      6.1     5.5
Virgin Islands.....      7.8     8.5      6.5      7.5     7.1         6.3      6.1       9.1      5.6     5.7

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 8.  Private sector establishment births and deaths, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Levels in thousands)

                              Number of Establishments                     Employment
                             Births             Deaths(1)            Births             Deaths
Year  3 months ended     Level    Rate(2)   Level    Rate       Level      Rate    Level      Rate

2000  March               213      3.4       186     3.0        1,235       1.1    1,125       1.0
      June                204      3.3       180     2.9        1,137       1.0    1,058       1.0
      September           209      3.3       199     3.2        1,159       1.1    1,160       1.1
      December            200      3.2       194     3.1        1,139       1.0    1,105       1.0
  
2001  March               206      3.3       203     3.2        1,187       1.1    1,303       1.2
      June                204      3.2       204     3.2        1,146       1.0    1,226       1.1
      September           204      3.2       207     3.3        1,151       1.1    1,219       1.1
      December            194      3.1       200     3.2        1,109       1.0    1,142       1.1
  
2002  March               204      3.2       190     3.0        1,175       1.1    1,089       1.0
      June                208      3.3       187     2.9        1,189       1.1    1,080       1.0
      September           199      3.1       184     2.9        1,051       1.0    1,023       1.0
      December            201      3.1       191     3.0        1,023       1.0    1,021       1.0
  
2003  March               193      3.0       186     2.9        1,004        .9    1,011        .9
      June                191      3.0       186     2.9          964        .9      951        .9
      September           193      3.0       179     2.8          954        .9      884        .8
      December            200      3.1       180     2.8          998        .9      910        .9
  
2004  March               207      3.2       180     2.8        1,000        .9      917        .9
      June                203      3.1       185     2.8          980        .9      909        .8
      September           209      3.2       186     2.8        1,016        .9      953        .9
      December            210      3.2       180     2.7          997        .9      894        .8
  
2005  March               209      3.1       185     2.8          944        .9      852        .8
      June                216      3.2       180     2.7          951        .9      841        .8
      September           221      3.3       186     2.8          996        .9      884        .8
      December            221      3.3       186     2.8          979        .9      846        .8
  
2006  March               220      3.2       180     2.6          922        .8      743        .7
      June                219      3.2       194     2.8          973        .9      843        .7
      September           210      3.1       196     2.9          927        .8      837        .7
      December            221      3.2       193     2.8          966        .9      809        .7
  
2007  March               214      3.1       193     2.8          891        .8      764        .7
      June                204      2.9       201     2.9          883        .8      851        .7
      September           218      3.1       203     2.9          945        .8      840        .7
      December            209      3.0       207     3.0          906        .8      831        .7
  
2008  March               207      3.0       210     3.0          889        .8      809        .7
      June                199      2.9       228     3.3          876        .8      936        .8
      September           192      2.8       223     3.2          831        .7      882        .8
      December            188      2.7       240     3.5          806        .7      952        .9
  
2009  March               172      2.5       235     3.4          696        .6      844        .8
      June                176      2.6       226     3.3          740        .7      831        .8
      September           169      2.5       216     3.2          693        .7      793        .7
      December            184      2.7       200     3.0          716        .7      745        .7
  
2010  March               172      2.5       196     2.9          661        .6      667        .6
      June                172      2.6       N/A     N/A          698        .7      N/A       N/A
      September           182      2.7       N/A     N/A          714        .7      N/A       N/A
      December            196      2.9       N/A     N/A          771        .7      N/A       N/A
  

(1) Values for deaths are not available for the most recent three quarters
    by definition.  See the Technical Note for more information.

(2) The rates measure births and deaths as a percentage
    of the average of the previous and current quarter employment levels or
    total number of establishments.

Last Modified Date: August 02, 2011
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