Economic News Release

Quarterly Data Series on Business Employment Dynamics News Release


For release: 10:00 A.M. EDT                                      USDL 10-1141
Wednesday, August 18, 2010

Technical information: (202) 691-6553  *  BDMinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/bdm

Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


          BUSINESS EMPLOYMENT DYNAMICS:  FOURTH QUARTER 2009    

From September to December 2009 the number of gross job gains from 
opening and expanding private sector establishments increased to 6.6 
million, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today.  Over 
this period, gross job losses from closing and contracting private 
sector establishments were 6.8 million. Job losses have steadily 
decreased from a recent high of 8.5 million in December 2008 to
their lowest level since June 1994. 

Firms of all sizes experienced continued net job losses in the fourth 
quarter of 2009. Firms with 1 to 49 employees accounted for 61.8 
percent of all net losses. 

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of 
increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses 
in the economy.  Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track 
these changes in employment at private business units from the third 
month of one quarter to the third month of the next.  Gross job 
gains are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at 
existing units and the addition of new jobs at opening units.  Gross 
job losses are the result of contractions in employment at existing 
units and the loss of jobs at closing units.  The difference between 
the number of gross job gains and the number of gross job losses is 
the net change in employment. (See the Technical Note for more 
information.) 

 ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
|              New data on establishment age and survival                |
|                                                                        |
| New Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data by establishment age will  |
| be available later today on the BLS Web site                           |
| (www.bls.gov/bdm/bdmage.htm). These data are available at the national |
| level by NAICS sector and at the state level by total private sector   |
| annually from 1994 through 2009. These data will be updated once a year| 
| with the release of first quarter data.                                |
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 

The BED data series include gross job gains and gross job losses at the 
establishment level by major industry sector and for the 50 states, the 
District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, as well as 
gross job gains and gross job losses at the firm level by employer size 
class. 
 
Contracting establishments lost 5.5 million jobs in the fourth 
quarter of 2009. Since peaking in March 2009 at 7.0 million, job 
losses at contracting establishments have fallen sharply. 

Fourth quarter job gains at expanding establishments were 5.3 
million, after reaching a series-low 4.6 million in first quarter 
2009.

From September to December 2009 closing establishments lost 1.3 
million jobs, a decrease from the previous quarter’s loss of 1.4 
million. 

Opening establishments gained 1.3 million jobs, an increase from 
the previous quarter when opening establishments created 1.2 
million jobs. (See tables 1 and 3.)

There were 180,000 establishment births in the fourth quarter 2009 
(a subset of the openings data, see the Technical Note for more 
information); these new establishments added 701,000 jobs, 
essentially unchanged from the previous quarter.  

Data for establishment deaths, a subset of the closings data, are 
available through March 2009, when 891,000 jobs were lost at 
240,000 establishments.  (See table 7.)


The difference between the number of gross jobs gained and the 
number of gross jobs lost yielded a net change of -193,000 jobs in 
the private sector for fourth quarter 2009. (See table 1.)

Gross job gains represented 6.3 percent of private sector 
employment, while gross job losses represented 6.5 percent of 
private sector employment.  (See table 2.)

Only the professional and business services sector, which 
includes temporary help services, experienced a change from net 
losses in third quarter 2009 to net gains in fourth quarter 2009.  
Gross job gains in this sector increased to 1.4 million jobs from 
1.1 million, while gross job losses decreased to 1.2 million jobs 
from 1.3 million. The construction sector continues to experience 
the highest net losses as a percent of total employment. From 
September to December 2009, job gains increased slightly from 
10.4 to 10.7 percent, while job losses fell slightly from 13.7 to 
13.5 percent. (See table 3.) 

The share of total gross job losses at firms with 1 to 249 employees 
increased from 69.4 percent to 72.3. The share of gross job gains 
increased at firms with 1 to 4 employees and 1000 or more employees 
and decreased at all other firm size classes. (See table 4.)

Table A.  Three-month private sector gross job gains and losses, 
seasonally adjusted 

Category                                 3 months ended

                                Dec.    Mar.    June    Sept.   Dec.    
                                2008    2009    2009    2009    2009    

                                      Levels (in thousands)
                                      
Gross job gains................ 6,738   5,746   6,420   6,296   6,628
 At expanding establishments... 5,363   4,603   5,116   5,112   5,322
 At opening establishments..... 1,375   1,143   1,304   1,184   1,306

Gross job losses............... 8,539   8,486   7,999   7,260   6,821
 At contracting establishments. 7,038   7,045   6,598   5,852   5,546
 At closing establishments..... 1,501   1,441   1,401   1,408   1,275

Net employment change(1).......-1,801  -2,740  -1,579    -964    -193
								
                                         Rates (percent)

Gross job gains................   6.0     5.2     6.0     5.9     6.3
 At expanding establishments...   4.8     4.2     4.8     4.8     5.1
 At opening establishments.....   1.2     1.0     1.2     1.1     1.2

Gross job losses...............   7.6     7.7     7.5     6.8     6.5
 At contracting establishments.   6.3     6.4     6.2     5.5     5.3
 At closing establishments.....   1.3     1.3     1.3     1.3     1.2

Net employment change(1).......  -1.6    -2.5    -1.5     -.9     -.2

    (1) The net employment change is the difference between total 
    gross job gains and total gross job losses.  See the Technical 
    Note for further information.


In the fourth quarter of 2009, eight states, the District of Columbia, 
Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands experienced changes from negative 
to positive net employment as compared to the prior quarter. The 
net employment change turned negative from positive in Indiana and 
Idaho and remained negative in the rest of states. California and 
New York experienced the largest net employment gains. Gross job 
gains in the state of California increased to 843,902, while gross 
job losses decreased to 820,701. In the state of New York, gross 
job gains increased to 439,309, while gross job losses decreased to
432,668. (See table 5.) From September to December 2009, gross job
gains as a percent of total employment decreased in 11 states, and 
gross job losses as a percent of total employment increased in 13 
states. (See table 6.)

More Information
Additional information on gross job gains and gross job losses are 
available online at http://www.bls.gov/bdm.  This information 
includes data on the levels and rates of gross job gains and gross 
job losses by firm size, the not seasonally adjusted data and other 
seasonally adjusted time series not presented in this release, 
charts of gross job gains and gross job losses by industry and firm 
size, and frequently asked questions on firm-size data.  Additional 
information about the Business Employment Dynamics data can be 
found in the Technical Note of this release or may be obtained by 
e-mailing BDMinfo@bls.gov. 
	
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 
| The Business Employment Dynamics for First Quarter 2010 are scheduled |
| to be released on Thursday, November 18, 2010 at 10:00 a.m.(EST). Data|
| in this release will incorporate annual revisions to the BED series.  | 
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 







                                                                 
Technical Note

   
   The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-
state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages
(QCEW), or the ES-202 program.  The BED data are compiled by the U.S.
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) from existing quarterly state unemployment
insurance (UI) records.  Most employers in the U.S. are required to file
quarterly reports on the employment and wages of workers covered by UI
laws, and to pay quarterly UI taxes.  The quarterly UI reports are sent by
the State Workforce Agencies (SWAs) to BLS and form the basis of the BLS 
establishment universe sampling frame.  These reports also are used to pro-
duce the quarterly QCEW data on total employment and wages and the longitu-
dinal BED data on gross job gains and losses.  Other important BLS uses 
of the UI reports are in the Current Employment Statistics (CES) program. 
(See table below for differences between QCEW, CES, and BED.)
                                     
   In the BED program, the quarterly UI records are linked across quarters
to provide a longitudinal history for each establishment.  The linkage
process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment
level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and
expanding establishments and jobs lost at closing and contracting establish-
ments.

Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES employment measures

   The BLS publishes three different establishment-based employment mea-
sures for any given quarter.  Each of these measures--QCEW, BED, and CES--
makes use of the quarterly UI employment reports in producing data; how-
ever, each measure has a somewhat different universe coverage, estimation 
procedure, and publication product.

   Differences in coverage and estimation methods can result in somewhat 
different measures of over-the-quarter employment change.  It is important to 
understand program differences and the intended uses of the program products.  
(See table below.)  Additional information on each program can be obtained 
from the program Web sites shown in the table.

				                                  
Summary of Major Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES Employment Measures
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |         QCEW        |         BED          |         CES
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Source     |--Count of UI admini-|--Count of longitudi- |--Sample survey: 
           |  strative records   |  nally-linked UI ad- |  410,000 establish-
           |  submitted by 9.1   |  ministrative records|  ments
           |  million employers  |  submitted by 6.8    |
           |                     |  million private sec-|
           |                     |  tor employers       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Coverage   |--UI and UCFE cover- |--UI Coverage, exclud-|Nonfarm wage and sal-
           |  age:  all employers|  ing government, pri-|  ary jobs:
           |  subject to state   |  vate households, and|--UI Coverage, exclud-
           |  and federal UI Laws|  establishments with |  ing agriculture, pri-
           |                     |  zero employment     |  vate households, and
           |                     |                      |  self-employed workers
           |                     |                      |--Other employment, in-
           |                     |                      |  cluding railroads, 
           |                     |                      |  religious organiza-
           |                     |                      |  tions, and other non-
           |                     |                      |  UI-covered jobs
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Publication|--Quarterly          |--Quarterly           |--Monthly 
frequency  |  -7 months after the|  -8 months after the |  -Usually first Friday
           |   end of each quar- |   end of each quarter|   of following month
           |   ter               |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Use of UI  |--Directly summarizes|--Links each new UI   |--Uses UI file as a sam-
file       |  and publishes each |  quarter to longitu- |  pling frame and annu-
           |  new quarter of UI  |  dinal database and  |  ally realigns (bench-
           |  data               |  directly summarizes |  marks) sample esti-    
           |                     |  gross job gains and |  mates to first quar-  
           |                     |  losses              |  ter UI levels
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Provides a quarter-|--Provides quarterly  |--Provides current month-
products   |  ly and annual uni- |  employer dynamics   |  ly estimates of employ-
           |  verse count of es- |  data on establish-  |  ment, hours, and earn-
           |  tablishments, em-  |  ment openings, clos-|  ings at the MSA, state,
           |  ployment, and wages|  ings, expansions,   |  and national level by
           |  at the county, MSA,|  and contractions at |  industry
           |  state, and national|  the national level  |
           |  levels by detailed |  by NAICS super-     |
           |  industry           |  sectors and by size |
           |                     |  of firm, and at the |   
           |                     |  state private-sector|
           |                     |  total level         | 
           |                     |--Future expansions   |
           |                     |  will include data   |
           |                     |  with greater in-    |
           |                     |  dustry detail and   |
           |                     |  data at the county  |
           |                     |  and MSA level       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Major uses include:|--Major uses include: |--Major uses include:
uses       |  -Detailed locality |  -Business cycle     |  -Principal national
           |   data              |   analysis           |   economic indicator
           |  -Periodic universe |  -Analysis of employ-|  -Official time series 
           |   counts for bench- |   er dynamics under- |   for employment change
           |   marking sample    |   lying economic ex- |   measures
           |   survey estimates  |   pansions and con-  |  -Input into other ma-
           |  -Sample frame for  |   tractions          |   jor economic indi-
           |   BLS establishment |  -Analysis of employ-|   cators
           |   surveys           |   ment expansion and |
           |                     |   contraction by size|   
           |                     |   of firm            |
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Program    |--www.bls.gov/cew/   |--www.bls.gov/bdm/    |--www.bls.gov/ces/
Web sites  |                     |                      |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               
                           
Coverage                           

   Employment and wage data for workers covered by state UI and Unemployment 
Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE) laws are compiled from quarterly 
contribution reports submitted to the SWAs by employers.  In addition to the 
quarterly contribution reports, employers who operate multiple establishments 
within a state complete a questionnaire, called the "Multiple Worksite Report,"
which provides detailed information on the location of their establishments. 
These reports are based on place of employment rather than place of residence. 
UI and UCFE coverage is broad and basically comparable from state to state.
   
   Major exclusions from UI coverage are self-employed workers, religious or-
ganizations, most agricultural workers on small farms, all members of the 
Armed Forces, elected officials in most states, most employees of railroads, 
some domestic workers, most student workers at schools, and employees of cer-
tain small nonprofit organizations.
   
   Gross job gains and gross job losses in this release are derived from lon-
gitudinal histories of 6.8 million private sector employer reports out 
of 9.1 million total reports of employment and wages submitted by states to 
BLS in the fourth quarter of 2009.  Gross job gains and gross job losses data 
in this release do not report estimates for government employees or private 
households (NAICS 814110) and do not include establishments with zero employ-
ment in both previous and current quarters.  Data from Puerto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands also are excluded from the national data.  As an illustration, 
the table below shows, in millions of establishments, the number of establish-
ments excluded from the gross job gains and gross job losses data in the
fourth quarter of 2009:


             Number of active establishments included in 
              Business Employment Dynamics data at the
                          national level

                                                                   Millions
                                                                       
Total establishments QCEW program....................................9.1

    Excluded:  Public sector.........................................0.3 
               Private households....................................0.7
               Zero employment.......................................1.3      
               Establishments in Puerto Rico 
                 and the Virgin Islands..............................0.0 
                 (less than 50,000)
                 
Total establishments included in Business
Employment Dynamics data.............................................6.8

Unit of analysis
   
   Establishments are used in the tabulation of the BED statistics by in-
dustry and firms are used in the tabulation of the BED size class sta-
tistics.  An establishment is defined as an economic unit that produces
goods or services, usually at a single physical location, and engages in
one or predominantly one activity.  A firm is a legal business, either
corporate or otherwise, and may consist of several establishments.  Firm-
level data are compiled based on an aggregation of establishments under
common ownership by a corporate parent using employer tax identification
numbers.  The firm-level aggregation, which is consistent with the role of
corporations as the economic decision makers, is used for the measurement
of the BED data elements by size class.
   
   Because of the difference in the unit of analysis, total gross job gains
and gross job losses by size class are lower than total gross job gains and
gross job losses by industry, as some establishment gains and losses within
a firm are offset during the aggregation process.  However, the total net
changes in employment are the same for not seasonally adjusted data and are
similar for seasonally adjusted data.
                                 
Concepts and methodology

   The Business Employment Dynamics data measure the net change in employ-
ment at the establishment or firm level.  These changes come about in one 
of four ways.  A net increase in employment can come from either opening 
units or expanding units.  A net decrease in employment can come from either 
closing units or contracting units.  Gross job gains include the sum of all
jobs added at either opening or expanding units.  Gross job losses include
the sum of all jobs lost in either closing or contracting units.  The net
change in employment is the difference between gross job gains and gross
job losses.
   
   The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:                          

   Openings.  These are either units with positive third month employment for
the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or
with positive third month employment in the current quarter, following zero em-
ployment in the previous quarter.
                                     
   Expansions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment
over this period.
   
   Closings.  These are units with positive third month employment in the pre-
vious quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the current
quarter.
   
   Contractions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment
over this period.

   Births.  These are units with positive third month employment for the 
first time in the current quarter with no links to the prior quarter, or 
units with positive third month employment in the current quarter and zero
employment in the third month of the previous four quarters. Births are a
subset of openings not including re-openings of seasonal businesses.

   Deaths.  These are units with no employment or zero employment reported in 
the third month of four consecutive quarters following the last quarter with 
positive employment. Deaths are a subset of closings not including temporary 
shutdowns of seasonal businesses.  A unit that closes during the quarter may 
be a death, but we wait three quarters to determine whether it is a permanent
closing or a temporary shutdown. Therefore, there is always a lag of three 
quarters for the publication of death statistics.

   All establishment-level employment changes are measured from the third 
month of each quarter.  Not all establishments and firms change their em-
ployment levels.  Units with no change in employment count towards estimates
of total employment, but not for levels of gross employment job gains and 
gross job losses.

   Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing 
their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quar-
ters.  This provides a symmetric growth rate.  The rates are calculated for
the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to
form their respective totals.  These rates can be added and subtracted just
as their levels can.  For instance, the difference between the gross job
gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

Establishment Births and Deaths

   For the purpose of BED statistics, births are defined as establishments
that appear in the longitudinal database for the first time with positive
employment in the third month of a quarter, or showed four consecutive
quarters of zero employment in the third month followed by a quarter in
which it shows positive employment in the third month.  Similarly, deaths
are defined as establishments that either drop out of the longitudinal
database or an establishment that had positive employment in the third month
of a given quarter followed by four consecutive quarters of showing zero
employment in the third month.  Although the data for establishment births
and deaths are tabulated independently from the data for openings and
closings, the concepts are not mutually exclusive.  An establishment that
is defined as a birth in a given quarter is necessarily an opening as well,
and an establishment defined as a death in a quarter must also be a closing.
Since openings include seasonal, and other, re-openings and closings include
temporary shutdowns, the not seasonally adjusted values for births and
deaths must be less than those openings and closings.  However, because some
BED series do not have many re-openings or temporary shutdowns, as well as
the fact that births and deaths are independently seasonally adjusted from
openings and closings, there may be instances in which the seasonally
adjusted value of the former is greater than the latter.

Linkage methodology

   Prior to the measurement of gross job gains and gross job losses, QCEW
records are linked across two quarters.  The linkage process matches esta-
blishments' unique SWA identification numbers (SWA-ID).  Between 95 to 97
percent of establishments identified as continuous from quarter to quarter
are matched by SWA-ID.  The rest are linked in one of three ways.  The first
method uses predecessor and successor information, identified by the states,
which relates records with different SWA-IDs across quarters.  Predecessor
and successor relations can come about for a variety of reasons, including
a change in ownership, a firm restructuring, or a UI account restructuring.
If a match cannot be attained in this manner, a probability-based match is
used.  This match attempts to identify two establishments with different SWA-
IDs as continuous.  The match is based upon comparisons such as the same
name, address, and phone number.  Third, an analyst examines unmatched re-
cords individually and makes a possible match.

   In order to ensure the highest possible quality of data, SWAs verify with 
employers and update, if necessary, the industry, location, and ownership 
classification of all establishments on a 3-year cycle.  Changes in establish-
ment classification codes resulting from the verification process are intro-
duced with the data reported for the first quarter of the year.  Changes re-
sulting from improved employer reporting also are introduced in the first 
quarter.   
                              
Sizing methodology
   
   The method of dynamic sizing is used in calculations for the BED size-
class data series.  Dynamic sizing allocates each firm's employment gain or
loss during a quarter to each respective size class in which the change
occurred.  For example, if a firm grew from 2 employees in quarter 1 to 38
employees in quarter 2, then, of the 36-employee increase, 2 would be al-
located to the first size class, 5 to the size class 5 to 9, 10 to size
class 10 to 19, and 19 to size class 20 to 49.
   
   Dynamic sizing provides symmetrical firm-size estimates and eliminates
any systematic effects which may be caused by the transitory and reverting
changes in firms' sizes over time.  Additionally, it allocates each job
gain or loss to the actual size class where it occurred.

Annual Data

   The annual gross job gains and gross job losses measure the net change
in employment at the establishment level from the third month of a quarter
in the previous year to the third month of the same quarter in the current
year.  The BLS publishes annual BED data based on March-to-March changes
once a year with the release of the first quarter BED data.  The annual
data based on over-the-year changes for other quarters of the year are
available upon request.  The definitions and methodology in measuring
annual gross job gains and gross job losses are similar to the quarterly
measures.  The linkage method considers all predecessor and successor
relations that may come about due to changes in ownership and corporate
restructuring over the entire year.  At the establishment level, some of
the quarterly job gains and job losses are offset during the estimation
over the year.  Therefore, the sum of four quarters of gross job gains
and gross job losses are not equal to annual gross job gains and gross
job losses.  The net change in employment over the year, however, is
equal to the sum of four quarterly net changes on a not seasonally
adjusted basis.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the levels of employment and the associated
job flows undergo sharp fluctuations due to such seasonal events as changes
in the weather, reduced or expanded production, harvests, major holidays,
and the opening and closing of schools.  The effect of such seasonal vari-
ation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each 
year, their influence can be eliminated by adjusting these statistics from 
quarter to quarter.  These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as 
declines in economic activity, easier to recognize.  For example, the large 
number of youths taking summer jobs is likely to obscure other changes that 
have taken place in June relative to March, making it difficult to determine 
if the level of economic activity has risen or declined.  However, because
the effect of students finishing school in previous years is known, the 
statistics for the current year can be adjusted to allow for a comparable 
change.  The adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to ana-
lyze changes in economic activity.

   The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contract-
ing units are independently seasonally adjusted; net changes are calculated
based on the difference between gross job gains and gross job losses.  Simi-
larly, for industry data, the establishment counts data series for opening,
expanding, closing, and contracting establishments are independently adjusted,
and the net changes are calculated based on the difference between the number
of opening and closing establishments.  Additionally, establishment and em-
ployment levels are independently seasonally adjusted to calculate the sea-
sonally adjusted rates.  Concurrent seasonal adjustment is run using X-12
ARIMA.  Seasonally adjusted data series for the total private sector are cal-
culated by summing the seasonally adjusted data for all sectors, including
the unclassified sector, which is not published separately.
   
   The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contracting 
units for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia are seasonally
adjusted at the total private level only.  The sum of the state series for
opening, expanding, closing, and contracting units will not necessarily be
equal to the national total private series because of the independent seasonal
adjustment of these series.
   
   The net over-the-quarter change derived by summing the BED component series 
will differ from the net employment change estimated from the seasonally ad-
justed total private employment series from the CES program.  The intended use 
of BED statistics is to show the dynamic labor market changes that underlie 
the net employment change statistic.  As such, data users interested particu-
larly in the net employment change and not in the gross job flows underlying 
this change should refer to CES data for over-the-quarter net employment
changes.
   
Reliability of the data
   
   Since the data series on Business Employment Dynamics are based on admini-
strative rather than sample data, there are no issues related to sampling 
error.  Nonsampling error, however, still exists.  Nonsampling errors can oc-
cur for many reasons, such as the employer submitting corrected employment 
data after the end of the quarter or typographical errors made by businesses 
when providing information.  Such errors, however, are likely to be distri-
buted randomly throughout the dataset.
   
   Changes in administrative data sometimes create complications for the 
linkage process.  This can result in overstating openings and closings while 
understating expansions and contractions.  The BLS continues to refine methods 
for improving the linkage process to alleviate the effects of these compli-
cations.
   
   The BED data series are subject to periodic minor changes based on correc-
tions in QCEW records, updates on predecessors and successors information, and
seasonal adjustment revisions.

Annual revisions are published each year with the release of the first quarter
data.  These revisions cover the last four quarters of not seasonally adjusted
data and 5 years of seasonally adjusted data.
                      
Additional statistics and other information
   
   Several other programs within BLS produce closely related information.  
The QCEW program, also known as the ES-202 program, provides both quarterly 
and annual estimates of employment by state, county, and detailed industry. 
News releases on quarterly county employment and wages are available upon 
request from the Division of Administrative Statistics and Labor Turnover, 
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC 20212; 
telephone 202-691-6567; (http://www.bls.gov/cew/); (e-mail: QCEWInfo@bls.gov).
                                     
   The CES program produces monthly estimates of employment, its net change, 
and earnings by detailed industry.  These estimates are part of the Employ-
ment Situation report put out monthly by BLS.
                                     
   The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) program provides month-
ly measures of job openings, as well as employee hires and separations.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired in-
dividuals upon request.  Voice phone:  202-691-5200; TDD message referral 
number: 1-800-877-8339.







Table 1.  Private sector gross job gains and job losses, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(In thousands)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(1) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

1999  March                353      8,585       6,626         1,959       8,232       6,395           1,837
      June                 644      8,539       6,661         1,878       7,895       6,210           1,685
      September            588      8,571       6,734         1,837       7,983       6,250           1,733
      December           1,005      8,749       6,956         1,793       7,744       6,076           1,668

2000  March                789      8,792       6,924         1,868       8,003       6,341           1,662
      June                 492      8,499       6,814         1,685       8,007       6,387           1,620
      September            296      8,506       6,728         1,778       8,210       6,483           1,727
      December             295      8,400       6,702         1,698       8,105       6,433           1,672

2001  March               -156      8,436       6,694         1,742       8,592       6,717           1,875
      June                -792      8,009       6,319         1,690       8,801       7,050           1,751
      September         -1,184      7,608       5,917         1,691       8,792       6,991           1,801
      December            -960      7,591       5,932         1,659       8,551       6,858           1,693

2002  March                -39      8,049       6,259         1,790       8,088       6,424           1,664
      June                 -38      7,890       6,164         1,726       7,928       6,290           1,638
      September           -171      7,608       6,015         1,593       7,779       6,248           1,531
      December            -198      7,522       5,960         1,562       7,720       6,171           1,549

2003  March               -412      7,439       5,917         1,522       7,851       6,311           1,540
      June                -104      7,401       5,928         1,473       7,505       6,040           1,465
      September            204      7,383       5,918         1,465       7,179       5,818           1,361
      December             309      7,549       6,016         1,533       7,240       5,802           1,438

2004  March                465      7,709       6,207         1,502       7,244       5,802           1,442
      June                 634      7,747       6,228         1,519       7,113       5,644           1,469
      September            212      7,635       6,062         1,573       7,423       5,880           1,543
      December             775      7,860       6,248         1,612       7,085       5,658           1,427

2005  March                381      7,618       6,139         1,479       7,237       5,805           1,432
      June                 586      7,771       6,223         1,548       7,185       5,779           1,406
      September            676      7,963       6,389         1,574       7,287       5,840           1,447
      December             514      7,826       6,258         1,568       7,312       5,942           1,370

2006  March                800      7,720       6,294         1,426       6,920       5,639           1,281
      June                 417      7,784       6,267         1,517       7,367       6,000           1,367
      September             37      7,493       6,058         1,435       7,456       6,101           1,355
      December             493      7,793       6,254         1,539       7,300       5,947           1,353

2007  March                485      7,651       6,244         1,407       7,166       5,873           1,293
      June                 196      7,653       6,242         1,411       7,457       6,061           1,396
      September           -248      7,325       5,853         1,472       7,573       6,214           1,359
      December             310      7,670       6,214         1,456       7,360       6,010           1,350

2008  March               -280      7,167       5,781         1,386       7,447       6,090           1,357
      June                -536      7,296       5,869         1,427       7,832       6,334           1,498
      September           -967      6,884       5,520         1,364       7,851       6,461           1,390
      December          -1,801      6,738       5,363         1,375       8,539       7,038           1,501

2009  March             -2,740      5,746       4,603         1,143       8,486       7,045           1,441
      June              -1,579      6,420       5,116         1,304       7,999       6,598           1,401
      September           -964      6,296       5,112         1,184       7,260       5,852           1,408
      December            -193      6,628       5,322         1,306       6,821       5,546           1,275


(1) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.


Table 2.  Private sector gross job gains and losses, as a percent of employment(1), seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Percent)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(2) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

1999  March                 .3       8.0         6.2           1.8         7.7          6.0            1.7
      June                  .6       8.0         6.2           1.8         7.4          5.8            1.6
      September             .6       8.0         6.3           1.7         7.4          5.8            1.6
      December             1.0       8.1         6.4           1.7         7.1          5.6            1.5

2000  March                 .7       8.0         6.3           1.7         7.3          5.8            1.5
      June                  .4       7.7         6.2           1.5         7.3          5.8            1.5
      September             .2       7.7         6.1           1.6         7.5          5.9            1.6
      December              .3       7.6         6.1           1.5         7.3          5.8            1.5

2001  March                -.1       7.7         6.1           1.6         7.8          6.1            1.7
      June                 -.8       7.2         5.7           1.5         8.0          6.4            1.6
      September           -1.2       6.9         5.4           1.5         8.1          6.4            1.7
      December             -.9       7.0         5.5           1.5         7.9          6.3            1.6

2002  March                 .0       7.5         5.8           1.7         7.5          6.0            1.5
      June                  .0       7.3         5.7           1.6         7.3          5.8            1.5
      September            -.1       7.1         5.6           1.5         7.2          5.8            1.4
      December              .0       7.1         5.6           1.5         7.1          5.7            1.4

2003  March                -.4       6.9         5.5           1.4         7.3          5.9            1.4
      June                 -.1       7.0         5.6           1.4         7.1          5.7            1.4
      September             .2       6.9         5.5           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3
      December              .3       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3

2004  March                 .5       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3
      June                  .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.2            1.4
      September             .3       7.1         5.6           1.5         6.8          5.4            1.4
      December              .7       7.2         5.7           1.5         6.5          5.2            1.3

2005  March                 .3       6.9         5.6           1.3         6.6          5.3            1.3
      June                  .5       7.1         5.7           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      September             .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      December              .5       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.5          5.3            1.2

2006  March                 .8       6.9         5.6           1.3         6.1          5.0            1.1
      June                  .4       6.9         5.6           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September             .1       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.6          5.4            1.2
      December              .4       6.9         5.5           1.4         6.5          5.3            1.2

2007  March                 .4       6.7         5.5           1.2         6.3          5.2            1.1
      June                  .2       6.7         5.5           1.2         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September            -.3       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.7          5.5            1.2
      December              .3       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2008  March                -.2       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.5          5.3            1.2
      June                 -.4       6.5         5.2           1.3         6.9          5.6            1.3
      September            -.8       6.1         4.9           1.2         6.9          5.7            1.2
      December            -1.6       6.0         4.8           1.2         7.6          6.3            1.3

2009  March               -2.5       5.2         4.2           1.0         7.7          6.4            1.3
      June                -1.5       6.0         4.8           1.2         7.5          6.2            1.3
      September            -.9       5.9         4.8           1.1         6.8          5.5            1.3
      December             -.2       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.5          5.3            1.2


(1) The rates measure gross job gains and gross job losses as a percentage
    of the previous and current quarter employment levels.

(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.


Table 3: Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   Dec.    March   June    Sept.   Dec.   Dec.   March  June   Sept.  Dec.  
                                   2008    2009    2009    2009    2009   2008   2009   2009   2009   2009
Total private(1)

Gross job gains                   6,738   5,746   6,420   6,296   6,628    6.0    5.2    6.0    5.9    6.3
 At expanding establishments      5,363   4,603   5,116   5,112   5,322    4.8    4.2    4.8    4.8    5.1
 At opening establishments        1,375   1,143   1,304   1,184   1,306    1.2    1.0    1.2    1.1    1.2
Gross job losses                  8,539   8,486   7,999   7,260   6,821    7.6    7.7    7.5    6.8    6.5
 At contracting establishments    7,038   7,045   6,598   5,852   5,546    6.3    6.4    6.2    5.5    5.3
 At closing establishments        1,501   1,441   1,401   1,408   1,275    1.3    1.3    1.3    1.3    1.2
Net employment change            -1,801  -2,740  -1,579    -964    -193   -1.6   -2.5   -1.5    -.9    -.2

Goods-producing

Gross job gains                   1,318   1,077   1,266   1,330   1,298    6.0    5.2    6.4    6.9    6.9
 At expanding establishments      1,091     890   1,047   1,132   1,077    5.0    4.3    5.3    5.9    5.7
 At opening establishments          227     187     219     198     221    1.0     .9    1.1    1.0    1.2
Gross job losses                  2,080   2,290   2,145   1,663   1,573    9.5   11.0   10.8    8.6    8.3
 At contracting establishments    1,766   1,983   1,843   1,370   1,308    8.1    9.5    9.3    7.1    6.9
 At closing establishments          314     307     302     293     265    1.4    1.5    1.5    1.5    1.4
Net employment change              -762  -1,213    -879    -333    -275   -3.5   -5.8   -4.4   -1.7   -1.4

Natural resources and mining

Gross job gains                     288     225     283     253     283   15.2   12.0   15.8   14.4   16.1
 At expanding establishments        247     193     239     220     242   13.0   10.3   13.3   12.5   13.8
 At opening establishments           41      32      44      33      41    2.2    1.7    2.5    1.9    2.3
Gross job losses                    289     339     307     283     289   15.2   18.2   17.1   16.0   16.5
 At contracting establishments      254     295     263     246     251   13.4   15.8   14.6   13.9   14.3
 At closing establishments           35      44      44      37      38    1.8    2.4    2.5    2.1    2.2
Net employment change                -1    -114     -24     -30      -6     .0   -6.2   -1.3   -1.6    -.4

Construction

Gross job gains                     647     558     614     604     606    9.5    8.6   10.1   10.4   10.7
 At expanding establishments        506     437     480     478     469    7.4    6.7    7.9    8.2    8.3
 At opening establishments          141     121     134     126     137    2.1    1.9    2.2    2.2    2.4
Gross job losses                    984     990     940     805     767   14.4   15.3   15.4   13.7   13.5
 At contracting establishments      780     797     759     627     603   11.4   12.3   12.4   10.7   10.6
 At closing establishments          204     193     181     178     164    3.0    3.0    3.0    3.0    2.9
Net employment change              -337    -432    -326    -201    -161   -4.9   -6.7   -5.3   -3.3   -2.8

Manufacturing

Gross job gains                     383     294     369     473     409    2.9    2.4    3.0    4.0    3.6
 At expanding establishments        338     260     328     434     366    2.6    2.1    2.7    3.7    3.2
 At opening establishments           45      34      41      39      43     .3     .3     .3     .3     .4
Gross job losses                    807     961     898     575     517    6.2    7.7    7.5    5.0    4.4
 At contracting establishments      732     891     821     497     454    5.6    7.1    6.9    4.3    3.9
 At closing establishments           75      70      77      78      63     .6     .6     .6     .7     .5
Net employment change              -424    -667    -529    -102    -108   -3.3   -5.3   -4.5   -1.0    -.8

Service-providing(1)

Gross job gains                   5,420   4,669   5,154   4,966   5,330    6.1    5.3    5.9    5.7    6.2
 At expanding establishments      4,272   3,713   4,069   3,980   4,245    4.8    4.2    4.7    4.6    4.9
 At opening establishments        1,148     956   1,085     986   1,085    1.3    1.1    1.2    1.1    1.3
Gross job losses                  6,459   6,196   5,854   5,597   5,248    7.2    7.0    6.7    6.5    6.1
 At contracting establishments    5,272   5,062   4,755   4,482   4,238    5.9    5.7    5.4    5.2    4.9
 At closing establishments        1,187   1,134   1,099   1,115   1,010    1.3    1.3    1.3    1.3    1.2
Net employment change            -1,039  -1,527    -700    -631      82   -1.1   -1.7    -.8    -.8     .1

Wholesale trade

Gross job gains                     260     225     239     230     254    4.4    3.9    4.2    4.2    4.7
 At expanding establishments        205     178     193     186     201    3.5    3.1    3.4    3.4    3.7
 At opening establishments           55      47      46      44      53     .9     .8     .8     .8    1.0
Gross job losses                    366     383     355     306     279    6.2    6.6    6.3    5.6    5.1
 At contracting establishments      291     313     288     235     217    4.9    5.4    5.1    4.3    4.0
 At closing establishments           75      70      67      71      62    1.3    1.2    1.2    1.3    1.1
Net employment change              -106    -158    -116     -76     -25   -1.8   -2.7   -2.1   -1.4    -.4

Retail trade

Gross job gains                     837     752     865     825     812    5.5    5.1    5.9    5.7    5.6
 At expanding establishments        702     624     732     697     701    4.6    4.2    5.0    4.8    4.8
 At opening establishments          135     128     133     128     111     .9     .9     .9     .9     .8
Gross job losses                  1,195   1,025     915     939     932    7.9    6.9    6.2    6.4    6.5
 At contracting establishments    1,036     841     776     795     804    6.8    5.7    5.3    5.4    5.6
 At closing establishments          159     184     139     144     128    1.1    1.2     .9    1.0     .9
Net employment change              -358    -273     -50    -114    -120   -2.4   -1.8    -.3    -.7    -.9

Transportation and warehousing

Gross job gains                     238     173     184     186     221    5.6    4.2    4.5    4.7    5.6
 At expanding establishments        205     144     151     158     188    4.8    3.5    3.7    4.0    4.8
 At opening establishments           33      29      33      28      33     .8     .7     .8     .7     .8
Gross job losses                    286     311     290     239     221    6.7    7.4    7.2    6.0    5.6
 At contracting establishments      242     268     245     195     183    5.7    6.4    6.1    4.9    4.6
 At closing establishments           44      43      45      44      38    1.0    1.0    1.1    1.1    1.0
Net employment change               -48    -138    -106     -53       0   -1.1   -3.2   -2.7   -1.3     .0

Utilities

Gross job gains                      13      12      12      12      10    2.3    2.2    2.2    2.2    1.8
 At expanding establishments         12      11      11      11       9    2.1    2.0    2.0    2.0    1.6
 At opening establishments            1       1       1       1       1     .2     .2     .2     .2     .2
Gross job losses                     12      10      16      12      14    2.2    1.8    2.9    2.2    2.5
 At contracting establishments       11       9      14      11      12    2.0    1.6    2.5    2.0    2.1
 At closing establishments            1       1       2       1       2     .2     .2     .4     .2     .4
Net employment change                 1       2      -4       0      -4     .1     .4    -.7     .0    -.7

Information

Gross job gains                     134     114     111     116     122    4.6    4.0    3.9    4.2    4.4
 At expanding establishments        108      92      90      97      97    3.7    3.2    3.2    3.5    3.5
 At opening establishments           26      22      21      19      25     .9     .8     .7     .7     .9
Gross job losses                    187     172     160     158     140    6.3    6.0    5.6    5.6    5.1
 At contracting establishments      153     144     134     130     118    5.2    5.0    4.7    4.6    4.3
 At closing establishments           34      28      26      28      22    1.1    1.0     .9    1.0     .8
Net employment change               -53     -58     -49     -42     -18   -1.7   -2.0   -1.7   -1.4    -.7

Financial activities

Gross job gains                     392     333     339     327     359    4.9    4.3    4.5    4.3    4.8
 At expanding establishments        295     263     265     256     269    3.7    3.4    3.5    3.4    3.6
 At opening establishments           97      70      74      71      90    1.2     .9    1.0     .9    1.2
Gross job losses                    497     456     445     426     401    6.3    5.9    5.8    5.6    5.4
 At contracting establishments      376     356     351     320     306    4.8    4.6    4.6    4.2    4.1
 At closing establishments          121     100      94     106      95    1.5    1.3    1.2    1.4    1.3
Net employment change              -105    -123    -106     -99     -42   -1.4   -1.6   -1.3   -1.3    -.6

Professional and business services

Gross job gains                   1,241     982   1,140   1,138   1,353    7.1    5.8    6.9    7.0    8.3
 At expanding establishments        974     778     908     928   1,094    5.6    4.6    5.5    5.7    6.7
 At opening establishments          267     204     232     210     259    1.5    1.2    1.4    1.3    1.6
Gross job losses                  1,635   1,540   1,471   1,319   1,164    9.3    9.0    8.9    8.0    7.1
 At contracting establishments    1,331   1,264   1,163   1,035     905    7.6    7.4    7.0    6.3    5.5
 At closing establishments          304     276     308     284     259    1.7    1.6    1.9    1.7    1.6
Net employment change              -394    -558    -331    -181     189   -2.2   -3.2   -2.0   -1.0    1.2

Education and health services

Gross job gains                     848     731     770     761     821    4.7    4.0    4.2    4.1    4.4
 At expanding establishments        717     632     647     649     688    4.0    3.5    3.5    3.5    3.7
 At opening establishments          131      99     123     112     133     .7     .5     .7     .6     .7
Gross job losses                    679     723     710     733     664    3.8    3.9    3.9    4.0    3.7
 At contracting establishments      560     606     588     597     544    3.1    3.3    3.2    3.3    3.0
 At closing establishments          119     117     122     136     120     .7     .6     .7     .7     .7
Net employment change               169       8      60      28     157     .9     .1     .3     .1     .7

Leisure and hospitality

Gross job gains                   1,121   1,023   1,114   1,028   1,022    8.4    7.7    8.5    7.9    7.8
 At expanding establishments        835     782     853     790     783    6.3    5.9    6.5    6.1    6.0
 At opening establishments          286     241     261     238     239    2.1    1.8    2.0    1.8    1.8
Gross job losses                  1,246   1,236   1,174   1,139   1,134    9.4    9.3    9.0    8.7    8.8
 At contracting establishments    1,008   1,009     962     928     930    7.6    7.6    7.4    7.1    7.2
 At closing establishments          238     227     212     211     204    1.8    1.7    1.6    1.6    1.6
Net employment change              -125    -213     -60    -111    -112   -1.0   -1.6    -.5    -.8   -1.0

Other services

Gross job gains                     269     248     265     245     259    6.9    6.5    7.0    6.6    7.0
 At expanding establishments        209     198     208     194     203    5.4    5.2    5.5    5.2    5.5
 At opening establishments           60      50      57      51      56    1.5    1.3    1.5    1.4    1.5
Gross job losses                    323     309     290     293     270    8.4    8.1    7.7    7.8    7.2
 At contracting establishments      255     244     226     228     210    6.6    6.4    6.0    6.1    5.6
 At closing establishments           68      65      64      65      60    1.8    1.7    1.7    1.7    1.6
Net employment change               -54     -61     -25     -48     -11   -1.5   -1.6    -.7   -1.2    -.2

(1) Includes unclassified sector, not shown separately


Table 4.  Private sector percentage share (1) of gross job gains and losses, seasonally adjusted

(Percent)

                                                         3 months ended

                              Dec.  2008     March 2009      June  2009      Sept. 2009      Dec.  2009


Firm size 1 - 4 employees

Gross job gains...............   17.1            18.2            16.9            16.5            17.3
   Expanding firms............    7.7             8.8             8.0             7.9             7.6
   Opening firms..............   61.6            61.3            58.6            61.6            63.3
Gross job losses..............   14.5            14.9            14.4            16.1            16.5
   Contracting firms..........    6.9             6.9             6.7             7.2             7.8
   Closing firms..............   60.9            61.6            61.5            61.4            61.7

Firm size 5 - 9 employees

Gross job gains...............   11.8            13.3            12.4            12.0            11.7
   Expanding firms............   11.1            12.7            11.7            11.3            11.0
   Opening firms..............   15.3            16.3            15.9            15.6            15.3
Gross job losses..............   10.8            10.9            10.5            11.1            11.9
   Contracting firms..........   10.0            10.1             9.7            10.2            11.1
   Closing firms..............   15.8            15.2            15.8            15.7            15.8

Firm size 10 - 19 employees

Gross job gains...............   11.8            13.1            12.6            12.0            11.6
   Expanding firms............   12.1            13.7            13.0            12.4            12.0
   Opening firms..............   10.2            10.7            10.8            10.3             9.5
Gross job losses..............   11.2            11.3            10.9            11.3            12.1
   Contracting firms..........   11.3            11.6            11.0            11.6            12.4
   Closing firms..............   10.4             9.9            10.2            10.0            10.3

Firm size 20 - 49 employees

Gross job gains...............   13.6            14.8            14.7            13.9            13.5
   Expanding firms............   14.8            16.3            16.1            15.1            14.8
   Opening firms..............    7.7             7.7             8.3             7.7             7.2
Gross job losses..............   13.5            14.1            13.1            13.5            14.0
   Contracting firms..........   14.5            15.2            14.1            14.8            15.3
   Closing firms..............    7.6             7.3             7.3             7.1             7.5

Firm size 50 - 99 employees

Gross job gains...............    8.5             8.9             9.1             8.8             8.5
   Expanding firms............    9.7            10.3            10.4            10.0             9.7
   Opening firms..............    2.9             2.5             2.7             2.8             2.7
Gross job losses..............    8.9             9.4             8.5             8.4             8.7
   Contracting firms..........    9.9            10.5             9.5             9.5             9.9
   Closing firms..............    2.6             2.9             2.6             2.5             2.4

Firm size 100 - 249 employees

Gross job gains...............    9.2             8.9             9.5             9.3             9.2
   Expanding firms............   10.8            10.6            11.2            10.8            10.9
   Opening firms..............    1.5             1.1             1.5             1.5             1.3
Gross job losses..............    9.6            10.1             9.3             9.0             9.1
   Contracting firms..........   10.9            11.5            10.5            10.5            10.5
   Closing firms..............    1.7             1.5             1.6             1.5             1.4

Firm size 250 - 499 employees

Gross job gains...............    5.6             5.1             5.6             5.7             5.4
   Expanding firms............    6.6             6.1             6.7             6.7             6.5
   Opening firms..............     .5              .2              .4              .4              .3
Gross job losses..............    5.9             6.2             5.9             5.7             5.4
   Contracting firms..........    6.7             7.1             6.8             6.7             6.4
   Closing firms..............     .7              .6              .6              .6              .4

Firm size 500 - 999 employees

Gross job gains...............    4.6             4.0             4.4             4.9             4.5
   Expanding firms............    5.5             4.9             5.3             5.8             5.4
   Opening firms..............     .2              .1              .3              .1              .2
Gross job losses..............    5.0             5.0             5.3             4.7             4.6
   Contracting firms..........    5.7             5.8             6.1             5.6             5.4
   Closing firms..............     .3              .4              .2              .4              .2

Firm size 1,000 or more employees

Gross job gains...............   17.8            13.7            14.7            16.9            18.3
   Expanding firms............   21.6            16.7            17.6            20.1            22.0
   Opening firms..............     .0              .1             1.3              .0              .2
Gross job losses..............   20.7            18.1            22.1            20.2            17.7
   Contracting firms..........   24.1            21.1            25.7            24.0            21.1
   Closing firms..............     .1              .7              .1              .8              .1


(1) Share measures the percent of the category represented by each firm size class,
    and rates may not sum to 100.0 due to rounding.


Table 5.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by state, seasonally adjusted

                                         Gross job gains                                          Gross job losses
State                                    (3 months ended)                                         (3 months ended)
                        Dec.       March      June        Sept.     Dec.       Dec.         March      June        Sept.     Dec. 
                        2008       2009       2009        2009      2009       2008         2009       2009        2009      2009

United States1.....  6,738,000  5,746,000  6,420,000   6,296,000  6,628,000  8,539,000   8,486,000   7,999,000  7,260,000  6,821,000

Alabama.....            84,322     74,548     80,612      83,587     85,116    120,361     116,192     105,956    102,211     90,044
Alaska.....             26,344     23,272     25,501      22,555     24,115     26,644      25,380      25,347     24,767     25,229
Arizona.....           129,134    113,324    114,433     127,059    128,317    194,424     176,971     167,403    144,082    133,811
Arkansas.....           55,099     51,314     49,030      53,525     56,557     66,942      66,292      69,982     58,259     53,684
California.....        820,460    672,802    772,918     754,988    843,902  1,035,009   1,048,711     976,062    950,556    820,701
Colorado.....          127,607    109,813    119,950     118,040    122,022    161,271     161,315     152,189    138,776    133,095
Connecticut.....        71,972     62,355     71,878      69,384     70,506     92,523      91,796      86,207     79,698     77,246
Delaware.....           23,084     18,591     21,917      18,838     20,132     27,469      27,761      24,826     23,796     24,159
District of Columbia    25,184     25,858     24,547      22,534     26,279     31,325      28,003      25,894     27,476     23,536
Florida.....           444,118    354,281    391,029     397,599    430,811    596,670     503,337     496,060    478,219    443,860

Georgia.....           214,969    191,622    206,461     190,583    205,594    299,060     268,140     260,392    234,743    215,152
Hawaii.....             24,171     21,712     22,904      23,372     23,941     33,051      30,629      31,193     28,454     26,266
Idaho.....              38,827     35,289     37,691      39,334     38,187     49,612      54,035      48,908     38,018     40,114
Illinois.....          244,575    209,855    248,535     235,424    254,690    332,994     327,887     322,641    284,697    272,343
Indiana.....           130,650    113,691    127,656     140,910    133,137    192,024     186,934     178,336    140,584    134,837
Iowa.....               71,891     62,521     67,741      64,060     67,558     86,117      86,010      81,445     71,247     73,924
Kansas.....             74,158     55,477     58,952      57,666     62,279     78,873      79,420      81,324     67,589     67,753
Kentucky.....           85,641     74,235     80,446      83,163     90,100    107,293     110,211     102,102     89,218     87,029
Louisiana.....         121,916     94,269     90,921      96,911     97,421    105,935     115,118     120,721    112,469    102,233
Maine.....              38,167     30,943     37,231      35,942     35,316     41,793      42,142      39,597     36,653     37,742

Maryland.....          126,900    116,989    127,395     117,095    118,233    155,992     148,339     138,683    138,105    131,474
Massachusetts.....     148,012    121,358    153,055     145,879    143,724    191,351     181,911     169,900    160,835    158,214
Michigan.....          200,389    164,809    207,715     234,479    211,694    294,392     286,628     299,545    234,549    231,136
Minnesota.....         118,930    110,150    130,928     126,646    118,806    155,332     163,810     150,093    142,075    127,431
Mississippi.....        57,211     48,330     47,816      50,459     51,016     69,254      65,774      64,564     58,740     51,508
Missouri.....          133,009    121,936    127,656     126,233    122,272    168,117     163,155     159,538    145,067    132,391
Montana.....            28,012     24,030     27,411      25,348     28,037     31,386      35,614      29,232     27,463     29,134
Nebraska.....           44,014     38,462     40,000      39,577     39,973     50,286      49,912      48,467     42,057     46,308
Nevada.....             62,481     54,469     55,000      58,837     68,893    100,495      91,854      82,009     73,918     66,567
New Hampshire.....      33,928     31,117     35,690      32,864     33,339     41,931      41,234      41,021     37,478     35,927

New Jersey.....        189,766    167,754    214,410     188,559    197,142    253,478     231,640     228,474    216,432    204,741
New Mexico.....         40,826     36,132     38,339      39,184     37,338     53,047      51,493      49,388     41,977     42,293
New York.....          436,017    356,418    439,771     410,127    439,309    507,653     502,806     496,423    447,883    432,668
North Carolina.....    197,127    173,772    188,633     183,145    193,996    266,978     259,811     236,650    212,417    211,674
North Dakota.....       19,568     16,743     19,483      20,164     19,856     19,341      21,853      19,578     18,109     19,215
Ohio.....              228,078    201,205    236,932     233,706    235,084    323,982     317,188     316,738    260,654    255,156
Oklahoma.....           78,259     69,370     66,260      65,335     68,017     85,333      99,578     100,494     86,247     78,174
Oregon.....             86,304     78,047     86,577      86,169     89,061    126,963     125,470     108,603     93,229     96,432
Pennsylvania.....      256,668    231,793    254,916     250,863    263,591    318,345     318,399     302,189    285,919    264,761
Rhode Island.....       22,015     21,276     24,361      21,553     22,695     30,698      29,893      25,285     29,240     24,757

South Carolina.....     86,056     78,586     86,025      83,889     84,856    123,643     119,015     110,427     96,914     92,350
South Dakota.....       21,073     18,050     20,798      19,821     19,881     22,779      24,121      24,173     21,148     21,238
Tennessee.....         118,251     99,890    118,193     114,982    120,129    165,472     160,793     159,338    134,568    118,086
Texas.....             537,006    435,060    442,377     440,450    474,360    563,136     600,010     598,252    519,753    479,849
Utah.....               65,196     56,649     62,683      68,122     65,812     84,194      84,251      80,188     70,320     66,923
Vermont.....            17,967     15,801     17,916      16,408     19,451     20,207      21,649      21,155     17,522     17,810
Virginia.....          171,660    151,646    168,537     158,307    165,634    211,212     203,738     198,874    184,500    166,549
Washington.....        157,410    151,373    158,451     158,563    150,938    206,251     202,667     190,911    170,635    180,531
West Virginia.....      39,356     34,103     32,836      32,674     36,970     40,515      43,258      44,398     37,355     34,837
Wisconsin.....         129,090    113,792    124,463     120,316    128,104    162,823     174,665     160,442    142,424    137,813

Wyoming.....            19,848     18,033     15,800      16,676     15,838     20,038      26,326      25,436     17,900     18,511
Puerto Rico.....        45,140     36,240     37,255      41,232     45,862     51,035      57,413      50,935     44,962     40,546
Virgin Islands.....      1,978      1,610      1,618       1,727      2,318      2,238       2,611       2,702      2,225      1,833

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.


Table 6.  Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted

                        Gross job gains as a percent of employment    Gross job losses as a percent of employment
State                              (3 months ended)                               (3 months ended)

                        Dec.    March    June     Sept.   Dec.        Dec.     March     June    Sept.    Dec. 
                        2008    2009     2009     2009    2009        2008     2009      2009    2009     2009

United States1.....      6.0     5.2      6.0      5.9     6.3         7.6      7.7       7.5      6.8     6.5

Alabama.....             5.4     4.9      5.5      5.7     5.9         7.8      7.7       7.2      7.0     6.3
Alaska.....             11.1     9.7     10.8      9.7    10.3        11.2     10.7      10.8     10.6    10.7
Arizona.....             6.0     5.5      5.7      6.4     6.5         9.1      8.6       8.4      7.3     6.8
Arkansas.....            5.7     5.4      5.3      5.8     6.1         6.9      6.9       7.4      6.3     5.9
California.....          6.5     5.5      6.5      6.4     7.2         8.3      8.5       8.1      8.0     7.0
Colorado.....            6.7     5.9      6.5      6.5     6.8         8.3      8.5       8.2      7.6     7.4
Connecticut.....         5.1     4.5      5.2      5.1     5.3         6.5      6.6       6.3      5.8     5.7
Delaware.....            6.5     5.3      6.3      5.5     5.9         7.7      7.9       7.2      7.0     7.1
District of Columbia..   5.6     5.8      5.5      5.1     6.0         7.0      6.3       5.8      6.2     5.4
Florida.....             6.9     5.7      6.4      6.5     7.1         9.2      8.0       8.1      7.9     7.3

Georgia.....             6.6     6.0      6.5      6.1     6.7         9.1      8.4       8.2      7.6     7.0
Hawaii.....              4.9     4.5      4.8      5.0     5.2         6.8      6.4       6.6      6.0     5.6
Idaho.....               7.3     6.8      7.5      8.0     7.7         9.4     10.4       9.8      7.6     8.1
Illinois.....            4.9     4.4      5.2      5.0     5.5         6.7      6.8       6.8      6.0     5.8
Indiana.....             5.3     4.8      5.6      6.2     5.9         7.9      7.9       7.7      6.1     5.9
Iowa.....                5.8     5.1      5.6      5.4     5.6         7.0      7.0       6.8      6.0     6.2
Kansas.....              6.7     5.1      5.4      5.5     6.0         7.1      7.2       7.6      6.4     6.4
Kentucky.....            5.9     5.2      5.7      5.9     6.5         7.3      7.6       7.2      6.4     6.2
Louisiana.....           7.9     6.1      6.1      6.5     6.6         6.9      7.5       8.0      7.6     6.9
Maine.....               7.7     6.3      7.8      7.5     7.4         8.5      8.6       8.2      7.7     7.9

Maryland.....            6.2     5.8      6.4      5.9     6.0         7.6      7.3       7.0      7.0     6.7
Massachusetts.....       5.3     4.4      5.7      5.4     5.4         6.9      6.6       6.2      6.0     6.0
Michigan.....            5.9     5.0      6.5      7.4     6.7         8.7      8.7       9.4      7.4     7.4
Minnesota.....           5.2     4.9      6.0      5.8     5.4         6.8      7.3       6.8      6.6     5.9
Mississippi.....         6.5     5.6      5.6      6.1     6.2         7.9      7.6       7.7      7.1     6.2
Missouri.....            5.9     5.5      5.9      5.9     5.8         7.4      7.3       7.4      6.8     6.2
Montana.....             7.9     6.9      8.0      7.5     8.3         8.9     10.3       8.6      8.2     8.7
Nebraska.....            5.8     5.1      5.4      5.4     5.4         6.6      6.6       6.5      5.7     6.3
Nevada.....              5.8     5.3      5.5      6.1     7.2         9.4      8.9       8.3      7.6     6.9
New Hampshire.....       6.4     5.9      6.8      6.4     6.5         7.8      7.8       7.8      7.3     7.0

New Jersey.....          5.8     5.2      6.8      5.9     6.2         7.7      7.2       7.2      6.8     6.5
New Mexico.....          6.5     5.9      6.3      6.5     6.3         8.4      8.3       8.2      7.0     7.1
New York.....            6.1     5.0      6.4      5.9     6.4         7.2      7.1       7.2      6.5     6.3
North Carolina.....      5.9     5.4      5.9      5.9     6.2         8.1      8.1       7.5      6.8     6.9
North Dakota.....        6.8     5.9      6.8      7.1     7.0         6.8      7.7       6.9      6.3     6.8
Ohio.....                5.2     4.7      5.6      5.6     5.6         7.3      7.4       7.5      6.3     6.2
Oklahoma.....            6.3     5.7      5.6      5.6     6.0         6.9      8.2       8.5      7.5     6.8
Oregon.....              6.1     5.7      6.4      6.5     6.8         9.0      9.2       8.1      7.1     7.4
Pennsylvania.....        5.2     4.8      5.3      5.3     5.6         6.5      6.6       6.3      6.1     5.7
Rhode Island.....        5.4     5.4      6.2      5.6     5.9         7.7      7.6       6.5      7.6     6.4

South Carolina.....      5.7     5.4      6.0      5.9     6.0         8.2      8.1       7.7      6.8     6.6
South Dakota.....        6.5     5.6      6.5      6.2     6.3         7.0      7.5       7.6      6.7     6.7
Tennessee.....           5.2     4.5      5.4      5.4     5.7         7.3      7.3       7.4      6.3     5.5
Texas.....               6.2     5.0      5.2      5.3     5.8         6.5      7.0       7.1      6.3     5.8
Utah.....                6.5     5.8      6.5      7.1     7.0         8.3      8.6       8.4      7.4     7.1
Vermont.....             7.2     6.5      7.5      6.9     8.1         8.1      8.8       8.8      7.4     7.4
Virginia.....            5.8     5.2      5.9      5.6     5.8         7.2      7.0       7.0      6.5     5.9
Washington.....          6.7     6.5      6.9      7.1     6.7         8.7      8.7       8.4      7.5     8.1
West Virginia.....       6.9     6.0      5.9      6.0     6.8         7.1      7.7       8.0      6.8     6.3
Wisconsin.....           5.4     4.9      5.5      5.4     5.8         6.9      7.5       7.1      6.4     6.2

Wyoming.....             8.9     8.1      7.4      8.1     7.7         8.9     11.9      12.0      8.7     9.0
Puerto Rico.....         6.3     5.2      5.4      6.1     6.8         7.1      8.2       7.4      6.6     6.0
Virgin Islands.....      6.1     5.1      5.3      5.7     7.6         6.9      8.2       8.8      7.4     6.0

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.


Table 7.  Private sector establishment births and deaths, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Levels in thousands)

                              Number of Establishments                     Employment
                             Births             Deaths(1)            Births             Deaths
Year  3 months ended     Level    Rate(2)   Level    Rate       Level      Rate    Level      Rate

1999  March               198      3.2       184     3.0        1,305       1.2    1,248       1.2
      June                206      3.4       184     3.0        1,308       1.2    1,118       1.0
      September           206      3.3       186     3.0        1,243       1.2    1,127       1.0
      December            203      3.3       183     3.0        1,207       1.1    1,102       1.0
  
2000  March               211      3.4       186     3.0        1,227       1.1    1,117       1.0
      June                205      3.3       181     2.9        1,142       1.0    1,063       1.0
      September           212      3.4       199     3.2        1,166       1.1    1,167       1.1
      December            200      3.2       194     3.1        1,144       1.0    1,120       1.0
  
2001  March               205      3.3       203     3.2        1,174       1.1    1,292       1.2
      June                204      3.2       205     3.3        1,151       1.0    1,236       1.1
      September           204      3.2       209     3.3        1,156       1.1    1,232       1.1
      December            197      3.1       200     3.2        1,121       1.0    1,150       1.1
  
2002  March               203      3.2       190     3.0        1,202       1.1    1,109       1.0
      June                209      3.3       186     2.9        1,192       1.1    1,086       1.0
      September           201      3.2       184     2.9        1,055       1.0    1,026       1.0
      December            203      3.2       191     3.0        1,026       1.0    1,028       1.0
  
2003  March               192      3.0       186     2.9          997        .9    1,007        .9
      June                192      3.0       186     2.9          965        .9      956        .9
      September           193      3.0       179     2.8          959        .9      884        .8
      December            201      3.1       179     2.8        1,010        .9      921        .9
  
2004  March               205      3.2       180     2.8          998        .9      914        .9
      June                202      3.1       184     2.8          982        .9      909        .8
      September           210      3.2       186     2.8        1,017        .9      955        .9
      December            212      3.2       181     2.7        1,001        .9      900        .8
  
2005  March               210      3.2       185     2.8          943        .9      850        .8
      June                216      3.2       180     2.7          952        .9      839        .8
      September           220      3.3       186     2.8          995        .9      886        .8
      December            224      3.3       188     2.8          980        .9      852        .8
  
2006  March               220      3.2       181     2.7          921        .8      739        .7
      June                220      3.2       194     2.8          975        .9      843        .7
      September           210      3.1       196     2.9          926        .8      837        .7
      December            222      3.2       194     2.8          969        .9      815        .7
  
2007  March               212      3.1       193     2.8          890        .8      763        .7
      June                204      2.9       201     2.9          882        .8      851        .7
      September           218      3.1       203     2.9          942        .8      845        .7
      December            209      3.0       207     3.0          909        .8      841        .7
  
2008  March               207      3.0       210     3.0          889        .8      803        .7
      June                199      2.9       227     3.3          875        .8      936        .8
      September           191      2.7       223     3.2          829        .7      882        .8
      December            193      2.8       241     3.5          808        .7      958        .9
  
2009  March               171      2.5       240     3.5          697        .6      891        .8
      June                177      2.6       N/A     N/A          740        .7      N/A       N/A
      September           169      2.5       N/A     N/A          695        .7      N/A       N/A
      December            180      2.7       N/A     N/A          701        .7      N/A       N/A
  

(1) Values for deaths are not available for the most recent three quarters
    by definition.  See the Technical Note for more information.

(2) The rates measure births and deaths as a percentage
    of the average of the previous and current quarter employment levels or
    total number of establishments.

Last Modified Date: August 18, 2010
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