Economic News Release

Quarterly Data Series on Business Employment Dynamics News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. EST 				USDL-12-2261
Friday, November 16, 2012	

Technical information: (202) 691-6553  *  BDMInfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/bdm

Media contact:	       (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov	


	  BUSINESS EMPLOYMENT DYNAMICS:  FIRST QUARTER 2012
	
From December 2011 to March 2012 gross job gains from opening and 
expanding private sector establishments were 6.9 million, an increase
of 26,000 from the previous quarter, the U.S. Bureau of Labor 
Statistics reported today. Over this period, gross job losses from 
closing and contracting private sector establishments were 6.1 million,
a decrease of 399,000 from the previous quarter.

The difference between the number of gross job gains and the number 
of gross job losses yielded a net employment change of 814,000 jobs
in the private sector during the first quarter of 2012.   
(See table 1.)

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of 
increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses 
in the economy. Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track
these changes in employment at private business units from the third
month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains
are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing 
units and the addition of new jobs at opening units. Gross job losses
are the result of contractions in employment at existing units and the
loss of jobs at closing units. The difference between the number of 
gross job gains and the number of gross job losses is the net change 
in employment. (See the Technical Note for more information.) 

The BED data series include gross job gains and gross job losses at the 
establishment level by industry subsector and for the 50 states, the 
District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, as well as 
gross job gains and gross job losses at the firm level by employer size 
class.

 ------------------------------------------------------------------- 
|       Changes to Business Employment Dynamics (BED) Data          |
| Data in this release incorporate annual revisions to the BED      |
| series.  Annual revisions are published each year with the release| 
| of first quarter data.  These revisions cover the last four       |
| quarters of not seasonally adjusted data and five years of        |
| seasonally adjusted data.                                         | 
 ------------------------------------------------------------------- 

Gross job gains at expanding establishments totaled 5.7 million in 
first quarter 2012, an increase of 149,000 from the previous quarter.

Opening establishments accounted for 1.2 million jobs gained in first 
quarter 2012, a decrease of 123,000 from the previous quarter.

Contracting establishments lost 4.9 million jobs in first quarter 
2012. This is a decrease of 303,000 from the prior quarter.

In first quarter 2012, closing establishments lost 1.2 million jobs, 
a decrease of 96,000 from the previous quarter.  (See tables 1 and 3.)

Gross job gains represented 6.3 percent of private sector employment 
in first quarter 2012, while gross job losses represented 5.6 percent
of private sector employment.  (See table 2.)

In first quarter 2012, the number of establishment births (a subset of 
the openings data, see the Technical Note for more information) fell by 
9,000 to 193,000. These new establishments accounted for 748,000 jobs,
a decrease of 54,000 from the previous quarter.  (See table 8.)

Data for establishment deaths (a subset of the closings data) are 
available through second quarter 2011, when 677,000 jobs were lost at 
190,000 establishments. These figures represent an increase from the
prior quarter when 610,000 jobs were lost at 184,000 establishments.  

During first quarter 2012, gross job gains exceeded gross job losses 
in all industry sectors except information, and transportation and 
warehousing. Manufacturing experienced its eighth consecutive quarter
of net employment gains. The leisure and hospitality industry 
experienced a net employment gain of 250,000 jobs, representing the
largest net employment gain in that industry since the series began 
in 1992. (See table 3.)

Table A.  Three-month private sector gross job gains and losses, 
seasonally adjusted 

Category                                 3 months ended

                                Mar.    June    Sept.   Dec.    Mar.
                                2011    2011    2011    2011    2012

                                      Levels (in thousands)
                                      
Gross job gains................ 6,437   6,942   7,136   6,909  6,935
 At expanding establishments... 5,272   5,646   5,776   5,557  5,706
 At opening establishments..... 1,165   1,296   1,360   1,352  1,229

Gross job losses............... 6,145   6,339   6,342   6,520  6,121
 At contracting establishments. 5,010   5,111   5,194   5,238  4,935
 At closing establishments..... 1,135   1,228   1,148   1,282  1,186

Net employment change(1).......   292     603     794     389    814
								
                                         Rates (percent)

Gross job gains................   6.0     6.5     6.7     6.3    6.3
 At expanding establishments...   4.9     5.3     5.4     5.1    5.2
 At opening establishments.....   1.1     1.2     1.3     1.2    1.1

Gross job losses...............   5.8     5.9     5.9     6.0    5.6
 At contracting establishments.   4.7     4.8     4.8     4.8    4.5
 At closing establishments.....   1.1     1.1     1.1     1.2    1.1

Net employment change(1).......    .2      .6      .8      .3     .7

    (1) The net employment change is the difference between total 
    gross job gains and total gross job losses.  See the Technical 
    Note for further information.
    
Gross job losses declined in all three major firm size classes compared
to the previous quarter. Firms with 1-49 employees and firms with 
50-249 employees experienced their lowest level of gross job losses 
since the series began. Firms with 1-49 employees accounted for 44 
percent of the total net change in employment for first quarter 2012.
(See tables 4 and 5.)

In the first quarter of 2012, gross job gains exceeded gross job losses 
in 48 states and the District of Columbia. Texas had the largest net 
employment gain of 90,354 jobs, followed by California with 82,314 jobs
and New York with 63,717 jobs.  (See table 6.)  Alabama, Kansas, 
Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, Rhode Island, and the District 
of Columbia had both a rate of gross job gains at or above the U.S 
average of 6.3 percent, and a rate of gross job losses that was the 
same or below the national rate of 5.6 percent.  (See table 7.)

More Information
Additional information on gross job gains and gross job losses are 
available online at www.bls.gov/bdm. This information includes data 
on the levels and rates of gross job gains and gross job losses by 
firm size, not seasonally adjusted data and other seasonally adjusted 
time series not presented in this release, charts of gross job gains 
and gross job losses by industry and firm size, and frequently asked 
questions on firm-size data. Additional information about the Business 
Employment Dynamics data can be found in the Technical Note of this 
release or may be obtained by e-mailing BDMinfo@bls.gov.



 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
| The Business Employment Dynamics for Second Quarter 2012 are scheduled |
| to  be released on Tuesday, January 29, 2013 at 10:00 a.m. (EST).      |
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------








                                                                 
Technical Note

   
   The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-
state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages
(QCEW), or the ES-202 program.  The BED data are compiled by the U.S.
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) from existing quarterly state unemployment
insurance (UI) records.  Most employers in the U.S. are required to file
quarterly reports on the employment and wages of workers covered by UI
laws, and to pay quarterly UI taxes.  The quarterly UI reports are sent by
the State Workforce Agencies (SWAs) to BLS and form the basis of the BLS 
establishment universe sampling frame.  These reports also are used to pro-
duce the quarterly QCEW data on total employment and wages and the longitu-
dinal BED data on gross job gains and losses.  Other important BLS uses 
of the UI reports are in the Current Employment Statistics (CES) program. 
(See table below for differences between QCEW, CES, and BED.)
                                     
   In the BED program, the quarterly UI records are linked across quarters
to provide a longitudinal history for each establishment.  The linkage
process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment
level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and
expanding establishments and jobs lost at closing and contracting establish-
ments.

Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES employment measures

   The BLS publishes three different establishment-based employment mea-
sures for any given quarter.  Each of these measures--QCEW, BED, and CES--
makes use of the quarterly UI employment reports in producing data; how-
ever, each measure has a somewhat different universe coverage, estimation 
procedure, and publication product.

   Differences in coverage and estimation methods can result in somewhat 
different measures of over-the-quarter employment change.  It is important to 
understand program differences and the intended uses of the program products.  
(See table below.)  Additional information on each program can be obtained 
from the program Web sites shown in the table.

				                                  
Summary of Major Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES Employment Measures
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |         QCEW        |         BED          |         CES
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Source     |--Count of UI admini-|--Count of longitudi- |--Sample survey: 
           |  strative records   |  nally-linked UI ad- |  486,000 establish-
           |  submitted by 9.2   |  ministrative records|  ments
           |  million employers  |  submitted by 6.8    |
           |                     |  million private sec-|
           |                     |  tor employers       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Coverage   |--UI and UCFE cover- |--UI Coverage, exclud-|Nonfarm wage and sal-
           |  age:  all employers|  ing government, pri-|  ary jobs:
           |  subject to state   |  vate households, and|--UI Coverage, exclud-
           |  and federal UI Laws|  establishments with |  ing agriculture, pri-
           |                     |  zero employment     |  vate households, and
           |                     |                      |  self-employed workers
           |                     |                      |--Other employment, in-
           |                     |                      |  cluding railroads, 
           |                     |                      |  religious organiza-
           |                     |                      |  tions, and other non-
           |                     |                      |  UI-covered jobs
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Publication|--Quarterly          |--Quarterly           |--Monthly 
frequency  |  -6 months after the|  -7 months after the |  -Usually first Friday
           |   end of each quar- |   end of each quarter|   of following month
           |   ter               |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Use of UI  |--Directly summarizes|--Links each new UI   |--Uses UI file as a sam-
file       |  and publishes each |  quarter to longitu- |  pling frame and annu-
           |  new quarter of UI  |  dinal database and  |  ally realigns (bench-
           |  data               |  directly summarizes |  marks) sample esti-    
           |                     |  gross job gains and |  mates to first quar-  
           |                     |  losses              |  ter UI levels
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Provides a quarter-|--Provides quarterly  |--Provides current month-
products   |  ly and annual uni- |  employer dynamics   |  ly estimates of employ-
           |  verse count of es- |  data on establish-  |  ment, hours, and earn-
           |  tablishments, em-  |  ment openings, clos-|  ings at the MSA, state,
           |  ployment, and wages|  ings, expansions,   |  and national level by
           |  at the county, MSA,|  and contractions at |  industry
           |  state, and national|  the national level  |
           |  levels by detailed |  by NAICS super-     |
           |  industry           |  sectors and by size |
           |                     |  of firm, and at the |   
           |                     |  state private-sector|
           |                     |  total level         | 
           |                     |--Future expansions   |
           |                     |  will include data   |
           |                     |  with greater in-    |
           |                     |  dustry detail and   |
           |                     |  data at the county  |
           |                     |  and MSA level       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Major uses include:|--Major uses include: |--Major uses include:
uses       |  -Detailed locality |  -Business cycle     |  -Principal national
           |   data              |   analysis           |   economic indicator
           |  -Periodic universe |  -Analysis of employ-|  -Official time series 
           |   counts for bench- |   er dynamics under- |   for employment change
           |   marking sample    |   lying economic ex- |   measures
           |   survey estimates  |   pansions and con-  |  -Input into other ma-
           |  -Sample frame for  |   tractions          |   jor economic indi-
           |   BLS establishment |  -Analysis of employ-|   cators
           |   surveys           |   ment expansion and |
           |                     |   contraction by size|   
           |                     |   of firm            |
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Program    |--www.bls.gov/cew/   |--www.bls.gov/bdm/    |--www.bls.gov/ces/
Web sites  |                     |                      |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               
                           
Coverage                           

   Employment and wage data for workers covered by state UI and Unemployment 
Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE) laws are compiled from quarterly 
contribution reports submitted to the SWAs by employers.  In addition to the 
quarterly contribution reports, employers who operate multiple establishments 
within a state complete a questionnaire, called the "Multiple Worksite Report,"
which provides detailed information on the location of their establishments. 
These reports are based on place of employment rather than place of residence. 
UI and UCFE coverage is broad and basically comparable from state to state.
   
   Major exclusions from UI coverage are self-employed workers, religious or-
ganizations, most agricultural workers on small farms, all members of the 
Armed Forces, elected officials in most states, most employees of railroads, 
some domestic workers, most student workers at schools, and employees of cer-
tain small nonprofit organizations.
   
   Gross job gains and gross job losses in this release are derived from lon-
gitudinal histories of 6.8 million private sector employer reports out 
of 9.2 million total reports of employment and wages submitted by states to 
BLS in the first quarter of 2012.  Gross job gains and gross job losses data 
in this release do not report estimates for government employees or private 
households (NAICS 814110) and do not include establishments with zero employ-
ment in both previous and current quarters.  Data from Puerto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands (49,972 units rounded to 0.0 million) also are excluded from
the national data.  As an illustration,the table below shows, in millions of 
establishments, the number of establishments excluded from the gross job 
gains and gross job losses data in the first quarter of 2012:


             Number of active establishments included in 
              Business Employment Dynamics data at the
                          national level

                                                                   Millions
                                                                       
Total establishments QCEW program....................................9.2

    Excluded:  Public sector.........................................0.3 
               Private households....................................0.8
               Zero employment.......................................1.3      
               Establishments in Puerto Rico 
                 and the Virgin Islands..............................0.0 

                 
Total establishments included in Business
Employment Dynamics data.............................................6.8

Unit of analysis
   
   Establishments are used in the tabulation of the BED statistics by in-
dustry and firms are used in the tabulation of the BED size class sta-
tistics.  An establishment is defined as an economic unit that produces
goods or services, usually at a single physical location, and engages in
one or predominantly one activity.  A firm is a legal business, either
corporate or otherwise, and may consist of several establishments.  Firm-
level data are compiled based on an aggregation of establishments under
common ownership by a corporate parent using employer tax identification
numbers.  The firm-level aggregation, which is consistent with the role of
corporations as the economic decision makers, is used for the measurement
of the BED data elements by size class.
   
   Because of the difference in the unit of analysis, total gross job gains
and gross job losses by size class are lower than total gross job gains and
gross job losses by industry, as some establishment gains and losses within
a firm are offset during the aggregation process.  However, the total net
changes in employment are the same for not seasonally adjusted data and are
similar for seasonally adjusted data.
                                 
Concepts and methodology

   The Business Employment Dynamics data measure the net change in employ-
ment at the establishment or firm level.  These changes come about in one 
of four ways.  A net increase in employment can come from either opening 
units or expanding units.  A net decrease in employment can come from either 
closing units or contracting units.  Gross job gains include the sum of all
jobs added at either opening or expanding units.  Gross job losses include
the sum of all jobs lost in either closing or contracting units.  The net
change in employment is the difference between gross job gains and gross
job losses.
   
   The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:                          

   Openings.  These are either units with positive third month employment for
the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or
with positive third month employment in the current quarter, following zero em-
ployment in the previous quarter.
                                     
   Expansions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment
over this period.
   
   Closings.  These are units with positive third month employment in the pre-
vious quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the current
quarter.
   
   Contractions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment
over this period.

   Births.  These are units with positive third month employment for the 
first time in the current quarter with no links to the prior quarter, or 
units with positive third month employment in the current quarter and zero
employment in the third month of the previous four quarters. Births are a
subset of openings not including re-openings of seasonal businesses.

   Deaths.  These are units with no employment or zero employment reported in 
the third month of four consecutive quarters following the last quarter with 
positive employment. Deaths are a subset of closings not including temporary 
shutdowns of seasonal businesses.  A unit that closes during the quarter may 
be a death, but we wait three quarters to determine whether it is a permanent
closing or a temporary shutdown. Therefore, there is always a lag of three 
quarters for the publication of death statistics.

   All establishment-level employment changes are measured from the third 
month of each quarter.  Not all establishments and firms change their em-
ployment levels.  Units with no change in employment count towards estimates
of total employment, but not for levels of gross employment job gains and 
gross job losses.

   Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing 
their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quar-
ters.  This provides a symmetric growth rate.  The rates are calculated for
the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to
form their respective totals.  These rates can be added and subtracted just
as their levels can.  For instance, the difference between the gross job
gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

Establishment Births and Deaths

   For the purpose of BED statistics, births are defined as establishments
that appear in the longitudinal database for the first time with positive
employment in the third month of a quarter, or showed four consecutive
quarters of zero employment in the third month followed by a quarter in
which it shows positive employment in the third month.  Similarly, deaths
are defined as establishments that either drop out of the longitudinal
database or an establishment that had positive employment in the third month
of a given quarter followed by four consecutive quarters of showing zero
employment in the third month.  Although the data for establishment births
and deaths are tabulated independently from the data for openings and
closings, the concepts are not mutually exclusive.  An establishment that
is defined as a birth in a given quarter is necessarily an opening as well,
and an establishment defined as a death in a quarter must also be a closing.
Since openings include seasonal, and other, re-openings and closings include
temporary shutdowns, the not seasonally adjusted values for births and
deaths must be less than those openings and closings.  However, because some
BED series do not have many re-openings or temporary shutdowns, as well as
the fact that births and deaths are independently seasonally adjusted from
openings and closings, there may be instances in which the seasonally
adjusted value of the former is greater than the latter.

Linkage methodology

   Prior to the measurement of gross job gains and gross job losses, QCEW
records are linked across two quarters.  The linkage process matches esta-
blishments' unique SWA identification numbers (SWA-ID).  Between 95 to 97
percent of establishments identified as continuous from quarter to quarter
are matched by SWA-ID.  The rest are linked in one of three ways.  The first
method uses predecessor and successor information, identified by the states,
which relates records with different SWA-IDs across quarters.  Predecessor
and successor relations can come about for a variety of reasons, including
a change in ownership, a firm restructuring, or a UI account restructuring.
If a match cannot be attained in this manner, a probability-based match is
used.  This match attempts to identify two establishments with different SWA-
IDs as continuous.  The match is based upon comparisons such as the same
name, address, and phone number.  Third, an analyst examines unmatched re-
cords individually and makes a possible match.

   In order to ensure the highest possible quality of data, SWAs verify with 
employers and update, if necessary, the industry, location, and ownership 
classification of all establishments on a 3-year cycle.  Changes in establish-
ment classification codes resulting from the verification process are intro-
duced with the data reported for the first quarter of the year.  Changes re-
sulting from improved employer reporting also are introduced in the first 
quarter.   
                              
Sizing methodology
   
   The method of dynamic sizing is used in calculations for the BED size-
class data series.  Dynamic sizing allocates each firm's employment gain or
loss during a quarter to each respective size class in which the change
occurred.  For example, if a firm grew from 2 employees in quarter 1 to 38
employees in quarter 2, then, of the 36-employee increase, 2 would be al-
located to the first size class, 5 to the size class 5 to 9, 10 to size
class 10 to 19, and 19 to size class 20 to 49.
   
   Dynamic sizing provides symmetrical firm-size estimates and eliminates
any systematic effects which may be caused by the transitory and reverting
changes in firms' sizes over time.  Additionally, it allocates each job
gain or loss to the actual size class where it occurred.

Annual Data

   The annual gross job gains and gross job losses measure the net change
in employment at the establishment level from the third month of a quarter
in the previous year to the third month of the same quarter in the current
year.  The BLS publishes annual BED data based on March-to-March changes
once a year with the release of the first quarter BED data.  The annual
data based on over-the-year changes for other quarters of the year are
available upon request.  The definitions and methodology in measuring
annual gross job gains and gross job losses are similar to the quarterly
measures.  The linkage method considers all predecessor and successor
relations that may come about due to changes in ownership and corporate
restructuring over the entire year.  At the establishment level, some of
the quarterly job gains and job losses are offset during the estimation
over the year.  Therefore, the sum of four quarters of gross job gains
and gross job losses are not equal to annual gross job gains and gross
job losses.  The net change in employment over the year, however, is
equal to the sum of four quarterly net changes on a not seasonally
adjusted basis.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the levels of employment and the associated
job flows undergo sharp fluctuations due to such seasonal events as changes
in the weather, reduced or expanded production, harvests, major holidays,
and the opening and closing of schools.  The effect of such seasonal vari-
ation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each 
year, their influence can be eliminated by adjusting these statistics from 
quarter to quarter.  These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as 
declines in economic activity, easier to recognize.  For example, the large 
number of youths taking summer jobs is likely to obscure other changes that 
have taken place in June relative to March, making it difficult to determine 
if the level of economic activity has risen or declined.  However, because
the effect of students finishing school in previous years is known, the 
statistics for the current year can be adjusted to allow for a comparable 
change.  The adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to ana-
lyze changes in economic activity.

   The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contract-
ing units are independently seasonally adjusted; net changes are calculated
based on the difference between gross job gains and gross job losses.  Simi-
larly, for industry data, the establishment counts data series for opening,
expanding, closing, and contracting establishments are independently adjusted,
and the net changes are calculated based on the difference between the number
of opening and closing establishments.  Additionally, establishment and em-
ployment levels are independently seasonally adjusted to calculate the sea-
sonally adjusted rates.  Concurrent seasonal adjustment is run using X-12
ARIMA.  Seasonally adjusted data series for the total private sector are cal-
culated by summing the seasonally adjusted data for all sectors, including
the unclassified sector, which is not published separately.
   
   The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contracting 
units for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia are seasonally
adjusted at the total private level only.  The sum of the state series for
opening, expanding, closing, and contracting units will not necessarily be
equal to the national total private series because of the independent seasonal
adjustment of these series.
   
   The net over-the-quarter change derived by summing the BED component series 
will differ from the net employment change estimated from the seasonally ad-
justed total private employment series from the CES program.  The intended use 
of BED statistics is to show the dynamic labor market changes that underlie 
the net employment change statistic.  As such, data users interested particu-
larly in the net employment change and not in the gross job flows underlying 
this change should refer to CES data for over-the-quarter net employment
changes.
   
Reliability of the data
   
   Since the data series on Business Employment Dynamics are based on admini-
strative rather than sample data, there are no issues related to sampling 
error.  Nonsampling error, however, still exists.  Nonsampling errors can oc-
cur for many reasons, such as the employer submitting corrected employment 
data after the end of the quarter or typographical errors made by businesses 
when providing information.  Such errors, however, are likely to be distri-
buted randomly throughout the dataset.
   
   Changes in administrative data sometimes create complications for the 
linkage process.  This can result in overstating openings and closings while 
understating expansions and contractions.  The BLS continues to refine methods 
for improving the linkage process to alleviate the effects of these compli-
cations.
   
   The BED data series are subject to periodic minor changes based on correc-
tions in QCEW records, updates on predecessors and successors information, and
seasonal adjustment revisions.

Annual revisions are published each year with the release of the first quarter
data.  These revisions cover the last four quarters of not seasonally adjusted
data and 5 years of seasonally adjusted data.
                      
Additional statistics and other information
   
   Several other programs within BLS produce closely related information.  
The QCEW program, also known as the ES-202 program, provides both quarterly 
and annual estimates of employment by state, county, and detailed industry. 
News releases on quarterly county employment and wages are available upon 
request from the Division of Administrative Statistics and Labor Turnover, 
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC 20212; 
telephone 202-691-6567; (http://www.bls.gov/cew/); (e-mail: QCEWInfo@bls.gov).
                                     
   The CES program produces monthly estimates of employment, its net change, 
and earnings by detailed industry.  These estimates are part of the Employ-
ment Situation report put out monthly by BLS.
                                     
   The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) program provides month-
ly measures of job openings, as well as employee hires and separations.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired in-
dividuals upon request.  Voice phone:  202-691-5200; TDD message referral 
number: 1-800-877-8339.






Table 1.  Private sector gross job gains and job losses, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(In thousands)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(1) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2002  March                -10      8,071       6,298         1,773       8,081       6,434           1,647
      June                 -30      7,868       6,145         1,723       7,898       6,274           1,624
      September           -151      7,630       6,039         1,591       7,781       6,248           1,533
      December            -241      7,483       5,938         1,545       7,724       6,185           1,539

2003  March               -393      7,467       5,928         1,539       7,860       6,307           1,553
      June                 -90      7,398       5,929         1,469       7,488       6,030           1,458
      September            204      7,392       5,923         1,469       7,188       5,828           1,360
      December             297      7,521       6,005         1,516       7,224       5,800           1,424

2004  March                470      7,715       6,204         1,511       7,245       5,795           1,450
      June                 644      7,754       6,235         1,519       7,110       5,639           1,471
      September            206      7,633       6,060         1,573       7,427       5,888           1,539
      December             757      7,844       6,243         1,601       7,087       5,663           1,424

2005  March                384      7,620       6,131         1,489       7,236       5,801           1,435
      June                 593      7,774       6,231         1,543       7,181       5,776           1,405
      September            677      7,965       6,387         1,578       7,288       5,844           1,444
      December             494      7,807       6,252         1,555       7,313       5,948           1,365

2006  March                874      7,797       6,354         1,443       6,923       5,636           1,287
      June                 371      7,758       6,246         1,512       7,387       6,015           1,372
      September             52      7,499       6,061         1,438       7,447       6,097           1,350
      December             455      7,740       6,223         1,517       7,285       5,941           1,344

2007  March                549      7,727       6,297         1,430       7,178       5,881           1,297
      June                 149      7,632       6,222         1,410       7,483       6,079           1,404
      September           -252      7,318       5,847         1,471       7,570       6,215           1,355
      December             299      7,658       6,196         1,462       7,359       6,012           1,347

2008  March               -227      7,233       5,826         1,407       7,460       6,095           1,365
      June                -575      7,257       5,851         1,406       7,832       6,354           1,478
      September           -968      6,879       5,515         1,364       7,847       6,462           1,385
      December          -1,793      6,712       5,360         1,352       8,505       7,022           1,483

2009  March             -2,706      5,834       4,648         1,186       8,540       7,122           1,418
      June              -1,656      6,395       5,093         1,302       8,051       6,669           1,382
      September           -899      6,335       5,119         1,216       7,234       5,874           1,360
      December            -217      6,651       5,325         1,326       6,868       5,583           1,285

2010  March               -266      6,245       5,078         1,167       6,511       5,308           1,203
      June                 722      6,972       5,690         1,282       6,250       5,087           1,163
      September            187      6,669       5,416         1,253       6,482       5,253           1,229
      December             609      7,027       5,651         1,376       6,418       5,193           1,225

2011  March                292      6,437       5,272         1,165       6,145       5,010           1,135
      June                 603      6,942       5,646         1,296       6,339       5,111           1,228
      September            794      7,136       5,776         1,360       6,342       5,194           1,148
      December             389      6,909       5,557         1,352       6,520       5,238           1,282

2012  March                814      6,935       5,706         1,229       6,121       4,935           1,186

(1) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 2.  Private sector gross job gains and losses, as a percent of employment(1), seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Percent)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(2) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2002  March                 .0       7.5         5.9           1.6         7.5          6.0            1.5
      June                  .0       7.3         5.7           1.6         7.3          5.8            1.5
      September            -.1       7.1         5.6           1.5         7.2          5.8            1.4
      December             -.3       6.9         5.5           1.4         7.2          5.8            1.4

2003  March                -.5       6.9         5.5           1.4         7.4          5.9            1.5
      June                  .0       7.0         5.6           1.4         7.0          5.6            1.4
      September             .1       6.9         5.5           1.4         6.8          5.5            1.3
      December              .3       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3

2004  March                 .5       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3
      June                  .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.2            1.4
      September             .3       7.1         5.6           1.5         6.8          5.4            1.4
      December              .7       7.2         5.7           1.5         6.5          5.2            1.3

2005  March                 .4       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      June                  .6       7.1         5.7           1.4         6.5          5.2            1.3
      September             .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      December              .4       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.6          5.4            1.2

2006  March                 .9       7.0         5.7           1.3         6.1          5.0            1.1
      June                  .3       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September             .1       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.6          5.4            1.2
      December              .3       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2007  March                 .5       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.3          5.2            1.1
      June                  .2       6.7         5.5           1.2         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September            -.3       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.7          5.5            1.2
      December              .2       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2008  March                -.2       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.5          5.3            1.2
      June                 -.6       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.9          5.6            1.3
      September            -.8       6.1         4.9           1.2         6.9          5.7            1.2
      December            -1.6       6.0         4.8           1.2         7.6          6.3            1.3

2009  March               -2.4       5.4         4.3           1.1         7.8          6.5            1.3
      June                -1.5       6.0         4.8           1.2         7.5          6.2            1.3
      September            -.9       5.9         4.8           1.1         6.8          5.5            1.3
      December             -.1       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2010  March                -.2       5.9         4.8           1.1         6.1          5.0            1.1
      June                  .7       6.6         5.4           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1
      September             .1       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.2          5.0            1.2
      December              .5       6.6         5.3           1.3         6.1          4.9            1.2

2011  March                 .2       6.0         4.9           1.1         5.8          4.7            1.1
      June                  .6       6.5         5.3           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1
      September             .8       6.7         5.4           1.3         5.9          4.8            1.1
      December              .3       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.0          4.8            1.2

2012  March                 .7       6.3         5.2           1.1         5.6          4.5            1.1

(1) The rates measure gross job gains and gross job losses as a percentage
    of the previous and current quarter employment levels.

(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 3. Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   Mar.    June    Sept    Dec.    Mar.   Mar.   June   Sept   Dec.   Mar.  
                                   2011    2011    2011    2011    2012   2011   2011   2011   2011   2012
Total private(1)

Gross job gains                   6,437   6,942   7,136   6,909   6,935    6.0    6.5    6.7    6.3    6.3
 At expanding establishments      5,272   5,646   5,776   5,557   5,706    4.9    5.3    5.4    5.1    5.2
 At opening establishments        1,165   1,296   1,360   1,352   1,229    1.1    1.2    1.3    1.2    1.1
Gross job losses                  6,145   6,339   6,342   6,520   6,121    5.8    5.9    5.9    6.0    5.6
 At contracting establishments    5,010   5,111   5,194   5,238   4,935    4.7    4.8    4.8    4.8    4.5
 At closing establishments        1,135   1,228   1,148   1,282   1,186    1.1    1.1    1.1    1.2    1.1
Net employment change               292     603     794     389     814     .2     .6     .8     .3     .7

Goods-producing

Gross job gains                   1,318   1,413   1,461   1,363   1,386    7.0    7.5    7.6    7.0    7.1
 At expanding establishments      1,118   1,194   1,233   1,144   1,184    5.9    6.3    6.4    5.9    6.1
 At opening establishments          200     219     228     219     202    1.1    1.2    1.2    1.1    1.0
Gross job losses                  1,287   1,275   1,271   1,356   1,241    6.8    6.7    6.6    7.0    6.4
 At contracting establishments    1,064   1,041   1,061   1,121   1,027    5.6    5.5    5.5    5.8    5.3
 At closing establishments          223     234     210     235     214    1.2    1.2    1.1    1.2    1.1
Net employment change                31     138     190       7     145     .2     .8    1.0     .0     .7

Natural resources and mining

Gross job gains                     264     285     306     298     288   14.3   15.4   16.2   15.4   14.5
 At expanding establishments        227     245     262     253     250   12.3   13.2   13.9   13.1   12.6
 At opening establishments           37      40      44      45      38    2.0    2.2    2.3    2.3    1.9
Gross job losses                    264     260     242     270     258   14.3   14.1   12.9   13.9   13.0
 At contracting establishments      229     216     211     235     221   12.4   11.7   11.2   12.1   11.1
 At closing establishments           35      44      31      35      37    1.9    2.4    1.7    1.8    1.9
Net employment change                 0      25      64      28      30     .0    1.3    3.3    1.5    1.5

Construction

Gross job gains                     625     669     691     632     662   11.4   12.3   12.6   11.4   11.9
 At expanding establishments        498     529     549     498     538    9.1    9.7   10.0    9.0    9.7
 At opening establishments          127     140     142     134     124    2.3    2.6    2.6    2.4    2.2
Gross job losses                    649     634     619     659     616   11.9   11.6   11.3   11.9   11.1
 At contracting establishments      506     495     489     513     487    9.3    9.1    8.9    9.3    8.8
 At closing establishments          143     139     130     146     129    2.6    2.5    2.4    2.6    2.3
Net employment change               -24      35      72     -27      46    -.5     .7    1.3    -.5     .8

Manufacturing

Gross job gains                     429     459     464     433     436    3.7    3.9    4.0    3.6    3.6
 At expanding establishments        393     420     422     393     396    3.4    3.6    3.6    3.3    3.3
 At opening establishments           36      39      42      40      40     .3     .3     .4     .3     .3
Gross job losses                    374     381     410     427     367    3.2    3.2    3.5    3.7    3.1
 At contracting establishments      329     330     361     373     319    2.8    2.8    3.1    3.2    2.7
 At closing establishments           45      51      49      54      48     .4     .4     .4     .5     .4
Net employment change                55      78      54       6      69     .5     .7     .5    -.1     .5

Service-providing(1)

Gross job gains                   5,119   5,529   5,675   5,546   5,549    5.8    6.2    6.4    6.2    6.1
 At expanding establishments      4,154   4,452   4,543   4,413   4,522    4.7    5.0    5.1    4.9    5.0
 At opening establishments          965   1,077   1,132   1,133   1,027    1.1    1.2    1.3    1.3    1.1
Gross job losses                  4,858   5,064   5,071   5,164   4,880    5.5    5.7    5.8    5.8    5.4
 At contracting establishments    3,946   4,070   4,133   4,117   3,908    4.5    4.6    4.7    4.6    4.3
 At closing establishments          912     994     938   1,047     972    1.0    1.1    1.1    1.2    1.1
Net employment change               261     465     604     382     669     .3     .5     .6     .4     .7

Wholesale trade

Gross job gains                     263     286     288     276     282    4.8    5.1    5.2    4.9    5.1
 At expanding establishments        216     234     232     223     234    3.9    4.2    4.2    4.0    4.2
 At opening establishments           47      52      56      53      48     .9     .9    1.0     .9     .9
Gross job losses                    246     244     255     250     244    4.5    4.4    4.6    4.5    4.3
 At contracting establishments      188     186     202     191     186    3.4    3.4    3.6    3.4    3.3
 At closing establishments           58      58      53      59      58    1.1    1.0    1.0    1.1    1.0
Net employment change                17      42      33      26      38     .3     .7     .6     .4     .8

Retail trade

Gross job gains                     817     904     880     898     883    5.6    6.2    5.9    6.1    5.9
 At expanding establishments        704     773     741     776     761    4.8    5.3    5.0    5.3    5.1
 At opening establishments          113     131     139     122     122     .8     .9     .9     .8     .8
Gross job losses                    818     779     866     821     845    5.6    5.3    5.8    5.6    5.7
 At contracting establishments      706     659     757     695     738    4.8    4.5    5.1    4.7    5.0
 At closing establishments          112     120     109     126     107     .8     .8     .7     .9     .7
Net employment change                -1     125      14      77      38     .0     .9     .1     .5     .2

Transportation and warehousing

Gross job gains                     207     222     230     244     213    5.1    5.4    5.6    5.9    5.2
 At expanding establishments        174     188     193     210     181    4.3    4.6    4.7    5.1    4.4
 At opening establishments           33      34      37      34      32     .8     .8     .9     .8     .8
Gross job losses                    224     198     197     203     219    5.5    4.9    4.8    4.9    5.2
 At contracting establishments      191     161     164     166     185    4.7    4.0    4.0    4.0    4.4
 At closing establishments           33      37      33      37      34     .8     .9     .8     .9     .8
Net employment change               -17      24      33      41      -6    -.4     .5     .8    1.0     .0

Utilities

Gross job gains                      11      12      11      12      11    2.0    2.2    2.0    2.2    2.0
 At expanding establishments         10      10      10      10      10    1.8    1.8    1.8    1.8    1.8
 At opening establishments            1       2       1       2       1     .2     .4     .2     .4     .2
Gross job losses                      9      13      12      12      10    1.7    2.4    2.2    2.2    1.8
 At contracting establishments        8      12      11      11       8    1.5    2.2    2.0    2.0    1.4
 At closing establishments            1       1       1       1       2     .2     .2     .2     .2     .4
Net employment change                 2      -1      -1       0       1     .3    -.2    -.2     .0     .2

Information

Gross job gains                     113     124     125     124     114    4.2    4.6    4.7    4.6    4.2
 At expanding establishments         96     105     104      99      95    3.6    3.9    3.9    3.7    3.5
 At opening establishments           17      19      21      25      19     .6     .7     .8     .9     .7
Gross job losses                    129     128     122     136     115    4.8    4.8    4.5    5.1    4.3
 At contracting establishments      109     102     103     102      93    4.1    3.8    3.8    3.8    3.5
 At closing establishments           20      26      19      34      22     .7    1.0     .7    1.3     .8
Net employment change               -16      -4       3     -12      -1    -.6    -.2     .2    -.5    -.1

Financial activities

Gross job gains                     323     349     372     361     349    4.3    4.7    5.1    4.9    4.7
 At expanding establishments        260     277     294     281     282    3.5    3.7    4.0    3.8    3.8
 At opening establishments           63      72      78      80      67     .8    1.0    1.1    1.1     .9
Gross job losses                    336     349     339     353     330    4.6    4.8    4.6    4.7    4.5
 At contracting establishments      256     271     261     268     243    3.5    3.7    3.5    3.6    3.3
 At closing establishments           80      78      78      85      87    1.1    1.1    1.1    1.1    1.2
Net employment change               -13       0      33       8      19    -.3    -.1     .5     .2     .2

Professional and business services

Gross job gains                   1,229   1,316   1,380   1,354   1,301    7.2    7.7    7.9    7.8    7.3
 At expanding establishments      1,010   1,066   1,116   1,081   1,068    5.9    6.2    6.4    6.2    6.0
 At opening establishments          219     250     264     273     233    1.3    1.5    1.5    1.6    1.3
Gross job losses                  1,141   1,217   1,167   1,255   1,174    6.7    7.0    6.7    7.2    6.7
 At contracting establishments      909     952     925     983     911    5.3    5.5    5.3    5.6    5.2
 At closing establishments          232     265     242     272     263    1.4    1.5    1.4    1.6    1.5
Net employment change                88      99     213      99     127     .5     .7    1.2     .6     .6

Education and health services

Gross job gains                     768     786     853     811     812    4.1    4.1    4.4    4.2    4.2
 At expanding establishments        643     663     714     676     697    3.4    3.5    3.7    3.5    3.6
 At opening establishments          125     123     139     135     115     .7     .6     .7     .7     .6
Gross job losses                    675     751     706     740     697    3.6    4.0    3.7    3.8    3.6
 At contracting establishments      565     619     586     604     568    3.0    3.3    3.1    3.1    2.9
 At closing establishments          110     132     120     136     129     .6     .7     .6     .7     .7
Net employment change                93      35     147      71     115     .5     .1     .7     .4     .6

Leisure and hospitality

Gross job gains                   1,059   1,178   1,186   1,115   1,214    8.0    8.9    8.9    8.3    9.0
 At expanding establishments        822     905     916     842     960    6.2    6.8    6.9    6.3    7.1
 At opening establishments          237     273     270     273     254    1.8    2.1    2.0    2.0    1.9
Gross job losses                  1,002   1,098   1,112   1,106     964    7.5    8.3    8.3    8.2    7.1
 At contracting establishments      812     903     906     886     775    6.1    6.8    6.8    6.6    5.7
 At closing establishments          190     195     206     220     189    1.4    1.5    1.5    1.6    1.4
Net employment change                57      80      74       9     250     .5     .6     .6     .1    1.9

Other services

Gross job gains                     264     283     280     263     275    7.1    7.5    7.4    6.9    7.2
 At expanding establishments        208     222     215     205     221    5.6    5.9    5.7    5.4    5.8
 At opening establishments           56      61      65      58      54    1.5    1.6    1.7    1.5    1.4
Gross job losses                    253     261     270     262     250    6.7    6.9    7.1    6.9    6.6
 At contracting establishments      196     199     212     205     194    5.2    5.3    5.6    5.4    5.1
 At closing establishments           57      62      58      57      56    1.5    1.6    1.5    1.5    1.5
Net employment change                11      22      10       1      25     .4     .6     .3     .0     .6

(1) Includes unclassified sector, not shown separately

Table 4.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

(In thousands)

                      Total private by firm(1)       Firm size 1 - 49 employees      Firm size 50 - 249 employees      Firm size 250 or more employees
Year  3 months        Net        Gross job            Net          Gross job          Net           Gross job           Net           Gross job
        ended      change(2,3)  gains   losses       change      gains   losses      change       gains   losses       change       gains   losses

2002  March             70      6,602    6,532          54       3,402    3,348        -52        1,194    1,246          68        2,006    1,938
      June             -61      6,416    6,477          69       3,379    3,310         -7        1,191    1,198        -123        1,846    1,969
      September       -176      6,190    6,366          20       3,335    3,315        -46        1,144    1,190        -150        1,711    1,861
      December        -247      6,114    6,361          -3       3,299    3,302        -73        1,106    1,179        -171        1,709    1,880

2003  March           -326      6,112    6,438        -135       3,257    3,392        -56        1,127    1,183        -135        1,728    1,863
      June            -137      6,108    6,245         112       3,346    3,234        -26        1,133    1,159        -223        1,629    1,852
      September        193      6,162    5,969         120       3,327    3,207         21        1,127    1,106          52        1,708    1,656
      December         310      6,218    5,908         146       3,340    3,194         32        1,128    1,096         132        1,750    1,618

2004  March            430      6,306    5,876         153       3,392    3,239        137        1,194    1,057         140        1,720    1,580
      June             621      6,471    5,850         169       3,387    3,218        141        1,196    1,055         311        1,888    1,577
      September        197      6,243    6,046          88       3,379    3,291         88        1,175    1,087          21        1,689    1,668
      December         759      6,494    5,735         274       3,480    3,206        101        1,172    1,071         384        1,842    1,458

2005  March            368      6,320    5,952          66       3,416    3,350         97        1,161    1,064         205        1,743    1,538
      June             570      6,435    5,865         243       3,476    3,233        146        1,198    1,052         181        1,761    1,580
      September        701      6,672    5,971         218       3,510    3,292         85        1,195    1,110         398        1,967    1,569
      December         506      6,406    5,900         169       3,462    3,293         45        1,140    1,095         292        1,804    1,512

2006  March            788      6,433    5,645         334       3,547    3,213        222        1,213      991         232        1,673    1,441
      June             375      6,349    5,974         117       3,434    3,317        110        1,190    1,080         148        1,725    1,577
      September         43      6,103    6,060         -14       3,329    3,343         27        1,127    1,100          30        1,647    1,617
      December         447      6,375    5,928         117       3,393    3,276         74        1,147    1,073         256        1,835    1,579

2007  March            466      6,300    5,834         189       3,451    3,262         99        1,153    1,054         178        1,696    1,518
      June             174      6,256    6,082         -31       3,337    3,368        108        1,180    1,072          97        1,739    1,642
      September       -269      5,891    6,160        -132       3,252    3,384        -53        1,073    1,126         -84        1,566    1,650
      December         298      6,254    5,956           8       3,315    3,307         63        1,140    1,077         227        1,799    1,572

2008  March           -277      5,807    6,084        -138       3,238    3,376        -11        1,073    1,084        -128        1,496    1,624
      June            -547      5,861    6,408        -287       3,179    3,466        -37        1,098    1,135        -223        1,584    1,807
      September     -1,035      5,483    6,518        -359       3,039    3,398       -160        1,013    1,173        -516        1,431    1,947
      December      -1,850      5,341    7,191        -693       2,907    3,600       -370          946    1,316        -787        1,488    2,275

2009  March         -2,643      4,582    7,225        -967       2,724    3,691       -611          806    1,417      -1,065        1,052    2,117
      June          -1,766      5,174    6,940        -475       2,949    3,424       -275          956    1,231      -1,016        1,269    2,285
      September       -979      5,119    6,098        -388       2,814    3,202       -127          927    1,054        -464        1,378    1,842
      December        -277      5,408    5,685        -161       2,937    3,098        -42          963    1,005         -74        1,508    1,582

2010  March           -231      5,094    5,325        -185       2,863    3,048         -1          909      910         -45        1,322    1,367
      June             689      5,818    5,129         233       3,094    2,861        211        1,079      868         245        1,645    1,400
      September        157      5,478    5,321          11       2,933    2,922         71          992      921          75        1,553    1,478
      December         534      5,789    5,255          86       3,045    2,959         99        1,035      936         349        1,709    1,360

2011  March            329      5,339    5,010         108       2,979    2,871        122          964      842          99        1,396    1,297
      June             550      5,765    5,215         195       3,078    2,883        178        1,072      894         177        1,615    1,438
      September        793      5,928    5,135         247       3,116    2,869        152        1,058      906         394        1,754    1,360
      December         332      5,615    5,283          39       2,967    2,928         46          985      939         247        1,663    1,416

2012  March            830      5,748    4,918         362       3,119    2,757        216        1,046      830         252        1,583    1,331


(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower
    than total gross job gains and gross job losses by establishment,
    as some establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.
(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.
(3) Net change totals for firm-level data shown differ from the establishment-level data
    due to independent seasonal adjustment of the series.
NOTE: See http://www.bls.gov/bdm/bdmfirmsize.htm for additional firm size class data.

Table 5. Components of private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   Mar.    June    Sept    Dec.    Mar.   Mar.   June   Sept   Dec.   Mar.  
                                   2011    2011    2011    2011    2012   2011   2011   2011   2011   2012
Total private by firm(1)

Gross job gains                   5,339   5,765   5,928   5,615   5,748    5.0    5.4    5.5    5.2    5.2
 At expanding firms               4,437   4,839   4,966   4,689   4,848    4.2    4.5    4.6    4.3    4.4
 At opening firms                   902     926     962     926     900     .8     .9     .9     .9     .8

Gross job losses                  5,010   5,215   5,135   5,283   4,918    4.7    4.8    4.8    4.9    4.5
 At contracting firms             4,153   4,324   4,307   4,399   4,081    3.9    4.0    4.0    4.1    3.7
 At closing firms                   857     891     828     884     837     .8     .8     .8     .8     .8

Net employment change               329     550     793     332     830     .3     .6     .7     .3     .7


Firm size 1 to 49 employees

Gross job gains                   2,979   3,078   3,116   2,967   3,119    9.6    9.8    9.9    9.4    9.8
 At expanding firms               2,112   2,195   2,199   2,085   2,253    6.8    7.0    7.0    6.6    7.1
 At opening firms                   867     883     917     882     866    2.8    2.8    2.9    2.8    2.7

Gross job losses                  2,871   2,883   2,869   2,928   2,757    9.3    9.2    9.1    9.3    8.8
 At contracting firms             2,044   2,029   2,072   2,086   1,953    6.6    6.5    6.6    6.6    6.2
 At closing firms                   827     854     797     842     804    2.7    2.7    2.5    2.7    2.6

Net employment change               108     195     247      39     362     .3     .6     .8     .1    1.0


Firm size 50 to 249 employees

Gross job gains                     964   1,072   1,058     985   1,046    4.9    5.4    5.3    4.9    5.1
 At expanding firms                 932   1,035   1,020     948   1,016    4.7    5.2    5.1    4.7    5.0
 At opening firms                    32      37      38      37      30     .2     .2     .2     .2     .1

Gross job losses                    842     894     906     939     830    4.2    4.5    4.5    4.7    4.1
 At contracting firms               816     866     879     906     803    4.1    4.4    4.4    4.5    4.0
 At closing firms                    26      28      27      33      27     .1     .1     .1     .2     .1

Net employment change               122     178     152      46     216     .7     .9     .8     .2    1.0


Firm size 250 or more employees

Gross job gains                   1,396   1,615   1,754   1,663   1,583    2.5    2.9    3.1    2.9    2.7
 At expanding firms               1,393   1,609   1,747   1,656   1,579    2.5    2.9    3.1    2.9    2.7
 At opening firms                     3       6       7       7       4     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Gross job losses                  1,297   1,438   1,360   1,416   1,331    2.3    2.5    2.4    2.5    2.3
 At contracting firms             1,293   1,429   1,356   1,407   1,325    2.3    2.5    2.4    2.5    2.3
 At closing firms                     4       9       4       9       6     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Net employment change                99     177     394     247     252     .2     .4     .7     .4     .4


(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower
    than total gross job gains and gross job losses by establishment,
    as some establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.

Table 6.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by state, seasonally adjusted

                                         Gross job gains                                          Gross job losses
State                                    (3 months ended)                                         (3 months ended)
                        Mar.       June       Sept.       Dec.      Mar.       Mar.         June       Sept.       Dec.      Mar. 
                        2011       2011       2011        2011      2012       2011         2011       2011        2011      2012

United States1.....  6,437,000  6,942,000  7,136,000   6,909,000  6,935,000  6,145,000   6,339,000   6,342,000  6,520,000  6,121,000

Alabama.....            85,924     87,574     91,559      85,633     91,147     84,932      88,662      82,789     87,650     80,326
Alaska.....             24,179     26,784     24,812      23,440     26,381     21,199      23,540      23,195     26,155     21,997
Arizona.....           117,510    127,292    137,767     139,367    128,843    119,535     122,145     118,548    123,249    121,081
Arkansas.....           58,079     55,855     63,861      60,670     53,381     55,199      57,197      54,625     50,505     52,324
California.....        776,520    846,247    914,096     870,675    842,341    769,408     776,879     818,110    785,705    760,027
Colorado.....          122,947    131,680    131,330     128,255    125,797    116,340     114,477     115,453    122,714    115,062
Connecticut.....        68,488     77,763     73,986      73,072     77,422     69,293      67,802      69,679     71,692     68,197
Delaware.....           22,331     22,649     24,900      21,735     22,107     20,755      23,703      23,534     21,334     20,468
District of Columbia    32,800     28,275     26,457      26,595     29,723     22,065      26,730      24,172     24,771     20,338
Florida.....           392,911    430,098    443,009     439,908    414,219    374,321     397,725     392,137    413,449    365,900

Georgia.....           209,094    205,097    207,102     203,099    219,814    188,871     198,267     198,380    202,265    191,090
Hawaii.....             24,808     24,232     28,145      25,587     24,551     22,737      27,713      21,684     21,986     25,568
Idaho.....              35,130     37,475     41,371      37,097     38,404     37,029      37,313      34,042     37,811     38,352
Illinois.....          242,862    274,249    273,629     267,916    263,987    238,010     246,459     252,813    258,824    235,357
Indiana.....           137,470    136,497    149,786     143,961    150,073    119,790     128,921     128,437    134,950    121,345
Iowa.....               66,741     72,760     74,872      71,492     75,925     67,180      66,992      65,617     69,343     62,833
Kansas.....             60,074     63,223     66,046      65,220     72,837     61,411      61,712      61,132     61,690     57,228
Kentucky.....           84,333     87,112     90,120      87,855     91,719     84,120      81,250      79,336     82,301     81,151
Louisiana.....         103,553     98,184    111,331     102,234    109,747     92,592     104,009      91,783     97,984     98,510
Maine.....              32,310     37,250     36,545      33,221     34,867     34,030      35,339      32,781     35,125     34,497

Maryland.....          122,068    131,740    133,277     129,484    135,839    119,158     127,048     125,888    122,326    115,922
Massachusetts.....     144,483    162,202    171,807     148,370    154,973    141,519     143,127     147,245    150,490    138,173
Michigan.....          202,443    219,739    228,665     203,971    208,109    179,193     197,064     187,570    196,273    178,757
Minnesota.....         127,741    141,622    144,467     125,820    152,204    115,670     117,623     117,056    131,726    133,973
Mississippi.....        54,757     52,096     54,563      52,282     54,928     51,887      57,038      52,513     50,544     47,226
Missouri.....          123,787    129,437    128,571     134,687    133,117    121,152     122,632     123,306    125,738    119,773
Montana.....            25,018     27,397     28,750      28,553     27,783     24,739      25,750      24,191     26,686     26,305
Nebraska.....           40,834     42,526     42,922      43,876     44,064     40,172      40,558      39,735     40,167     38,030
Nevada.....             57,477     61,593     59,847      57,485     58,879     56,227      55,390      57,587     55,150     53,065
New Hampshire.....      32,574     35,572     35,820      35,844     34,876     32,263      33,955      33,688     33,640     32,250

New Jersey.....        187,770    220,012    206,286     208,879    204,354    202,468     194,831     201,210    199,863    187,241
New Mexico.....         35,937     40,332     41,197      37,929     41,334     36,478      39,305      38,765     40,581     35,306
New York.....          415,175    463,532    458,293     438,220    467,340    385,842     406,332     419,493    427,473    403,623
North Carolina.....    205,392    203,609    203,290     205,605    210,182    183,332     195,073     190,395    192,401    179,134
North Dakota.....       24,197     22,217     31,466      32,285     34,563     18,809      20,543      18,453     19,885     20,145
Ohio.....              236,651    257,740    262,885     255,010    257,935    230,370     228,857     227,149    239,343    222,736
Oklahoma.....           71,360     74,882     79,418      76,516     75,110     71,069      66,711      68,589     70,641     68,149
Oregon.....             91,972     88,299    101,905      93,674     92,985     86,064      85,658      79,591     92,363     87,056
Pennsylvania.....      257,694    276,842    267,145     278,996    287,205    243,665     249,142     267,068    249,261    246,934
Rhode Island.....       22,429     26,202     23,368      24,067     26,209     23,154      24,051      23,238     24,900     22,040

South Carolina.....     86,877     92,609     90,699      91,266     90,984     80,576      85,374      87,584     82,761     79,437
South Dakota.....       19,074     21,468     22,187      21,563     21,765     20,411      19,082      18,855     19,365     19,933
Tennessee.....         122,068    128,589    129,598     135,832    132,991    110,042     111,745     116,827    117,380    113,095
Texas.....             495,416    513,561    543,801     523,866    537,062    433,057     440,989     446,936    457,961    446,708
Utah.....               64,908     69,011     69,809      69,692     70,120     61,892      62,066      59,043     61,984     59,307
Vermont.....            16,088     18,558     18,899      20,232     17,597     17,089      18,271      18,672     16,430     17,256
Virginia.....          164,834    173,624    174,323     179,267    175,338    157,102     164,804     160,823    177,063    161,214
Washington.....        153,335    156,967    172,752     163,991    157,863    146,390     148,279     134,881    164,123    146,884
West Virginia.....      35,868     35,911     37,531      38,129     40,657     32,779      33,362      34,120     32,964     34,872
Wisconsin.....         128,300    134,150    134,241     127,238    136,446    124,456     121,110     121,924    130,485    120,565

Wyoming.....            16,873     18,008     20,337      20,004     18,242     17,723      18,269      15,490     17,496     18,379
Puerto Rico.....        37,509     38,424     44,263      45,535     41,000     40,949      42,219      38,359     38,101     41,093
Virgin Islands.....      2,207      1,885      1,861       1,929      1,558      2,026       2,539       2,225      1,891      1,996

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 7.  Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted

                        Gross job gains as a percent of employment    Gross job losses as a percent of employment
State                              (3 months ended)                               (3 months ended)

                        Mar.    June     Sept.    Dec.    Mar.        Mar.     June      Sept.   Dec.     Mar. 
                        2011    2011     2011     2011    2012        2011     2011      2011    2011     2012

United States1.....      6.0     6.5      6.7      6.3     6.3         5.8      5.9       5.9      6.0     5.6

Alabama.....             5.9     6.1      6.3      5.9     6.3         5.9      6.2       5.7      6.0     5.5
Alaska.....             10.1    11.0     10.1      9.6    10.8         8.8      9.6       9.5     10.7     8.9
Arizona.....             5.9     6.4      6.9      6.9     6.3         6.0      6.2       6.0      6.2     6.0
Arkansas.....            6.3     6.0      6.8      6.5     5.6         5.9      6.2       5.9      5.4     5.5
California.....          6.5     7.1      7.6      7.2     6.9         6.5      6.5       6.8      6.5     6.2
Colorado.....            6.8     7.2      7.1      6.9     6.7         6.4      6.3       6.2      6.6     6.2
Connecticut.....         5.1     5.7      5.4      5.3     5.6         5.1      5.0       5.1      5.3     5.0
Delaware.....            6.5     6.6      7.3      6.4     6.4         6.1      6.9       6.8      6.2     5.9
District of Columbia..   7.3     6.2      5.8      5.8     6.4         4.9      5.9       5.3      5.4     4.4
Florida.....             6.4     7.0      7.2      7.1     6.7         6.2      6.5       6.3      6.7     5.9

Georgia.....             6.7     6.6      6.6      6.5     7.0         6.1      6.4       6.3      6.4     6.0
Hawaii.....              5.2     5.2      5.9      5.4     5.2         4.8      5.9       4.6      4.6     5.3
Idaho.....               7.1     7.6      8.3      7.4     7.7         7.5      7.6       6.9      7.6     7.7
Illinois.....            5.1     5.8      5.7      5.6     5.5         5.0      5.2       5.3      5.4     4.8
Indiana.....             5.9     5.8      6.3      6.1     6.2         5.1      5.5       5.5      5.7     5.0
Iowa.....                5.5     6.0      6.2      5.9     6.2         5.6      5.5       5.4      5.7     5.1
Kansas.....              5.7     6.0      6.2      6.1     6.8         5.8      5.9       5.8      5.8     5.3
Kentucky.....            5.9     6.1      6.4      6.1     6.4         5.9      5.8       5.6      5.7     5.6
Louisiana.....           6.9     6.5      7.4      6.7     7.1         6.2      6.9       6.1      6.5     6.5
Maine.....               6.7     7.8      7.6      6.8     7.2         7.1      7.3       6.9      7.3     7.1

Maryland.....            6.2     6.7      6.7      6.5     6.7         6.0      6.4       6.4      6.1     5.8
Massachusetts.....       5.3     5.9      6.2      5.4     5.6         5.2      5.3       5.3      5.5     5.0
Michigan.....            6.3     6.7      7.0      6.1     6.2         5.6      6.1       5.7      6.0     5.4
Minnesota.....           5.8     6.3      6.4      5.5     6.8         5.2      5.3       5.2      5.8     6.0
Mississippi.....         6.5     6.2      6.6      6.3     6.5         6.2      6.8       6.3      6.1     5.6
Missouri.....            5.8     6.0      6.0      6.2     6.1         5.7      5.7       5.8      5.9     5.5
Montana.....             7.5     8.1      8.5      8.4     8.0         7.4      7.6       7.2      7.8     7.6
Nebraska.....            5.6     5.7      5.7      5.9     5.9         5.5      5.5       5.4      5.4     5.1
Nevada.....              6.0     6.3      6.1      6.0     6.0         5.8      5.7       5.9      5.7     5.5
New Hampshire.....       6.3     6.8      6.9      6.9     6.7         6.2      6.6       6.5      6.5     6.1

New Jersey.....          6.0     6.9      6.5      6.5     6.4         6.4      6.1       6.3      6.3     5.9
New Mexico.....          6.0     6.8      6.9      6.4     6.9         6.2      6.6       6.5      6.8     5.9
New York.....            6.0     6.6      6.5      6.1     6.6         5.5      5.7       5.9      6.0     5.7
North Carolina.....      6.5     6.4      6.4      6.5     6.5         5.9      6.2       6.0      6.0     5.6
North Dakota.....        8.0     7.2     10.1     10.0    10.3         6.2      6.7       5.9      6.2     6.0
Ohio.....                5.6     6.1      6.1      6.0     6.0         5.5      5.5       5.4      5.6     5.2
Oklahoma.....            6.0     6.3      6.7      6.4     6.3         6.0      5.7       5.8      5.8     5.7
Oregon.....              6.9     6.6      7.6      6.9     6.9         6.5      6.4       5.9      6.8     6.4
Pennsylvania.....        5.4     5.7      5.5      5.7     5.9         5.1      5.2       5.5      5.1     5.1
Rhode Island.....        5.8     6.7      6.0      6.2     6.7         6.0      6.2       5.9      6.4     5.6

South Carolina.....      6.1     6.4      6.2      6.2     6.2         5.6      5.9       6.0      5.6     5.4
South Dakota.....        6.0     6.7      6.8      6.6     6.6         6.3      6.0       5.9      5.9     6.1
Tennessee.....           5.6     5.9      5.9      6.1     5.9         5.1      5.1       5.4      5.3     5.1
Texas.....               5.8     6.0      6.3      6.0     6.1         5.1      5.1       5.1      5.3     5.0
Utah.....                6.8     7.1      7.2      7.2     7.1         6.5      6.4       6.1      6.3     6.0
Vermont.....             6.6     7.7      7.8      8.3     7.2         7.1      7.6       7.7      6.8     7.0
Virginia.....            5.7     6.1      6.1      6.2     6.0         5.4      5.8       5.6      6.1     5.6
Washington.....          6.8     7.0      7.6      7.2     6.8         6.5      6.5       6.0      7.1     6.3
West Virginia.....       6.4     6.5      6.7      6.8     7.2         5.9      6.0       6.1      5.8     6.1
Wisconsin.....           5.7     6.0      5.9      5.6     5.9         5.5      5.3       5.3      5.7     5.3

Wyoming.....             8.1     8.7      9.8      9.4     8.5         8.5      8.8       7.4      8.2     8.6
Puerto Rico.....         5.5     5.7      6.6      6.7     6.0         6.1      6.3       5.7      5.7     6.0
Virgin Islands.....      6.9     6.0      6.0      6.3     5.1         6.4      8.0       7.1      6.1     6.5

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 8.  Private sector establishment births and deaths, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Levels in thousands)

                              Number of Establishments                     Employment
                             Births             Deaths(1)            Births             Deaths
Year  3 months ended     Level    Rate(2)   Level    Rate       Level      Rate    Level      Rate

2002  March               204      3.2       190     3.0        1,175       1.1    1,089       1.0
      June                208      3.3       187     2.9        1,189       1.1    1,080       1.0
      September           199      3.1       184     2.9        1,051       1.0    1,023       1.0
      December            201      3.1       191     3.0        1,023       1.0    1,021       1.0
  
2003  March               193      3.0       186     2.9        1,004        .9    1,011        .9
      June                191      3.0       186     2.9          964        .9      951        .9
      September           193      3.0       179     2.8          954        .9      884        .8
      December            200      3.1       180     2.8          998        .9      910        .9
  
2004  March               207      3.2       180     2.8        1,000        .9      917        .9
      June                203      3.1       185     2.8          980        .9      909        .8
      September           209      3.2       186     2.8        1,016        .9      953        .9
      December            210      3.2       180     2.7          997        .9      894        .8
  
2005  March               209      3.1       185     2.8          944        .9      852        .8
      June                216      3.2       180     2.7          951        .9      841        .8
      September           221      3.3       186     2.8          996        .9      884        .8
      December            221      3.3       186     2.8          979        .9      846        .8
  
2006  March               220      3.2       180     2.6          924        .8      748        .7
      June                221      3.2       194     2.8          973        .9      841        .7
      September           210      3.1       196     2.9          927        .8      836        .7
      December            221      3.2       194     2.8          959        .8      804        .7
  
2007  March               214      3.1       193     2.8          897        .8      771        .7
      June                206      3.0       202     2.9          884        .8      850        .7
      September           216      3.1       203     2.9          941        .8      836        .7
      December            208      3.0       206     2.9          902        .8      825        .7
  
2008  March               207      3.0       211     3.0          897        .8      813        .7
      June                201      2.9       228     3.3          876        .8      934        .8
      September           191      2.7       223     3.2          827        .7      880        .8
      December            188      2.7       240     3.5          799        .7      947        .8
  
2009  March               172      2.5       236     3.4          703        .6      850        .8
      June                177      2.6       227     3.3          742        .7      831        .8
      September           169      2.5       215     3.2          692        .7      787        .7
      December            183      2.7       200     3.0          712        .7      739        .7
  
2010  March               175      2.6       194     2.9          685        .7      667        .6
      June                179      2.7       185     2.7          713        .7      650        .6
      September           188      2.8       189     2.8          741        .7      694        .7
      December            200      2.9       186     2.7          790        .7      689        .6
  
2011  March               189      2.8       184     2.7          695        .7      610        .6
      June                192      2.8       190     2.8          748        .7      677        .6
      September           198      2.9       N/A     N/A          790        .7      N/A       N/A
      December            202      2.9       N/A     N/A          802        .7      N/A       N/A
  
2012  March               193      2.8       N/A     N/A          748        .7      N/A       N/A

(1) Values for deaths are not available for the most recent three quarters
    by definition.  See the Technical Note for more information.

(2) The rates measure births and deaths as a percentage
    of the average of the previous and current quarter employment levels or
    total number of establishments.

Last Modified Date: November 16, 2012
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