Economic News Release

Quarterly Data Series on Business Employment Dynamics News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. EST 				USDL-11-1646
Thursday, November 17, 2011	

Technical information: (202) 691-6553  *  BDMInfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/bdm

Media contact:	       (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov	


	  BUSINESS EMPLOYMENT DYNAMICS:  FIRST QUARTER 2011
	
From December 2010 to March 2011 the number of gross job gains from 
opening and expanding private sector establishments was 6.3 million, 
a decrease of 671,000 jobs compared to the previous quarter, the U.S. 
Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Over the same period, 
gross job losses from closing and contracting private sector 
establishments fell to 6.1 million, the lowest level since this 
series began in September 1992.

Firms of all sizes experienced a decrease in gross job gains in the 
first quarter of 2011. Firms with less than 250 employees had the 
largest contribution to employment growth.

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of 
increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses
in the economy. Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track
these changes in employment at private business units from the third 
month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains 
are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing 
units and the addition of new jobs at opening units. Gross job losses
are the result of contractions in employment at existing units and the
loss of jobs at closing units. The difference between the number of 
gross job gains and the number of gross job losses is the net change 
in employment. (See the Technical Note for more information.) 

The BED data series include gross job gains and gross job losses at the 
establishment level by industry subsector and for the 50 states, the 
District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, as well as 
gross job gains and gross job losses at the firm level by employer size 
class.

 ------------------------------------------------------------------- 
|       Changes to Business Employment Dynamics (BED) Data          |
| Data in this release incorporate annual revisions to the BED      |
| series.  Annual revisions are published each year with the release| 
| of first quarter data.  These revisions cover the last four       |
| quarters of not seasonally adjusted data and 5 years of seasonally| 
| adjusted data.                                                    |
 ------------------------------------------------------------------- 

Job gains at expanding establishments fell to 5.2 million in first 
quarter 2011, a decrease from the previous quarter’s gain of 5.6 
million.

Opening establishments gained 1.1 million jobs in first quarter 2011, a 
decrease from the previous quarter when opening establishments created 
1.4 million jobs. This is the smallest number of jobs gained at opening 
establishments since the series began in September 1992.

Contracting establishments lost 5 million jobs in the first quarter of 
2011. This is the smallest number of jobs lost at contracting 
establishments since the series began in September 1992.

In the first quarter of 2011, closing establishments lost 1.1 million 
jobs, a decline from the previous quarter. This is the smallest number 
of jobs lost at closing establishments since the series began in 
September 1992. (See tables 1 and 3.)  
 
The difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of 
gross job losses yielded a net change of 252,000 jobs in the private 
sector during the first quarter of 2011. (See table 1.)

Gross job gains represented 5.9 percent of private sector employment in 
first quarter 2011, while gross job losses represented 5.7 percent of 
private sector employment. (See table 2.)

In first quarter 2011, the number of establishment births (a subset of 
the openings data, see the Technical Note for more information) fell by 
17,000 to 183,000. These new establishments accounted for 660,000 jobs, 
a decrease of 132,000 from the previous quarter. This is the smallest 
number of jobs gained at establishment births since the series began in 
September 1992.

Data for establishment deaths (a subset of the closings data) are 
available through June 2010, when 652,000 jobs were lost at 185,000 
establishments. This represents the lowest number of jobs lost at 
establishment deaths since the series began in third quarter 1992. (See 
table 8.)

From December 2010 to March 2011, gross job gains exceeded gross job 
losses in all industry sectors except construction, information, 
financial activities, retail trade, and transportation and warehousing. 
This is the fifteenth consecutive quarter of net losses for the 
information sector. Manufacturing experienced its fourth consecutive 
quarter of net employment gains. The leisure and hospitality sector as 
well as the professional and business services had the largest positive 
rates of net employment change at 0.5 percent. (See table 3.)


Table A.  Three-month private sector gross job gains and losses, 
seasonally adjusted 

Category                                 3 months ended

                                Mar.    June    Sept.   Dec.    Mar.
                                2010    2010    2010    2010    2011

                                      Levels (in thousands)
                                      
Gross job gains................ 6,246   6,969   6,685   7,009  6,338
 At expanding establishments... 5,084   5,687   5,427   5,631  5,230
 At opening establishments..... 1,162   1,282   1,258   1,378  1,108

Gross job losses............... 6,500   6,248   6,480   6,427  6,086
 At contracting establishments. 5,299   5,086   5,255   5,199  4,969
 At closing establishments..... 1,201   1,162   1,125   1,228  1,117

Net employment change(1).......  -254     721     205     582    252
								
                                         Rates (percent)

Gross job gains................   5.9     6.6     6.3     6.6    5.9
 At expanding establishments...   4.8     5.4     5.1     5.3    4.9
 At opening establishments.....   1.1     1.2     1.2     1.3    1.0

Gross job losses...............   6.1     5.9     6.2     6.1    5.7
 At contracting establishments.   5.0     4.8     5.0     4.9    4.7
 At closing establishments.....   1.1     1.1     1.2     1.2    1.0

Net employment change(1).......   -.2      .7      .1      .5     .2

    (1) The net employment change is the difference between total 
    gross job gains and total gross job losses.  See the Technical 
    Note for further information.
    

Gross job gains declined in all three major firm size classes compared 
to the previous quarter. Firms with 250 or more employees experienced 
the largest drop in gross job gains. Firms with less than 250 employees 
comprised 72 percent of the total net change in employment. (See tables 
4 and 5.)

In the first quarter of 2011, gross job gains exceeded gross job losses 
in 35 states and the District of Columbia. Texas had the largest net 
employment change of 63,921 jobs, followed by Michigan with 27,251 jobs. 
(See table 6.) The District of Columbia experienced the largest rate of 
net employment change at 1.8 percent, followed by North Dakota at 1.6 
percent. (See table 7.)

More Information
Additional information on gross job gains and gross job losses are 
available online at www.bls.gov/bdm. This information includes data 
on the levels and rates of gross job gains and gross job losses by 
firm size, not seasonally adjusted data and other seasonally adjusted 
time series not presented in this release, charts of gross job gains 
and gross job losses by industry and firm size, and frequently asked 
questions on firm-size data. Additional information about the Business 
Employment Dynamics data can be found in the Technical Note of this 
release or may be obtained by e-mailing BDMinfo@bls.gov.



 ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
| The Business Employment Dynamics for Second Quarter 2011 are scheduled |
| to  be released on Wednesday, February 1, 2012 at 10:00 a.m. (EST).    | 
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------








                                                                 
Technical Note

   
   The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-
state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages
(QCEW), or the ES-202 program.  The BED data are compiled by the U.S.
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) from existing quarterly state unemployment
insurance (UI) records.  Most employers in the U.S. are required to file
quarterly reports on the employment and wages of workers covered by UI
laws, and to pay quarterly UI taxes.  The quarterly UI reports are sent by
the State Workforce Agencies (SWAs) to BLS and form the basis of the BLS 
establishment universe sampling frame.  These reports also are used to pro-
duce the quarterly QCEW data on total employment and wages and the longitu-
dinal BED data on gross job gains and losses.  Other important BLS uses 
of the UI reports are in the Current Employment Statistics (CES) program. 
(See table below for differences between QCEW, CES, and BED.)
                                     
   In the BED program, the quarterly UI records are linked across quarters
to provide a longitudinal history for each establishment.  The linkage
process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment
level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and
expanding establishments and jobs lost at closing and contracting establish-
ments.

Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES employment measures

   The BLS publishes three different establishment-based employment mea-
sures for any given quarter.  Each of these measures--QCEW, BED, and CES--
makes use of the quarterly UI employment reports in producing data; how-
ever, each measure has a somewhat different universe coverage, estimation 
procedure, and publication product.

   Differences in coverage and estimation methods can result in somewhat 
different measures of over-the-quarter employment change.  It is important to 
understand program differences and the intended uses of the program products.  
(See table below.)  Additional information on each program can be obtained 
from the program Web sites shown in the table.

				                                  
Summary of Major Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES Employment Measures
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |         QCEW        |         BED          |         CES
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Source     |--Count of UI admini-|--Count of longitudi- |--Sample survey: 
           |  strative records   |  nally-linked UI ad- |  440,000 establish-
           |  submitted by 9.1   |  ministrative records|  ments
           |  million employers  |  submitted by 6.7    |
           |                     |  million private sec-|
           |                     |  tor employers       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Coverage   |--UI and UCFE cover- |--UI Coverage, exclud-|Nonfarm wage and sal-
           |  age:  all employers|  ing government, pri-|  ary jobs:
           |  subject to state   |  vate households, and|--UI Coverage, exclud-
           |  and federal UI Laws|  establishments with |  ing agriculture, pri-
           |                     |  zero employment     |  vate households, and
           |                     |                      |  self-employed workers
           |                     |                      |--Other employment, in-
           |                     |                      |  cluding railroads, 
           |                     |                      |  religious organiza-
           |                     |                      |  tions, and other non-
           |                     |                      |  UI-covered jobs
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Publication|--Quarterly          |--Quarterly           |--Monthly 
frequency  |  -6 months after the|  -7 months after the |  -Usually first Friday
           |   end of each quar- |   end of each quarter|   of following month
           |   ter               |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Use of UI  |--Directly summarizes|--Links each new UI   |--Uses UI file as a sam-
file       |  and publishes each |  quarter to longitu- |  pling frame and annu-
           |  new quarter of UI  |  dinal database and  |  ally realigns (bench-
           |  data               |  directly summarizes |  marks) sample esti-    
           |                     |  gross job gains and |  mates to first quar-  
           |                     |  losses              |  ter UI levels
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Provides a quarter-|--Provides quarterly  |--Provides current month-
products   |  ly and annual uni- |  employer dynamics   |  ly estimates of employ-
           |  verse count of es- |  data on establish-  |  ment, hours, and earn-
           |  tablishments, em-  |  ment openings, clos-|  ings at the MSA, state,
           |  ployment, and wages|  ings, expansions,   |  and national level by
           |  at the county, MSA,|  and contractions at |  industry
           |  state, and national|  the national level  |
           |  levels by detailed |  by NAICS super-     |
           |  industry           |  sectors and by size |
           |                     |  of firm, and at the |   
           |                     |  state private-sector|
           |                     |  total level         | 
           |                     |--Future expansions   |
           |                     |  will include data   |
           |                     |  with greater in-    |
           |                     |  dustry detail and   |
           |                     |  data at the county  |
           |                     |  and MSA level       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Major uses include:|--Major uses include: |--Major uses include:
uses       |  -Detailed locality |  -Business cycle     |  -Principal national
           |   data              |   analysis           |   economic indicator
           |  -Periodic universe |  -Analysis of employ-|  -Official time series 
           |   counts for bench- |   er dynamics under- |   for employment change
           |   marking sample    |   lying economic ex- |   measures
           |   survey estimates  |   pansions and con-  |  -Input into other ma-
           |  -Sample frame for  |   tractions          |   jor economic indi-
           |   BLS establishment |  -Analysis of employ-|   cators
           |   surveys           |   ment expansion and |
           |                     |   contraction by size|   
           |                     |   of firm            |
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Program    |--www.bls.gov/cew/   |--www.bls.gov/bdm/    |--www.bls.gov/ces/
Web sites  |                     |                      |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               
                           
Coverage                           

   Employment and wage data for workers covered by state UI and Unemployment 
Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE) laws are compiled from quarterly 
contribution reports submitted to the SWAs by employers.  In addition to the 
quarterly contribution reports, employers who operate multiple establishments 
within a state complete a questionnaire, called the "Multiple Worksite Report,"
which provides detailed information on the location of their establishments. 
These reports are based on place of employment rather than place of residence. 
UI and UCFE coverage is broad and basically comparable from state to state.
   
   Major exclusions from UI coverage are self-employed workers, religious or-
ganizations, most agricultural workers on small farms, all members of the 
Armed Forces, elected officials in most states, most employees of railroads, 
some domestic workers, most student workers at schools, and employees of cer-
tain small nonprofit organizations.
   
   Gross job gains and gross job losses in this release are derived from lon-
gitudinal histories of 6.7 million private sector employer reports out 
of 9.1 million total reports of employment and wages submitted by states to 
BLS in the first quarter of 2011.  Gross job gains and gross job losses data 
in this release do not report estimates for government employees or private 
households (NAICS 814110) and do not include establishments with zero employ-
ment in both previous and current quarters.  Data from Puerto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands also are excluded from the national data.  As an illustration, 
the table below shows, in millions of establishments, the number of establish-
ments excluded from the gross job gains and gross job losses data in the
first quarter of 2011:


             Number of active establishments included in 
              Business Employment Dynamics data at the
                          national level

                                                                   Millions
                                                                       
Total establishments QCEW program....................................9.1

    Excluded:  Public sector.........................................0.3 
               Private households....................................0.7
               Zero employment.......................................1.3      
               Establishments in Puerto Rico 
                 and the Virgin Islands..............................0.1 

                 
Total establishments included in Business
Employment Dynamics data.............................................6.7

Unit of analysis
   
   Establishments are used in the tabulation of the BED statistics by in-
dustry and firms are used in the tabulation of the BED size class sta-
tistics.  An establishment is defined as an economic unit that produces
goods or services, usually at a single physical location, and engages in
one or predominantly one activity.  A firm is a legal business, either
corporate or otherwise, and may consist of several establishments.  Firm-
level data are compiled based on an aggregation of establishments under
common ownership by a corporate parent using employer tax identification
numbers.  The firm-level aggregation, which is consistent with the role of
corporations as the economic decision makers, is used for the measurement
of the BED data elements by size class.
   
   Because of the difference in the unit of analysis, total gross job gains
and gross job losses by size class are lower than total gross job gains and
gross job losses by industry, as some establishment gains and losses within
a firm are offset during the aggregation process.  However, the total net
changes in employment are the same for not seasonally adjusted data and are
similar for seasonally adjusted data.
                                 
Concepts and methodology

   The Business Employment Dynamics data measure the net change in employ-
ment at the establishment or firm level.  These changes come about in one 
of four ways.  A net increase in employment can come from either opening 
units or expanding units.  A net decrease in employment can come from either 
closing units or contracting units.  Gross job gains include the sum of all
jobs added at either opening or expanding units.  Gross job losses include
the sum of all jobs lost in either closing or contracting units.  The net
change in employment is the difference between gross job gains and gross
job losses.
   
   The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:                          

   Openings.  These are either units with positive third month employment for
the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or
with positive third month employment in the current quarter, following zero em-
ployment in the previous quarter.
                                     
   Expansions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment
over this period.
   
   Closings.  These are units with positive third month employment in the pre-
vious quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the current
quarter.
   
   Contractions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment
over this period.

   Births.  These are units with positive third month employment for the 
first time in the current quarter with no links to the prior quarter, or 
units with positive third month employment in the current quarter and zero
employment in the third month of the previous four quarters. Births are a
subset of openings not including re-openings of seasonal businesses.

   Deaths.  These are units with no employment or zero employment reported in 
the third month of four consecutive quarters following the last quarter with 
positive employment. Deaths are a subset of closings not including temporary 
shutdowns of seasonal businesses.  A unit that closes during the quarter may 
be a death, but we wait three quarters to determine whether it is a permanent
closing or a temporary shutdown. Therefore, there is always a lag of three 
quarters for the publication of death statistics.

   All establishment-level employment changes are measured from the third 
month of each quarter.  Not all establishments and firms change their em-
ployment levels.  Units with no change in employment count towards estimates
of total employment, but not for levels of gross employment job gains and 
gross job losses.

   Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing 
their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quar-
ters.  This provides a symmetric growth rate.  The rates are calculated for
the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to
form their respective totals.  These rates can be added and subtracted just
as their levels can.  For instance, the difference between the gross job
gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

Establishment Births and Deaths

   For the purpose of BED statistics, births are defined as establishments
that appear in the longitudinal database for the first time with positive
employment in the third month of a quarter, or showed four consecutive
quarters of zero employment in the third month followed by a quarter in
which it shows positive employment in the third month.  Similarly, deaths
are defined as establishments that either drop out of the longitudinal
database or an establishment that had positive employment in the third month
of a given quarter followed by four consecutive quarters of showing zero
employment in the third month.  Although the data for establishment births
and deaths are tabulated independently from the data for openings and
closings, the concepts are not mutually exclusive.  An establishment that
is defined as a birth in a given quarter is necessarily an opening as well,
and an establishment defined as a death in a quarter must also be a closing.
Since openings include seasonal, and other, re-openings and closings include
temporary shutdowns, the not seasonally adjusted values for births and
deaths must be less than those openings and closings.  However, because some
BED series do not have many re-openings or temporary shutdowns, as well as
the fact that births and deaths are independently seasonally adjusted from
openings and closings, there may be instances in which the seasonally
adjusted value of the former is greater than the latter.

Linkage methodology

   Prior to the measurement of gross job gains and gross job losses, QCEW
records are linked across two quarters.  The linkage process matches esta-
blishments' unique SWA identification numbers (SWA-ID).  Between 95 to 97
percent of establishments identified as continuous from quarter to quarter
are matched by SWA-ID.  The rest are linked in one of three ways.  The first
method uses predecessor and successor information, identified by the states,
which relates records with different SWA-IDs across quarters.  Predecessor
and successor relations can come about for a variety of reasons, including
a change in ownership, a firm restructuring, or a UI account restructuring.
If a match cannot be attained in this manner, a probability-based match is
used.  This match attempts to identify two establishments with different SWA-
IDs as continuous.  The match is based upon comparisons such as the same
name, address, and phone number.  Third, an analyst examines unmatched re-
cords individually and makes a possible match.

   In order to ensure the highest possible quality of data, SWAs verify with 
employers and update, if necessary, the industry, location, and ownership 
classification of all establishments on a 3-year cycle.  Changes in establish-
ment classification codes resulting from the verification process are intro-
duced with the data reported for the first quarter of the year.  Changes re-
sulting from improved employer reporting also are introduced in the first 
quarter.   
                              
Sizing methodology
   
   The method of dynamic sizing is used in calculations for the BED size-
class data series.  Dynamic sizing allocates each firm's employment gain or
loss during a quarter to each respective size class in which the change
occurred.  For example, if a firm grew from 2 employees in quarter 1 to 38
employees in quarter 2, then, of the 36-employee increase, 2 would be al-
located to the first size class, 5 to the size class 5 to 9, 10 to size
class 10 to 19, and 19 to size class 20 to 49.
   
   Dynamic sizing provides symmetrical firm-size estimates and eliminates
any systematic effects which may be caused by the transitory and reverting
changes in firms' sizes over time.  Additionally, it allocates each job
gain or loss to the actual size class where it occurred.

Annual Data

   The annual gross job gains and gross job losses measure the net change
in employment at the establishment level from the third month of a quarter
in the previous year to the third month of the same quarter in the current
year.  The BLS publishes annual BED data based on March-to-March changes
once a year with the release of the first quarter BED data.  The annual
data based on over-the-year changes for other quarters of the year are
available upon request.  The definitions and methodology in measuring
annual gross job gains and gross job losses are similar to the quarterly
measures.  The linkage method considers all predecessor and successor
relations that may come about due to changes in ownership and corporate
restructuring over the entire year.  At the establishment level, some of
the quarterly job gains and job losses are offset during the estimation
over the year.  Therefore, the sum of four quarters of gross job gains
and gross job losses are not equal to annual gross job gains and gross
job losses.  The net change in employment over the year, however, is
equal to the sum of four quarterly net changes on a not seasonally
adjusted basis.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the levels of employment and the associated
job flows undergo sharp fluctuations due to such seasonal events as changes
in the weather, reduced or expanded production, harvests, major holidays,
and the opening and closing of schools.  The effect of such seasonal vari-
ation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each 
year, their influence can be eliminated by adjusting these statistics from 
quarter to quarter.  These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as 
declines in economic activity, easier to recognize.  For example, the large 
number of youths taking summer jobs is likely to obscure other changes that 
have taken place in June relative to March, making it difficult to determine 
if the level of economic activity has risen or declined.  However, because
the effect of students finishing school in previous years is known, the 
statistics for the current year can be adjusted to allow for a comparable 
change.  The adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to ana-
lyze changes in economic activity.

   The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contract-
ing units are independently seasonally adjusted; net changes are calculated
based on the difference between gross job gains and gross job losses.  Simi-
larly, for industry data, the establishment counts data series for opening,
expanding, closing, and contracting establishments are independently adjusted,
and the net changes are calculated based on the difference between the number
of opening and closing establishments.  Additionally, establishment and em-
ployment levels are independently seasonally adjusted to calculate the sea-
sonally adjusted rates.  Concurrent seasonal adjustment is run using X-12
ARIMA.  Seasonally adjusted data series for the total private sector are cal-
culated by summing the seasonally adjusted data for all sectors, including
the unclassified sector, which is not published separately.
   
   The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contracting 
units for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia are seasonally
adjusted at the total private level only.  The sum of the state series for
opening, expanding, closing, and contracting units will not necessarily be
equal to the national total private series because of the independent seasonal
adjustment of these series.
   
   The net over-the-quarter change derived by summing the BED component series 
will differ from the net employment change estimated from the seasonally ad-
justed total private employment series from the CES program.  The intended use 
of BED statistics is to show the dynamic labor market changes that underlie 
the net employment change statistic.  As such, data users interested particu-
larly in the net employment change and not in the gross job flows underlying 
this change should refer to CES data for over-the-quarter net employment
changes.
   
Reliability of the data
   
   Since the data series on Business Employment Dynamics are based on admini-
strative rather than sample data, there are no issues related to sampling 
error.  Nonsampling error, however, still exists.  Nonsampling errors can oc-
cur for many reasons, such as the employer submitting corrected employment 
data after the end of the quarter or typographical errors made by businesses 
when providing information.  Such errors, however, are likely to be distri-
buted randomly throughout the dataset.
   
   Changes in administrative data sometimes create complications for the 
linkage process.  This can result in overstating openings and closings while 
understating expansions and contractions.  The BLS continues to refine methods 
for improving the linkage process to alleviate the effects of these compli-
cations.
   
   The BED data series are subject to periodic minor changes based on correc-
tions in QCEW records, updates on predecessors and successors information, and
seasonal adjustment revisions.

Annual revisions are published each year with the release of the first quarter
data.  These revisions cover the last four quarters of not seasonally adjusted
data and 5 years of seasonally adjusted data.
                      
Additional statistics and other information
   
   Several other programs within BLS produce closely related information.  
The QCEW program, also known as the ES-202 program, provides both quarterly 
and annual estimates of employment by state, county, and detailed industry. 
News releases on quarterly county employment and wages are available upon 
request from the Division of Administrative Statistics and Labor Turnover, 
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC 20212; 
telephone 202-691-6567; (http://www.bls.gov/cew/); (e-mail: QCEWInfo@bls.gov).
                                     
   The CES program produces monthly estimates of employment, its net change, 
and earnings by detailed industry.  These estimates are part of the Employ-
ment Situation report put out monthly by BLS.
                                     
   The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) program provides month-
ly measures of job openings, as well as employee hires and separations.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired in-
dividuals upon request.  Voice phone:  202-691-5200; TDD message referral 
number: 1-800-877-8339.






Table 1.  Private sector gross job gains and job losses, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(In thousands)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(1) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2001  March               -119      8,491       6,728         1,763       8,610       6,717           1,893
      June                -780      7,991       6,302         1,689       8,771       7,036           1,735
      September         -1,148      7,630       5,945         1,685       8,778       6,990           1,788
      December          -1,009      7,547       5,912         1,635       8,556       6,870           1,686

2002  March                -10      8,071       6,298         1,773       8,081       6,434           1,647
      June                 -30      7,868       6,145         1,723       7,898       6,274           1,624
      September           -151      7,630       6,039         1,591       7,781       6,248           1,533
      December            -241      7,483       5,938         1,545       7,724       6,185           1,539

2003  March               -393      7,467       5,928         1,539       7,860       6,307           1,553
      June                 -90      7,398       5,929         1,469       7,488       6,030           1,458
      September            204      7,392       5,923         1,469       7,188       5,828           1,360
      December             297      7,521       6,005         1,516       7,224       5,800           1,424

2004  March                470      7,715       6,204         1,511       7,245       5,795           1,450
      June                 644      7,754       6,235         1,519       7,110       5,639           1,471
      September            206      7,633       6,060         1,573       7,427       5,888           1,539
      December             757      7,844       6,243         1,601       7,087       5,663           1,424

2005  March                384      7,620       6,131         1,489       7,236       5,801           1,435
      June                 593      7,774       6,231         1,543       7,181       5,776           1,405
      September            677      7,965       6,387         1,578       7,288       5,844           1,444
      December             494      7,807       6,252         1,555       7,313       5,948           1,365

2006  March                874      7,797       6,354         1,443       6,923       5,636           1,287
      June                 371      7,758       6,246         1,512       7,387       6,015           1,372
      September             52      7,499       6,061         1,438       7,447       6,097           1,350
      December             455      7,740       6,223         1,517       7,285       5,941           1,344

2007  March                555      7,723       6,303         1,420       7,168       5,871           1,297
      June                 155      7,630       6,222         1,408       7,475       6,073           1,402
      September           -240      7,333       5,858         1,475       7,573       6,219           1,354
      December             274      7,642       6,178         1,464       7,368       6,016           1,352

2008  March               -215      7,234       5,831         1,403       7,449       6,086           1,363
      June                -574      7,255       5,851         1,404       7,829       6,351           1,478
      September           -955      6,893       5,526         1,367       7,848       6,467           1,381
      December          -1,819      6,698       5,342         1,356       8,517       7,030           1,487

2009  March             -2,696      5,830       4,651         1,179       8,526       7,109           1,417
      June              -1,653      6,395       5,091         1,304       8,048       6,661           1,387
      September           -893      6,345       5,127         1,218       7,238       5,881           1,357
      December            -238      6,634       5,306         1,328       6,872       5,586           1,286

2010  March               -254      6,246       5,084         1,162       6,500       5,299           1,201
      June                 721      6,969       5,687         1,282       6,248       5,086           1,162
      September            205      6,685       5,427         1,258       6,480       5,255           1,225
      December             582      7,009       5,631         1,378       6,427       5,199           1,228

2011  March                252      6,338       5,230         1,108       6,086       4,969           1,117

(1) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 2.  Private sector gross job gains and losses, as a percent of employment(1), seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Percent)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(2) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2001  March                -.1       7.7         6.1           1.6         7.8          6.1            1.7
      June                 -.8       7.2         5.7           1.5         8.0          6.4            1.6
      September           -1.1       6.9         5.4           1.5         8.0          6.4            1.6
      December            -1.0       7.0         5.5           1.5         8.0          6.4            1.6

2002  March                 .0       7.5         5.9           1.6         7.5          6.0            1.5
      June                  .0       7.3         5.7           1.6         7.3          5.8            1.5
      September            -.1       7.1         5.6           1.5         7.2          5.8            1.4
      December             -.3       6.9         5.5           1.4         7.2          5.8            1.4

2003  March                -.5       6.9         5.5           1.4         7.4          5.9            1.5
      June                  .0       7.0         5.6           1.4         7.0          5.6            1.4
      September             .1       6.9         5.5           1.4         6.8          5.5            1.3
      December              .3       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3

2004  March                 .5       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3
      June                  .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.2            1.4
      September             .3       7.1         5.6           1.5         6.8          5.4            1.4
      December              .7       7.2         5.7           1.5         6.5          5.2            1.3

2005  March                 .4       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      June                  .6       7.1         5.7           1.4         6.5          5.2            1.3
      September             .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      December              .4       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.6          5.4            1.2

2006  March                 .9       7.0         5.7           1.3         6.1          5.0            1.1
      June                  .3       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September             .1       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.6          5.4            1.2
      December              .3       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2007  March                 .4       6.7         5.5           1.2         6.3          5.2            1.1
      June                  .2       6.7         5.5           1.2         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September            -.3       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.7          5.5            1.2
      December              .2       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2008  March                -.2       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.5          5.3            1.2
      June                 -.6       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.9          5.6            1.3
      September            -.8       6.1         4.9           1.2         6.9          5.7            1.2
      December            -1.6       6.0         4.8           1.2         7.6          6.3            1.3

2009  March               -2.4       5.4         4.3           1.1         7.8          6.5            1.3
      June                -1.5       6.0         4.8           1.2         7.5          6.2            1.3
      September            -.9       6.0         4.8           1.2         6.9          5.6            1.3
      December             -.2       6.3         5.0           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2010  March                -.2       5.9         4.8           1.1         6.1          5.0            1.1
      June                  .7       6.6         5.4           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1
      September             .1       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.2          5.0            1.2
      December              .5       6.6         5.3           1.3         6.1          4.9            1.2

2011  March                 .2       5.9         4.9           1.0         5.7          4.7            1.0

(1) The rates measure gross job gains and gross job losses as a percentage
    of the previous and current quarter employment levels.

(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 3. Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   Mar.    June    Sept    Dec.    Mar.   Mar.   June   Sept   Dec.   Mar.  
                                   2010    2010    2010    2010    2011   2010   2010   2010   2010   2011
Total private(1)

Gross job gains                   6,246   6,969   6,685   7,009   6,338    5.9    6.6    6.3    6.6    5.9
 At expanding establishments      5,084   5,687   5,427   5,631   5,230    4.8    5.4    5.1    5.3    4.9
 At opening establishments        1,162   1,282   1,258   1,378   1,108    1.1    1.2    1.2    1.3    1.0
Gross job losses                  6,500   6,248   6,480   6,427   6,086    6.1    5.9    6.2    6.1    5.7
 At contracting establishments    5,299   5,086   5,255   5,199   4,969    5.0    4.8    5.0    4.9    4.7
 At closing establishments        1,201   1,162   1,225   1,228   1,117    1.1    1.1    1.2    1.2    1.0
Net employment change              -254     721     205     582     252    -.2     .7     .1     .5     .2

Goods-producing

Gross job gains                   1,300   1,468   1,378   1,364   1,296    6.9    7.8    7.3    7.2    6.9
 At expanding establishments      1,095   1,238   1,162   1,138   1,107    5.8    6.6    6.2    6.0    5.9
 At opening establishments          205     230     216     226     189    1.1    1.2    1.1    1.2    1.0
Gross job losses                  1,471   1,319   1,331   1,406   1,268    7.9    7.0    7.1    7.5    6.8
 At contracting establishments    1,214   1,088   1,092   1,160   1,049    6.5    5.8    5.8    6.2    5.6
 At closing establishments          257     231     239     246     219    1.4    1.2    1.3    1.3    1.2
Net employment change              -171     149      47     -42      28   -1.0     .8     .2    -.3     .1

Natural resources and mining

Gross job gains                     277     305     270     284     261   15.8   17.1   14.9   15.6   14.2
 At expanding establishments        240     263     234     240     225   13.7   14.7   12.9   13.2   12.2
 At opening establishments           37      42      36      44      36    2.1    2.4    2.0    2.4    2.0
Gross job losses                    273     239     267     278     260   15.5   13.4   14.7   15.2   14.1
 At contracting establishments      234     205     230     241     225   13.3   11.5   12.7   13.2   12.2
 At closing establishments           39      34      37      37      35    2.2    1.9    2.0    2.0    1.9
Net employment change                 4      66       3       6       1     .3    3.7     .2     .4     .1

Construction

Gross job gains                     609     681     658     638     613   11.0   12.4   11.9   11.6   11.3
 At expanding establishments        477     533     518     499     493    8.6    9.7    9.4    9.1    9.1
 At opening establishments          132     148     140     139     120    2.4    2.7    2.5    2.5    2.2
Gross job losses                    735     681     658     697     638   13.2   12.4   12.0   12.8   11.8
 At contracting establishments      575     535     510     541     499   10.3    9.7    9.3    9.9    9.2
 At closing establishments          160     146     148     156     139    2.9    2.7    2.7    2.9    2.6
Net employment change              -126       0       0     -59     -25   -2.2     .0    -.1   -1.2    -.5

Manufacturing

Gross job gains                     414     482     450     442     422    3.6    4.2    3.9    3.9    3.6
 At expanding establishments        378     442     410     399     389    3.3    3.9    3.6    3.5    3.3
 At opening establishments           36      40      40      43      33     .3     .3     .3     .4     .3
Gross job losses                    463     399     406     431     370    4.0    3.4    3.6    3.8    3.2
 At contracting establishments      405     348     352     378     325    3.5    3.0    3.1    3.3    2.8
 At closing establishments           58      51      54      53      45     .5     .4     .5     .5     .4
Net employment change               -49      83      44      11      52    -.4     .8     .3     .1     .4

Service-providing(1)

Gross job gains                   4,946   5,501   5,307   5,645   5,042    5.7    6.3    6.1    6.4    5.7
 At expanding establishments      3,989   4,449   4,265   4,493   4,123    4.6    5.1    4.9    5.1    4.7
 At opening establishments          957   1,052   1,042   1,152     919    1.1    1.2    1.2    1.3    1.0
Gross job losses                  5,029   4,929   5,149   5,021   4,818    5.8    5.7    5.9    5.7    5.5
 At contracting establishments    4,085   3,998   4,163   4,039   3,920    4.7    4.6    4.8    4.6    4.5
 At closing establishments          944     931     986     982     898    1.1    1.1    1.1    1.1    1.0
Net employment change               -83     572     158     624     224    -.1     .6     .2     .7     .2

Wholesale trade

Gross job gains                     253     282     268     281     258    4.6    5.1    4.9    5.2    4.7
 At expanding establishments        203     231     218     223     214    3.7    4.2    4.0    4.1    3.9
 At opening establishments           50      51      50      58      44     .9     .9     .9    1.1     .8
Gross job losses                    274     250     259     253     246    5.0    4.6    4.8    4.6    4.4
 At contracting establishments      214     192     200     197     189    3.9    3.5    3.7    3.6    3.4
 At closing establishments           60      58      59      56      57    1.1    1.1    1.1    1.0    1.0
Net employment change               -21      32       9      28      12    -.4     .5     .1     .6     .3

Retail trade

Gross job gains                     804     897     799     893     805    5.6    6.1    5.5    6.2    5.5
 At expanding establishments        689     765     671     763     698    4.8    5.2    4.6    5.3    4.8
 At opening establishments          115     132     128     130     107     .8     .9     .9     .9     .7
Gross job losses                    810     776     890     812     814    5.6    5.3    6.1    5.6    5.6
 At contracting establishments      694     671     778     692     704    4.8    4.6    5.3    4.8    4.8
 At closing establishments          116     105     112     120     110     .8     .7     .8     .8     .8
Net employment change                -6     121     -91      81      -9     .0     .8    -.6     .6    -.1

Transportation and warehousing

Gross job gains                     188     219     216     253     204    4.7    5.6    5.4    6.3    5.1
 At expanding establishments        159     184     183     217     173    4.0    4.7    4.6    5.4    4.3
 At opening establishments           29      35      33      36      31     .7     .9     .8     .9     .8
Gross job losses                    223     191     196     193     223    5.7    4.9    4.9    4.8    5.5
 At contracting establishments      189     157     159     160     190    4.8    4.0    4.0    4.0    4.7
 At closing establishments           34      34      37      33      33     .9     .9     .9     .8     .8
Net employment change               -35      28      20      60     -19   -1.0     .7     .5    1.5    -.4

Utilities

Gross job gains                       9      11      10      12      11    1.6    2.0    1.8    2.2    2.0
 At expanding establishments          8      10       9      10      10    1.4    1.8    1.6    1.8    1.8
 At opening establishments            1       1       1       2       1     .2     .2     .2     .4     .2
Gross job losses                     10      13      12      11       9    1.8    2.4    2.2    2.0    1.7
 At contracting establishments        9      12      11      10       8    1.6    2.2    2.0    1.8    1.5
 At closing establishments            1       1       1       1       1     .2     .2     .2     .2     .2
Net employment change                -1      -2      -2       1       2    -.2    -.4    -.4     .2     .3

Information

Gross job gains                     107     126     134     127     111    3.9    4.6    4.9    4.8    4.1
 At expanding establishments         90     106     114     104      95    3.3    3.9    4.2    3.9    3.5
 At opening establishments           17      20      20      23      16     .6     .7     .7     .9     .6
Gross job losses                    132     130     137     138     130    4.8    4.8    5.0    5.1    4.8
 At contracting establishments      112     110     115     114     110    4.1    4.1    4.2    4.2    4.1
 At closing establishments           20      20      22      24      20     .7     .7     .8     .9     .7
Net employment change               -25      -4      -3     -11     -19    -.9    -.2    -.1    -.3    -.7

Financial activities

Gross job gains                     335     345     350     369     317    4.5    4.7    4.7    5.0    4.3
 At expanding establishments        269     273     277     282     257    3.6    3.7    3.7    3.8    3.5
 At opening establishments           66      72      73      87      60     .9    1.0    1.0    1.2     .8
Gross job losses                    371     373     370     346     334    5.0    5.0    5.0    4.7    4.5
 At contracting establishments      282     288     275     263     255    3.8    3.9    3.7    3.6    3.4
 At closing establishments           89      85      95      83      79    1.2    1.1    1.3    1.1    1.1
Net employment change               -36     -28     -20      23     -17    -.5    -.3    -.3     .3    -.2

Professional and business services

Gross job gains                   1,162   1,357   1,285   1,387   1,219    7.0    8.1    7.6    8.2    7.1
 At expanding establishments        943   1,102   1,042   1,116   1,013    5.7    6.6    6.2    6.6    5.9
 At opening establishments          219     255     243     271     206    1.3    1.5    1.4    1.6    1.2
Gross job losses                  1,148   1,150   1,189   1,176   1,134    6.9    7.0    7.1    6.9    6.6
 At contracting establishments      914     892     937     918     907    5.5    5.4    5.6    5.4    5.3
 At closing establishments          234     258     252     258     227    1.4    1.6    1.5    1.5    1.3
Net employment change                14     207      96     211      85     .1    1.1     .5    1.3     .5

Education and health services

Gross job gains                     748     780     798     842     733    4.0    4.2    4.3    4.5    3.8
 At expanding establishments        629     662     668     697     630    3.4    3.6    3.6    3.7    3.3
 At opening establishments          119     118     130     145     103     .6     .6     .7     .8     .5
Gross job losses                    719     716     731     704     668    3.8    3.8    3.9    3.8    3.6
 At contracting establishments      601     599     600     580     558    3.2    3.2    3.2    3.1    3.0
 At closing establishments          118     117     131     124     110     .6     .6     .7     .7     .6
Net employment change                29      64      67     138      65     .2     .4     .4     .7     .2

Leisure and hospitality

Gross job gains                   1,026   1,155   1,111   1,131   1,037    7.9    8.9    8.5    8.6    7.9
 At expanding establishments        793     892     864     862     814    6.1    6.9    6.6    6.6    6.2
 At opening establishments          233     263     247     269     223    1.8    2.0    1.9    2.0    1.7
Gross job losses                  1,046   1,053   1,069   1,100     985    8.1    8.1    8.2    8.4    7.4
 At contracting establishments      855     873     873     893     799    6.6    6.7    6.7    6.8    6.0
 At closing establishments          191     180     196     207     186    1.5    1.4    1.5    1.6    1.4
Net employment change               -20     102      42      31      52    -.2     .8     .3     .2     .5

Other services

Gross job gains                     253     279     268     272     258    6.8    7.5    7.2    7.3    6.9
 At expanding establishments        198     219     209     210     206    5.3    5.9    5.6    5.6    5.5
 At opening establishments           55      60      59      62      52    1.5    1.6    1.6    1.7    1.4
Gross job losses                    266     255     275     267     249    7.2    6.9    7.4    7.2    6.7
 At contracting establishments      208     199     211     207     193    5.6    5.4    5.7    5.6    5.2
 At closing establishments           58      56      64      60      56    1.6    1.5    1.7    1.6    1.5
Net employment change               -13      24      -7       5       9    -.4     .6    -.2     .1     .2

(1) Includes unclassified sector, not shown separately

Table 4.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

(In thousands)

                      Total private by firm(1)       Firm size 1 - 49 employees      Firm size 50 - 249 employees      Firm size 250 or more employees
Year  3 months        Net        Gross job            Net          Gross job          Net           Gross job           Net           Gross job
        ended      change(2,3)  gains   losses       change      gains   losses      change       gains   losses       change       gains   losses

2001  March             52      7,033    6,981          23       3,508    3,485        -87        1,277    1,364         116        2,248    2,132
      June            -843      6,432    7,275        -123       3,393    3,516       -180        1,223    1,403        -540        1,816    2,356
      September     -1,214      6,124    7,338        -271       3,333    3,604       -253        1,142    1,395        -690        1,649    2,339
      December      -1,041      6,146    7,187        -118       3,325    3,443       -200        1,138    1,338        -723        1,683    2,406

2002  March             70      6,602    6,532          54       3,402    3,348        -52        1,194    1,246          68        2,006    1,938
      June             -61      6,416    6,477          69       3,379    3,310         -7        1,191    1,198        -123        1,846    1,969
      September       -176      6,190    6,366          20       3,335    3,315        -46        1,144    1,190        -150        1,711    1,861
      December        -247      6,114    6,361          -3       3,299    3,302        -73        1,106    1,179        -171        1,709    1,880

2003  March           -326      6,112    6,438        -135       3,257    3,392        -56        1,127    1,183        -135        1,728    1,863
      June            -137      6,108    6,245         112       3,346    3,234        -26        1,133    1,159        -223        1,629    1,852
      September        193      6,162    5,969         120       3,327    3,207         21        1,127    1,106          52        1,708    1,656
      December         310      6,218    5,908         146       3,340    3,194         32        1,128    1,096         132        1,750    1,618

2004  March            430      6,306    5,876         153       3,392    3,239        137        1,194    1,057         140        1,720    1,580
      June             621      6,471    5,850         169       3,387    3,218        141        1,196    1,055         311        1,888    1,577
      September        197      6,243    6,046          88       3,379    3,291         88        1,175    1,087          21        1,689    1,668
      December         759      6,494    5,735         274       3,480    3,206        101        1,172    1,071         384        1,842    1,458

2005  March            368      6,320    5,952          66       3,416    3,350         97        1,161    1,064         205        1,743    1,538
      June             570      6,435    5,865         243       3,476    3,233        146        1,198    1,052         181        1,761    1,580
      September        701      6,672    5,971         218       3,510    3,292         85        1,195    1,110         398        1,967    1,569
      December         506      6,406    5,900         169       3,462    3,293         45        1,140    1,095         292        1,804    1,512

2006  March            788      6,433    5,645         334       3,547    3,213        222        1,213      991         232        1,673    1,441
      June             375      6,349    5,974         117       3,434    3,317        110        1,190    1,080         148        1,725    1,577
      September         43      6,103    6,060         -14       3,329    3,343         27        1,127    1,100          30        1,647    1,617
      December         447      6,375    5,928         117       3,393    3,276         74        1,147    1,073         256        1,835    1,579

2007  March            481      6,301    5,820         196       3,454    3,258        109        1,155    1,046         176        1,692    1,516
      June             170      6,260    6,090         -28       3,340    3,368        106        1,181    1,075          92        1,739    1,647
      September       -252      5,907    6,159        -129       3,256    3,385        -53        1,075    1,128         -70        1,576    1,646
      December         259      6,231    5,972         -10       3,304    3,314         51        1,133    1,082         218        1,794    1,576

2008  March           -259      5,810    6,069        -132       3,240    3,372          0        1,076    1,076        -127        1,494    1,621
      June            -552      5,862    6,414        -282       3,181    3,463        -38        1,100    1,138        -232        1,581    1,813
      September     -1,016      5,499    6,515        -354       3,045    3,399       -161        1,015    1,176        -501        1,439    1,940
      December      -1,880      5,323    7,203        -706       2,898    3,604       -380          941    1,321        -794        1,484    2,278

2009  March         -2,626      4,582    7,208        -962       2,725    3,687       -600          807    1,407      -1,064        1,050    2,114
      June          -1,776      5,176    6,952        -472       2,952    3,424       -276          958    1,234      -1,028        1,266    2,294
      September       -957      5,134    6,091        -382       2,818    3,200       -127          928    1,055        -448        1,388    1,836
      December        -310      5,389    5,699        -176       2,928    3,104        -52          957    1,009         -82        1,504    1,586

2010  March           -213      5,096    5,309        -177       2,866    3,043          7          910      903         -43        1,320    1,363
      June             686      5,819    5,133         236       3,096    2,860        211        1,080      869         239        1,643    1,404
      September        175      5,493    5,318          14       2,935    2,921         72          995      923          89        1,563    1,474
      December         502      5,769    5,267          74       3,036    2,962         87        1,029      942         341        1,704    1,363

2011  March            300      5,270    4,970          95       2,931    2,836        120          954      834          85        1,385    1,300


(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower
    than total gross job gains and gross job losses by establishment,
    as some establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.
(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.
(3) Net change totals for firm-level data shown differ from the establishment-level data
    due to independent seasonal adjustment of the series.
NOTE: See http://www.bls.gov/bdm/bdmfirmsize.htm for additional firm size class data.

Table 5. Components of private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   Mar.    June    Sept    Dec.    Mar.   Mar.   June   Sept   Dec.   Mar.  
                                   2010    2010    2010    2010    2011   2010   2010   2010   2010   2011
Total private by firm(1)

Gross job gains                   5,096   5,819   5,493   5,769   5,270    4.8    5.5    5.2    5.4    4.9
 At expanding firms               4,209   4,897   4,606   4,792   4,414    4.0    4.6    4.4    4.5    4.1
 At opening firms                   887     922     887     977     856     .8     .9     .8     .9     .8

Gross job losses                  5,309   5,133   5,318   5,267   4,970    5.1    4.9    5.0    4.9    4.7
 At contracting firms             4,409   4,300   4,441   4,392   4,122    4.2    4.1    4.2    4.1    3.9
 At closing firms                   900     833     877     875     848     .9     .8     .8     .8     .8

Net employment change              -213     686     175     502     300    -.3     .6     .2     .5     .2


Firm size 1 to 49 employees

Gross job gains                   2,866   3,096   2,935   3,036   2,931    9.2   10.0    9.4    9.8    9.5
 At expanding firms               2,016   2,221   2,091   2,105   2,102    6.5    7.2    6.7    6.8    6.8
 At opening firms                   850     875     844     931     829    2.7    2.8    2.7    3.0    2.7

Gross job losses                  3,043   2,860   2,921   2,962   2,836    9.8    9.2    9.4    9.6    9.1
 At contracting firms             2,174   2,060   2,088   2,128   2,020    7.0    6.6    6.7    6.9    6.5
 At closing firms                   869     800     833     834     816    2.8    2.6    2.7    2.7    2.6

Net employment change              -177     236      14      74      95    -.6     .8     .0     .2     .4


Firm size 50 to 249 employees

Gross job gains                     910   1,080     995   1,029     954    4.7    5.6    5.1    5.3    4.8
 At expanding firms                 880   1,041     961     990     930    4.5    5.4    4.9    5.1    4.7
 At opening firms                    30      39      34      39      24     .2     .2     .2     .2     .1

Gross job losses                    903     869     923     942     834    4.6    4.4    4.8    4.8    4.2
 At contracting firms               875     841     892     906     807    4.5    4.3    4.6    4.6    4.1
 At closing firms                    28      28      31      36      27     .1     .1     .2     .2     .1

Net employment change                 7     211      72      87     120     .1    1.2     .3     .5     .6


Firm size 250 or more employees

Gross job gains                   1,320   1,643   1,563   1,704   1,385    2.4    3.0    2.8    3.1    2.5
 At expanding firms               1,313   1,635   1,554   1,697   1,382    2.4    3.0    2.8    3.1    2.5
 At opening firms                     7       8       9       7       3     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Gross job losses                  1,363   1,404   1,474   1,363   1,300    2.5    2.5    2.6    2.4    2.3
 At contracting firms             1,360   1,399   1,461   1,358   1,295    2.5    2.5    2.6    2.4    2.3
 At closing firms                     3       5      13       5       5     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Net employment change               -43     239      89     341      85    -.1     .5     .2     .7     .2


(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower
    than total gross job gains and gross job losses by establishment,
    as some establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.

Table 6.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by state, seasonally adjusted

                                         Gross job gains                                          Gross job losses
State                                    (3 months ended)                                         (3 months ended)
                        Mar.       June       Sept.       Dec.      Mar.       Mar.         June       Sept.       Dec.      Mar. 
                        2010       2010       2010        2010      2011       2010         2010       2010        2010      2011

United States1.....  6,246,000  6,969,000  6,685,000   7,009,000  6,338,000  6,500,000   6,248,000   6,480,000  6,427,000  6,086,000

Alabama.....            84,372     92,483     90,721      92,164     84,072     84,663      84,923      95,799     89,956     82,916
Alaska.....             25,441     26,360     23,161      24,908     24,319     23,791      21,840      23,448     25,197     21,293
Arizona.....           120,845    120,873    126,753     141,676    117,103    122,788     127,006     129,605    113,046    117,413
Arkansas.....           53,238     61,695     55,521      54,051     55,976     52,035      53,119      58,241     58,156     53,905
California.....        781,375    887,666    787,214     873,783    752,698    836,279     779,531     818,105    772,029    738,300
Colorado.....          118,409    133,255    124,225     131,018    122,688    122,968     125,126     124,036    120,092    114,405
Connecticut.....        67,780     85,104     72,370      74,302     67,774     81,766      67,794      67,158     72,484     69,284
Delaware.....           19,458     24,056     22,933      21,847     22,113     21,354      18,824      21,089     22,834     20,242
District of Columbia    23,622     26,497     25,326      27,846     29,987     21,281      23,479      29,528     24,781     21,458
Florida.....           374,097    424,764    419,552     453,057    372,940    378,742     404,928     426,977    414,993    356,280

Georgia.....           198,798    210,784    216,883     214,691    207,785    198,131     207,651     202,499    198,644    186,781
Hawaii.....             24,547     24,707     28,392      26,466     24,223     24,865      26,116      25,057     22,825     22,900
Idaho.....              36,137     36,328     39,571      40,703     35,498     38,800      39,903      35,155     37,844     36,790
Illinois.....          234,051    268,667    255,731     281,974    245,304    244,386     232,366     251,229    254,339    236,133
Indiana.....           131,409    145,993    140,288     145,415    135,804    128,057     131,148     131,096    132,742    114,665
Iowa.....               64,941     70,717     70,026      75,715     65,535     65,873      66,734      69,637     69,027     66,140
Kansas.....             56,274     63,016     61,756      70,900     59,010     61,646      60,147      63,668     60,144     60,071
Kentucky.....           79,350     87,264     83,568      93,215     80,921     84,151      79,926      81,672     81,135     83,668
Louisiana.....          96,637    104,674    103,355     106,043    102,355     97,000      98,255      99,701    101,389     90,149
Maine.....              31,237     37,147     35,628      34,798     30,806     34,986      35,323      34,417     35,991     32,856

Maryland.....          125,458    138,572    127,180     128,762    119,293    125,663     119,298     129,181    125,577    118,004
Massachusetts.....     155,323    162,965    157,323     156,253    136,195    145,522     139,146     153,793    152,159    139,626
Michigan.....          185,348    222,102    218,979     207,960    202,206    191,060     182,967     190,046    210,292    174,955
Minnesota.....         125,554    138,901    124,355     131,626    124,362    130,865     112,782     123,248    128,668    118,040
Mississippi.....        51,404     58,084     57,350      56,787     55,205     49,921      53,738      57,458     55,326     50,813
Missouri.....          124,514    131,264    127,425     124,515    121,999    129,766     129,031     123,553    121,858    120,177
Montana.....            26,138     26,982     27,124      27,445     24,767     27,803      26,508      24,974     27,711     24,719
Nebraska.....           40,452     44,693     43,221      42,938     40,591     41,259      40,169      41,996     42,817     39,689
Nevada.....             52,267     61,087     55,275      67,891     58,860     65,509      55,786      63,266     58,018     56,471
New Hampshire.....      34,777     36,737     33,633      36,059     31,746     35,982      33,135      33,968     34,213     31,830

New Jersey.....        177,185    223,605    188,804     203,235    184,843    196,575     190,581     204,259    198,023    192,772
New Mexico.....         38,503     40,815     39,762      40,742     35,917     38,639      40,938      41,048     37,689     35,305
New York.....          376,211    452,585    432,680     449,459    406,459    396,193     398,325     410,012    419,971    385,929
North Carolina.....    185,191    206,273    201,598     209,029    200,576    190,735     195,011     193,472    195,225    177,200
North Dakota.....       19,848     20,600     22,758      23,814     23,425     18,786      18,120      17,074     17,984     18,400
Ohio.....              222,723    251,456    244,556     261,771    232,288    231,507     216,693     223,292    250,797    223,563
Oklahoma.....           69,470     75,351     75,614      77,617     70,826     67,092      65,056      73,056     64,020     71,533
Oregon.....             89,239     88,864     95,437      94,944     90,375     88,209      86,397      83,701     91,838     84,986
Pennsylvania.....      255,595    280,308    267,898     281,481    256,426    250,760     240,856     253,938    260,162    244,149
Rhode Island.....       22,986     26,168     24,453      23,620     21,353     21,905      25,029      23,626     25,140     22,691

South Carolina.....     89,756     96,305     91,822      89,875     86,741     85,427      85,961      85,836     84,506     78,523
South Dakota.....       19,311     21,918     20,878      21,224     18,832     21,300      19,057      19,476     19,803     20,222
Tennessee.....         110,089    135,727    123,944     129,673    117,400    113,834     119,621     127,678    114,731    107,336
Texas.....             473,487    493,086    496,166     517,288    490,083    441,554     450,941     448,972    438,142    426,162
Utah.....               64,156     66,707     66,646      69,992     64,599     64,634      63,249      64,810     62,883     59,437
Vermont.....            15,849     18,449     18,660      19,203     15,293     17,651      18,681      16,375     16,981     16,751
Virginia.....          154,919    187,240    177,577     178,103    164,199    163,577     167,200     177,624    167,855    153,775
Washington.....        154,686    156,965    162,283     167,005    153,861    157,286     146,952     147,705    161,094    144,122
West Virginia.....      33,754     37,521     36,767      34,855     36,012     34,998      36,549      34,036     35,503     31,982
Wisconsin.....         127,777    135,914    133,367     137,774    126,841    127,653     120,414     124,554    130,173    121,831

Wyoming.....            17,669     17,758     20,415      19,076     16,725     18,417      18,073      16,520     18,428     17,656
Puerto Rico.....        38,518     36,360     41,677      45,491     35,682     44,195      44,179      41,118     36,861     41,248
Virgin Islands.....      2,705      2,044      2,419       2,369      2,104      1,912       2,746       1,830      1,803      1,947

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 7.  Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted

                        Gross job gains as a percent of employment    Gross job losses as a percent of employment
State                              (3 months ended)                               (3 months ended)

                        Mar.    June     Sept.    Dec.    Mar.        Mar.     June      Sept.   Dec.     Mar. 
                        2010    2010     2010     2010    2011        2010     2010      2010    2010     2011

United States1.....      5.9     6.6      6.3      6.6     5.9         6.1      5.9       6.2      6.1     5.7

Alabama.....             5.8     6.4      6.3      6.3     5.8         5.9      5.8       6.6      6.2     5.8
Alaska.....             10.8    11.1      9.7     10.5    10.1        10.1      9.2       9.9     10.5     8.8
Arizona.....             6.2     6.2      6.5      7.2     5.9         6.3      6.4       6.6      5.7     5.9
Arkansas.....            5.8     6.6      6.0      5.8     6.0         5.6      5.7       6.2      6.3     5.8
California.....          6.7     7.5      6.7      7.4     6.3         7.2      6.7       6.9      6.6     6.2
Colorado.....            6.6     7.4      6.9      7.3     6.7         6.9      7.0       6.9      6.6     6.3
Connecticut.....         5.0     6.4      5.3      5.5     5.0         6.1      5.0       4.9      5.4     5.1
Delaware.....            5.8     7.1      6.7      6.4     6.4         6.3      5.6       6.2      6.7     6.0
District of Columbia..   5.4     6.0      5.7      6.3     6.6         4.8      5.3       6.6      5.6     4.8
Florida.....             6.2     7.0      6.9      7.4     6.1         6.3      6.7       7.0      6.8     5.8

Georgia.....             6.4     6.9      7.0      7.0     6.7         6.5      6.8       6.6      6.5     6.0
Hawaii.....              5.3     5.3      6.1      5.7     5.1         5.3      5.6       5.4      4.9     4.8
Idaho.....               7.3     7.4      8.1      8.2     7.1         7.8      8.1       7.2      7.7     7.4
Illinois.....            5.0     5.7      5.5      6.0     5.2         5.3      5.0       5.3      5.4     5.0
Indiana.....             5.7     6.4      6.1      6.3     5.8         5.6      5.7       5.7      5.7     4.9
Iowa.....                5.5     5.9      5.8      6.3     5.4         5.6      5.5       5.9      5.8     5.5
Kansas.....              5.4     6.0      5.9      6.7     5.6         5.9      5.8       6.1      5.7     5.7
Kentucky.....            5.7     6.3      6.0      6.6     5.8         6.1      5.7       5.8      5.7     6.0
Louisiana.....           6.5     7.1      6.9      7.1     6.8         6.6      6.6       6.7      6.8     6.0
Maine.....               6.6     7.8      7.5      7.3     6.4         7.3      7.4       7.2      7.5     6.9

Maryland.....            6.4     7.1      6.5      6.6     6.1         6.4      6.1       6.6      6.3     6.0
Massachusetts.....       5.8     6.0      5.8      5.8     5.0         5.5      5.2       5.7      5.6     5.2
Michigan.....            5.9     7.0      6.9      6.5     6.2         6.1      5.7       5.9      6.5     5.4
Minnesota.....           5.8     6.4      5.7      6.0     5.6         6.0      5.2       5.7      5.8     5.4
Mississippi.....         6.2     6.9      6.9      6.8     6.6         6.0      6.5       6.9      6.6     6.0
Missouri.....            5.8     6.2      5.9      5.8     5.7         6.1      6.0       5.8      5.7     5.6
Montana.....             7.8     8.1      8.1      8.2     7.3         8.2      8.0       7.5      8.3     7.3
Nebraska.....            5.6     6.1      5.9      5.8     5.5         5.7      5.4       5.7      5.8     5.4
Nevada.....              5.4     6.4      5.8      7.1     6.1         6.8      5.8       6.6      6.1     5.9
New Hampshire.....       6.8     7.2      6.6      7.0     6.1         7.0      6.4       6.6      6.7     6.2

New Jersey.....          5.6     7.1      6.0      6.5     5.8         6.2      6.1       6.5      6.3     6.1
New Mexico.....          6.5     6.9      6.8      6.9     6.0         6.6      6.9       7.0      6.4     5.9
New York.....            5.5     6.6      6.3      6.5     5.8         5.8      5.8       6.0      6.0     5.5
North Carolina.....      6.0     6.6      6.5      6.7     6.4         6.2      6.4       6.2      6.2     5.6
North Dakota.....        7.0     7.2      7.8      8.0     7.7         6.5      6.3       5.8      6.1     6.1
Ohio.....                5.4     6.1      5.9      6.2     5.5         5.6      5.3       5.4      6.0     5.3
Oklahoma.....            6.1     6.5      6.5      6.6     6.0         5.8      5.6       6.3      5.5     6.1
Oregon.....              6.8     6.8      7.3      7.2     6.8         6.7      6.5       6.4      6.9     6.3
Pennsylvania.....        5.5     5.9      5.7      5.9     5.4         5.3      5.1       5.3      5.4     5.1
Rhode Island.....        5.9     6.8      6.4      6.1     5.5         5.7      6.5       6.1      6.5     5.9

South Carolina.....      6.4     6.8      6.5      6.3     6.0         6.0      6.1       6.0      5.9     5.5
South Dakota.....        6.1     7.0      6.6      6.7     5.9         6.8      6.1       6.1      6.2     6.4
Tennessee.....           5.2     6.4      5.8      6.0     5.5         5.4      5.6       5.9      5.3     5.0
Texas.....               5.7     5.9      5.9      6.1     5.7         5.3      5.4       5.4      5.2     5.0
Utah.....                6.8     7.1      7.1      7.4     6.7         6.9      6.7       6.8      6.6     6.2
Vermont.....             6.7     7.8      7.9      8.0     6.3         7.4      7.9       6.9      7.0     6.9
Virginia.....            5.5     6.6      6.2      6.3     5.7         5.8      5.9       6.3      5.9     5.4
Washington.....          6.9     7.1      7.3      7.5     6.8         7.1      6.6       6.6      7.2     6.4
West Virginia.....       6.2     6.9      6.7      6.4     6.5         6.4      6.6       6.2      6.4     5.8
Wisconsin.....           5.8     6.1      6.0      6.2     5.6         5.8      5.4       5.6      5.8     5.4

Wyoming.....             8.6     8.7     10.0      9.3     8.0         9.0      8.9       8.1      8.9     8.5
Puerto Rico.....         5.7     5.4      6.2      6.8     5.3         6.6      6.6       6.1      5.6     6.1
Virgin Islands.....      8.7     6.6      7.9      7.5     6.6         6.2      8.9       5.9      5.7     6.1

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 8.  Private sector establishment births and deaths, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Levels in thousands)

                              Number of Establishments                     Employment
                             Births             Deaths(1)            Births             Deaths
Year  3 months ended     Level    Rate(2)   Level    Rate       Level      Rate    Level      Rate

2001  March               206      3.3       203     3.2        1,187       1.1    1,303       1.2
      June                204      3.2       204     3.2        1,146       1.0    1,226       1.1
      September           204      3.2       207     3.3        1,151       1.1    1,219       1.1
      December            194      3.1       200     3.2        1,109       1.0    1,142       1.1
  
2002  March               204      3.2       190     3.0        1,175       1.1    1,089       1.0
      June                208      3.3       187     2.9        1,189       1.1    1,080       1.0
      September           199      3.1       184     2.9        1,051       1.0    1,023       1.0
      December            201      3.1       191     3.0        1,023       1.0    1,021       1.0
  
2003  March               193      3.0       186     2.9        1,004        .9    1,011        .9
      June                191      3.0       186     2.9          964        .9      951        .9
      September           193      3.0       179     2.8          954        .9      884        .8
      December            200      3.1       180     2.8          998        .9      910        .9
  
2004  March               207      3.2       180     2.8        1,000        .9      917        .9
      June                203      3.1       185     2.8          980        .9      909        .8
      September           209      3.2       186     2.8        1,016        .9      953        .9
      December            210      3.2       180     2.7          997        .9      894        .8
  
2005  March               209      3.1       185     2.8          944        .9      852        .8
      June                216      3.2       180     2.7          951        .9      841        .8
      September           221      3.3       186     2.8          996        .9      884        .8
      December            221      3.3       186     2.8          979        .9      846        .8
  
2006  March               220      3.2       180     2.6          924        .8      748        .7
      June                221      3.2       194     2.8          973        .9      841        .7
      September           210      3.1       196     2.9          927        .8      836        .7
      December            221      3.2       194     2.8          959        .8      804        .7
  
2007  March               214      3.1       193     2.8          896        .8      768        .7
      June                206      3.0       202     2.9          883        .8      851        .7
      September           216      3.1       203     2.9          944        .8      837        .7
      December            208      3.0       207     3.0          903        .8      830        .7
  
2008  March               207      3.0       211     3.0          894        .8      810        .7
      June                200      2.9       228     3.3          876        .8      934        .8
      September           191      2.7       223     3.2          830        .7      881        .8
      December            188      2.7       240     3.5          801        .7      953        .9
  
2009  March               172      2.5       235     3.4          701        .6      846        .8
      June                177      2.6       226     3.3          741        .7      832        .8
      September           169      2.5       215     3.2          694        .7      786        .7
      December            182      2.7       200     3.0          713        .7      741        .7
  
2010  March               175      2.6       194     2.9          684        .7      664        .6
      June                179      2.7       185     2.7          713        .7      652        .6
      September           188      2.8       N/A     N/A          743        .7      N/A       N/A
      December            200      2.9       N/A     N/A          792        .7      N/A       N/A
  
2011  March               183      2.7       N/A     N/A          660        .6      N/A       N/A

(1) Values for deaths are not available for the most recent three quarters
    by definition.  See the Technical Note for more information.

(2) The rates measure births and deaths as a percentage
    of the average of the previous and current quarter employment levels or
    total number of establishments.

Last Modified Date: November 17, 2011
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