Economic News Release

Quarterly Data Series on Business Employment Dynamics News Release


For release: 10:00 A.M. EST                                      USDL 10-1602
Thursday, November 18, 2010

Technical information: (202) 691-6553  *  BDMinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/bdm

Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


          BUSINESS EMPLOYMENT DYNAMICS:  FIRST QUARTER 2010    

From December 2009 to March 2010 the number of gross job gains from 
opening and expanding private sector establishments decreased to 6.1 
million, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today.  Over 
this period, gross job losses from closing and contracting private 
sector establishments were 6.4 million. Job losses have steadily 
decreased from a recent high of 8.5 million in December 2008 to
their lowest level since this series began in September 1992. 

Firms with 100 to 999 employees experienced net job gains in first
quarter 2010, while firms with 1 to 99 employees and 1,000 or more
employees experienced net job losses.

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of 
increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses 
in the economy.  Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track 
these changes in employment at private business units from the third 
month of one quarter to the third month of the next.  Gross job 
gains are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at 
existing units and the addition of new jobs at opening units.  Gross 
job losses are the result of contractions in employment at existing 
units and the loss of jobs at closing units.  The difference between 
the number of gross job gains and the number of gross job losses is 
the net change in employment. (See the Technical Note for more 
information.) 

The BED data series include gross job gains and gross job losses at the 
establishment level by major industry sector and for the 50 states, the 
District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, as well as 
gross job gains and gross job losses at the firm level by employer size 
class. 

 ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
|       Revision of Historical Business Employment Dynamics Series       |
|                                                                        |
| The release of first quarter 2010 Business Employment Dynamics data    |
| incorporates annual revisions for 2009 and historical corrections      |
| resulting from the publication of national 3-digit NAICS data.         |
| Seasonally adjusted and non-seasonally adjusted data have both         |
| been revised.                                                          |
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 

Contracting establishments lost 5.2 million jobs in the first 
quarter of 2010. This is the smallest number of jobs lost at contracting
establishments since June 1993. 

First quarter job gains at expanding establishments fell to 5.0 
million.  The drop reversed an upward trend in the series that
began in March 2009.

From December 2009 to March 2010 closing establishments lost 1.2 
million jobs, a decrease from the previous quarter’s loss of 1.3 
million. 

Opening establishments gained 1.1 million jobs, also a decrease
from the previous quarter when opening establishments created 1.3 
million jobs. (See tables 1 and 3.)

In first quarter 2010 there were 172,000 establishment births
(a subset of the openings data, see the Technical Note for more 
information); these new establishments added 661,000 jobs.

Data for establishment deaths (a subset of the closings data) are 
available through June 2009, when 831,000 jobs were lost at 
226,000 establishments.  (See table 7.)


The difference between the number of gross jobs gained and the 
number of gross jobs lost yielded a net change of -311,000 jobs in 
the private sector for first quarter 2010. (See table 1.)

Gross job gains represented 5.8 percent of private sector 
employment in first quarter 2010, while gross job losses represented
6.1 percent of private sector employment.  (See table 2.)

The education and health services sector was the only sector
that had a net increase in employment in first quarter 2010.
Gross job gains in the service-providing sectors fell from
5,349,000 in December 2009 to 4,844,000 in March 2010.  The
construction sector continues to experience the highest net losses
as a percent of total employment.  From December 2009 to March
2010, the rate of gross job gains decreased slightly from 10.9
to 10.7 percent, while the rate of gross job losses showed a
larger decline from 13.6 to 13.1 percent. (See table 3.)

The share of total gross job gains at firms with 1 to 249 employees 
increased from 72.0 percent to 74.2 percent. The share of gross job losses
decreased at firms with 50 or more employees and increased at firms
with 1 to 49 employees.  (See table 4.)

Table A.  Three-month private sector gross job gains and losses, 
seasonally adjusted 

Category                                 3 months ended

                                Mar.    June    Sept.   Dec.    Mar.    
                                2009    2009    2009    2009    2010    

                                      Levels (in thousands)
                                      
Gross job gains................ 5,783   6,421   6,341   6,662   6,110
 At expanding establishments... 4,611   5,117   5,124   5,326   4,996
 At opening establishments..... 1,172   1,304   1,217   1,336   1,114

Gross job losses............... 8,524   8,025   7,241   6,890   6,421
 At contracting establishments. 7,109   6,644   5,883   5,598   5,231
 At closing establishments..... 1,415   1,381   1,358   1,292   1,190

Net employment change(1).......-2,741  -1,604    -900    -228    -311
								
                                         Rates (percent)

Gross job gains................   5.3     6.0     5.9     6.4     5.8
 At expanding establishments...   4.2     4.8     4.8     5.1     4.7
 At opening establishments.....   1.1     1.2     1.1     1.3     1.1

Gross job losses...............   7.8     7.5     6.9     6.5     6.1
 At contracting establishments.   6.5     6.2     5.6     5.3     5.0
 At closing establishments.....   1.3     1.3     1.3     1.2     1.1

Net employment change(1).......  -2.5    -1.5    -1.0     -.1     -.3

    (1) The net employment change is the difference between total 
    gross job gains and total gross job losses.  See the Technical 
    Note for further information.


In first quarter 2010, fifteen states, the District of Columbia, 
and the Virgin Islands experienced a positive net change in employment,
an increase from eight states in the prior quarter.  Texas had the
largest net gain in employment, which can be attributed to a sharp
decline in gross job losses from 484,059 in December 2009 to 434,114
in March 2010.  New York and New Jersey experienced their lowest
levels of gross job losses for the series in first quarter 2010 at
390,777 and 193,790, respectively.  However, both states experienced
net employment losses of about 17,500 due to declines in gross job
gains. (See table 5.)  From December 2009 to March 2010, gross job
losses as a percent of total employment decreased or remained unchanged
at 48 states, the District of Columbia, and the Virgin Islands.
Connecticut and South Dakota were the only states to show
increases.  (See table 6.)

More Information
Additional information on gross job gains and gross job losses are 
available online at http://www.bls.gov/bdm.  This information 
includes data on the levels and rates of gross job gains and gross 
job losses by firm size, the not seasonally adjusted data and other 
seasonally adjusted time series not presented in this release, 
charts of gross job gains and gross job losses by industry and firm 
size, and frequently asked questions on firm-size data.  Additional 
information about the Business Employment Dynamics data can be 
found in the Technical Note of this release or may be obtained by 
e-mailing BDMinfo@bls.gov. 
	
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 
| The Business Employment Dynamics for Second Quarter 2010 are          |
| scheduled to be released on Tuesday, February 1, 2011 at 10:00 a.m.   |
| (EST).                                                                |
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 







                                                                 
Technical Note

   
   The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-
state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages
(QCEW), or the ES-202 program.  The BED data are compiled by the U.S.
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) from existing quarterly state unemployment
insurance (UI) records.  Most employers in the U.S. are required to file
quarterly reports on the employment and wages of workers covered by UI
laws, and to pay quarterly UI taxes.  The quarterly UI reports are sent by
the State Workforce Agencies (SWAs) to BLS and form the basis of the BLS 
establishment universe sampling frame.  These reports also are used to pro-
duce the quarterly QCEW data on total employment and wages and the longitu-
dinal BED data on gross job gains and losses.  Other important BLS uses 
of the UI reports are in the Current Employment Statistics (CES) program. 
(See table below for differences between QCEW, CES, and BED.)
                                     
   In the BED program, the quarterly UI records are linked across quarters
to provide a longitudinal history for each establishment.  The linkage
process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment
level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and
expanding establishments and jobs lost at closing and contracting establish-
ments.

Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES employment measures

   The BLS publishes three different establishment-based employment mea-
sures for any given quarter.  Each of these measures--QCEW, BED, and CES--
makes use of the quarterly UI employment reports in producing data; how-
ever, each measure has a somewhat different universe coverage, estimation 
procedure, and publication product.

   Differences in coverage and estimation methods can result in somewhat 
different measures of over-the-quarter employment change.  It is important to 
understand program differences and the intended uses of the program products.  
(See table below.)  Additional information on each program can be obtained 
from the program Web sites shown in the table.

				                                  
Summary of Major Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES Employment Measures
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |         QCEW        |         BED          |         CES
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Source     |--Count of UI admini-|--Count of longitudi- |--Sample survey: 
           |  strative records   |  nally-linked UI ad- |  410,000 establish-
           |  submitted by 9.0   |  ministrative records|  ments
           |  million employers  |  submitted by 6.7    |
           |                     |  million private sec-|
           |                     |  tor employers       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Coverage   |--UI and UCFE cover- |--UI Coverage, exclud-|Nonfarm wage and sal-
           |  age:  all employers|  ing government, pri-|  ary jobs:
           |  subject to state   |  vate households, and|--UI Coverage, exclud-
           |  and federal UI Laws|  establishments with |  ing agriculture, pri-
           |                     |  zero employment     |  vate households, and
           |                     |                      |  self-employed workers
           |                     |                      |--Other employment, in-
           |                     |                      |  cluding railroads, 
           |                     |                      |  religious organiza-
           |                     |                      |  tions, and other non-
           |                     |                      |  UI-covered jobs
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Publication|--Quarterly          |--Quarterly           |--Monthly 
frequency  |  -7 months after the|  -8 months after the |  -Usually first Friday
           |   end of each quar- |   end of each quarter|   of following month
           |   ter               |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Use of UI  |--Directly summarizes|--Links each new UI   |--Uses UI file as a sam-
file       |  and publishes each |  quarter to longitu- |  pling frame and annu-
           |  new quarter of UI  |  dinal database and  |  ally realigns (bench-
           |  data               |  directly summarizes |  marks) sample esti-    
           |                     |  gross job gains and |  mates to first quar-  
           |                     |  losses              |  ter UI levels
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Provides a quarter-|--Provides quarterly  |--Provides current month-
products   |  ly and annual uni- |  employer dynamics   |  ly estimates of employ-
           |  verse count of es- |  data on establish-  |  ment, hours, and earn-
           |  tablishments, em-  |  ment openings, clos-|  ings at the MSA, state,
           |  ployment, and wages|  ings, expansions,   |  and national level by
           |  at the county, MSA,|  and contractions at |  industry
           |  state, and national|  the national level  |
           |  levels by detailed |  by NAICS super-     |
           |  industry           |  sectors and by size |
           |                     |  of firm, and at the |   
           |                     |  state private-sector|
           |                     |  total level         | 
           |                     |--Future expansions   |
           |                     |  will include data   |
           |                     |  with greater in-    |
           |                     |  dustry detail and   |
           |                     |  data at the county  |
           |                     |  and MSA level       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Major uses include:|--Major uses include: |--Major uses include:
uses       |  -Detailed locality |  -Business cycle     |  -Principal national
           |   data              |   analysis           |   economic indicator
           |  -Periodic universe |  -Analysis of employ-|  -Official time series 
           |   counts for bench- |   er dynamics under- |   for employment change
           |   marking sample    |   lying economic ex- |   measures
           |   survey estimates  |   pansions and con-  |  -Input into other ma-
           |  -Sample frame for  |   tractions          |   jor economic indi-
           |   BLS establishment |  -Analysis of employ-|   cators
           |   surveys           |   ment expansion and |
           |                     |   contraction by size|   
           |                     |   of firm            |
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Program    |--www.bls.gov/cew/   |--www.bls.gov/bdm/    |--www.bls.gov/ces/
Web sites  |                     |                      |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               
                           
Coverage                           

   Employment and wage data for workers covered by state UI and Unemployment 
Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE) laws are compiled from quarterly 
contribution reports submitted to the SWAs by employers.  In addition to the 
quarterly contribution reports, employers who operate multiple establishments 
within a state complete a questionnaire, called the "Multiple Worksite Report,"
which provides detailed information on the location of their establishments. 
These reports are based on place of employment rather than place of residence. 
UI and UCFE coverage is broad and basically comparable from state to state.
   
   Major exclusions from UI coverage are self-employed workers, religious or-
ganizations, most agricultural workers on small farms, all members of the 
Armed Forces, elected officials in most states, most employees of railroads, 
some domestic workers, most student workers at schools, and employees of cer-
tain small nonprofit organizations.
   
   Gross job gains and gross job losses in this release are derived from lon-
gitudinal histories of 6.7 million private sector employer reports out 
of 9.0 million total reports of employment and wages submitted by states to 
BLS in the first quarter of 2010.  Gross job gains and gross job losses data 
in this release do not report estimates for government employees or private 
households (NAICS 814110) and do not include establishments with zero employ-
ment in both previous and current quarters.  Data from Puerto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands also are excluded from the national data.  As an illustration, 
the table below shows, in millions of establishments, the number of establish-
ments excluded from the gross job gains and gross job losses data in the
first quarter of 2010:


             Number of active establishments included in 
              Business Employment Dynamics data at the
                          national level

                                                                   Millions
                                                                       
Total establishments QCEW program....................................9.0

    Excluded:  Public sector.........................................0.3 
               Private households....................................0.7
               Zero employment.......................................1.3      
               Establishments in Puerto Rico 
                 and the Virgin Islands..............................0.0 
                 (less than 50,000)
                 
Total establishments included in Business
Employment Dynamics data.............................................6.7

Unit of analysis
   
   Establishments are used in the tabulation of the BED statistics by in-
dustry and firms are used in the tabulation of the BED size class sta-
tistics.  An establishment is defined as an economic unit that produces
goods or services, usually at a single physical location, and engages in
one or predominantly one activity.  A firm is a legal business, either
corporate or otherwise, and may consist of several establishments.  Firm-
level data are compiled based on an aggregation of establishments under
common ownership by a corporate parent using employer tax identification
numbers.  The firm-level aggregation, which is consistent with the role of
corporations as the economic decision makers, is used for the measurement
of the BED data elements by size class.
   
   Because of the difference in the unit of analysis, total gross job gains
and gross job losses by size class are lower than total gross job gains and
gross job losses by industry, as some establishment gains and losses within
a firm are offset during the aggregation process.  However, the total net
changes in employment are the same for not seasonally adjusted data and are
similar for seasonally adjusted data.
                                 
Concepts and methodology

   The Business Employment Dynamics data measure the net change in employ-
ment at the establishment or firm level.  These changes come about in one 
of four ways.  A net increase in employment can come from either opening 
units or expanding units.  A net decrease in employment can come from either 
closing units or contracting units.  Gross job gains include the sum of all
jobs added at either opening or expanding units.  Gross job losses include
the sum of all jobs lost in either closing or contracting units.  The net
change in employment is the difference between gross job gains and gross
job losses.
   
   The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:                          

   Openings.  These are either units with positive third month employment for
the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or
with positive third month employment in the current quarter, following zero em-
ployment in the previous quarter.
                                     
   Expansions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment
over this period.
   
   Closings.  These are units with positive third month employment in the pre-
vious quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the current
quarter.
   
   Contractions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment
over this period.

   Births.  These are units with positive third month employment for the 
first time in the current quarter with no links to the prior quarter, or 
units with positive third month employment in the current quarter and zero
employment in the third month of the previous four quarters. Births are a
subset of openings not including re-openings of seasonal businesses.

   Deaths.  These are units with no employment or zero employment reported in 
the third month of four consecutive quarters following the last quarter with 
positive employment. Deaths are a subset of closings not including temporary 
shutdowns of seasonal businesses.  A unit that closes during the quarter may 
be a death, but we wait three quarters to determine whether it is a permanent
closing or a temporary shutdown. Therefore, there is always a lag of three 
quarters for the publication of death statistics.

   All establishment-level employment changes are measured from the third 
month of each quarter.  Not all establishments and firms change their em-
ployment levels.  Units with no change in employment count towards estimates
of total employment, but not for levels of gross employment job gains and 
gross job losses.

   Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing 
their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quar-
ters.  This provides a symmetric growth rate.  The rates are calculated for
the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to
form their respective totals.  These rates can be added and subtracted just
as their levels can.  For instance, the difference between the gross job
gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

Establishment Births and Deaths

   For the purpose of BED statistics, births are defined as establishments
that appear in the longitudinal database for the first time with positive
employment in the third month of a quarter, or showed four consecutive
quarters of zero employment in the third month followed by a quarter in
which it shows positive employment in the third month.  Similarly, deaths
are defined as establishments that either drop out of the longitudinal
database or an establishment that had positive employment in the third month
of a given quarter followed by four consecutive quarters of showing zero
employment in the third month.  Although the data for establishment births
and deaths are tabulated independently from the data for openings and
closings, the concepts are not mutually exclusive.  An establishment that
is defined as a birth in a given quarter is necessarily an opening as well,
and an establishment defined as a death in a quarter must also be a closing.
Since openings include seasonal, and other, re-openings and closings include
temporary shutdowns, the not seasonally adjusted values for births and
deaths must be less than those openings and closings.  However, because some
BED series do not have many re-openings or temporary shutdowns, as well as
the fact that births and deaths are independently seasonally adjusted from
openings and closings, there may be instances in which the seasonally
adjusted value of the former is greater than the latter.

Linkage methodology

   Prior to the measurement of gross job gains and gross job losses, QCEW
records are linked across two quarters.  The linkage process matches esta-
blishments' unique SWA identification numbers (SWA-ID).  Between 95 to 97
percent of establishments identified as continuous from quarter to quarter
are matched by SWA-ID.  The rest are linked in one of three ways.  The first
method uses predecessor and successor information, identified by the states,
which relates records with different SWA-IDs across quarters.  Predecessor
and successor relations can come about for a variety of reasons, including
a change in ownership, a firm restructuring, or a UI account restructuring.
If a match cannot be attained in this manner, a probability-based match is
used.  This match attempts to identify two establishments with different SWA-
IDs as continuous.  The match is based upon comparisons such as the same
name, address, and phone number.  Third, an analyst examines unmatched re-
cords individually and makes a possible match.

   In order to ensure the highest possible quality of data, SWAs verify with 
employers and update, if necessary, the industry, location, and ownership 
classification of all establishments on a 3-year cycle.  Changes in establish-
ment classification codes resulting from the verification process are intro-
duced with the data reported for the first quarter of the year.  Changes re-
sulting from improved employer reporting also are introduced in the first 
quarter.   
                              
Sizing methodology
   
   The method of dynamic sizing is used in calculations for the BED size-
class data series.  Dynamic sizing allocates each firm's employment gain or
loss during a quarter to each respective size class in which the change
occurred.  For example, if a firm grew from 2 employees in quarter 1 to 38
employees in quarter 2, then, of the 36-employee increase, 2 would be al-
located to the first size class, 5 to the size class 5 to 9, 10 to size
class 10 to 19, and 19 to size class 20 to 49.
   
   Dynamic sizing provides symmetrical firm-size estimates and eliminates
any systematic effects which may be caused by the transitory and reverting
changes in firms' sizes over time.  Additionally, it allocates each job
gain or loss to the actual size class where it occurred.

Annual Data

   The annual gross job gains and gross job losses measure the net change
in employment at the establishment level from the third month of a quarter
in the previous year to the third month of the same quarter in the current
year.  The BLS publishes annual BED data based on March-to-March changes
once a year with the release of the first quarter BED data.  The annual
data based on over-the-year changes for other quarters of the year are
available upon request.  The definitions and methodology in measuring
annual gross job gains and gross job losses are similar to the quarterly
measures.  The linkage method considers all predecessor and successor
relations that may come about due to changes in ownership and corporate
restructuring over the entire year.  At the establishment level, some of
the quarterly job gains and job losses are offset during the estimation
over the year.  Therefore, the sum of four quarters of gross job gains
and gross job losses are not equal to annual gross job gains and gross
job losses.  The net change in employment over the year, however, is
equal to the sum of four quarterly net changes on a not seasonally
adjusted basis.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the levels of employment and the associated
job flows undergo sharp fluctuations due to such seasonal events as changes
in the weather, reduced or expanded production, harvests, major holidays,
and the opening and closing of schools.  The effect of such seasonal vari-
ation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each 
year, their influence can be eliminated by adjusting these statistics from 
quarter to quarter.  These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as 
declines in economic activity, easier to recognize.  For example, the large 
number of youths taking summer jobs is likely to obscure other changes that 
have taken place in June relative to March, making it difficult to determine 
if the level of economic activity has risen or declined.  However, because
the effect of students finishing school in previous years is known, the 
statistics for the current year can be adjusted to allow for a comparable 
change.  The adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to ana-
lyze changes in economic activity.

   The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contract-
ing units are independently seasonally adjusted; net changes are calculated
based on the difference between gross job gains and gross job losses.  Simi-
larly, for industry data, the establishment counts data series for opening,
expanding, closing, and contracting establishments are independently adjusted,
and the net changes are calculated based on the difference between the number
of opening and closing establishments.  Additionally, establishment and em-
ployment levels are independently seasonally adjusted to calculate the sea-
sonally adjusted rates.  Concurrent seasonal adjustment is run using X-12
ARIMA.  Seasonally adjusted data series for the total private sector are cal-
culated by summing the seasonally adjusted data for all sectors, including
the unclassified sector, which is not published separately.
   
   The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contracting 
units for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia are seasonally
adjusted at the total private level only.  The sum of the state series for
opening, expanding, closing, and contracting units will not necessarily be
equal to the national total private series because of the independent seasonal
adjustment of these series.
   
   The net over-the-quarter change derived by summing the BED component series 
will differ from the net employment change estimated from the seasonally ad-
justed total private employment series from the CES program.  The intended use 
of BED statistics is to show the dynamic labor market changes that underlie 
the net employment change statistic.  As such, data users interested particu-
larly in the net employment change and not in the gross job flows underlying 
this change should refer to CES data for over-the-quarter net employment
changes.
   
Reliability of the data
   
   Since the data series on Business Employment Dynamics are based on admini-
strative rather than sample data, there are no issues related to sampling 
error.  Nonsampling error, however, still exists.  Nonsampling errors can oc-
cur for many reasons, such as the employer submitting corrected employment 
data after the end of the quarter or typographical errors made by businesses 
when providing information.  Such errors, however, are likely to be distri-
buted randomly throughout the dataset.
   
   Changes in administrative data sometimes create complications for the 
linkage process.  This can result in overstating openings and closings while 
understating expansions and contractions.  The BLS continues to refine methods 
for improving the linkage process to alleviate the effects of these compli-
cations.
   
   The BED data series are subject to periodic minor changes based on correc-
tions in QCEW records, updates on predecessors and successors information, and
seasonal adjustment revisions.

Annual revisions are published each year with the release of the first quarter
data.  These revisions cover the last four quarters of not seasonally adjusted
data and 5 years of seasonally adjusted data.
                      
Additional statistics and other information
   
   Several other programs within BLS produce closely related information.  
The QCEW program, also known as the ES-202 program, provides both quarterly 
and annual estimates of employment by state, county, and detailed industry. 
News releases on quarterly county employment and wages are available upon 
request from the Division of Administrative Statistics and Labor Turnover, 
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC 20212; 
telephone 202-691-6567; (http://www.bls.gov/cew/); (e-mail: QCEWInfo@bls.gov).
                                     
   The CES program produces monthly estimates of employment, its net change, 
and earnings by detailed industry.  These estimates are part of the Employ-
ment Situation report put out monthly by BLS.
                                     
   The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) program provides month-
ly measures of job openings, as well as employee hires and separations.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired in-
dividuals upon request.  Voice phone:  202-691-5200; TDD message referral 
number: 1-800-877-8339.







Table 1.  Private sector gross job gains and job losses, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(In thousands)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(1) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2000  March                827      8,849       6,960         1,889       8,022       6,342           1,680
      June                 503      8,479       6,794         1,685       7,976       6,373           1,603
      September            324      8,525       6,756         1,769       8,201       6,479           1,722
      December             251      8,351       6,673         1,678       8,100       6,444           1,656

2001  March               -119      8,491       6,728         1,763       8,610       6,717           1,893
      June                -780      7,991       6,302         1,689       8,771       7,036           1,735
      September         -1,148      7,630       5,945         1,685       8,778       6,990           1,788
      December          -1,009      7,547       5,912         1,635       8,556       6,870           1,686

2002  March                -10      8,071       6,298         1,773       8,081       6,434           1,647
      June                 -30      7,868       6,145         1,723       7,898       6,274           1,624
      September           -151      7,630       6,039         1,591       7,781       6,248           1,533
      December            -241      7,483       5,938         1,545       7,724       6,185           1,539

2003  March               -393      7,467       5,928         1,539       7,860       6,307           1,553
      June                 -90      7,398       5,929         1,469       7,488       6,030           1,458
      September            204      7,392       5,923         1,469       7,188       5,828           1,360
      December             297      7,521       6,005         1,516       7,224       5,800           1,424

2004  March                470      7,715       6,204         1,511       7,245       5,795           1,450
      June                 644      7,754       6,235         1,519       7,110       5,639           1,471
      September            206      7,633       6,060         1,573       7,427       5,888           1,539
      December             757      7,844       6,243         1,601       7,087       5,663           1,424

2005  March                384      7,620       6,131         1,489       7,236       5,801           1,435
      June                 593      7,774       6,231         1,543       7,181       5,776           1,405
      September            677      7,965       6,387         1,578       7,288       5,844           1,444
      December             494      7,807       6,252         1,555       7,313       5,948           1,365

2006  March                806      7,726       6,293         1,433       6,920       5,635           1,285
      June                 424      7,789       6,273         1,516       7,365       5,998           1,367
      September             45      7,495       6,057         1,438       7,450       6,098           1,352
      December             462      7,765       6,241         1,524       7,303       5,954           1,349

2007  March                491      7,657       6,243         1,414       7,166       5,870           1,296
      June                 207      7,661       6,250         1,411       7,454       6,056           1,398
      September           -249      7,328       5,855         1,473       7,577       6,223           1,354
      December             286      7,670       6,197         1,473       7,384       6,028           1,356

2008  March               -275      7,172       5,778         1,394       7,447       6,083           1,364
      June                -520      7,285       5,878         1,407       7,805       6,332           1,473
      September           -966      6,888       5,521         1,367       7,854       6,469           1,385
      December          -1,814      6,720       5,357         1,363       8,534       7,041           1,493

2009  March             -2,741      5,783       4,611         1,172       8,524       7,109           1,415
      June              -1,604      6,421       5,117         1,304       8,025       6,644           1,381
      September           -900      6,341       5,124         1,217       7,241       5,883           1,358
      December            -228      6,662       5,326         1,336       6,890       5,598           1,292

2010  March               -311      6,110       4,996         1,114       6,421       5,231           1,190

(1) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.


Table 2.  Private sector gross job gains and losses, as a percent of employment(1), seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Percent)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(2) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2000  March                 .8       8.1         6.4           1.7         7.3          5.8            1.5
      June                  .4       7.7         6.2           1.5         7.3          5.8            1.5
      September             .2       7.7         6.1           1.6         7.5          5.9            1.6
      December              .2       7.5         6.0           1.5         7.3          5.8            1.5

2001  March                -.1       7.7         6.1           1.6         7.8          6.1            1.7
      June                 -.8       7.2         5.7           1.5         8.0          6.4            1.6
      September           -1.1       6.9         5.4           1.5         8.0          6.4            1.6
      December            -1.0       7.0         5.5           1.5         8.0          6.4            1.6

2002  March                 .0       7.5         5.9           1.6         7.5          6.0            1.5
      June                  .0       7.3         5.7           1.6         7.3          5.8            1.5
      September            -.1       7.1         5.6           1.5         7.2          5.8            1.4
      December             -.3       6.9         5.5           1.4         7.2          5.8            1.4

2003  March                -.5       6.9         5.5           1.4         7.4          5.9            1.5
      June                  .0       7.0         5.6           1.4         7.0          5.6            1.4
      September             .1       6.9         5.5           1.4         6.8          5.5            1.3
      December              .3       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3

2004  March                 .5       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3
      June                  .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.2            1.4
      September             .3       7.1         5.6           1.5         6.8          5.4            1.4
      December              .7       7.2         5.7           1.5         6.5          5.2            1.3

2005  March                 .4       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      June                  .6       7.1         5.7           1.4         6.5          5.2            1.3
      September             .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      December              .4       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.6          5.4            1.2

2006  March                 .8       6.9         5.6           1.3         6.1          5.0            1.1
      June                  .4       6.9         5.6           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September             .1       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.6          5.4            1.2
      December              .3       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2007  March                 .4       6.7         5.5           1.2         6.3          5.2            1.1
      June                  .2       6.7         5.5           1.2         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September            -.3       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.7          5.5            1.2
      December              .2       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2008  March                -.2       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.5          5.3            1.2
      June                 -.5       6.4         5.2           1.2         6.9          5.6            1.3
      September            -.8       6.1         4.9           1.2         6.9          5.7            1.2
      December            -1.6       6.0         4.8           1.2         7.6          6.3            1.3

2009  March               -2.5       5.3         4.2           1.1         7.8          6.5            1.3
      June                -1.5       6.0         4.8           1.2         7.5          6.2            1.3
      September           -1.0       5.9         4.8           1.1         6.9          5.6            1.3
      December             -.1       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2010  March                -.3       5.8         4.7           1.1         6.1          5.0            1.1

(1) The rates measure gross job gains and gross job losses as a percentage
    of the previous and current quarter employment levels.

(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.


Table 3: Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   March   June    Sept.   Dec.    March  March  June   Sept.  Dec.   March 
                                   2009    2009    2009    2009    2010   2009   2009   2009   2009   2010
Total private(1)

Gross job gains                   5,783   6,421   6,341   6,662   6,110    5.3    6.0    5.9    6.4    5.8
 At expanding establishments      4,611   5,117   5,124   5,326   4,996    4.2    4.8    4.8    5.1    4.7
 At opening establishments        1,172   1,304   1,217   1,336   1,114    1.1    1.2    1.1    1.3    1.1
Gross job losses                  8,524   8,025   7,241   6,890   6,421    7.8    7.5    6.9    6.5    6.1
 At contracting establishments    7,109   6,644   5,883   5,598   5,231    6.5    6.2    5.6    5.3    5.0
 At closing establishments        1,415   1,381   1,358   1,292   1,190    1.3    1.3    1.3    1.2    1.1
Net employment change            -2,741  -1,604    -900    -228    -311   -2.5   -1.5   -1.0    -.1    -.3

Goods-producing

Gross job gains                   1,090   1,273   1,343   1,313   1,266    5.2    6.4    7.0    6.9    6.7
 At expanding establishments        893   1,052   1,136   1,080   1,072    4.3    5.3    5.9    5.7    5.7
 At opening establishments          197     221     207     233     194     .9    1.1    1.1    1.2    1.0
Gross job losses                  2,309   2,147   1,675   1,590   1,459   11.0   10.8    8.7    8.4    7.8
 At contracting establishments    2,006   1,848   1,385   1,321   1,204    9.6    9.3    7.2    7.0    6.4
 At closing establishments          303     299     290     269     255    1.4    1.5    1.5    1.4    1.4
Net employment change            -1,219    -874    -332    -277    -193   -5.8   -4.4   -1.7   -1.5   -1.1

Natural resources and mining

Gross job gains                     231     285     256     285     270   12.4   15.9   14.5   16.3   15.4
 At expanding establishments        196     244     222     243     235   10.5   13.6   12.6   13.9   13.4
 At opening establishments           35      41      34      42      35    1.9    2.3    1.9    2.4    2.0
Gross job losses                    346     304     287     292     271   18.6   16.9   16.3   16.7   15.4
 At contracting establishments      304     264     250     253     232   16.3   14.7   14.2   14.5   13.2
 At closing establishments           42      40      37      39      39    2.3    2.2    2.1    2.2    2.2
Net employment change              -115     -19     -31      -7      -1   -6.2   -1.0   -1.8    -.4     .0

Construction

Gross job gains                     566     620     614     615     591    8.7   10.2   10.5   10.9   10.7
 At expanding establishments        438     481     481     470     466    6.7    7.9    8.2    8.3    8.4
 At opening establishments          128     139     133     145     125    2.0    2.3    2.3    2.6    2.3
Gross job losses                  1,001     946     814     773     728   15.4   15.5   13.9   13.6   13.1
 At contracting establishments      806     761     634     606     570   12.4   12.5   10.8   10.7   10.3
 At closing establishments          195     185     180     167     158    3.0    3.0    3.1    2.9    2.8
Net employment change              -435    -326    -200    -158    -137   -6.7   -5.3   -3.4   -2.7   -2.4

Manufacturing

Gross job gains                     293     368     473     413     405    2.4    3.0    4.0    3.6    3.5
 At expanding establishments        259     327     433     367     371    2.1    2.7    3.7    3.2    3.2
 At opening establishments           34      41      40      46      34     .3     .3     .3     .4     .3
Gross job losses                    962     897     574     525     460    7.6    7.5    4.9    4.5    4.0
 At contracting establishments      896     823     501     462     402    7.1    6.9    4.3    4.0    3.5
 At closing establishments           66      74      73      63      58     .5     .6     .6     .5     .5
Net employment change              -669    -529    -101    -112     -55   -5.2   -4.5    -.9    -.9    -.5

Service-providing(1)

Gross job gains                   4,693   5,148   4,998   5,349   4,844    5.3    5.9    5.8    6.2    5.6
 At expanding establishments      3,718   4,065   3,988   4,246   3,924    4.2    4.7    4.6    4.9    4.5
 At opening establishments          975   1,083   1,010   1,103     920    1.1    1.2    1.2    1.3    1.1
Gross job losses                  6,215   5,878   5,566   5,300   4,962    7.1    6.7    6.4    6.2    5.8
 At contracting establishments    5,103   4,796   4,498   4,277   4,027    5.8    5.5    5.2    5.0    4.7
 At closing establishments        1,112   1,082   1,068   1,023     935    1.3    1.2    1.2    1.2    1.1
Net employment change            -1,522    -730    -568      49    -118   -1.8    -.8    -.6     .0    -.2

Wholesale trade

Gross job gains                     224     240     235     259     248    3.9    4.3    4.3    4.7    4.6
 At expanding establishments        176     191     188     203     201    3.1    3.4    3.4    3.7    3.7
 At opening establishments           48      49      47      56      47     .8     .9     .9    1.0     .9
Gross job losses                    384     355     306     283     274    6.7    6.3    5.5    5.1    5.0
 At contracting establishments      314     288     238     220     213    5.5    5.1    4.3    4.0    3.9
 At closing establishments           70      67      68      63      61    1.2    1.2    1.2    1.1    1.1
Net employment change              -160    -115     -71     -24     -26   -2.8   -2.0   -1.2    -.4    -.4

Retail trade

Gross job gains                     757     871     832     816     784    5.1    5.9    5.7    5.7    5.4
 At expanding establishments        625     734     700     702     676    4.2    5.0    4.8    4.9    4.7
 At opening establishments          132     137     132     114     108     .9     .9     .9     .8     .7
Gross job losses                  1,030     931     940     936     805    6.9    6.4    6.5    6.5    5.6
 At contracting establishments      845     791     800     808     690    5.7    5.4    5.5    5.6    4.8
 At closing establishments          185     140     140     128     115    1.2    1.0    1.0     .9     .8
Net employment change              -273     -60    -108    -120     -21   -1.8    -.5    -.8    -.8    -.2

Transportation and warehousing

Gross job gains                     176     186     188     220     183    4.2    4.6    4.7    5.5    4.7
 At expanding establishments        145     152     159     187     157    3.5    3.8    4.0    4.7    4.0
 At opening establishments           31      34      29      33      26     .7     .8     .7     .8     .7
Gross job losses                    312     289     238     222     223    7.5    7.1    6.0    5.7    5.6
 At contracting establishments      269     243     196     184     190    6.5    6.0    4.9    4.7    4.8
 At closing establishments           43      46      42      38      33    1.0    1.1    1.1    1.0     .8
Net employment change              -136    -103     -50      -2     -40   -3.3   -2.5   -1.3    -.2    -.9

Utilities

Gross job gains                      12      12      12      11       9    2.2    2.2    2.2    2.0    1.6
 At expanding establishments         11      11      11      10       8    2.0    2.0    2.0    1.8    1.4
 At opening establishments            1       1       1       1       1     .2     .2     .2     .2     .2
Gross job losses                     10      15      12      14       9    1.8    2.7    2.2    2.5    1.6
 At contracting establishments        9      13      11      12       8    1.6    2.3    2.0    2.1    1.4
 At closing establishments            1       2       1       2       1     .2     .4     .2     .4     .2
Net employment change                 2      -3       0      -3       0     .4    -.5     .0    -.5     .0

Information

Gross job gains                     114     111     113     123     106    3.9    3.9    4.0    4.4    3.8
 At expanding establishments         91      91      95      97      89    3.1    3.2    3.4    3.5    3.2
 At opening establishments           23      20      18      26      17     .8     .7     .6     .9     .6
Gross job losses                    174     158     161     144     130    6.0    5.6    5.8    5.2    4.7
 At contracting establishments      147     135     131     121     111    5.1    4.8    4.7    4.4    4.0
 At closing establishments           27      23      30      23      19     .9     .8    1.1     .8     .7
Net employment change               -60     -47     -48     -21     -24   -2.1   -1.7   -1.8    -.8    -.9

Financial activities

Gross job gains                     337     341     327     356     326    4.3    4.5    4.4    4.8    4.3
 At expanding establishments        264     265     254     267     263    3.4    3.5    3.4    3.6    3.5
 At opening establishments           73      76      73      89      63     .9    1.0    1.0    1.2     .8
Gross job losses                    458     446     420     400     369    5.9    5.8    5.6    5.4    5.0
 At contracting establishments      359     352     322     305     281    4.6    4.6    4.3    4.1    3.8
 At closing establishments           99      94      98      95      88    1.3    1.2    1.3    1.3    1.2
Net employment change              -121    -105     -93     -44     -43   -1.6   -1.3   -1.2    -.6    -.7

Professional and business services

Gross job gains                     989   1,144   1,152   1,368   1,125    5.8    6.9    7.1    8.3    6.8
 At expanding establishments        779     903     929   1,100     920    4.6    5.4    5.7    6.7    5.6
 At opening establishments          210     241     223     268     205    1.2    1.5    1.4    1.6    1.2
Gross job losses                  1,549   1,474   1,302   1,184   1,130    9.1    8.9    8.0    7.2    6.8
 At contracting establishments    1,277   1,176   1,031     920     898    7.5    7.1    6.3    5.6    5.4
 At closing establishments          272     298     271     264     232    1.6    1.8    1.7    1.6    1.4
Net employment change              -560    -330    -150     184      -5   -3.3   -2.0    -.9    1.1     .0

Education and health services

Gross job gains                     752     773     769     825     730    4.1    4.2    4.1    4.5    3.9
 At expanding establishments        643     649     650     685     619    3.5    3.5    3.5    3.7    3.3
 At opening establishments          109     124     119     140     111     .6     .7     .6     .8     .6
Gross job losses                    725     712     727     677     690    4.0    3.9    4.0    3.7    3.7
 At contracting establishments      613     593     601     555     578    3.4    3.2    3.3    3.0    3.1
 At closing establishments          112     119     126     122     112     .6     .7     .7     .7     .6
Net employment change                27      61      42     148      40     .1     .3     .1     .8     .2

Leisure and hospitality

Gross job gains                   1,028   1,122   1,047   1,032   1,000    7.8    8.6    8.0    7.9    7.7
 At expanding establishments        778     852     796     783     783    5.9    6.5    6.1    6.0    6.0
 At opening establishments          250     270     251     249     217    1.9    2.1    1.9    1.9    1.7
Gross job losses                  1,234   1,179   1,135   1,141   1,037    9.3    9.0    8.8    8.8    8.0
 At contracting establishments    1,017     968     932     933     845    7.7    7.4    7.2    7.2    6.5
 At closing establishments          217     211     203     208     192    1.6    1.6    1.6    1.6    1.5
Net employment change              -206     -57     -88    -109     -37   -1.5    -.4    -.8    -.9    -.3

Other services

Gross job gains                     252     267     250     262     247    6.6    7.1    6.7    7.0    6.7
 At expanding establishments        198     208     195     202     196    5.2    5.5    5.2    5.4    5.3
 At opening establishments           54      59      55      60      51    1.4    1.6    1.5    1.6    1.4
Gross job losses                    310     292     293     272     263    8.1    7.7    7.8    7.3    7.1
 At contracting establishments      246     230     229     211     205    6.4    6.1    6.1    5.7    5.5
 At closing establishments           64      62      64      61      58    1.7    1.6    1.7    1.6    1.6
Net employment change               -58     -25     -43     -10     -16   -1.5    -.6   -1.1    -.3    -.4

(1) Includes unclassified sector, not shown separately


Table 4.  Private sector percentage share (1) of gross job gains and losses, seasonally adjusted

(Percent)

                                                         3 months ended

                              March 2009     June  2009      Sept. 2009      Dec.  2009      March 2010


Firm size 1 - 4 employees

Gross job gains...............   18.5            17.1            16.8            17.4            17.1
   Expanding firms............    8.9             8.0             7.9             7.6             8.0
   Opening firms..............   60.8            59.2            61.2            62.9            61.5
Gross job losses..............   15.0            14.5            16.2            16.6            18.2
   Contracting firms..........    7.0             6.7             7.3             7.9             8.6
   Closing firms..............   62.6            61.7            62.8            61.5            65.0

Firm size 5 - 9 employees

Gross job gains...............   13.4            12.4            12.1            11.7            12.3
   Expanding firms............   12.7            11.6            11.3            10.9            11.6
   Opening firms..............   16.3            16.0            15.8            15.3            16.2
Gross job losses..............   10.9            10.6            11.2            11.9            12.6
   Contracting firms..........   10.1             9.8            10.4            11.1            12.0
   Closing firms..............   15.2            15.8            15.7            15.7            15.3

Firm size 10 - 19 employees

Gross job gains...............   13.1            12.7            12.1            11.6            12.4
   Expanding firms............   13.7            13.0            12.4            12.0            12.7
   Opening firms..............   10.8            11.0            10.4             9.8            10.6
Gross job losses..............   11.3            10.9            11.4            12.1            12.5
   Contracting firms..........   11.6            11.0            11.7            12.4            13.1
   Closing firms..............    9.7            10.1             9.8            10.3             9.7

Firm size 20 - 49 employees

Gross job gains...............   14.7            14.7            13.9            13.6            14.4
   Expanding firms............   16.2            16.1            15.1            14.9            15.7
   Opening firms..............    7.7             8.4             7.8             7.3             7.6
Gross job losses..............   14.1            13.2            13.6            14.0            14.2
   Contracting firms..........   15.2            14.2            14.8            15.2            15.8
   Closing firms..............    7.1             7.4             7.0             7.6             6.7

Firm size 50 - 99 employees

Gross job gains...............    8.8             9.1             8.8             8.5             8.8
   Expanding firms............   10.2            10.5            10.0             9.8            10.2
   Opening firms..............    2.5             2.7             2.8             2.7             2.2
Gross job losses..............    9.4             8.5             8.4             8.7             8.4
   Contracting firms..........   10.5             9.5             9.6             9.9             9.7
   Closing firms..............    2.7             2.6             2.3             2.5             2.1

Firm size 100 - 249 employees

Gross job gains...............    8.9             9.4             9.3             9.2             9.2
   Expanding firms............   10.6            11.2            10.8            10.9            10.9
   Opening firms..............    1.1             1.4             1.4             1.3             1.1
Gross job losses..............   10.1             9.2             9.0             9.0             8.6
   Contracting firms..........   11.5            10.5            10.5            10.5            10.2
   Closing firms..............    1.3             1.4             1.2             1.5              .9

Firm size 250 - 499 employees

Gross job gains...............    5.1             5.6             5.6             5.4             5.5
   Expanding firms............    6.2             6.7             6.7             6.5             6.6
   Opening firms..............     .2              .4              .4              .3              .4
Gross job losses..............    6.1             5.8             5.7             5.4             4.9
   Contracting firms..........    7.1             6.7             6.7             6.4             5.9
   Closing firms..............     .5              .6              .4              .5              .2

Firm size 500 - 999 employees

Gross job gains...............    4.0             4.4             4.8             4.4             4.6
   Expanding firms............    4.9             5.3             5.7             5.4             5.4
   Opening firms..............     .2              .2              .1              .1              .2
Gross job losses..............    5.0             5.2             4.7             4.6             4.1
   Contracting firms..........    5.8             6.0             5.6             5.4             4.9
   Closing firms..............     .3              .3              .2              .2              .1

Firm size 1,000 or more employees

Gross job gains...............   13.5            14.5            16.6            18.2            15.7
   Expanding firms............   16.5            17.6            20.0            22.0            18.9
   Opening firms..............     .2              .5              .0              .2              .2
Gross job losses..............   18.1            22.0            19.8            17.7            16.5
   Contracting firms..........   21.1            25.6            23.5            21.1            19.9
   Closing firms..............     .6              .1              .5              .1              .0


(1) Share measures the percent of the category represented by each firm size class,
    and rates may not sum to 100.0 due to rounding.


Table 5.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by state, seasonally adjusted

                                         Gross job gains                                          Gross job losses
State                                    (3 months ended)                                         (3 months ended)
                        March      June       Sept.       Dec.      March      March        June       Sept.       Dec.      March
                        2009       2009       2009        2009      2010       2009         2009       2009        2009      2010

United States1.....  5,783,000  6,421,000  6,341,000   6,662,000  6,110,000  8,524,000   8,025,000   7,241,000  6,890,000  6,421,000

Alabama.....            74,930     84,427     86,122      86,379     82,695    117,183     107,020     103,661     92,544     83,327
Alaska.....             23,204     25,541     22,773      24,288     25,078     25,481      25,071      24,951     25,288     23,147
Arizona.....           113,031    115,874    127,354     131,273    116,334    176,039     166,696     143,497    140,298    123,728
Arkansas.....           53,264     51,935     55,002      57,989     52,233     67,476      68,745      62,142     54,247     49,809
California.....        690,931    779,930    760,570     845,478    759,025  1,062,484     982,275     942,350    831,793    816,085
Colorado.....          109,610    120,243    117,376     122,327    117,669    161,005     152,052     138,028    132,705    124,210
Connecticut.....        62,583     71,988     70,301      70,946     66,227     92,159      87,054      80,384     77,470     81,300
Delaware.....           18,489     21,917     18,960      20,397     19,505     27,952      24,535      23,740     24,289     20,984
District of Columbia    26,365     24,915     23,127      26,592     23,480     27,652      27,823      26,867     24,332     21,514
Florida.....           358,171    391,465    404,628     440,522    362,571    508,029     493,113     484,765    448,286    370,546

Georgia.....           192,577    205,284    190,528     204,380    197,155    265,768     259,305     229,914    215,423    195,344
Hawaii.....             22,180     23,451     24,230      24,368     23,639     30,141      30,432      27,797     25,953     25,062
Idaho.....              35,379     38,283     39,554      38,431     35,560     54,869      48,675      38,929     40,220     38,578
Illinois.....          212,065    246,810    236,220     255,104    229,254    332,172     324,057     285,983    275,576    243,415
Indiana.....           115,299    129,098    143,632     134,249    129,707    186,633     177,927     142,079    135,204    125,181
Iowa.....               64,063     68,686     66,045      68,771     63,734     86,988      81,401      72,674     74,300     65,573
Kansas.....             54,342     58,666     57,332      62,377     55,897     78,133      80,690      67,642     67,646     61,303
Kentucky.....           74,310     81,454     84,435      89,347     77,786    110,419     103,021      90,271     86,416     83,376
Louisiana.....          95,342     92,714     98,620     100,019     95,060    116,203     122,894     112,255    103,173     94,395
Maine.....              30,418     37,139     36,365      35,430     30,442     42,403      39,573      36,687     37,779     34,497

Maryland.....          115,732    127,520    117,084     119,515    124,598    148,730     138,482     137,169    132,550    125,093
Massachusetts.....     122,170    154,078    147,604     145,704    145,413    180,949     169,339     160,301    160,961    143,996
Michigan.....          165,441    206,933    232,306     210,533    183,635    285,447     304,525     222,019    228,170    191,162
Minnesota.....         113,299    132,666    126,020     123,644    120,648    165,987     156,444     139,662    132,265    131,091
Mississippi.....        48,953     48,855     51,467      51,744     50,450     66,147      65,129      58,923     52,347     49,877
Missouri.....          122,348    123,254    124,865     122,278    123,242    163,212     157,408     143,070    132,033    129,143
Montana.....            24,485     27,363     25,345      27,841     25,855     36,272      29,118      27,383     29,098     27,670
Nebraska.....           38,671     39,998     39,640      40,153     39,893     50,261      47,980      42,323     46,789     40,899
Nevada.....             54,428     55,091     58,646      68,915     51,824     91,602      81,824      74,075     66,626     65,187
New Hampshire.....      30,515     35,768     33,238      33,650     34,318     41,235      40,800      36,849     36,107     35,737

New Jersey.....        168,478    212,882    187,286     196,657    176,313    234,802     229,390     217,472    210,510    193,790
New Mexico.....         36,766     39,134     39,429      37,662     37,821     52,545      50,040      42,791     42,496     37,739
New York.....          363,051    432,347    402,733     420,489    373,307    500,717     495,342     440,840    428,924    390,777
North Carolina.....    175,000    190,464    189,566     196,885    182,350    262,778     247,884     213,945    213,043    188,187
North Dakota.....       16,786     19,353     19,688      19,816     19,787     21,853      19,393      18,154     19,189     18,824
Ohio.....              204,363    233,452    236,910     234,522    219,390    319,756     319,866     262,345    255,910    228,984
Oklahoma.....           69,578     67,104     67,384      68,999     66,668    100,417      95,963      84,628     76,133     66,249
Oregon.....             78,635     87,457     87,415      89,357     87,342    126,159     107,811      94,954     96,934     87,279
Pennsylvania.....      224,409    256,071    255,221     267,074    249,634    315,422     306,124     286,693    274,524    248,312
Rhode Island.....       21,303     24,992     22,109      23,191     22,628     29,590      26,660      26,578     24,865     21,893

South Carolina.....     79,504     86,102     84,871      85,984     87,466    122,020     110,584      96,487     92,731     82,707
South Dakota.....       17,753     20,773     19,792      19,762     19,139     24,052      24,006      21,277     21,189     21,608
Tennessee.....         100,656    118,348    116,655     121,455    108,572    162,691     157,260     136,883    119,337    111,023
Texas.....             436,995    439,009    441,368     476,502    467,608    609,113     592,395     512,968    484,059    434,114
Utah.....               56,719     62,938     63,095      65,512     63,614     84,784      81,966      71,601     67,768     63,688
Vermont.....            15,185     17,600     16,606      19,496     15,542     21,607      20,181      17,421     18,017     17,756
Virginia.....          150,177    168,871    160,078     166,982    151,244    202,453     198,841     183,506    168,916    162,007
Washington.....        151,632    156,533    158,859     151,742    153,771    203,909     187,414     171,447    181,151    155,633
West Virginia.....      33,605     33,270     33,315      37,101     33,246     43,437      44,133      37,630     34,836     34,478
Wisconsin.....         110,692    125,603    122,694     130,553    125,693    173,335     158,994     141,594    138,015    129,422

Wyoming.....            18,202     16,081     17,008      16,108     17,159     26,468      25,196      18,099     18,573     18,274
Puerto Rico.....        37,391     37,741     41,636      45,647     38,617     56,275      51,493      44,872     41,169     44,755
Virgin Islands.....      1,673      1,711      1,931       2,361      2,632      2,633       2,610       2,190      1,899      1,897

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.


Table 6.  Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted

                        Gross job gains as a percent of employment    Gross job losses as a percent of employment
State                              (3 months ended)                               (3 months ended)

                        March   June     Sept.    Dec.    March       March    June      Sept.   Dec.     March
                        2009    2009     2009     2009    2010        2009     2009      2009    2009     2010

United States1.....      5.3     6.0      5.9      6.4     5.8         7.8      7.5       6.9      6.5     6.1

Alabama.....             4.9     5.7      6.0      6.0     5.8         7.7      7.3       7.1      6.4     5.8
Alaska.....              9.8    10.9      9.7     10.3    10.6        10.7     10.6      10.7     10.8     9.8
Arizona.....             5.4     5.7      6.4      6.7     5.9         8.5      8.3       7.2      7.1     6.3
Arkansas.....            5.6     5.6      6.0      6.3     5.7         7.1      7.3       6.7      5.9     5.4
California.....          5.6     6.5      6.4      7.2     6.5         8.7      8.2       8.0      7.1     7.0
Colorado.....            5.9     6.5      6.5      6.8     6.5         8.5      8.3       7.6      7.3     6.9
Connecticut.....         4.5     5.3      5.2      5.3     4.9         6.6      6.4       5.9      5.7     6.0
Delaware.....            5.3     6.3      5.5      6.0     5.8         7.9      7.2       7.0      7.2     6.3
District of Columbia..   5.9     5.6      5.3      6.0     5.3         6.2      6.2       6.2      5.5     4.9
Florida.....             5.7     6.4      6.7      7.3     6.1         8.1      8.0       7.9      7.4     6.2

Georgia.....             6.0     6.5      6.2      6.6     6.4         8.3      8.3       7.4      7.0     6.4
Hawaii.....              4.6     5.0      5.2      5.2     5.1         6.3      6.5       5.9      5.5     5.4
Idaho.....               6.8     7.7      8.0      7.8     7.2        10.7      9.8       7.8      8.1     7.8
Illinois.....            4.4     5.1      5.0      5.5     4.9         6.8      6.8       6.1      5.9     5.3
Indiana.....             4.9     5.6      6.3      5.8     5.7         7.9      7.7       6.2      5.9     5.5
Iowa.....                5.2     5.7      5.5      5.8     5.4         7.1      6.8       6.1      6.2     5.5
Kansas.....              5.0     5.5      5.5      6.0     5.4         7.1      7.5       6.4      6.5     5.8
Kentucky.....            5.1     5.8      6.0      6.4     5.6         7.7      7.2       6.5      6.2     5.9
Louisiana.....           6.2     6.2      6.7      6.7     6.4         7.6      8.2       7.5      7.0     6.4
Maine.....               6.2     7.8      7.6      7.4     6.4         8.7      8.2       7.6      8.0     7.3

Maryland.....            5.7     6.4      5.9      6.1     6.4         7.4      7.0       6.9      6.8     6.4
Massachusetts.....       4.4     5.7      5.5      5.5     5.4         6.6      6.3       6.0      6.0     5.4
Michigan.....            5.0     6.5      7.4      6.7     5.9         8.7      9.5       7.1      7.2     6.1
Minnesota.....           5.1     6.0      5.8      5.7     5.6         7.4      7.1       6.4      6.1     6.1
Mississippi.....         5.7     5.8      6.2      6.3     6.1         7.7      7.8       7.1      6.4     6.0
Missouri.....            5.5     5.6      5.8      5.7     5.8         7.4      7.2       6.6      6.2     6.0
Montana.....             7.1     8.0      7.5      8.3     7.7        10.5      8.5       8.1      8.6     8.2
Nebraska.....            5.1     5.4      5.4      5.5     5.4         6.7      6.4       5.7      6.3     5.6
Nevada.....              5.3     5.5      6.0      7.2     5.4         8.9      8.3       7.6      6.9     6.7
New Hampshire.....       5.8     6.9      6.5      6.6     6.7         7.8      7.9       7.1      7.0     7.0

New Jersey.....          5.2     6.7      5.9      6.2     5.6         7.2      7.2       6.8      6.7     6.2
New Mexico.....          5.9     6.5      6.6      6.3     6.4         8.5      8.2       7.2      7.1     6.4
New York.....            5.1     6.3      5.9      6.1     5.5         7.1      7.2       6.4      6.3     5.7
North Carolina.....      5.4     6.1      6.1      6.4     5.9         8.2      7.8       6.9      6.9     6.1
North Dakota.....        5.8     6.9      6.9      7.0     7.0         7.6      6.8       6.4      6.7     6.5
Ohio.....                4.7     5.5      5.7      5.6     5.3         7.4      7.6       6.2      6.2     5.5
Oklahoma.....            5.7     5.6      5.8      6.0     5.8         8.2      8.1       7.3      6.6     5.8
Oregon.....              5.8     6.6      6.7      6.8     6.7         9.2      8.1       7.2      7.4     6.6
Pennsylvania.....        4.6     5.3      5.4      5.7     5.3         6.5      6.4       6.0      5.9     5.3
Rhode Island.....        5.4     6.4      5.7      6.1     5.9         7.5      6.8       6.9      6.5     5.6

South Carolina.....      5.4     6.0      6.0      6.1     6.3         8.3      7.7       6.9      6.6     5.9
South Dakota.....        5.5     6.6      6.2      6.3     6.1         7.4      7.6       6.7      6.7     6.8
Tennessee.....           4.5     5.5      5.5      5.7     5.1         7.3      7.2       6.4      5.6     5.2
Texas.....               5.1     5.3      5.3      5.8     5.7         7.2      7.1       6.2      5.8     5.3
Utah.....                5.8     6.5      6.6      6.9     6.8         8.6      8.5       7.6      7.2     6.8
Vermont.....             6.2     7.4      6.9      8.2     6.5         8.8      8.4       7.3      7.5     7.4
Virginia.....            5.1     5.9      5.6      5.9     5.4         7.0      6.9       6.5      5.9     5.8
Washington.....          6.5     6.9      7.1      6.7     6.9         8.8      8.2       7.6      8.1     7.0
West Virginia.....       5.9     6.0      6.1      6.8     6.0         7.7      7.9       6.8      6.4     6.3
Wisconsin.....           4.8     5.6      5.4      5.9     5.6         7.5      7.0       6.3      6.2     5.8

Wyoming.....             8.3     7.6      8.3      7.8     8.4        12.0     11.9       8.8      9.0     8.9
Puerto Rico.....         5.3     5.5      6.2      6.7     5.7         8.1      7.5       6.7      6.1     6.7
Virgin Islands.....      5.2     5.6      6.4      7.8     8.5         8.3      8.5       7.2      6.3     6.1

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.


Table 7.  Private sector establishment births and deaths, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Levels in thousands)

                              Number of Establishments                     Employment
                             Births             Deaths(1)            Births             Deaths
Year  3 months ended     Level    Rate(2)   Level    Rate       Level      Rate    Level      Rate

2000  March               213      3.4       186     3.0        1,235       1.1    1,125       1.0
      June                204      3.3       180     2.9        1,137       1.0    1,058       1.0
      September           209      3.3       199     3.2        1,159       1.1    1,160       1.1
      December            200      3.2       194     3.1        1,139       1.0    1,105       1.0
  
2001  March               206      3.3       203     3.2        1,187       1.1    1,303       1.2
      June                204      3.2       204     3.2        1,146       1.0    1,226       1.1
      September           204      3.2       207     3.3        1,151       1.1    1,219       1.1
      December            194      3.1       200     3.2        1,109       1.0    1,142       1.1
  
2002  March               204      3.2       190     3.0        1,175       1.1    1,089       1.0
      June                208      3.3       187     2.9        1,189       1.1    1,080       1.0
      September           199      3.1       184     2.9        1,051       1.0    1,023       1.0
      December            201      3.1       191     3.0        1,023       1.0    1,021       1.0
  
2003  March               193      3.0       186     2.9        1,004        .9    1,011        .9
      June                191      3.0       186     2.9          964        .9      951        .9
      September           193      3.0       179     2.8          954        .9      884        .8
      December            200      3.1       180     2.8          998        .9      910        .9
  
2004  March               207      3.2       180     2.8        1,000        .9      917        .9
      June                203      3.1       185     2.8          980        .9      909        .8
      September           209      3.2       186     2.8        1,016        .9      953        .9
      December            210      3.2       180     2.7          997        .9      894        .8
  
2005  March               209      3.1       185     2.8          944        .9      852        .8
      June                216      3.2       180     2.7          951        .9      841        .8
      September           221      3.3       186     2.8          996        .9      884        .8
      December            221      3.3       186     2.8          979        .9      846        .8
  
2006  March               220      3.2       180     2.6          922        .8      743        .7
      June                219      3.2       194     2.8          973        .9      843        .7
      September           210      3.1       196     2.9          927        .8      837        .7
      December            221      3.2       193     2.8          966        .9      809        .7
  
2007  March               214      3.1       193     2.8          891        .8      764        .7
      June                204      2.9       201     2.9          883        .8      851        .7
      September           218      3.1       203     2.9          945        .8      840        .7
      December            209      3.0       207     3.0          906        .8      831        .7
  
2008  March               207      3.0       210     3.0          889        .8      809        .7
      June                199      2.9       228     3.3          876        .8      936        .8
      September           192      2.8       223     3.2          831        .7      882        .8
      December            188      2.7       240     3.5          806        .7      952        .9
  
2009  March               172      2.5       235     3.4          696        .6      844        .8
      June                176      2.6       226     3.3          740        .7      831        .8
      September           169      2.5       N/A     N/A          693        .7      N/A       N/A
      December            184      2.7       N/A     N/A          716        .7      N/A       N/A
  
2010  March               172      2.5       N/A     N/A          661        .6      N/A       N/A

(1) Values for deaths are not available for the most recent three quarters
    by definition.  See the Technical Note for more information.

(2) The rates measure births and deaths as a percentage
    of the average of the previous and current quarter employment levels or
    total number of establishments.

Last Modified Date: November 19, 2010
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