Economic News Release

Quarterly Data Series on Business Employment Dynamics News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) 				USDL-13-2347
Tuesday, December 10, 2013	

Technical information: (202) 691-6553  *  BDMInfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/bdm

Media contact:	       (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov	


	  BUSINESS EMPLOYMENT DYNAMICS:  FIRST QUARTER 2013
	
From December 2012 to March 2013 gross job losses from closing and 
contracting private sector establishments were 6.3 million, a decrease
of 115,000 jobs from the previous quarter, the U.S. Bureau of Labor 
Statistics reported today. Due to an administrative change in the 
education and health services industry sector, gross job gains are not
comparable to data from previous quarters. (See box note on page 1.)

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of 
increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses
in the economy. Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track 
these changes in employment at private business units from the third 
month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains 
are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing 
units and the addition of new jobs at opening units. Gross job losses
are the result of contractions in employment at existing units and the 
loss of jobs at closing units. The difference between the number of 
gross job gains and the number of gross job losses is the net change 
in employment. (See the Technical Note for more information.)

 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Administrative Change Affecting Business Employment Dynamics (BED) Data|
|                                                                        |
|First quarter 2013 data were affected by an administrative change to the|
|count of establishments in the education and health services industry. A| 
|review of the administrative data from which the BED data are derived   |
|revealed that certain establishments that provide non-medical, home-    |
|based services for the elderly and persons with disabilities had been   | 
|misclassified in the private households industry (NAICS 814110), which  | 
|is out of scope for the BED. These establishments are now in scope and  | 
|are classified in services for the elderly and persons with disabilities|
|(NAICS 624120.) This non-economic industry code change artificially     |
|inflates the data for gross job gains, openings, births, and the net    |
|employment change for the following data series: national total private,| 
|state total private, the education and health services sector, and firm |
|size class.                                                             |
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------

Gross job gains at expanding establishments totaled 5.6 million in 
first quarter 2013, a decrease of 146,000 jobs from the previous 
quarter.

Openings in first quarter 2013 cannot be compared to the previous 
quarter. (See box note on page 1.)

Contracting establishments lost 5.1 million jobs in first quarter 
2013. This is a decrease of 63,000 jobs from the prior quarter.

In the first quarter of 2013, closing establishments lost 1.2 million 
jobs, a decrease of 52,000 jobs from the previous quarter.  
(See tables 1 and 3.)

Gross job losses represented 5.6 percent of private sector employment. 
(See table 2.)

Gross job gains cannot be compared to the previous quarter. 
(See box note on page 1.)

Establishment births cannot be compared to the previous quarter. 
(See box note on page 1.)

Data for establishment deaths (a subset of the closings data) are 
available through second quarter 2012, when 666,000 jobs were lost 
at 184,000 establishments. These figures represent increases from 
the prior quarter when 605,000 jobs were lost at 181,000 
establishments.

During the first quarter of 2013, gross job gains exceeded gross job 
losses in all industry sectors except transportation and warehousing, 
utilities, and information. These three industries also experienced a
net employment loss after being positive last quarter. The 
transportation and warehousing sector had gross job gains of 207,000 
and gross job losses of 236,000, which resulted in a net employment 
loss of 29,000 jobs. This is the largest net loss since March 2010. 
(See table 3.)


Table A.  Three-month private sector gross job gains and losses, 
seasonally adjusted 

Category                                 3 months ended

                                Mar.    June    Sept.   Dec.    Mar.
                                2012    2012    2012    2012    2013

                                      Levels (in thousands)
                                      
Gross job gains................ 6,946   7,027   6,847   7,110  7,200
 At expanding establishments... 5,702   5,738   5,552   5,769  5,623
 At opening establishments..... 1,244   1,289   1,295   1,341  1,577

Gross job losses............... 6,099   6,414   6,614   6,401  6,286
 At contracting establishments. 4,995   5,259   5,436   5,199  5,136
 At closing establishments..... 1,104   1,155   1,178   1,202  1,150

Net employment change(1).......   847     613     233     709    914
								
                                         Rates (percent)

Gross job gains................   6.3     6.4     6.2     6.4    6.4
 At expanding establishments...   5.2     5.2     5.0     5.2    5.0
 At opening establishments.....   1.1     1.2     1.2     1.2    1.4

Gross job losses...............   5.6     5.9     6.0     5.8    5.6
 At contracting establishments.   4.6     4.8     4.9     4.7    4.6
 At closing establishments.....   1.0     1.1     1.1     1.1    1.0

Net employment change(1).......    .7      .5      .2      .6     .8

    (1) The net employment change is the difference between total 
    gross job gains and total gross job losses.  See the Technical 
    Note for further information.

In the first quarter of 2013, gross job gains exceeded gross job 
losses in 46 states and the District of Columbia.   Alaska had the
highest rate of gross job gains as a percent of employment at 10.7
percent, well above the U.S. total gross job gains rate of 6.4 percent.
Hawaii had the lowest rate of gross job losses as a percent of employment
at 4.8 percent, below the U.S. rate of 5.6 percent. (See tables 6 and 7.)

More Information
Additional information on gross job gains and gross job losses are 
available online at www.bls.gov/bdm. This information includes data 
on the levels and rates of gross job gains and gross job losses by 
firm size, not seasonally adjusted data and other seasonally adjusted 
time series not presented in this release, charts of gross job gains 
and gross job losses by industry and firm size, and frequently asked 
questions on firm size data. Additional information about the Business 
Employment Dynamics data can be found in the Technical Note of this 
release or may be obtained by e-mailing BDMinfo@bls.gov.


The Business Employment Dynamics for Second Quarter 2013 are scheduled 
to be released on Wednesday, January 29, 2014 at 10:00 a.m. (EST).  

 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
|           Changes to Business Employment Dynamics (BED) Data           |
|                                                                        |
|Data in this release incorporate annual revisions to the BED series.    |
|Annual revisions are published each year with the release of first      |
|quarter data. These revisions cover the last four quarters of not       |
|seasonally adjusted data and five years of seasonally adjusted data.    |
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------








                                                                 
Technical Note

   
   The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-
state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages 
(QCEW).  The BED data are compiled by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 
(BLS) from existing QCEW records.  Most employers in the U.S. are required 
to file quarterly reports on the employment and wages of workers covered by 
unemployment insurance (UI) laws, and to pay quarterly UI taxes. The QCEW 
is based largely on quarterly UI reports which are sent by businesses to 
the State Employment Security Agencies (SESAs). These UI reports are 
supplemented by two additional BLS data collections to render administrative
data into economic statistics. Together these data comprise the QCEW  and 
form the basis of the Bureau’s establishment universe sampling frame.
   
   These reports are used to produce the quarterly QCEW data on total 
employment and wages and the longitudinal BED data on gross job gains and
losses. The QCEW is also the employment benchmark for  the Current
Employment Statistics (CES), Occupational Employment Statistics (OES), and 
Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) programs and is a major input
to the Bureau of Economic Analysis’s Personal Income Accounts.
   
   In the BED program, the quarterly QCEW records are linked across quarters
to provide a longitudinal   history for each establishment.  The linkage 
process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment
level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and 
expanding units and jobs lost at closing and contracting units.                                     

Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES employment measures

   The Bureau publishes three different establishment-based employment mea-
sures for any given quarter.  Each of these measures -- QCEW, BED, and CES--
makes use of the quarterly UI employment reports in producing data; how-
ever, each measure has a somewhat different universe coverage, estimation
procedure, and publication product.

   Differences in coverage and estimation methods can result in somewhat 
different measures of over-the-quarter employment change. It is important to
understand program differences and the intended uses of the program products.
(See table below.)

   Additional information on each program can be obtained from the program 
web sites shown in the table below.

				                                  
Summary of Major Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES Employment Measures
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |         QCEW        |         BED          |         CES
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Source     |--Count of UI admini-|--Count of longitudi- |--Sample survey: 
           |  strative records   |  nally-linked UI ad- |  486,000 establish-
           |  submitted by 9.2   |  ministrative records|  ments
           |  million employers  |  submitted by 7.3    |
           |                     |  million private sec-|
           |                     |  tor employers       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Coverage   |--UI and UCFE cover- |--UI Coverage, exclud-|Nonfarm wage and sal-
           |  age:  all employers|  ing government, pri-|  ary jobs:
           |  subject to state   |  vate households, and|--UI Coverage, exclud-
           |  and federal UI Laws|  establishments with |  ing: agriculture, pri-
           |                     |  zero employment     |  vate households, and
           |                     |                      |  self-employed;
           |                     |                      |  including: railroads,
           |                     |                      |  religious organiza-
           |                     |                      |  tions, and other non-
           |                     |                      |  UI-covered jobs
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Publication|--Quarterly          |--Quarterly           |--Monthly 
frequency  |  -7 months after the|  -8 months after the |  -First Friday
           |   end of each quar- |   end of each quarter|   of following month
           |   ter               |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Use of UI  |--Directly summarizes|--Links each new UI   |--Uses UI file as a sam-
file       |  and publishes each |  quarter to longitu- |  pling frame and annu-
           |  new quarter of UI  |  dinal database and  |  ally realigns (bench-
           |  data               |  directly summarizes |  marks) sample esti-    
           |                     |  gross job gains and |  mates to first quar-  
           |                     |  losses              |  ter UI levels
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Provides a quarter-|--Provides quarterly  |--Provides current month-
products   |  ly and annual uni- |  employer dynamics   |  ly estimates of employ-
           |  verse count of es- |  data on establish-  |  ment, hours, and earn-
           |  tablishments, em-  |  ment openings, clos-|  ings at the MSA, state,
           |  ployment, and wages|  ings, expansions,   |  and national level by
           |  at the county, MSA,|  and contractions at |  industry
           |  State, and national|  the national level  |
           |  levels by detailed |  by NAICS super-     |
           |  industry           |  sectors,3-digit     |
           |                     |  NAICS, and by size  |
           |                     |  of firm, and at the |   
           |                     |  state private-sector|
           |                     |  total level         | 
           |                     |--Future expansions   |
           |                     |  will include        |
           |                     |  data at the county  |
           |                     |  and MSA level       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Major uses include:|--Major uses include: |--Major uses include:
uses       |  -Detailed locality |  -Business cycle     |  -Principal national
           |   data              |   analysis           |   economic indicator
           |  -Periodic universe |  -Analysis of employ-|  -Official time series 
           |   counts for bench- |   er dynamics under- |   for employment change
           |   marking sample    |   lying economic ex- |   measures
           |   survey estimates  |   pansions and con-  |  -Input into other ma-
           |  -Sample frame for  |   tractions          |   jor economic indi-
           |   BLS establishment |  -Analysis of employ-|   cators
           |   surveys           |   ment expansion and |
           |                     |   contraction by size|   
           |                     |   of firm            |
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Program    |--www.bls.gov/cew/   |--www.bls.gov/bdm/    |--www.bls.gov/ces/
Web sites  |                     |                      |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               
                           
Coverage                           

   Employment and wage data for workers covered by state UI and Unemployment 
Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE) laws are compiled from quarterly 
contribution reports submitted to the SESAs by employers.  In addition to the
quarterly contribution reports, employers who operate multiple establishments 
within a state complete a questionnaire, called the "Multiple Worksite Report,"
which provides detailed information on the location of their establishments.    
These reports are based on place of employment rather than place of residence. 
UI and UCFE coverage is broad and basically comparable from state to state.

   Major exclusions from UI coverage are self-employed workers, religious or-
ganizations, most agricultural workers on small farms, all members of the 
Armed Forces, elected officials in most states, most employees of railroads, 
some domestic workers, most student workers at schools, and employees of cer-
tain small nonprofit organizations.   
   
   Gross job gains and gross job losses in this release are derived from lon-
gitudinal histories of 7.3 million private sector employer reports out 
of 9.2 million total reports of employment and wages submitted by states to 
BLS in the first quarter of 2013.  Gross job gains and gross job losses data 
in this release do not report estimates for government employees or private 
households (NAICS 814110), and do not include establishments with zero employ-
ment in both previous and current quarters. Data from Puerto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands (49,972 units rounded to 0.0 million) also are excluded from
the national data. As an illustration, the table below shows, in millions of
establishments, the number of establishments excluded from the national gross
job gains and gross job losses data in the first quarter 2013:

             Number of active establishments included in 
              Business Employment Dynamics data at the
                          national level

                                                                   Millions
                                                                       
Total establishments QCEW program....................................9.2

    Excluded:  Public sector.........................................0.3 
               Private households....................................0.2
               Zero employment.......................................1.3      
               Establishments in Puerto Rico 
                 and the Virgin Islands..............................0.1 

                 
Total establishments included in Business
Employment Dynamics data.............................................7.3

Unit of analysis
   
   Establishments are used in the tabulation of the BED statistics by in-
dustry and firms are used in the tabulation of the BED size class sta-
tistics. An establishment is defined as an economic unit that produces 
goods or services, usually at a single physical location, and engages in
one or predominantly one activity. A firm is a legal business, either 
corporate or otherwise, and may consist of several establishments. Firm-
level data are compiled based on an aggregation of establishments under
common ownership by a corporate parent using employer tax identification
numbers.  The firm level aggregation which is consistent with the role of
corporations as the economic decision makers are used for the measurement
of the BED data elements by size class.
   
   Because of the difference in the unit of analysis, total gross job gains 
and gross job losses by size class are lower than total gross job gains and 
gross job losses by industry, as some establishment gains and losses within 
a firm are offset during the aggregation process.  However, the total net 
changes in employment are the same for not seasonally adjusted data and are
similar for seasonally adjusted data.
                                 
Concepts and methodology

   The Business Employment Dynamics data measure the net change in employ-
ment at the establishment or firm level.  These changes come about in one 
of four ways.  A net increase in employment can come from either opening 
units or expanding units.  A net decrease in employment can come from either
closing units or contracting units.  Gross job gains include the sum of all
jobs added at either opening or expanding units.  Gross job losses include
the sum of all jobs lost in either closing or contracting units.  The net 
change in employment is the difference between gross job gains and gross 
job losses.
   
   The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:                          

   Openings.  These are either units with positive third month employment for 
the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or 
with positive third month employment in the current quarter following zero em-
ployment in the previous quarter.
                                     
   Expansions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month 
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment
over this period.
   
   Closings.  These are either units with positive third month employment in 
the previous quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the 
current quarter.
   Contractions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month
in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment
over this period.   

   Births.  These are units with positive third month employment for the 
first time in the current quarter with no links to the prior quarter, or 
units with positive third month employment in the current quarter and zero 
employment in the third month of the previous four quarters. Births are a 
subset of openings not including re-openings of seasonal businesses.

   Deaths.  These are units with no employment or zero employment reported in
the third month of four consecutive quarters following the last quarter with 
positive employment.  Deaths are a subset of closings not including temporary
shutdowns of seasonal businesses.  A unit that closes during the quarter may
be a death, but we wait three quarters to determine whether it is a permanent
closing or a temporary shutdown.  Therefore, there is always a lag of three 
quarters for the publication of death statistics.

   All employment changes are measured from the third month of the previous 
quarter to the third month of the current quarter. Not all establishments and
firms change their employment levels.  Units with no change in employment 
count towards estimates of total employment, but not for levels of gross job
gains and gross job losses.

   Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing 
their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quar-
ters. This provides a symmetric growth rate. The rates are calculated for 
the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to 
form their respective totals. These rates can be added and subtracted just 
as their levels can.  For instance, the difference between the gross job 
gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

Establishment Births and Deaths

   For the purpose of BED statistics, births are defined as establishments 
that appear in the longitudinal database for the first time with positive 
employment in the third month of a quarter, or showed four consecutive 
quarters of zero employment in the third month followed by a quarter in 
which it shows positive employment in the third month.  Similarly, deaths 
are defined as establishments that either drop out of the longitudinal 
database or an establishment that had positive employment in the third 
month of a given quarter followed by four consecutive quarters of showing
zero employment in the third month.  Although the data for establishment 
births and deaths are tabulated independently from the data for openings 
and closings, the concepts are not mutually exclusive.  An establishment 
that is defined as a birth in a given quarter is necessarily an opening 
as well, and an establishment defined as a death in a quarter must also be
a closing.  Since openings include seasonal and other re-openings and 
closings include temporary shutdowns, the not seasonally adjusted values 
for births and deaths must be less than those for openings and closings.  
However, because some BED series do not have many re-openings or temporary
shutdowns, as well as the fact that births and deaths are independently 
seasonally adjusted from openings and closings, there may be instances in
which the seasonally adjusted value of the former is greater than the latter.
 

Linkage methodology

   Prior to the measurement of gross job gains and gross job losses, QCEW 
records are linked across two quarters. The linkage process matches estab-
lishments' unique SESA identification numbers (SESA-ID).  Between 95 to 97
percent of establishments identified as continuous from quarter to quarter 
are matched by SESA-ID.  The rest are linked in one of three ways.  The first
method uses predecessor and successor information, identified by the States,
which relates records with different SESA-IDs across quarters.  Predecessor
and successor relations can come about for a variety of reasons, including 
a change in ownership, a firm restructuring, or a UI account restructuring. 
If a match cannot be attained in this manner, a probability-based match is 
used.  This match attempts to identify two establishments with different SESA-
IDs as continuous.  The match is based upon comparisons such as the same 
name, address, and phone number.  Third, an analyst examines unmatched re-
cords individually and makes a possible match.

   In order to ensure the highest possible quality of data, SESAs verify with 
employers and update, if necessary, the industry, location, and ownership 
classification of all establishments on a 4-year cycle.  Changes in establish-
ment classification codes resulting from the verification process are intro-
duced with the data reported for the first quarter of the year.  Changes re-
sulting from improved employer reporting also are introduced in the first 
quarter. 
                              
Sizing methodology
   
   The method of dynamic sizing is used in calculations for the BED size 
class data series.  Dynamic sizing allocates each firm’s employment gain or 
loss during a quarter to each respective size class in which the change 
occurred.  For example, if a firm grew from 2 employees in quarter 1 to 38 
employees in quarter 2, then, of the 36-employee increase, 2 would be al-
located to the first size class, 5 to the size class 5 to 9, 10 to size 
class 10 to 19, and 19 to size class 20 to 49.

   Dynamic sizing provides symmetrical firm size estimates and eliminates 
any systematic effects which may be caused by the transitory and reverting 
changes in firms’ sizes over time.  Additionally, it allocates each job 
gain or loss to the actual size class where it occurred.

Annual Data

   The annual gross job gains and gross job losses measure the net change 
in employment at the establishment level from the third month of a quarter
in the previous year to the third month of the same quarter in the current 
year. The BLS publishes annual BED data based on March-to-March changes 
once a year with the release of the first quarter BED data. The annual 
data based on over-the-year changes for other quarters of the year are 
available upon request.  The definitions and methodology in measuring 
annual gross job gains and gross job losses are similar to the quarterly 
measures. The linkage method considers all predecessor and successor 
relations that may come about due to changes in ownership and corporate 
restructuring over the entire year. At the establishment level, some of 
the quarterly job gains and job losses are offset during the estimation
over the year. Therefore, the sum of four quarters of gross job gains 
and gross job losses are not equal to annual gross job gains and gross 
job losses. The net change in employment over the year, however, is 
equal to the sum of four quarterly net changes on a not seasonally 
adjusted basis.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the levels of employment and the associated 
job flows undergo sharp fluctuations due to such seasonal events as changes 
in the weather, reduced or expanded production, harvests, major holidays, 
and the opening and closing of schools.  The effect of such seasonal vari-
ation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each 
year, their influence can be eliminated by adjusting these statistics from
quarter to quarter.  These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in economic activity, easier to recognize.  For example, the large 
number of youths taking summer jobs is likely to obscure other changes that 
have taken place in June relative to March, making it difficult to determine 
if the level of economic activity has risen or declined.  However, because 
the effect of students finishing school in previous years is known, the 
statistics for the current year can be adjusted to allow for a comparable 
change. The adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to ana-
lyze changes in economic activity.

   The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contrac-
ting units are independently seasonally adjusted; net changes are calculated 
based on the difference between gross job gains and gross job losses. Simi-
larly, for industry data, the establishment counts data series for opening,
expanding, closing, and contracting establishments are independently adjusted, 
and the net changes are calculated based on the difference between the number 
of opening and closing establishments.  Additionally establishment and em-
ployment levels are independently seasonally adjusted to calculate the sea-
sonally adjusted rates. Concurrent seasonal adjustment is run using X-12 
ARIMA.  Seasonally adjusted data series for total private are the sum of 
seasonally adjusted data of all sectors including the unclassified sector, 
which is not separately published.

   The net over-the-quarter change derived by summing the BED component series 
will differ from the net employment change estimated from the seasonally ad-
justed total private employment series from the CES program. The intended use 
of BED statistics is to show the dynamic labor market changes that underlie 
the net employment change statistic. As such, data users interested particu-
larly in the net employment change and not in the gross job flows underlying 
this change should refer to CES data for over-the-quarter net employment 
changes.
   
Reliability of the data
   
   Since the data series on Business Employment Dynamics are based on admini-
strative rather than sample data, there are no issues related to sampling 
error. Nonsampling error, however, still exists.  Nonsampling errors can oc-
cur for many reasons, such as the employer submitting corrected employment 
data after the end of the quarter or typographical errors made by businesses
when providing information. Such errors, however, are likely to be distri-
buted randomly throughout the dataset. 
   
   Changes in administrative data sometimes create complications for the 
linkage process. This can result in overstating openings and closings while 
understating expansions and contractions. The BLS continues to refine methods
for improving the linkage process to alleviate the effects of these compli-
cations.
   
   The BED data series are subject to periodic minor changes based on correc-
tions in QCEW records, updates on predecessors and successors information, and
seasonal adjustment revisions.

   Annual revisions are published each year with the release of the first qua-
rter data. These revisions cover the last four quarters of not seasonally adj-
usted data and 5 years of seasonally adjusted data.
                      
Additional statistics and other information
   
   Several other programs within BLS produce closely related information.	
The QCEW program provides both quarterly and annual estimates of employment 
by state, county, and detailed industry. News releases on quarterly county e
mployment and wages and an annual bulletin: Employment and Wages Annual 
Averages, are available upon request from the Division of Administrative 
Statistics and Labor Turnover, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department 
of Labor, Washington, DC 20212; telephone 202-691-6567; 
(http://www.bls.gov/cew/);  (e-mail: QCEWInfo@bls.gov).   
                                      
   The CES program produces monthly estimates of employment, its net change,
and earnings by detailed industry.  These estimates are part of the Employ-
ment Situation report put out monthly by BLS.  
                                     
   The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) program provides month-
ly measures of job openings, as well as employee hires and separations.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired in-
dividuals upon request. Voice phone:  202-691-5200; TDD message referral 
number: 1-800-877-8339.


Table 1.  Private sector gross job gains and job losses, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(In thousands)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(1) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2003  March               -393      7,467       5,928         1,539       7,860       6,307           1,553
      June                 -90      7,398       5,929         1,469       7,488       6,030           1,458
      September            204      7,392       5,923         1,469       7,188       5,828           1,360
      December             297      7,521       6,005         1,516       7,224       5,800           1,424

2004  March                470      7,715       6,204         1,511       7,245       5,795           1,450
      June                 644      7,754       6,235         1,519       7,110       5,639           1,471
      September            206      7,633       6,060         1,573       7,427       5,888           1,539
      December             757      7,844       6,243         1,601       7,087       5,663           1,424

2005  March                384      7,620       6,131         1,489       7,236       5,801           1,435
      June                 593      7,774       6,231         1,543       7,181       5,776           1,405
      September            677      7,965       6,387         1,578       7,288       5,844           1,444
      December             494      7,807       6,252         1,555       7,313       5,948           1,365

2006  March                874      7,797       6,354         1,443       6,923       5,636           1,287
      June                 371      7,758       6,246         1,512       7,387       6,015           1,372
      September             52      7,499       6,061         1,438       7,447       6,097           1,350
      December             455      7,740       6,223         1,517       7,285       5,941           1,344

2007  March                549      7,727       6,297         1,430       7,178       5,881           1,297
      June                 149      7,632       6,222         1,410       7,483       6,079           1,404
      September           -252      7,318       5,847         1,471       7,570       6,215           1,355
      December             299      7,658       6,196         1,462       7,359       6,012           1,347

2008  March               -225      7,246       5,834         1,412       7,471       6,102           1,369
      June                -578      7,254       5,846         1,408       7,832       6,352           1,480
      September           -944      6,886       5,523         1,363       7,830       6,448           1,382
      December          -1,809      6,706       5,354         1,352       8,515       7,034           1,481

2009  March             -2,710      5,844       4,655         1,189       8,554       7,132           1,422
      June              -1,659      6,391       5,088         1,303       8,050       6,667           1,383
      September           -880      6,340       5,125         1,215       7,220       5,863           1,357
      December            -229      6,640       5,316         1,324       6,869       5,589           1,280

2010  March               -262      6,256       5,086         1,170       6,518       5,313           1,205
      June                 715      6,966       5,684         1,282       6,251       5,086           1,165
      September            210      6,675       5,423         1,252       6,465       5,240           1,225
      December             591      7,015       5,642         1,373       6,424       5,202           1,222

2011  March                296      6,448       5,278         1,170       6,152       5,015           1,137
      June                 602      6,940       5,642         1,298       6,338       5,108           1,230
      September            819      7,144       5,785         1,359       6,325       5,181           1,144
      December             368      6,896       5,549         1,347       6,528       5,250           1,278

2012  March                847      6,946       5,702         1,244       6,099       4,995           1,104
      June                 613      7,027       5,738         1,289       6,414       5,259           1,155
      September            233      6,847       5,552         1,295       6,614       5,436           1,178
      December             709      7,110       5,769         1,341       6,401       5,199           1,202

2013  March                914      7,200       5,623         1,577       6,286       5,136           1,150

(1) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 2.  Private sector gross job gains and losses, as a percent of employment(1), seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Percent)

                                                  Gross job gains                       Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(2) Total     Expanding      Opening      Total     Contracting      Closing
                                           establishments establishments           establishments establishments

2003  March                -.5       6.9         5.5           1.4         7.4          5.9            1.5
      June                  .0       7.0         5.6           1.4         7.0          5.6            1.4
      September             .1       6.9         5.5           1.4         6.8          5.5            1.3
      December              .3       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3

2004  March                 .5       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.7          5.4            1.3
      June                  .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.2            1.4
      September             .3       7.1         5.6           1.5         6.8          5.4            1.4
      December              .7       7.2         5.7           1.5         6.5          5.2            1.3

2005  March                 .4       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      June                  .6       7.1         5.7           1.4         6.5          5.2            1.3
      September             .6       7.2         5.8           1.4         6.6          5.3            1.3
      December              .4       7.0         5.6           1.4         6.6          5.4            1.2

2006  March                 .9       7.0         5.7           1.3         6.1          5.0            1.1
      June                  .3       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September             .1       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.6          5.4            1.2
      December              .3       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2007  March                 .5       6.8         5.5           1.3         6.3          5.2            1.1
      June                  .2       6.7         5.5           1.2         6.5          5.3            1.2
      September            -.3       6.4         5.1           1.3         6.7          5.5            1.2
      December              .2       6.7         5.4           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2008  March                -.3       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.6          5.4            1.2
      June                 -.6       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.9          5.6            1.3
      September            -.8       6.1         4.9           1.2         6.9          5.7            1.2
      December            -1.6       6.0         4.8           1.2         7.6          6.3            1.3

2009  March               -2.4       5.4         4.3           1.1         7.8          6.5            1.3
      June                -1.6       5.9         4.7           1.2         7.5          6.2            1.3
      September            -.9       5.9         4.8           1.1         6.8          5.5            1.3
      December             -.2       6.3         5.0           1.3         6.5          5.3            1.2

2010  March                -.2       5.9         4.8           1.1         6.1          5.0            1.1
      June                  .7       6.6         5.4           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1
      September             .2       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.1          4.9            1.2
      December              .6       6.6         5.3           1.3         6.0          4.9            1.1

2011  March                 .2       6.0         4.9           1.1         5.8          4.7            1.1
      June                  .6       6.5         5.3           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1
      September             .8       6.7         5.4           1.3         5.9          4.8            1.1
      December              .3       6.3         5.1           1.2         6.0          4.8            1.2

2012  March                 .7       6.3         5.2           1.1         5.6          4.6            1.0
      June                  .5       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.9          4.8            1.1
      September             .2       6.2         5.0           1.2         6.0          4.9            1.1
      December              .6       6.4         5.2           1.2         5.8          4.7            1.1

2013  March                 .8       6.4         5.0           1.4         5.6          4.6            1.0

(1) The rates measure gross job gains and gross job losses as a percentage
    of the previous and current quarter employment levels.

(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.

Table 3. Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   Mar.    June    Sept    Dec.    Mar.   Mar.   June   Sept   Dec.   Mar.  
                                   2012    2012    2012    2012    2013   2012   2012   2012   2012   2013
Total private(1)

Gross job gains                   6,946   7,027   6,847   7,110   7,200    6.3    6.4    6.2    6.4    6.4
 At expanding establishments      5,702   5,738   5,552   5,769   5,623    5.2    5.2    5.0    5.2    5.0
 At opening establishments        1,244   1,289   1,295   1,341   1,577    1.1    1.2    1.2    1.2    1.4
Gross job losses                  6,099   6,414   6,614   6,401   6,286    5.6    5.9    6.0    5.8    5.6
 At contracting establishments    4,995   5,259   5,436   5,199   5,136    4.6    4.8    4.9    4.7    4.6
 At closing establishments        1,104   1,155   1,178   1,202   1,150    1.0    1.1    1.1    1.1    1.0
Net employment change               847     613     233     709     914     .7     .5     .2     .6     .8

Goods-producing

Gross job gains                   1,402   1,396   1,338   1,359   1,345    7.3    7.2    6.9    7.0    6.8
 At expanding establishments      1,194   1,188   1,129   1,147   1,151    6.2    6.1    5.8    5.9    5.8
 At opening establishments          208     208     209     212     194    1.1    1.1    1.1    1.1    1.0
Gross job losses                  1,254   1,302   1,301   1,315   1,224    6.5    6.7    6.7    6.7    6.2
 At contracting establishments    1,043   1,087   1,090   1,097   1,020    5.4    5.6    5.6    5.6    5.2
 At closing establishments          211     215     211     218     204    1.1    1.1    1.1    1.1    1.0
Net employment change               148      94      37      44     121     .8     .5     .2     .3     .6

Natural resources and mining

Gross job gains                     293     300     277     279     277   14.8   15.1   14.0   14.0   13.7
 At expanding establishments        253     259     236     238     238   12.8   13.0   11.9   11.9   11.8
 At opening establishments           40      41      41      41      39    2.0    2.1    2.1    2.1    1.9
Gross job losses                    266     293     276     288     250   13.4   14.8   13.9   14.4   12.4
 At contracting establishments      228     252     240     250     214   11.5   12.7   12.1   12.5   10.6
 At closing establishments           38      41      36      38      36    1.9    2.1    1.8    1.9    1.8
Net employment change                27       7       1      -9      27    1.4     .3     .1    -.4    1.3

Construction

Gross job gains                     675     641     648     667     674   12.2   11.5   11.6   11.9   11.7
 At expanding establishments        544     512     516     534     553    9.8    9.2    9.2    9.5    9.6
 At opening establishments          131     129     132     133     121    2.4    2.3    2.4    2.4    2.1
Gross job losses                    622     639     614     604     600   11.2   11.4   11.0   10.7   10.5
 At contracting establishments      490     510     484     474     476    8.8    9.1    8.7    8.4    8.3
 At closing establishments          132     129     130     130     124    2.4    2.3    2.3    2.3    2.2
Net employment change                53       2      34      63      74    1.0     .1     .6    1.2    1.2

Manufacturing

Gross job gains                     434     455     413     413     394    3.7    3.8    3.5    3.4    3.3
 At expanding establishments        397     417     377     375     360    3.4    3.5    3.2    3.1    3.0
 At opening establishments           37      38      36      38      34     .3     .3     .3     .3     .3
Gross job losses                    366     370     411     423     374    3.0    3.1    3.5    3.5    3.2
 At contracting establishments      325     325     366     373     330    2.7    2.7    3.1    3.1    2.8
 At closing establishments           41      45      45      50      44     .3     .4     .4     .4     .4
Net employment change                68      85       2     -10      20     .7     .7     .0    -.1     .1

Service-providing(1)

Gross job gains                   5,544   5,631   5,509   5,751   5,855    6.2    6.2    6.1    6.3    6.4
 At expanding establishments      4,508   4,550   4,423   4,622   4,472    5.0    5.0    4.9    5.1    4.9
 At opening establishments        1,036   1,081   1,086   1,129   1,383    1.2    1.2    1.2    1.2    1.5
Gross job losses                  4,845   5,112   5,313   5,086   5,062    5.4    5.6    5.9    5.6    5.5
 At contracting establishments    3,952   4,172   4,346   4,102   4,116    4.4    4.6    4.8    4.5    4.5
 At closing establishments          893     940     967     984     946    1.0    1.0    1.1    1.1    1.0
Net employment change               699     519     196     665     793     .8     .6     .2     .7     .9

Wholesale trade

Gross job gains                     285     287     267     280     273    5.1    5.1    4.7    4.9    4.8
 At expanding establishments        234     236     217     227     227    4.2    4.2    3.8    4.0    4.0
 At opening establishments           51      51      50      53      46     .9     .9     .9     .9     .8
Gross job losses                    244     252     262     257     251    4.3    4.4    4.7    4.5    4.4
 At contracting establishments      188     195     208     200     194    3.3    3.4    3.7    3.5    3.4
 At closing establishments           56      57      54      57      57    1.0    1.0    1.0    1.0    1.0
Net employment change                41      35       5      23      22     .8     .7     .0     .4     .4

Retail trade

Gross job gains                     899     896     848     921     895    6.0    6.0    5.6    6.2    6.0
 At expanding establishments        773     760     708     788     777    5.2    5.1    4.7    5.3    5.2
 At opening establishments          126     136     140     133     118     .8     .9     .9     .9     .8
Gross job losses                    845     819     875     829     874    5.7    5.5    5.8    5.6    5.8
 At contracting establishments      740     716     764     710     768    5.0    4.8    5.1    4.8    5.1
 At closing establishments          105     103     111     119     106     .7     .7     .7     .8     .7
Net employment change                54      77     -27      92      21     .3     .5    -.2     .6     .2

Transportation and warehousing

Gross job gains                     213     220     221     263     207    5.1    5.3    5.3    6.3    4.9
 At expanding establishments        181     187     189     231     177    4.3    4.5    4.5    5.5    4.2
 At opening establishments           32      33      32      32      30     .8     .8     .8     .8     .7
Gross job losses                    215     201     208     211     236    5.1    4.8    5.0    5.0    5.5
 At contracting establishments      184     168     174     173     205    4.4    4.0    4.2    4.1    4.8
 At closing establishments           31      33      34      38      31     .7     .8     .8     .9     .7
Net employment change                -2      19      13      52     -29     .0     .5     .3    1.3    -.6

Utilities

Gross job gains                      12      11      12      14      10    2.2    2.0    2.2    2.6    1.8
 At expanding establishments         11      10      10      12       9    2.0    1.8    1.8    2.2    1.6
 At opening establishments            1       1       2       2       1     .2     .2     .4     .4     .2
Gross job losses                     11      13      13      12      11    2.0    2.4    2.4    2.2    2.0
 At contracting establishments       10      12      12      11      10    1.8    2.2    2.2    2.0    1.8
 At closing establishments            1       1       1       1       1     .2     .2     .2     .2     .2
Net employment change                 1      -2      -1       2      -1     .2    -.4    -.2     .4    -.2

Information

Gross job gains                     114     123     129     141     114    4.2    4.6    4.8    5.2    4.2
 At expanding establishments         95     105     108     116      97    3.5    3.9    4.0    4.3    3.6
 At opening establishments           19      18      21      25      17     .7     .7     .8     .9     .6
Gross job losses                    113     126     140     121     119    4.2    4.7    5.2    4.5    4.4
 At contracting establishments       95     104     118      96      99    3.5    3.9    4.4    3.6    3.7
 At closing establishments           18      22      22      25      20     .7     .8     .8     .9     .7
Net employment change                 1      -3     -11      20      -5     .0    -.1    -.4     .7    -.2

Financial activities

Gross job gains                     341     360     354     376     346    4.6    4.8    4.7    5.0    4.5
 At expanding establishments        275     291     285     293     282    3.7    3.9    3.8    3.9    3.7
 At opening establishments           66      69      69      83      64     .9     .9     .9    1.1     .8
Gross job losses                    319     330     333     326     325    4.3    4.4    4.4    4.3    4.3
 At contracting establishments      245     255     262     251     250    3.3    3.4    3.5    3.3    3.3
 At closing establishments           74      75      71      75      75    1.0    1.0     .9    1.0    1.0
Net employment change                22      30      21      50      21     .3     .4     .3     .7     .2

Professional and business services

Gross job gains                   1,280   1,362   1,325   1,403   1,255    7.3    7.6    7.4    7.8    6.9
 At expanding establishments      1,039   1,111   1,080   1,132   1,035    5.9    6.2    6.0    6.3    5.7
 At opening establishments          241     251     245     271     220    1.4    1.4    1.4    1.5    1.2
Gross job losses                  1,148   1,215   1,256   1,229   1,179    6.5    6.8    7.0    6.8    6.4
 At contracting establishments      925     959   1,003     977     940    5.2    5.4    5.6    5.4    5.1
 At closing establishments          223     256     253     252     239    1.3    1.4    1.4    1.4    1.3
Net employment change               132     147      69     174      76     .8     .8     .4    1.0     .5

Education and health services

Gross job gains                     821     799     840     836   1,200    4.2    4.1    4.3    4.3    6.0
 At expanding establishments        701     677     708     701     681    3.6    3.5    3.6    3.6    3.4
 At opening establishments          120     122     132     135     519     .6     .6     .7     .7    2.6
Gross job losses                    697     768     746     717     743    3.6    3.9    3.9    3.6    3.7
 At contracting establishments      579     644     618     590     600    3.0    3.3    3.2    3.0    3.0
 At closing establishments          118     124     128     127     143     .6     .6     .7     .6     .7
Net employment change               124      31      94     119     457     .6     .2     .4     .7    2.3

Leisure and hospitality

Gross job gains                   1,238   1,212   1,162   1,176   1,202    9.1    8.8    8.5    8.5    8.5
 At expanding establishments        971     935     891     904     958    7.1    6.8    6.5    6.5    6.8
 At opening establishments          267     277     271     272     244    2.0    2.0    2.0    2.0    1.7
Gross job losses                    975   1,102   1,169   1,091   1,038    7.2    8.0    8.5    7.8    7.4
 At contracting establishments      785     908     960     881     844    5.8    6.6    7.0    6.3    6.0
 At closing establishments          190     194     209     210     194    1.4    1.4    1.5    1.5    1.4
Net employment change               263     110      -7      85     164    1.9     .8     .0     .7    1.1

Other services

Gross job gains                     279     290     275     269     272    7.4    7.6    7.2    7.0    7.1
 At expanding establishments        220     230     218     209     218    5.8    6.0    5.7    5.4    5.7
 At opening establishments           59      60      57      60      54    1.6    1.6    1.5    1.6    1.4
Gross job losses                    251     259     281     266     256    6.6    6.7    7.3    6.9    6.7
 At contracting establishments      196     204     219     207     199    5.2    5.3    5.7    5.4    5.2
 At closing establishments           55      55      62      59      57    1.4    1.4    1.6    1.5    1.5
Net employment change                28      31      -6       3      16     .8     .9    -.1     .1     .4

(1) Includes unclassified sector, not shown separately

Table 4.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

(In thousands)

                      Total private by firm(1)       Firm size 1 - 49 employees      Firm size 50 - 249 employees      Firm size 250 or more employees
Year  3 months        Net        Gross job            Net          Gross job          Net           Gross job           Net           Gross job
        ended      change(2,3)  gains   losses       change      gains   losses      change       gains   losses       change       gains   losses

2003  March           -326      6,112    6,438        -135       3,257    3,392        -56        1,127    1,183        -135        1,728    1,863
      June            -137      6,108    6,245         112       3,346    3,234        -26        1,133    1,159        -223        1,629    1,852
      September        193      6,162    5,969         120       3,327    3,207         21        1,127    1,106          52        1,708    1,656
      December         310      6,218    5,908         146       3,340    3,194         32        1,128    1,096         132        1,750    1,618

2004  March            430      6,306    5,876         153       3,392    3,239        137        1,194    1,057         140        1,720    1,580
      June             621      6,471    5,850         169       3,387    3,218        141        1,196    1,055         311        1,888    1,577
      September        197      6,243    6,046          88       3,379    3,291         88        1,175    1,087          21        1,689    1,668
      December         759      6,494    5,735         274       3,480    3,206        101        1,172    1,071         384        1,842    1,458

2005  March            368      6,320    5,952          66       3,416    3,350         97        1,161    1,064         205        1,743    1,538
      June             570      6,435    5,865         243       3,476    3,233        146        1,198    1,052         181        1,761    1,580
      September        701      6,672    5,971         218       3,510    3,292         85        1,195    1,110         398        1,967    1,569
      December         506      6,406    5,900         169       3,462    3,293         45        1,140    1,095         292        1,804    1,512

2006  March            788      6,433    5,645         334       3,547    3,213        222        1,213      991         232        1,673    1,441
      June             375      6,349    5,974         117       3,434    3,317        110        1,190    1,080         148        1,725    1,577
      September         43      6,103    6,060         -14       3,329    3,343         27        1,127    1,100          30        1,647    1,617
      December         447      6,375    5,928         117       3,393    3,276         74        1,147    1,073         256        1,835    1,579

2007  March            466      6,300    5,834         189       3,451    3,262         99        1,153    1,054         178        1,696    1,518
      June             174      6,256    6,082         -31       3,337    3,368        108        1,180    1,072          97        1,739    1,642
      September       -269      5,891    6,160        -132       3,252    3,384        -53        1,073    1,126         -84        1,566    1,650
      December         298      6,254    5,956           8       3,315    3,307         63        1,140    1,077         227        1,799    1,572

2008  March           -290      5,806    6,096        -154       3,228    3,382        -14        1,073    1,087        -122        1,505    1,627
      June            -548      5,855    6,403        -284       3,179    3,463        -41        1,095    1,136        -223        1,581    1,804
      September       -999      5,498    6,497        -346       3,047    3,393       -151        1,015    1,166        -502        1,436    1,938
      December      -1,869      5,338    7,207        -695       2,907    3,602       -374          948    1,322        -800        1,483    2,283

2009  March         -2,664      4,578    7,242        -983       2,715    3,698       -615          806    1,421      -1,066        1,057    2,123
      June          -1,764      5,170    6,934        -472       2,951    3,423       -277          954    1,231      -1,015        1,265    2,280
      September       -940      5,134    6,074        -374       2,821    3,195       -118          928    1,046        -448        1,385    1,833
      December        -289      5,405    5,694        -162       2,938    3,100        -43          964    1,007         -84        1,503    1,587

2010  March           -240      5,093    5,333        -198       2,855    3,053         -3          909      912         -39        1,329    1,368
      June             692      5,815    5,123         238       3,097    2,859        209        1,076      867         245        1,642    1,397
      September        188      5,490    5,302          23       2,939    2,916         79          994      915          86        1,557    1,471
      December         519      5,786    5,267          85       3,047    2,962         95        1,035      940         339        1,704    1,365

2011  March            313      5,334    5,021          93       2,968    2,875        118          963      845         102        1,403    1,301
      June             548      5,758    5,210         196       3,078    2,882        176        1,069      893         176        1,611    1,435
      September        823      5,943    5,120         259       3,123    2,864        161        1,061      900         403        1,759    1,356
      December         321      5,612    5,291          39       2,967    2,928         45          987      942         237        1,658    1,421

2012  March            846      5,761    4,915         385       3,157    2,772        217        1,047      830         244        1,557    1,313
      June             604      5,825    5,221         178       3,042    2,864        167        1,082      915         259        1,701    1,442
      September        213      5,565    5,352          49       2,950    2,901         44        1,002      958         120        1,613    1,493
      December         637      5,766    5,129         169       3,014    2,845         90        1,012      922         378        1,740    1,362

2013  March          1,198      6,302    5,104         281       3,098    2,817        156        1,021      865         761        2,183    1,422


(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower
    than total gross job gains and gross job losses by establishment,
    as some establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.
(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.
(3) Net change totals for firm-level data shown differ from the establishment-level data
    due to independent seasonal adjustment of the series.
NOTE: See http://www.bls.gov/bdm/bdmfirmsize.htm for additional firm size class data.

Table 5. Components of private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

                                      Gross job gains and job losses      Gross job gains and job losses
                                           (in thousands)                   as a percent of employment

    Category                                 3 months ended                      3 months ended

                                   Mar.    June    Sept    Dec.    Mar.   Mar.   June   Sept   Dec.   Mar.  
                                   2012    2012    2012    2012    2013   2012   2012   2012   2012   2013
Total private by firm(1)

Gross job gains                   5,761   5,825   5,565   5,766   6,302    5.3    5.3    5.0    5.2    5.6
 At expanding firms               4,826   4,925   4,670   4,840   5,365    4.4    4.5    4.2    4.4    4.8
 At opening firms                   935     900     895     926     937     .9     .8     .8     .8     .8

Gross job losses                  4,915   5,221   5,352   5,129   5,104    4.5    4.8    4.9    4.7    4.6
 At contracting firms             4,087   4,393   4,515   4,282   4,251    3.7    4.0    4.1    3.9    3.8
 At closing firms                   828     828     837     847     853     .8     .8     .8     .8     .8

Net employment change               846     604     213     637   1,198     .8     .5     .1     .5    1.0


Firm size 1 to 49 employees

Gross job gains                   3,157   3,042   2,950   3,014   3,098   10.1    9.6    9.3    9.5    9.7
 At expanding firms               2,257   2,185   2,099   2,124   2,194    7.2    6.9    6.6    6.7    6.9
 At opening firms                   900     857     851     890     904    2.9    2.7    2.7    2.8    2.8

Gross job losses                  2,772   2,864   2,901   2,845   2,817    8.8    9.0    9.1    8.9    8.8
 At contracting firms             1,971   2,070   2,100   2,040   2,002    6.3    6.5    6.6    6.4    6.3
 At closing firms                   801     794     801     805     815    2.5    2.5    2.5    2.5    2.5

Net employment change               385     178      49     169     281    1.3     .6     .2     .6     .9


Firm size 50 to 249 employees

Gross job gains                   1,047   1,082   1,002   1,012   1,021    5.2    5.3    5.0    5.0    4.9
 At expanding firms               1,016   1,046     966     979     991    5.0    5.1    4.8    4.8    4.8
 At opening firms                    31      36      36      33      30     .2     .2     .2     .2     .1

Gross job losses                    830     915     958     922     865    4.1    4.5    4.7    4.6    4.3
 At contracting firms               806     887     929     888     833    4.0    4.4    4.6    4.4    4.1
 At closing firms                    24      28      29      34      32     .1     .1     .1     .2     .2

Net employment change               217     167      44      90     156    1.1     .8     .3     .4     .6


Firm size 250 or more employees

Gross job gains                   1,557   1,701   1,613   1,740   2,183    2.7    2.9    2.8    3.0    3.7
 At expanding firms               1,553   1,694   1,605   1,737   2,180    2.7    2.9    2.8    3.0    3.7
 At opening firms                     4       7       8       3       3     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Gross job losses                  1,313   1,442   1,493   1,362   1,422    2.3    2.5    2.5    2.3    2.4
 At contracting firms             1,310   1,436   1,486   1,354   1,416    2.3    2.5    2.5    2.3    2.4
 At closing firms                     3       6       7       8       6     .0     .0     .0     .0     .0

Net employment change               244     259     120     378     761     .4     .4     .3     .7    1.3


(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower
    than total gross job gains and gross job losses by establishment,
    as some establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.

Table 6.  Private sector gross job gains and losses by state, seasonally adjusted

                                         Gross job gains                                          Gross job losses
State                                    (3 months ended)                                         (3 months ended)
                        Mar.       June       Sept.       Dec.      Mar.       Mar.         June       Sept.       Dec.      Mar. 
                        2012       2012       2012        2012      2013       2012         2012       2012        2012      2013

United States(1)...  6,946,000  7,027,000  6,847,000   7,110,000  7,200,000  6,099,000   6,414,000   6,614,000  6,401,000  6,286,000

Alabama.....            91,664     86,636     83,851      85,704     89,056     80,725      82,955      83,306     80,669     80,275
Alaska.....             26,693     27,530     22,445      24,240     26,662     22,241      23,495      25,672     25,260     23,917
Arizona.....           128,274    128,793    135,745     142,500    128,935    118,427     125,041     117,227    119,631    121,218
Arkansas.....           54,609     52,314     51,668      56,703     54,198     53,188      53,856      57,464     50,392     52,714
California.....        851,650    894,003    844,915     919,234  1,149,953    755,035     776,483     795,400    774,546    756,150
Colorado.....          125,624    136,640    131,864     134,421    135,946    114,020     118,410     123,134    117,054    120,012
Connecticut.....        76,984     75,561     72,837      75,395     70,949     67,975      68,910      75,227     71,198     72,020
Delaware.....           21,643     21,869     21,192      23,491     22,621     20,549      22,030      21,369     19,541     20,532
District of Columbia    28,382     27,380     27,410      31,906     27,106     21,358      25,248      28,636     25,818     25,558
Florida.....           415,877    431,131    457,853     455,616    425,622    362,860     395,664     423,743    399,755    383,394

Georgia.....           218,487    209,942    201,628     217,427    212,850    190,064     196,142     198,881    188,763    186,171
Hawaii.....             25,388     27,415     27,160      26,609     25,203     25,215      23,961      22,743     20,912     23,670
Idaho.....              38,298     40,455     41,233      40,125     41,579     38,801      37,818      35,434     36,684     36,854
Illinois.....          263,612    265,911    271,148     258,830    268,730    233,030     243,549     263,946    251,875    265,334
Indiana.....           151,917    141,219    138,626     143,227    136,368    121,368     132,146     133,678    130,952    130,034
Iowa.....               76,178     71,500     70,809      71,392     72,607     63,144      64,753      68,605     68,038     66,921
Kansas.....             70,479     64,309     60,448      67,871     61,140     56,328      61,195      64,860     58,658     59,438
Kentucky.....           90,342     88,382     83,055      93,554     84,328     80,583      80,246      85,735     80,606     84,243
Louisiana.....         116,182    103,796    101,975     107,395    104,541    100,163     105,425     102,711     91,414     94,234
Maine.....              34,973     38,534     32,673      34,238     32,143     34,820      33,537      35,673     36,486     34,202

Maryland.....          134,976    128,774    128,971     129,764    126,945    115,216     121,718     128,148    127,138    118,295
Massachusetts.....     154,949    164,755    149,438     151,216    175,505    137,152     137,124     155,111    148,085    138,023
Michigan.....          203,456    207,062    207,299     205,504    207,947    173,801     192,021     197,226    183,401    171,542
Minnesota.....         142,219    138,414    136,191     134,577    137,595    129,890     121,959     128,083    130,799    120,381
Mississippi.....        56,245     50,119     53,633      57,216     49,609     47,444      55,578      52,107     51,673     47,175
Missouri.....          129,293    133,660    127,233     138,250    142,864    117,792     134,163     128,691    122,509    122,171
Montana.....            27,526     28,856     27,400      29,068     28,651     26,029      26,533      25,705     27,260     26,427
Nebraska.....           44,158     43,558     42,551      44,816     45,864     38,129      39,222      41,491     39,881     40,939
Nevada.....             58,292     62,766     58,249      60,294     62,843     52,978      53,406      57,228     56,082     53,767
New Hampshire.....      34,728     37,456     34,114      34,580     33,735     32,426      33,920      36,227     34,128     32,155

New Jersey.....        203,715    209,311    197,518     203,835    202,206    190,411     189,291     202,355    198,718    187,276
New Mexico.....         41,135     40,507     38,580      44,250     37,762     35,763      41,590      39,230     37,406     39,187
New York.....          466,516    466,207    454,607     466,748    456,587    399,950     429,311     443,564    440,756    429,494
North Carolina.....    210,882    205,622    202,081     211,726    196,443    179,984     196,910     193,077    190,051    184,492
North Dakota.....       34,497     26,806     28,903      29,218     29,398     20,369      22,207      25,009     23,917     23,359
Ohio.....              260,540    253,914    241,581     263,759    256,737    224,267     229,793     250,160    238,558    244,972
Oklahoma.....           76,212     76,079     73,753      82,091     72,957     65,995      68,331      73,607     68,685     74,768
Oregon.....             94,240     94,439     97,220      95,654     99,441     87,988      89,229      86,297     91,054     84,487
Pennsylvania.....      290,187    264,855    264,397     265,032    268,272    246,817     266,763     266,195    252,649    262,407
Rhode Island.....       25,161     25,079     23,706      24,574     24,360     23,785      23,337      24,729     23,675     23,094

South Carolina.....     93,884     89,273     85,519      97,458     87,131     80,792      86,862      87,308     79,795     83,845
South Dakota.....       21,808     22,284     21,046      20,959     20,848     19,892      20,663      20,682     20,519     20,553
Tennessee.....         133,838    134,381    124,873     138,078    123,145    113,151     125,736     124,155    114,673    116,749
Texas.....             533,617    549,198    532,447     553,932    537,115    445,061     458,036     473,461    450,359    465,576
Utah.....               68,992     71,874     68,688      74,490     75,396     58,811      60,288      61,913     61,715     64,502
Vermont.....            17,953     18,231     17,200      18,800     17,248     17,360      17,602      17,307     17,530     16,860
Virginia.....          175,293    169,738    186,995     177,043    165,555    159,817     168,085     179,241    165,510    159,740
Washington.....        158,587    173,163    163,111     166,655    204,649    148,380     148,738     153,439    153,804    148,789
West Virginia.....      40,700     36,043     36,427      36,002     35,950     35,173      40,260      38,609     36,604     34,714
Wisconsin.....         136,346    133,444    125,268     131,552    125,586    118,700     120,808     127,601    122,830    120,242

Wyoming.....            18,401     17,401     18,081      20,277     18,617     18,588      19,123      18,364     17,704     18,333
Puerto Rico.....        41,120     46,152     42,434      46,915     38,510     40,496      38,353      43,922     40,722     43,762
Virgin Islands.....      1,688      1,843      1,512       1,981      1,570      2,070       4,106       2,173      1,599      1,819

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 7.  Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted

                        Gross job gains as a percent of employment    Gross job losses as a percent of employment
State                              (3 months ended)                               (3 months ended)

                        Mar.    June     Sept.    Dec.    Mar.        Mar.     June      Sept.   Dec.     Mar. 
                        2012    2012     2012     2012    2013        2012     2012      2012    2012     2013

United States(1).....    6.3     6.4      6.2      6.4     6.4         5.6      5.9       6.0      5.8     5.6

Alabama.....             6.3     5.9      5.7      5.8     6.0         5.6      5.6       5.7      5.5     5.4
Alaska.....             10.8    11.1      9.0      9.8    10.7         9.0      9.4      10.3     10.1     9.6
Arizona.....             6.3     6.3      6.7      6.9     6.2         5.9      6.1       5.7      5.8     5.9
Arkansas.....            5.7     5.5      5.5      6.0     5.7         5.6      5.7       6.1      5.3     5.5
California.....          7.0     7.2      6.8      7.4     9.0         6.2      6.3       6.4      6.2     5.9
Colorado.....            6.7     7.3      6.9      7.1     7.1         6.1      6.3       6.5      6.2     6.2
Connecticut.....         5.6     5.5      5.2      5.4     5.1         4.9      4.9       5.4      5.1     5.2
Delaware.....            6.3     6.4      6.2      6.8     6.5         6.0      6.4       6.2      5.7     5.9
District of Columbia..   6.1     5.8      5.8      6.8     5.7         4.6      5.3       6.1      5.5     5.4
Florida.....             6.7     6.9      7.3      7.1     6.7         5.8      6.3       6.7      6.3     6.0

Georgia.....             6.9     6.6      6.4      6.8     6.6         6.0      6.1       6.2      5.9     5.7
Hawaii.....              5.3     5.7      5.6      5.4     5.1         5.3      5.0       4.7      4.3     4.8
Idaho.....               7.6     8.0      8.2      7.9     8.1         7.7      7.5       7.0      7.2     7.2
Illinois.....            5.4     5.5      5.5      5.3     5.5         4.8      5.0       5.4      5.2     5.5
Indiana.....             6.3     5.8      5.7      5.9     5.6         5.1      5.5       5.5      5.4     5.3
Iowa.....                6.2     5.8      5.7      5.7     5.8         5.2      5.2       5.6      5.5     5.4
Kansas.....              6.6     6.0      5.6      6.3     5.6         5.3      5.7       6.1      5.4     5.5
Kentucky.....            6.3     6.1      5.7      6.5     5.8         5.6      5.5       5.9      5.5     5.8
Louisiana.....           7.5     6.7      6.6      7.0     6.7         6.6      6.9       6.7      5.9     6.1
Maine.....               7.2     7.9      6.7      7.0     6.7         7.2      6.9       7.3      7.5     7.0

Maryland.....            6.7     6.3      6.3      6.4     6.3         5.7      6.0       6.3      6.3     5.8
Massachusetts.....       5.6     5.9      5.3      5.4     6.2         4.9      4.9       5.6      5.3     4.9
Michigan.....            6.1     6.1      6.2      6.0     6.0         5.2      5.7       5.9      5.4     5.0
Minnesota.....           6.3     6.1      6.0      5.9     6.0         5.8      5.4       5.6      5.7     5.2
Mississippi.....         6.6     5.9      6.4      6.8     5.9         5.7      6.5       6.2      6.1     5.5
Missouri.....            6.0     6.1      5.9      6.4     6.5         5.4      6.1       5.9      5.6     5.5
Montana.....             8.0     8.3      7.9      8.3     8.1         7.5      7.6       7.3      7.8     7.4
Nebraska.....            5.9     5.7      5.6      5.9     6.0         5.1      5.2       5.5      5.2     5.4
Nevada.....              5.9     6.4      5.9      6.0     6.3         5.4      5.4       5.7      5.7     5.4
New Hampshire.....       6.6     7.1      6.4      6.5     6.3         6.2      6.4       6.9      6.4     6.1

New Jersey.....          6.4     6.5      6.2      6.4     6.3         6.0      5.9       6.3      6.2     5.8
New Mexico.....          6.9     6.7      6.4      7.4     6.2         6.0      6.9       6.6      6.2     6.5
New York.....            6.5     6.5      6.3      6.4     6.3         5.6      6.0       6.2      6.1     5.9
North Carolina.....      6.6     6.4      6.3      6.5     6.0         5.6      6.1       6.0      5.9     5.7
North Dakota.....       10.3     7.9      8.3      8.3     8.3         6.1      6.5       7.2      6.8     6.6
Ohio.....                6.0     5.8      5.6      6.1     5.9         5.2      5.3       5.7      5.5     5.6
Oklahoma.....            6.3     6.3      6.1      6.7     6.0         5.5      5.6       6.0      5.6     6.0
Oregon.....              6.9     6.9      7.1      7.0     7.2         6.5      6.6       6.4      6.6     6.1
Pennsylvania.....        5.9     5.4      5.4      5.5     5.5         5.0      5.5       5.4      5.1     5.3
Rhode Island.....        6.4     6.4      6.0      6.3     6.1         6.1      5.9       6.3      6.0     5.8

South Carolina.....      6.4     6.1      5.8      6.6     5.8         5.5      5.9       5.9      5.4     5.6
South Dakota.....        6.6     6.7      6.4      6.3     6.3         6.1      6.3       6.2      6.2     6.2
Tennessee.....           6.0     6.0      5.6      6.1     5.4         5.1      5.6       5.5      5.1     5.1
Texas.....               6.1     6.2      5.9      6.1     5.9         5.0      5.2       5.2      5.0     5.1
Utah.....                6.9     7.2      6.9      7.3     7.3         5.9      6.1       6.1      6.1     6.3
Vermont.....             7.3     7.4      7.0      7.6     7.0         7.0      7.1       7.0      7.1     6.7
Virginia.....            6.1     5.8      6.4      6.0     5.7         5.5      5.8       6.1      5.6     5.5
Washington.....          6.8     7.4      7.0      7.1     8.6         6.5      6.4       6.6      6.5     6.2
West Virginia.....       7.1     6.3      6.4      6.4     6.3         6.2      7.1       6.8      6.5     6.1
Wisconsin.....           6.0     5.8      5.4      5.7     5.4         5.2      5.2       5.5      5.3     5.2

Wyoming.....             8.6     8.2      8.6      9.5     8.7         8.6      9.0       8.7      8.4     8.5
Puerto Rico.....         6.1     6.8      6.2      6.8     5.6         6.0      5.6       6.3      5.9     6.4
Virgin Islands.....      5.5     6.2      5.3      7.0     5.6         6.8     13.9       7.7      5.6     6.5

(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 8.  Private sector establishment births and deaths, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Levels in thousands)

                              Number of Establishments                     Employment
                             Births             Deaths(1)            Births             Deaths
Year  3 months ended     Level    Rate(2)   Level    Rate       Level      Rate    Level      Rate

2003  March               193      3.0       186     2.9        1,004        .9    1,011        .9
      June                191      3.0       186     2.9          964        .9      951        .9
      September           193      3.0       179     2.8          954        .9      884        .8
      December            200      3.1       180     2.8          998        .9      910        .9
  
2004  March               207      3.2       180     2.8        1,000        .9      917        .9
      June                203      3.1       185     2.8          980        .9      909        .8
      September           209      3.2       186     2.8        1,016        .9      953        .9
      December            210      3.2       180     2.7          997        .9      894        .8
  
2005  March               209      3.1       185     2.8          944        .9      852        .8
      June                216      3.2       180     2.7          951        .9      841        .8
      September           221      3.3       186     2.8          996        .9      884        .8
      December            221      3.3       186     2.8          979        .9      846        .8
  
2006  March               220      3.2       180     2.6          924        .8      748        .7
      June                221      3.2       194     2.8          973        .9      841        .7
      September           210      3.1       196     2.9          927        .8      836        .7
      December            221      3.2       194     2.8          959        .8      804        .7
  
2007  March               214      3.1       193     2.8          897        .8      771        .7
      June                206      3.0       202     2.9          884        .8      850        .7
      September           216      3.1       203     2.9          941        .8      836        .7
      December            208      3.0       206     2.9          902        .8      825        .7
  
2008  March               207      3.0       211     3.0          897        .8      813        .7
      June                201      2.9       228     3.3          876        .8      934        .8
      September           191      2.7       223     3.2          827        .7      880        .8
      December            188      2.7       240     3.5          799        .7      947        .8
  
2009  March               172      2.5       236     3.4          703        .6      850        .8
      June                177      2.6       227     3.3          742        .7      831        .8
      September           169      2.5       215     3.2          692        .7      787        .7
      December            183      2.7       200     3.0          712        .7      739        .7
  
2010  March               175      2.6       194     2.9          685        .7      667        .6
      June                179      2.7       185     2.7          713        .7      650        .6
      September           188      2.8       189     2.8          741        .7      694        .7
      December            200      2.9       186     2.7          790        .7      689        .6
  
2011  March               189      2.8       184     2.7          695        .7      610        .6
      June                192      2.8       190     2.8          748        .7      677        .6
      September           198      2.9       187     2.7          790        .7      674        .6
      December            202      2.9       191     2.8          802        .7      750        .7
  
2012  March               193      2.8       181     2.6          748        .7      605        .6
      June                191      2.8       184     2.7          759        .7      666        .6
      September           193      2.8       N/A     N/A          789        .7      N/A       N/A
      December            192      2.8       N/A     N/A          766        .7      N/A       N/A
  
2013  March               578      8.0       N/A     N/A        1,067       1.0      N/A       N/A

(1) Values for deaths are not available for the most recent three quarters
    by definition.  See the Technical Note for more information.

(2) The rates measure births and deaths as a percentage
    of the average of the previous and current quarter employment levels or
    total number of establishments.

Last Modified Date: December 10, 2013
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