Economic News Release

Persons with a Disability: Labor Force Characteristics News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Friday, June 8, 2012                 USDL-12-1125

Technical information:  (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


     PERSONS WITH A DISABILITY: LABOR FORCE CHARACTERISTICS -- 2011


In 2011, 17.8 percent of persons with a disability were employed, the U.S. 
Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. In contrast, the employment-
population ratio for persons without a disability was 63.6 percent. The 
employment-population ratio for persons with a disability declined from 18.6 
percent in 2010 to 17.8 percent in 2011. The ratio for persons without a 
disability was about unchanged. The unemployment rate of persons with a 
disability was 15.0 percent in 2011, higher than the rate for those with 
no disability, at 8.7 percent.

The data on persons with a disability are collected as part of the Current 
Population Survey (CPS), a monthly sample survey of about 60,000 households 
that provides statistics on employment and unemployment in the United States. 
The collection of data on persons with a disability is sponsored by the 
Department of Labor's Office of Disability Employment Policy. For more 
information, see the Technical Note.

Highlights from the 2011 data are:

   --Persons with a disability were over three times as likely as
     those with no disability to be age 65 and over. (See table 1.)

   --For all age groups, the employment-population ratio was much lower
     for persons with a disability than for those with no disability.
     (See table 1.)

   --The unemployment rate for persons with a disability was about the
     same in 2011 as in 2010. The rate for persons without a disability
     fell over the year. (See table A.)

   --One-third of workers with a disability were employed part time,
     compared with about one-fifth of those with no disability. (See table 2.)

   --Employed persons with a disability were more likely to be self-
     employed than those with no disability. (See table 4.)

Demographic characteristics

Persons with a disability tend to be older than persons with no disability, 
reflecting the increased incidence of disability with age. In 2011, 45 
percent of persons with a disability were age 65 and over, compared with 13 
percent of those with no disability. Women were somewhat more likely to 
have a disability than men, partly reflecting the greater life expectancy of 
women. Among the major race and ethnicity groups, the prevalence of a 
disability was higher for blacks and whites than for Asians and Hispanics. 
(See table 1.)

Employment

In 2011, the employment-population ratio was 17.8 percent for persons with a 
disability. Among those with no disability, the ratio was much higher (63.6 
percent). The lower ratio among persons with a disability is due, in part, 
to the fact that a large share of the population of persons with a disability 
was age 65 and older, and older workers in general are less likely to be 
employed. However, across all age groups, persons with a disability were much 
less likely to be employed than those with no disability. (See table 1.)

From 2010 to 2011, the employment-population ratio for persons with a 
disability fell from 18.6 percent to 17.8 percent, while the ratio for 
persons without a disability was little changed. Among persons with a 
disability, the employment-population ratio for those age 16 to 64 declined, 
while the ratio for those age 65 and over rose. (See table A.)

Persons with a disability who had completed higher levels of education were 
more likely to be employed in 2011 than those with less education. However, at 
all levels of education, persons with a disability were much less likely to 
be employed than were their counterparts with no disability. (See table 1.)

Workers with a disability were more likely than those with no disability to 
work part time. Among workers with a disability, 33 percent usually worked 
part time in 2011, compared with 19 percent of workers without a disability. 
A slightly larger proportion of workers with a disability worked part time 
for economic reasons than those with no disability (8 and 6 percent, 
respectively). These individuals were working part time because their hours 
had been cut back or because they were unable to find a full-time job. 
(See table 2.)

Workers with a disability were slightly more likely than those with no
disability to work in production, transportation, and material moving
occupations (14 percent compared with 12 percent). Those with a disability 
were less likely to work in management, professional, and related occupations 
(32 percent compared with 38 percent). (See table 3.)

In 2011, 16 percent of workers with a disability were employed in federal, 
state, and local government, about the same percentage as those with no 
disability. Seventy-three percent of workers with a disability were employed 
as private wage and salary workers, compared with 79 percent of those with no 
disability. A larger proportion of workers with a disability were self-employed 
than were those with no disability (12 and 7 percent, respectively). (See 
table 4.)

Unemployment

The unemployment rate for persons with a disability was 15.0 percent in 2011, 
well above the figure of 8.7 percent for those with no disability. (Unemployed 
persons are those who did not have a job, were available for work, and were 
actively looking for a job in the 4 weeks preceding the survey.) The 
unemployment rate for persons with a disability was about the same in 2011 as 
in 2010, while the rate for persons without a disability fell. (See tables 
A and 1.)

Among persons with a disability, the jobless rate for men (15.3 percent) 
was slightly higher in 2011 than the rate for women (14.7 percent). As is 
the case among those without a disability, the unemployment rates in 2011 
for those with a disability were higher among blacks (23.5 percent) and 
Hispanics (20.3 percent) than among whites (13.7 percent) and Asians (11.0 
percent). (See table 1.)

Not in the labor force

Persons who are neither employed nor unemployed are not in the labor force. 
As was the case in 2010, a large proportion of persons with a disability--
about 8 in 10--were not in the labor force in 2011, compared with about 3 
in 10 of those with no disability. In part, this reflects the fact that 
many of those with a disability are age 65 and over. However, for all age 
groups, persons with a disability were more likely than those with no 
disability to be out of the labor force. (See table 1.)

Among persons not in the labor force, 1 percent of those with a disability 
were marginally attached to the labor force in 2011, compared with 4 percent 
of those with no disability. These individuals were not in the labor force, 
wanted and were available for work, and had looked for a job sometime in 
the prior 12 months. They were not counted as unemployed because they had 
not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. For persons 
with and without a disability, the vast majority of those not in the labor 
force reported that they do not want a job. (See table 5.)




Table A. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population by disability status and age, 2010 and 2011 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2010 2011
Total, 16 years
and over
16 to 64
years
65 years
and over
Total, 16 years
and over
16 to 64
years
65 years
and over

PERSONS WITH A DISABILITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

26,592 14,730 11,862 27,382 15,047 12,335

Civilian labor force

5,795 4,995 800 5,722 4,854 868

Participation rate

21.8 33.9 6.7 20.9 32.3 7.0

Employed

4,939 4,210 729 4,861 4,067 794

Employment-population ratio

18.6 28.6 6.1 17.8 27.0 6.4

Unemployed

857 786 71 861 787 74

Unemployment rate

14.8 15.7 8.9 15.0 16.2 8.5

Not in labor force

20,797 9,735 11,062 21,659 10,192 11,467

PERSONS WITH NO DISABILITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

211,238 184,394 26,844 212,236 184,842 27,394

Civilian labor force

148,094 142,176 5,918 147,894 141,650 6,244

Participation rate

70.1 77.1 22.0 69.7 76.6 22.8

Employed

134,125 128,586 5,539 135,008 129,155 5,853

Employment-population ratio

63.5 69.7 20.6 63.6 69.9 21.4

Unemployed

13,968 13,590 378 12,886 12,495 391

Unemployment rate

9.4 9.6 6.4 8.7 8.8 6.3

Not in labor force

63,144 42,218 20,926 64,342 43,192 21,150

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Technical Note

   The estimates in this release are based on annual average data obtained from
the Current Population Survey (CPS). The CPS is a monthly survey of about 60,000
eligible households that is conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau of 
Labor Statistics (BLS).

   Questions were added to the CPS in June 2008 to identify persons with a
disability in the civilian noninstitutional population age 16 and older. The
addition of these questions allowed the BLS to begin releasing monthly labor
force data from the CPS for persons with a disability. The collection of these
data is sponsored by the Department of Labor's Office of Disability Employment
Policy.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory-impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone:  (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service:
(800) 877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error.
When a sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there is a chance
that the sample estimates may differ from the "true" population values they
represent. The exact difference, or sampling error, varies depending on the
particular sample selected, and this variability is measured by the standard
error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence,
that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6 standard errors
from the "true" population value because of sampling error. BLS analyses are
generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can
occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population,
inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample, inability or
unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information, and errors made in the
collection or processing of the data.

   A full discussion of the reliability of data from the CPS and information on
estimating standard errors is available online at
www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.

   CPS estimates are controlled to population totals that are available by age, sex,
race, and Hispanic ethnicity. These controls are developed by the Census Bureau and
are based on complete population counts obtained in the decennial census. In the
years between decennial censuses, they incorporate the latest information about
population change (births, deaths, and net international migration). As part of its
annual update of population estimates, the Census Bureau introduces adjustments to
the total population controls. The estimated effect of the new controls on CPS data
for 2011 (based on a comparison of December 2010 data on the old and new controls)
was to decrease the total employment level by 472,000. The number of employed persons
with a disability was lower by 11,000 and the number with no disability was lower by
461,000; these effects reflect an indirect adjustment related to changes in population
size and composition by age, sex, race, and Hispanic ethnicity. The updated controls
had a negligible impact on unemployment rates and other ratios. (The estimates of the
population of persons with a disability are not controlled to independent population
totals of persons with a disability because such data are not currently available.
Without independent population totals, sample-based estimates are more apt to vary
from one time period to the next.) Additional information is available on the BLS Web
site at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#pop.

Disability questions and concepts

   The CPS uses a set of six questions to identify persons with disabilities. In the
CPS, persons are classified as having a disability if there is a response of "yes" to
any of these questions. The disability questions appear in the CPS in the following
format:

   This month we want to learn about people who have physical, mental, or emotional
conditions that cause serious difficulty with their daily activities. Please answer
for household members who are 15 years and older.

   --Is anyone deaf or does anyone have serious difficulty hearing?

   --Is anyone blind or does anyone have serious difficulty seeing even when
     wearing glasses?

   --Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does anyone have
     serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions?

   --Does anyone have serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs?

   --Does anyone have difficulty dressing or bathing?

   --Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, does anyone have
     difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or
     shopping?

   The CPS questions for identifying individuals with disabilities are only asked of
household members who are age 15 and older. Each of the questions ask the respondent
whether anyone in the household has the condition described, and if the respondent
replies "yes," they are then asked to identify everyone in the household who has the
condition. Labor force measures from the CPS are tabulated for persons age 16 and older.
More information on the disability questions and the limitations of the CPS disability
data is available on the BLS Web site at www.bls.gov/cps/cpsdisability_faq.htm.

Other definitions

   Other definitions used in this release are described briefly below. Additional
information on the concepts and methodology of the CPS is available at
www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Employed persons are all those who, during the survey reference week (which is
generally the week including the 12th day of the month), (a) did any work at all as
paid employees; (b) worked in their own business, profession, or on their own farm;
(c) worked 15 hours or more as unpaid workers in a family-operated enterprise; or
(d) were temporarily absent from their jobs because of illness, vacation, labor
dispute, or another reason.

   Unemployed persons are all persons who had no employment during the reference week,
were available for work, except for temporary illness, and had made specific efforts
to find employment sometime during the 4 weeks preceding the survey.  Persons who were
waiting to be recalled to a job from which they had been laid off need not have been
looking for work to be classified as unemployed.

   Civilian labor force comprises all persons classified as employed or unemployed.

   Unemployment rate represents the number of unemployed persons as a percent of the
civilian labor force.

   Not in the labor force includes all persons who are not classified as employed or
unemployed. Information is collected on their desire for and availability to take a
job at the time of the CPS interview, job search activity in the prior year, and
reason for not looking in the 4-week period prior to the survey week. This group
includes individuals marginally attached to the labor force, defined as persons
not in the labor force who want and are available for a job and who have looked for
work sometime in the past 12 months (or since the end of their last job if they held
one within the past 12 months). They are not counted as unemployed because they had
not actively searched for work in the prior 4 weeks. Within the marginally attached
group are discouraged workers--persons who are not currently looking for work because
they believe there are no jobs available or there are none for which they would qualify.
The other persons marginally attached to the labor force group includes persons who want
a job but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks for reasons such as family
responsibilities or transportation problems.

   At work part time for economic reasons, a measure sometimes referred to as involuntary
part time, refers to individuals who gave an economic reason for working 1 to 34 hours
during the reference week. Economic reasons include slack work or unfavorable business
conditions, inability to find full-time work, and seasonal declines in demand. Those who
usually work part time must also indicate that they want and are available for full-time
work.

   Occupation, industry, and class of worker for the employed relate to the job held in
the survey reference week. Persons with two or more jobs are classified in the job at
which they worked the greatest number of hours. Persons are classified using the 2010
Census occupational and 2007 Census industry classification systems. The class-of-worker
breakdown assigns workers to the following categories: Private and government wage and
salary workers, self-employed workers, and unpaid family workers. Wage and salary workers
receive wages, salary, commissions, tips, or pay in kind from a private employer or from
a government unit. Self-employed persons are those who work for profit or fees in their
own business, profession, trade, or farm. Only the unincorporated self-employed are
included in the self-employed category. Self-employed persons who respond that their
businesses are incorporated are included among wage and salary workers.




Table 1. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population by disability status and selected characteristics, 2011 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in
labor
force
Total Participation
rate
Employed Unemployed
Total Percent of
population
Total Rate

TOTAL

Total, 16 years and over

239,618 153,617 64.1 139,869 58.4 13,747 8.9 86,001

Men

116,317 81,975 70.5 74,290 63.9 7,684 9.4 34,343

Women

123,300 71,642 58.1 65,579 53.2 6,063 8.5 51,658

PERSONS WITH A DISABILITY

Total, 16 years and over

27,382 5,722 20.9 4,861 17.8 861 15.0 21,659

Men

12,633 3,152 24.9 2,670 21.1 482 15.3 9,481

Women

14,749 2,571 17.4 2,192 14.9 379 14.7 12,178

Age

16 to 64 years

15,047 4,854 32.3 4,067 27.0 787 16.2 10,192

16 to 19 years

589 124 21.0 71 12.1 53 42.4 465

20 to 24 years

726 302 41.6 220 30.3 82 27.1 424

25 to 34 years

1,697 740 43.6 579 34.1 161 21.7 958

35 to 44 years

2,167 793 36.6 661 30.5 133 16.7 1,374

45 to 54 years

4,212 1,359 32.3 1,167 27.7 193 14.2 2,853

55 to 64 years

5,656 1,536 27.2 1,370 24.2 167 10.8 4,119

65 years and over

12,335 868 7.0 794 6.4 74 8.5 11,467

Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

White

22,386 4,779 21.3 4,122 18.4 657 13.7 17,607

Black or African American

3,494 604 17.3 462 13.2 142 23.5 2,889

Asian

657 134 20.5 120 18.2 15 11.0 523

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

2,527 517 20.5 412 16.3 105 20.3 2,010

Educational attainment

Total, 25 years and over

26,067 5,297 20.3 4,570 17.5 727 13.7 20,770

Less than a high school diploma

6,081 623 10.2 493 8.1 130 20.8 5,458

High school graduates, no college(1)

9,603 1,695 17.6 1,465 15.3 229 13.5 7,909

Some college or associate degree

6,312 1,656 26.2 1,408 22.3 248 15.0 4,656

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

4,070 1,323 32.5 1,203 29.6 120 9.1 2,747

PERSONS WITH NO DISABILITY

Total, 16 years and over

212,236 147,894 69.7 135,008 63.6 12,886 8.7 64,342

Men

103,684 78,823 76.0 71,621 69.1 7,202 9.1 24,861

Women

108,552 69,071 63.6 63,387 58.4 5,684 8.2 39,480

Age

16 to 64 years

184,842 141,650 76.6 129,155 69.9 12,495 8.8 43,192

16 to 19 years

16,186 5,603 34.6 4,255 26.3 1,347 24.0 10,583

20 to 24 years

20,697 14,968 72.3 12,816 61.9 2,153 14.4 5,729

25 to 34 years

39,666 32,985 83.2 29,958 75.5 3,027 9.2 6,681

35 to 44 years

37,332 31,866 85.4 29,610 79.3 2,256 7.1 5,465

45 to 54 years

39,630 34,000 85.8 31,700 80.0 2,300 6.8 5,630

55 to 64 years

31,332 22,228 70.9 20,816 66.4 1,412 6.4 9,103

65 years and over

27,394 6,244 22.8 5,853 21.4 391 6.3 21,150

Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

White

170,691 119,800 70.2 110,569 64.8 9,232 7.7 50,891

Black or African American

25,620 17,277 67.4 14,589 56.9 2,688 15.6 8,343

Asian

10,782 7,251 67.3 6,748 62.6 504 6.9 3,531

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

31,910 22,380 70.1 19,856 62.2 2,524 11.3 9,530

Educational attainment

Total, 25 years and over

175,353 127,323 72.6 117,937 67.3 9,386 7.4 48,030

Less than a high school diploma

19,041 10,976 57.6 9,474 49.8 1,502 13.7 8,065

High school graduates, no college(1)

52,329 35,649 68.1 32,358 61.8 3,292 9.2 16,679

Some college or associate degree

46,777 35,175 75.2 32,486 69.4 2,689 7.6 11,602

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

57,207 45,523 79.6 43,619 76.2 1,904 4.2 11,684

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.


Table 2. Employed full- and part-time workers by disability status and age, 2011 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Disability status and age Employed At work
part time for
economic
reasons(1)
Total Usually
work
full time
Usually
work
part time

TOTAL

16 years and over

139,869 112,556 27,313 8,560

16 to 64 years

133,222 108,671 24,551 8,302

65 years and over

6,647 3,885 2,762 258

Persons with a disability

16 years and over

4,861 3,259 1,602 370

16 to 64 years

4,067 2,887 1,180 335

65 years and over

794 372 422 35

Persons with no disability

16 years and over

135,008 109,297 25,711 8,191

16 to 64 years

129,155 105,784 23,371 7,967

65 years and over

5,853 3,513 2,340 224

Footnotes
(1) Refers to persons who, whether they usually work full or part time, worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand. Persons who usually work part time for an economic reason, but worked 35 hours or more during the reference week are excluded. Also excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire reference week.

NOTE: Full time refers to persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week; part time refers to persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.


Table 3. Employed persons by disability status, occupation, and sex, 2011 annual averages
[Percent distribution]
Occupation Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Total Men Women Total Men Women

Total employed (in thousands)

4,861 2,670 2,192 135,008 71,621 63,387

Occupation as a percent of total employed

Total employed

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

31.7 30.2 33.4 37.8 34.5 41.4

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

13.8 16.1 10.9 15.5 16.5 14.3

Management occupations

9.9 12.5 6.8 10.9 12.7 8.9

Business and financial operations occupations

3.9 3.7 4.1 4.6 3.8 5.4

Professional and related occupations

17.9 14.1 22.4 22.3 18.0 27.1

Computer and mathematical occupations

1.7 2.4 0.8 2.6 3.7 1.4

Architecture and engineering occupations

1.5 2.3 0.4 2.0 3.3 0.6

Life, physical, and social science occupations

0.9 0.7 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.9

Community and social service occupations

1.8 1.2 2.5 1.7 1.1 2.3

Legal occupations

1.3 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.3

Education, training, and library occupations

5.3 2.8 8.3 6.2 3.1 9.7

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

2.0 1.8 2.3 2.0 2.0 1.9

Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations

3.5 1.6 5.9 5.6 2.7 8.9

Service occupations

19.2 15.8 23.4 17.7 14.7 21.1

Healthcare support occupations

2.2 0.6 4.3 2.4 0.6 4.5

Protective service occupations

2.0 2.9 0.8 2.3 3.4 1.0

Food preparation and serving related occupations

4.8 3.6 6.2 5.6 4.8 6.4

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

5.9 6.8 4.7 3.9 4.4 3.2

Personal care and service occupations

4.4 1.9 7.4 3.5 1.4 5.9

Sales and office occupations

24.6 16.3 34.7 23.6 16.8 31.3

Sales and related occupations

10.8 9.6 12.2 11.0 10.4 11.6

Office and administrative support occupations

13.8 6.7 22.5 12.6 6.3 19.8

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

10.2 17.7 1.1 9.3 16.7 0.8

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

0.8 1.2 0.4 0.7 1.1 0.3

Construction and extraction occupations

5.2 9.3 0.3 5.1 9.4 0.2

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4.2 7.3 0.5 3.5 6.3 0.3

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

14.3 20.0 7.4 11.7 17.3 5.4

Production occupations

7.1 9.1 4.6 5.8 7.8 3.5

Transportation and material moving occupations

7.2 10.9 2.8 5.9 9.5 1.9

Table 4. Employed persons by disability status, industry, class of worker, and sex, 2011 annual averages
[Percent distribution]
Industry and class of worker Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Total Men Women Total Men Women

Total employed (in thousands)

4,861 2,670 2,192 135,008 71,621 63,387

Industry as a percent of total employed

Total employed

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Agriculture and related industries

3.3 4.8 1.5 1.6 2.2 0.8

Nonagricultural industries

96.7 95.2 98.5 98.4 97.8 99.2

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

0.7 1.2 0.2 0.6 1.0 0.2

Construction

6.0 10.0 1.3 6.5 11.1 1.3

Manufacturing

10.2 13.0 6.8 10.3 13.8 6.2

Wholesale trade

2.4 3.3 1.3 2.7 3.7 1.7

Retail trade

12.8 12.1 13.7 11.3 11.0 11.7

Transportation and utilities

5.3 7.2 2.9 5.1 7.5 2.5

Information

2.2 2.2 2.1 2.3 2.5 1.9

Financial activities

6.1 5.6 6.7 6.7 5.7 7.9

Professional and business services

10.6 11.4 9.6 11.3 12.6 9.9

Education and health services

21.9 11.5 34.6 22.8 11.0 36.2

Leisure and hospitality

8.0 7.3 8.9 9.1 8.5 9.8

Other services

5.6 5.5 5.7 4.8 4.3 5.3

Public administration

4.9 4.9 4.9 4.9 5.1 4.7

Class of worker as a percent of total employed

Total employed(1)

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Wage and salary workers(2)

88.1 85.8 90.9 93.4 92.2 94.6

Private industries

72.5 72.9 72.0 78.7 80.2 76.9

Government

15.6 13.0 18.9 14.7 12.0 17.7

Federal

2.9 3.2 2.6 2.5 2.7 2.3

State

5.3 3.7 7.3 4.5 3.5 5.6

Local

7.3 6.0 8.9 7.7 5.8 9.7

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

11.8 14.1 9.0 6.6 7.7 5.3

Footnotes
(1) Includes a small number of unpaid family workers, not shown separately.
(2) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.


Table 5. Persons not in the labor force by disability status, age, and sex, 2011 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total,
16 years and
over
16 to 64 years Total,
65 years and
over
Total Men Women

PERSONS WITH A DISABILITY

Total not in the labor force

21,659 10,192 4,887 5,305 11,467

Persons who currently want a job

662 477 238 240 184

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

235 198 106 92 37

Discouraged workers(2)

74 58 34 24 16

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

161 140 72 68 21

PERSONS WITH NO DISABILITY

Total not in the labor force

64,342 43,192 15,972 27,220 21,150

Persons who currently want a job

5,775 5,224 2,447 2,776 552

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

2,338 2,178 1,135 1,043 160

Discouraged workers(2)

915 840 494 346 75

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,423 1,338 641 697 85

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.


Last Modified Date: June 08, 2012
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