Economic News Release

Employer Costs for Employee Compensation News Release



Technical Contact:                                     USDL: 09-0634
     (202) 691-6199  NCSinfo@bls.gov
Media Contact:                                         FOR RELEASE:  10:00 AM EDT
     (202) 691-5902                                    WEDNESDAY, JUNE 10, 2009
Internet Address:
     http://www.bls.gov/ect

                           EMPLOYER COSTS FOR EMPLOYEE COMPENSATION-MARCH 2009

     Employer costs for employee compensation averaged $29.39 per hour worked in March 2009, the U.S. Department
of Labor’s Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today.  Wages and salaries, which averaged $20.49, accounted for
69.7 percent of these costs, while benefits, which averaged $8.90, accounted for the remaining 30.3 percent.
(See table 1.)  Employer Costs for Employee Compensation, based on the National Compensation Survey, measures
employer costs for wages, salaries, and employee benefits for nonfarm private and state and local government workers.

     Costs for legally required benefits, including Social Security, Medicare, unemployment insurance, and
workers’ compensation, averaged $2.28 per hour (7.8 percent of total compensation).  Employer costs for life,
health, and disability insurance benefits averaged $2.52 (8.6 percent); paid leave benefits (vacations, holidays,
sick leave, and personal leave) averaged $2.08 (7.1 percent); and retirement and savings benefits averaged
$1.31 (4.5 percent) per hour worked.

Private industry

     In March 2009, private industry employer compensation costs averaged $27.46 per hour worked.  Wages and salaries
averaged $19.45 per hour (70.8 percent), while benefits averaged $8.02 (29.2 percent).  Employer costs for paid leave
averaged $1.86 per hour worked (6.8 percent), supplemental pay averaged 78 cents (2.8 percent), insurance benefits
averaged $2.14 (7.8 percent), retirement and savings averaged 96 cents (3.5 percent), and legally required benefits
$2.27 (8.3 percent) per hour worked.  (See table 5.)

     Employer costs for health benefits varied by industry, occupation, bargaining status, region and establishment
size.  These differences reflect in part, the varying incidence of benefit coverage among these groups.  The National
Compensation Survey also produces comprehensive data on the percentage of workers with access to and that participate
in various employer provided benefit plans.  For more information, see the BLS internet site
http://www.bls.gov/ncs/ebs/home.htm.

Health benefit costs in private industry

     The average cost for health insurance benefits was $2.00 per hour worked in private industry (7.3 percent of
total compensation) in March 2009.  In March 1999, employer costs for health benefits averaged $1.03, or 5.4 percent
of total compensation.

     Among occupational groups, employer costs for health insurance benefits ranged from 91 cents per hour and
6.7 percent of total compensation for service workers, to $2.91 and 6.0 percent of total compensation for management,
professional, and related occupations.  Among other occupational categories, employer costs for health benefits
averaged $1.77 (8.3 percent) for sales and office occupations, lower than $2.44 (7.9 percent) for natural resources,
construction, and maintenance occupations, and $2.25 (9.7 percent) for production, transportation, and material
moving occupations.  (See table 5.)

     Employer costs for health insurance benefits were significantly higher for union workers, averaging $4.15 per
hour (11.4 percent), than for nonunion workers, averaging $1.75 (6.6 percent).  (See table 5.)

     In goods-producing industries, health insurance benefit costs were higher, $2.80 per hour (8.7 percent of total
compensation), than in service-providing industries, $1.82 per hour (6.9 percent of total compensation).  (See table 6.)

     Within goods-producing industries, health insurance costs were $3.03 per hour (9.5 percent of total compensation)
for manufacturing workers, greater than the cost for construction workers ($2.18 and 7.0 percent of compensation.)  In
service-providing industries, costs ranged from 61 cents in leisure and hospitality (5.1 percent), to $3.16 in the
information industry (7.8 percent).  (See table 6.)

     Among the four regions, costs for health insurance benefits ranged from $1.71 per hour in the South to $2.29 in
the Northeast.  Health care costs were $2.13 in the Midwest and $2.05 in the West.  The proportion of total compensation
represented by health benefits ranged from 6.9 percent in the West to 8.1 percent in the Midwest.  Within census
divisions, hourly health benefit costs ranged from $1.62 in the West South Central division to $2.30 in the Middle
Atlantic division.  (See table 7.)

     Health insurance benefit costs increased, both in average hourly dollar amount and as a proportion of total
compensation, with establishment size.  Establishments with fewer than 50 workers averaged $1.30 (6.0 percent), those
with 50-99 workers averaged $1.76 (7.1 percent), those with 100-499 employees averaged $2.22 (7.9 percent), and those
with 500 or more employees averaged $3.19 (8.2 percent).  (See table 8.)

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

                                                     Note

     The Employer Costs for Employee Compensation news release for June 2009 is scheduled for release on Thursday,
September 10, 2009, at 10:00 AM (EDT).

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


                              Table of Contents:

Table 1.    Civilian workers, by major occupational and industry group   5
Table 2.    Civilian workers, by occupational and industry group         7
Table 3.    State and local government workers, by major occupational
            and industry group                                           8
Table 4.    State and local government workers, by occupational and
            industry group                                               9
Table 5.    Private industry workers, by major occupational group and
            bargaining unit status                                      10
Table 6.    Private industry workers, by major industry group           12
Table 7.    Private industry workers, by census region and division     14
Table 8.    Private industry workers, by establishment employment size  17
Table 9.    Private industry workers, goods-producing and
            service-providing industries, by occupational group         18
Table 10.   Private industry workers, by industry group                 19
Table 11.   Private industry workers, by occupational group and
            full-time and part-time status                              20
Table 12.   Private industry workers, by industry group and full-time
            and part-time status                                        21
Table 13.   Private industry workers, by major industry group and
            establishment employment size and bargaining unit status    22
Table 14.   Private industry health care and social assistance workers,
            by industry and occupational group                          23
Technical Note                                                          24


     Note: Supplemental tables with occupational, establishment size, and bargaining status series for detailed
industries are available at http://www.bls.gov/ncs/ect/sp/ecsuptc10.pdf and http://www.bls.gov/ncs/ect/sp/ecsuptc10.txt.




Table 1.   Employer costs per hour worked for employee compensation and costs as a percent of total compensation: Civilian workers, by major occupational and industry group, March 2009


                                                                                             Occupational group                                                        Industry group


                                                                     Management,                                             Natural         Production,
                 Compensation                          All          professional,         Sales                             resources,     transportation,        Goods-           Service-
                   component                        workers(1)           and               and             Service        construction,          and           producing(2)      providing(3)
                                                                       related            office                               and             material
                                                                                                                           maintenance          moving


                                                  Cost    Percent   Cost    Percent   Cost    Percent   Cost    Percent   Cost    Percent   Cost    Percent   Cost    Percent   Cost    Percent


Total compensation.............................  $29.39    100.0   $48.66    100.0   $21.89    100.0   $15.98    100.0   $31.13    100.0   $23.52    100.0   $32.31    100.0   $28.84    100.0

  Wages and salaries...........................   20.49     69.7    34.15     70.2    15.48     70.7    11.35     71.0    21.06     67.6    15.68     66.7    21.61     66.9    20.28     70.3

  Total benefits...............................    8.90     30.3    14.51     29.8     6.41     29.3     4.63     29.0    10.07     32.4     7.84     33.3    10.70     33.1     8.56     29.7

    Paid leave.................................    2.08      7.1     4.01      8.2     1.45      6.6      .90      5.6     1.67      5.3     1.43      6.1     2.09      6.5     2.08      7.2
      Vacation.................................     .99      3.4     1.83      3.8      .71      3.2      .43      2.7      .88      2.8      .72      3.1     1.11      3.4      .97      3.3
      Holiday..................................     .68      2.3     1.28      2.6      .48      2.2      .29      1.8      .54      1.7      .50      2.1      .75      2.3      .66      2.3
      Sick.....................................     .33      1.1      .70      1.4      .21       .9      .15       .9      .18       .6      .16       .7      .19       .6      .35      1.2
      Personal.................................     .09       .3      .20       .4      .06       .3      .04       .2      .07       .2      .04       .2      .05       .2      .10       .4

    Supplemental pay...........................     .71      2.4     1.10      2.3      .46      2.1      .29      1.8      .97      3.1      .82      3.5     1.20      3.7      .62      2.1
      Overtime and premium(4)..................     .26       .9      .16       .3      .15       .7      .17      1.1      .66      2.1      .52      2.2      .57      1.8      .20       .7
      Shift differentials......................     .06       .2      .10       .2      .02       .1      .05       .3      .05       .2      .09       .4      .09       .3      .06       .2
      Nonproduction bonuses....................     .39      1.3      .83      1.7      .30      1.4      .07       .4      .26       .8      .21       .9      .54      1.7      .36      1.2

    Insurance..................................    2.52      8.6     3.72      7.7     2.06      9.4     1.38      8.6     2.74      8.8     2.48     10.6     3.01      9.3     2.43      8.4
      Life.....................................     .05       .2      .10       .2      .04       .2      .02       .1      .06       .2      .04       .2      .07       .2      .05       .2
      Health...................................    2.37      8.1     3.47      7.1     1.96      9.0     1.33      8.3     2.58      8.3     2.34      9.9     2.81      8.7     2.29      7.9
      Short-term disability....................     .05       .2      .07       .1      .03       .2      .02       .1      .07       .2      .06       .3      .08       .3      .04       .1
      Long-term disability.....................     .04       .1      .09       .2      .03       .1     (5)      (6)       .03       .1      .04       .2      .05       .1      .04       .2

    Retirement and savings.....................    1.31      4.5     2.49      5.1      .72      3.3      .61      3.8     1.59      5.1      .90      3.8     1.48      4.6     1.28      4.4
      Defined benefit..........................     .80      2.7     1.52      3.1      .33      1.5      .47      2.9     1.11      3.6      .53      2.2      .86      2.7      .79      2.7
      Defined contribution.....................     .51      1.7      .97      2.0      .39      1.8      .14       .9      .48      1.5      .37      1.6      .62      1.9      .49      1.7

    Legally required benefits..................    2.28      7.8     3.19      6.6     1.71      7.8     1.45      9.1     3.11     10.0     2.21      9.4     2.91      9.0     2.16      7.5
      Social Security and Medicare.............    1.67      5.7     2.66      5.5     1.29      5.9      .96      6.0     1.77      5.7     1.34      5.7     1.85      5.7     1.63      5.7
        Social Security(7).....................    1.33      4.5     2.10      4.3     1.04      4.8      .77      4.8     1.43      4.6     1.08      4.6     1.49      4.6     1.30      4.5
        Medicare...............................     .34      1.1      .56      1.2      .25      1.1      .19      1.2      .34      1.1      .26      1.1      .36      1.1      .33      1.2
      Federal unemployment insurance...........     .03       .1      .02     (6)       .03       .1      .03       .2      .03       .1      .03       .1      .03       .1      .03       .1
      State unemployment insurance.............     .14       .5      .13       .3      .13       .6      .11       .7      .18       .6      .17       .7      .20       .6      .12       .4
      Workers' compensation....................     .45      1.5      .38       .8      .25      1.2      .35      2.2     1.13      3.6      .68      2.9      .83      2.6      .38      1.3

  1 Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy excluding households and the public sector excluding the Federal government.
  2 Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing. The agriculture, forestry, farming, and hunting sector is excluded.
  3 Includes utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical
services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services;  health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation;
accommodation and food services; other services, except public administration; and public administration.
  4 Includes premium pay for work in addition to the regular work schedule (such as overtime, weekends, and holidays).
  5 Cost per hour worked is $0.01 or less.
  6 Less than .05 percent.
  7 Comprises the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program.




Table 2.   Employer costs per hour worked for employee compensation and costs as a percent of total compensation:
Civilian workers, by occupational and industry group, March 2009


                                                                                      Benefit costs

                                                  Total    Wages
                    Series                       compen-    and                      Supple-           Retire-  Legally
                                                 sation  salaries   Total    Paid    mental  Insurance  ment   required
                                                                             leave     pay               and   benefits
                                                                                                       savings



                                                                         Cost per hour worked




Civilian workers(1)............................  $29.39   $20.49    $8.90    $2.08    $0.71    $2.52    $1.31    $2.28

              Occupational group

      Management, professional, and related....   48.66    34.15    14.51     4.01     1.10     3.72     2.49     3.19
        Management, business, and financial....   54.65    37.91    16.74     5.03     1.81     3.78     2.56     3.56
        Professional and related...............   46.47    32.77    13.70     3.64      .84     3.71     2.46     3.05
          Teachers(2)..........................   52.35    37.13    15.23     3.42      .14     4.93     3.79     2.95
            Primary, secondary, and special
             education school teachers.........   50.13    35.78    14.35     2.38      .15     5.34     3.80     2.68
          Registered nurses....................   46.88    32.96    13.92     3.88     1.55     3.28     1.75     3.46
      Sales and office.........................   21.89    15.48     6.41     1.45      .46     2.06      .72     1.71
        Sales and related......................   20.05    15.00     5.05     1.07      .50     1.32      .47     1.68
        Office and administrative support......   22.98    15.77     7.21     1.67      .44     2.50      .87     1.73
      Service..................................   15.98    11.35     4.63      .90      .29     1.38      .61     1.45
      Natural resources, construction, and
       maintenance.............................   31.13    21.06    10.07     1.67      .97     2.74     1.59     3.11
        Construction, extraction, farming,
         fishing, and forestry(3)..............   31.33    21.02    10.31     1.26     1.01     2.69     1.88     3.47
        Installation, maintenance, and repair..   30.91    21.09     9.82     2.10      .93     2.79     1.27     2.72
      Production, transportation, and material
       moving..................................   23.52    15.68     7.84     1.43      .82     2.48      .90     2.21
        Production.............................   24.10    15.98     8.12     1.57      .96     2.64      .75     2.19
        Transportation and material moving.....   22.96    15.39     7.57     1.29      .68     2.33     1.04     2.23

                Industry group

      Education and health services............   34.34    23.98    10.35     2.58      .43     3.24     1.82     2.29
        Educational services...................   41.72    28.81    12.91     2.99      .15     4.42     2.95     2.40
          Elementary and secondary schools.....   41.14    28.54    12.61     2.24      .16     4.76     3.17     2.28
          Junior colleges, colleges, and
            universities.......................   45.22    30.61    14.61     4.97      .15     4.02     2.76     2.72
        Health care and social assistance......   28.88    20.42     8.46     2.28      .63     2.37      .99     2.20
          Hospitals............................   35.40    23.89    11.52     3.11     1.07     3.43     1.37     2.53

                                                                     Percent of total compensation




Civilian workers(1)............................   100.0     69.7     30.3      7.1      2.4      8.6      4.5      7.8

              Occupational group

      Management, professional, and related....   100.0     70.2     29.8      8.2      2.3      7.7      5.1      6.6
        Management, business, and financial....   100.0     69.4     30.6      9.2      3.3      6.9      4.7      6.5
        Professional and related...............   100.0     70.5     29.5      7.8      1.8      8.0      5.3      6.6
          Teachers(2)..........................   100.0     70.9     29.1      6.5       .3      9.4      7.2      5.6
            Primary, secondary, and special
             education school teachers.........   100.0     71.4     28.6      4.7       .3     10.7      7.6      5.3
          Registered nurses....................   100.0     70.3     29.7      8.3      3.3      7.0      3.7      7.4
      Sales and office.........................   100.0     70.7     29.3      6.6      2.1      9.4      3.3      7.8
        Sales and related......................   100.0     74.8     25.2      5.4      2.5      6.6      2.4      8.4
        Office and administrative support......   100.0     68.6     31.4      7.3      1.9     10.9      3.8      7.5
      Service..................................   100.0     71.0     29.0      5.6      1.8      8.6      3.8      9.1
      Natural resources, construction, and
       maintenance.............................   100.0     67.6     32.4      5.3      3.1      8.8      5.1     10.0
        Construction, extraction, farming,
         fishing, and forestry(3)..............   100.0     67.1     32.9      4.0      3.2      8.6      6.0     11.1
        Installation, maintenance, and repair..   100.0     68.2     31.8      6.8      3.0      9.0      4.1      8.8
      Production, transportation, and material
       moving..................................   100.0     66.7     33.3      6.1      3.5     10.6      3.8      9.4
        Production.............................   100.0     66.3     33.7      6.5      4.0     11.0      3.1      9.1
        Transportation and material moving.....   100.0     67.0     33.0      5.6      3.0     10.2      4.5      9.7

                Industry group

      Education and health services............   100.0     69.8     30.2      7.5      1.2      9.4      5.3      6.7
        Educational services...................   100.0     69.0     31.0      7.2       .4     10.6      7.1      5.8
          Elementary and secondary schools.....   100.0     69.4     30.6      5.5       .4     11.6      7.7      5.5
          Junior colleges, colleges, and
            universities.......................   100.0     67.7     32.3     11.0       .3      8.9      6.1      6.0
        Health care and social assistance......   100.0     70.7     29.3      7.9      2.2      8.2      3.4      7.6
          Hospitals............................   100.0     67.5     32.5      8.8      3.0      9.7      3.9      7.2

  1 Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy excluding households and the public sector excluding the Federal
government.
  2 Includes postsecondary teachers; primary, secondary, and special education teachers; and other teachers and
instructors.
  3 Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations were combined with construction and extraction occupational group as of
December 2006.




Table 3.   Employer costs per hour worked for employee compensation and costs as a percent of total compensation: State and local
government workers, by major occupational and industry group, March 2009


                                                                         Occupational group(1)                            Industry group


                                                                     Management,          Sales
                 Compensation                          All          professional,          and             Service      Service-providing
                   component                         workers             and              office                                (2)
                                                                       related


                                                  Cost    Percent   Cost    Percent   Cost    Percent   Cost    Percent   Cost    Percent


Total compensation.............................  $39.51    100.0   $48.32    100.0   $26.94    100.0   $28.86    100.0   $39.56    100.0

  Wages and salaries...........................   25.97     65.7    32.83     67.9    16.63     61.7    17.49     60.6    26.02     65.8

  Total benefits...............................   13.53     34.3    15.49     32.1    10.32     38.3    11.37     39.4    13.54     34.2

    Paid leave.................................    3.24      8.2     3.81      7.9     2.43      9.0     2.58      8.9     3.24      8.2
      Vacation.................................    1.14      2.9     1.15      2.4     1.09      4.0     1.11      3.9     1.13      2.9
      Holiday..................................    1.06      2.7     1.26      2.6      .77      2.9      .84      2.9     1.06      2.7
      Sick.....................................     .81      2.1     1.07      2.2      .47      1.8      .51      1.8      .82      2.1
      Personal.................................     .23       .6      .32       .7      .10       .4      .12       .4      .23       .6

    Supplemental pay...........................     .34       .9      .26       .5      .20       .7      .56      1.9      .34       .9
      Overtime and premium(3)..................     .17       .4      .08       .2      .11       .4      .36      1.2      .17       .4
      Shift differentials......................     .04       .1      .03       .1      .02       .1      .09       .3      .04       .1
      Nonproduction bonuses....................     .13       .3      .15       .3      .07       .3      .11       .4      .13       .3

    Insurance..................................    4.48     11.3     4.96     10.3     4.06     15.1     3.63     12.6     4.48     11.3
      Life.....................................     .09       .2      .12       .3      .05       .2      .05       .2      .09       .2
      Health...................................    4.31     10.9     4.74      9.8     3.95     14.7     3.53     12.2     4.31     10.9
      Short-term disability....................     .03       .1      .03       .1      .02       .1      .02       .1      .03       .1
      Long-term disability.....................     .05       .1      .07       .1      .04       .1      .03       .1      .05       .1

    Retirement and savings.....................    3.14      8.0     3.77      7.8     1.94      7.2     2.73      9.5     3.15      8.0
      Defined benefit..........................    2.83      7.2     3.38      7.0     1.71      6.3     2.50      8.7     2.83      7.2
      Defined contribution.....................     .32       .8      .39       .8      .23       .9      .23       .8      .32       .8

    Legally required benefits..................    2.33      5.9     2.70      5.6     1.69      6.3     1.87      6.5     2.33      5.9
      Social Security and Medicare.............    1.83      4.6     2.24      4.6     1.31      4.9     1.27      4.4     1.83      4.6
        Social Security(4).....................    1.41      3.6     1.72      3.6     1.03      3.8      .98      3.4     1.41      3.6
        Medicare...............................     .42      1.1      .52      1.1      .27      1.0      .29      1.0      .42      1.1
      Federal unemployment insurance...........    (5)      (6)      (5)      (6)      (5)      (6)      (5)      (6)      (5)      (6)
      State unemployment insurance.............     .06       .2      .06       .1      .06       .2      .07       .2      .06       .2
      Workers' compensation....................     .44      1.1      .40       .8      .32      1.2      .53      1.8      .44      1.1

  1 This table presents data for the three major occupational groups in State and local government: management, professional, and related
occupations, including teachers; sales and office occupations, including clerical workers; and service occupations, including police and
firefighters.
  2 Service-providing industries, which include health and educational services, employ a large part of the State and local government
workforce.
  3 Includes premium pay for work in addition to the regular work schedule (such as overtime, weekends, and holidays).
  4 Comprises the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program.
  5 Cost per hour worked is $0.01 or less.
  6 Less than .05 percent.




Table 4.   Employer costs per hour worked for employee compensation and costs as a percent of total compensation: State
and local government workers, by occupational and industry group, March 2009


                                                                                      Benefit costs

                                                  Total    Wages
                    Series                       compen-    and                      Supple-           Retire-  Legally
                                                 sation  salaries   Total    Paid    mental  Insurance  ment   required
                                                                             leave     pay               and   benefits
                                                                                                       savings



                                                                         Cost per hour worked




State and local government workers.............  $39.51   $25.97   $13.53    $3.24    $0.34    $4.48    $3.14    $2.33

              Occupational group

      Management, professional, and related....   48.32    32.83    15.49     3.81      .26     4.96     3.77     2.70
        Professional and related...............   47.62    32.45    15.17     3.59      .24     4.96     3.76     2.62
          Teachers(1)..........................   54.37    37.89    16.48     3.69      .14     5.47     4.32     2.86
            Primary, secondary, and special
             education school teachers.........   52.41    37.13    15.29     2.47      .15     5.77     4.21     2.68
      Sales and office.........................   26.94    16.63    10.32     2.43      .20     4.06     1.94     1.69
        Office and administrative support......   27.13    16.70    10.44     2.46      .20     4.12     1.97     1.69
      Service..................................   28.86    17.49    11.37     2.58      .56     3.63     2.73     1.87

                Industry group

      Education and health services............   41.88    28.33    13.55     3.14      .21     4.68     3.19     2.32
        Educational services...................   42.28    28.77    13.50     3.05      .15     4.76     3.24     2.30
          Elementary and secondary schools.....   41.60    28.66    12.94     2.26      .15     4.95     3.34     2.24
          Junior colleges, colleges, and
            universities.......................   44.83    29.34    15.48     5.69      .14     4.16     2.97     2.53
        Health care and social assistance......   39.16    25.31    13.85     3.81      .60     4.13     2.84     2.47
          Hospitals............................   35.64    22.88    12.77     3.40      .73     4.30     2.02     2.31
      Public administration....................   36.71    22.69    14.01     3.52      .57     4.25     3.31     2.37

                                                                     Percent of total compensation




State and local government workers.............   100.0     65.7     34.3      8.2      0.9     11.3      8.0      5.9

              Occupational group

      Management, professional, and related....   100.0     67.9     32.1      7.9       .5     10.3      7.8      5.6
        Professional and related...............   100.0     68.2     31.8      7.5       .5     10.4      7.9      5.5
          Teachers(1)..........................   100.0     69.7     30.3      6.8       .3     10.1      7.9      5.3
            Primary, secondary, and special
             education school teachers.........   100.0     70.8     29.2      4.7       .3     11.0      8.0      5.1
      Sales and office.........................   100.0     61.7     38.3      9.0       .7     15.1      7.2      6.3
        Office and administrative support......   100.0     61.5     38.5      9.1       .7     15.2      7.2      6.2
      Service..................................   100.0     60.6     39.4      8.9      1.9     12.6      9.5      6.5

                Industry group

      Education and health services............   100.0     67.7     32.3      7.5       .5     11.2      7.6      5.6
        Educational services...................   100.0     68.1     31.9      7.2       .4     11.3      7.7      5.4
          Elementary and secondary schools.....   100.0     68.9     31.1      5.4       .4     11.9      8.0      5.4
          Junior colleges, colleges, and
            universities.......................   100.0     65.5     34.5     12.7       .3      9.3      6.6      5.6
        Health care and social assistance......   100.0     64.6     35.4      9.7      1.5     10.5      7.2      6.3
          Hospitals............................   100.0     64.2     35.8      9.5      2.1     12.1      5.7      6.5
      Public administration....................   100.0     61.8     38.2      9.6      1.5     11.6      9.0      6.5

  1 Includes postsecondary teachers; primary, secondary, and special education teachers; and other teachers and
instructors.




Table 5.   Employer costs per hour worked for employee compensation and costs as a percent of total compensation: Private industry workers, by major occupational group and bargaining unit status, March 2009


                                                                                                   Occupational group                                                            Bargaining unit status


                                                                        Management,                                                   Natural           Production,
                 Compensation                           All            professional,           Sales                                 resources,       transportation,
                   component                          workers               and                 and               Service          construction,            and                Union              Nonunion
                                                                          related              office                                   and               material
                                                                                                                                    maintenance            moving


                                                   Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent


Total compensation.............................   $27.46    100.0     $48.82    100.0     $21.40    100.0     $13.53    100.0     $30.97    100.0     $23.28    100.0     $36.59    100.0     $26.39    100.0

  Wages and salaries...........................    19.45     70.8      34.73     71.1      15.37     71.8      10.18     75.3      21.13     68.2      15.59     67.0      22.76     62.2      19.06     72.2

  Total benefits...............................     8.02     29.2      14.08     28.9       6.03     28.2       3.35     24.7       9.84     31.8       7.69     33.0      13.82     37.8       7.33     27.8

    Paid leave.................................     1.86      6.8       4.10      8.4       1.35      6.3        .58      4.3       1.53      5.0       1.39      6.0       2.70      7.4       1.77      6.7
      Vacation.................................      .96      3.5       2.13      4.4        .67      3.1        .30      2.2        .82      2.7        .72      3.1       1.39      3.8        .91      3.4
      Holiday..................................      .60      2.2       1.29      2.6        .45      2.1        .18      1.3        .50      1.6        .49      2.1        .80      2.2        .58      2.2
      Sick.....................................      .23       .8        .53      1.1        .18       .8        .08       .6        .15       .5        .15       .6        .37      1.0        .22       .8
      Personal.................................      .07       .2        .15       .3        .05       .3        .02       .1        .07       .2        .04       .2        .14       .4        .06       .2

    Supplemental pay...........................      .78      2.8       1.47      3.0        .49      2.3        .24      1.8       1.01      3.3        .83      3.6       1.14      3.1        .73      2.8
      Overtime and premium(1)..................      .27      1.0        .20       .4        .15       .7        .14      1.0        .68      2.2        .53      2.3        .76      2.1        .22       .8
      Shift differentials......................      .07       .2        .14       .3        .02       .1        .04       .3        .05       .1        .09       .4        .17       .5        .06       .2
      Nonproduction bonuses....................      .44      1.6       1.13      2.3        .32      1.5        .06       .5        .28       .9        .21       .9        .22       .6        .46      1.7

    Insurance..................................     2.14      7.8       3.18      6.5       1.87      8.7        .95      7.0       2.60      8.4       2.40     10.3       4.43     12.1       1.88      7.1
      Life.....................................      .05       .2        .09       .2        .03       .2      (2)       (3)         .06       .2        .04       .2        .08       .2        .04       .2
      Health...................................     2.00      7.3       2.91      6.0       1.77      8.3        .91      6.7       2.44      7.9       2.25      9.7       4.15     11.4       1.75      6.6
      Short-term disability....................      .05       .2        .09       .2        .04       .2      (2)       (3)         .07       .2        .06       .3        .12       .3        .04       .2
      Long-term disability.....................      .04       .2        .09       .2        .03       .1      (2)       (3)         .03       .1        .04       .2        .08       .2        .04       .1

    Retirement and savings.....................      .96      3.5       1.92      3.9        .60      2.8        .21      1.5       1.50      4.9        .85      3.6       2.42      6.6        .79      3.0
      Defined benefit..........................      .41      1.5        .70      1.4        .20       .9        .08       .6       1.00      3.2        .47      2.0       1.73      4.7        .26      1.0
      Defined contribution.....................      .55      2.0       1.23      2.5        .41      1.9        .13       .9        .51      1.6        .38      1.6        .69      1.9        .53      2.0

    Legally required benefits..................     2.27      8.3       3.40      7.0       1.71      8.0       1.37     10.1       3.19     10.3       2.22      9.5       3.13      8.6       2.17      8.2
      Social Security and Medicare.............     1.63      6.0       2.85      5.8       1.29      6.0        .90      6.6       1.79      5.8       1.34      5.8       1.99      5.5       1.59      6.0
        Social Security(4).....................     1.31      4.8       2.27      4.7       1.04      4.9        .73      5.4       1.45      4.7       1.08      4.6       1.61      4.4       1.28      4.8
        Medicare...............................      .32      1.2        .58      1.2        .25      1.2        .17      1.3        .34      1.1        .26      1.1        .39      1.1        .31      1.2
      Federal unemployment insurance...........      .03       .1        .03       .1        .03       .2        .04       .3        .03       .1        .03       .1        .03       .1        .03       .1
      State unemployment insurance.............      .15       .5        .16       .3        .14       .6        .12       .9        .19       .6        .17       .7        .22       .6        .14       .5
      Workers' compensation....................      .45      1.6        .37       .7        .25      1.2        .32      2.3       1.18      3.8        .68      2.9        .89      2.4        .40      1.5

  1 Includes premium pay for work in addition to the regular work schedule (such as overtime, weekends, and holidays).
  2 Cost per hour worked is $0.01 or less.
  3 Less than .05 percent.
  4 Comprises the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program.




Table 6.   Employer costs per hour worked for employee compensation and costs as a percent of total compensation: Private industry workers, by major industry group, March 2009


                                                                     Goods-producing(1)                                                                                           Service-providing(2)


                                                                                                                    All                Trade,                                                   Professional         Education            Leisure
                 Compensation                        All goods-         Construction       Manufacturing          service-        transportation,       Information          Financial              and                 and                 and            Other services
                   component                        producing(1)                                                providing(3)            and                                  activities           business             health           hospitality
                                                                                                                                     utilities                                                    services            services


                                                   Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent


Total compensation.............................   $32.29    100.0     $31.29    100.0     $32.03    100.0     $26.37    100.0     $23.00    100.0     $40.74    100.0     $36.20    100.0     $33.29    100.0     $29.45    100.0     $11.97    100.0     $24.33    100.0

  Wages and salaries...........................    21.62     66.9      21.68     69.3      21.20     66.2      18.96     71.9      16.33     71.0      27.88     68.4      24.56     67.8      24.39     73.2      21.17     71.9       9.44     78.8      18.02     74.0

  Total benefits...............................    10.67     33.1       9.61     30.7      10.83     33.8       7.41     28.1       6.67     29.0      12.86     31.6      11.64     32.2       8.91     26.8       8.28     28.1       2.53     21.2       6.32     26.0

    Paid leave.................................     2.08      6.4       1.13      3.6       2.45      7.7       1.82      6.9       1.40      6.1       3.78      9.3       3.01      8.3       2.34      7.0       2.21      7.5        .39      3.2       1.51      6.2
      Vacation.................................     1.10      3.4        .63      2.0       1.28      4.0        .93      3.5        .73      3.2       1.92      4.7       1.56      4.3       1.19      3.6       1.11      3.8        .22      1.8        .72      3.0
      Holiday..................................      .75      2.3        .40      1.3        .89      2.8        .57      2.2        .44      1.9       1.01      2.5        .93      2.6        .80      2.4        .67      2.3        .12      1.0        .56      2.3
      Sick.....................................      .18       .6        .08       .3        .23       .7        .24       .9        .19       .8        .49      1.2        .40      1.1        .29       .9        .33      1.1        .04       .3        .19       .8
      Personal.................................      .05       .1        .03       .1        .06       .2        .07       .3        .05       .2        .35       .8        .13       .3        .06       .2        .10       .3        .02       .1        .04       .2

    Supplemental pay...........................     1.21      3.7       1.07      3.4       1.20      3.8        .68      2.6        .55      2.4       1.08      2.7       1.84      5.1        .90      2.7        .57      1.9        .14      1.1        .48      2.0
      Overtime and premium(4)..................      .57      1.8        .61      2.0        .53      1.7        .21       .8        .27      1.2        .35       .9        .15       .4        .21       .6        .22       .8        .07       .6        .14       .6
      Shift differentials......................      .09       .3      (5)       (6)         .13       .4        .06       .2        .02       .1        .06       .1      (5)       (6)         .04       .1        .20       .7      (5)       (6)       (5)       (6)
      Nonproduction bonuses....................      .54      1.7        .45      1.4        .54      1.7        .41      1.6        .25      1.1        .67      1.6       1.68      4.6        .66      2.0        .15       .5        .06       .5        .33      1.3

    Insurance..................................     3.00      9.3       2.30      7.4       3.26     10.2       1.95      7.4       1.90      8.3       3.47      8.5       2.89      8.0       2.06      6.2       2.31      7.8        .64      5.3       1.57      6.5
      Life.....................................      .07       .2        .06       .2        .07       .2        .04       .2        .03       .2        .05       .1        .07       .2        .06       .2        .04       .1      (5)       (6)         .07       .3
      Health...................................     2.80      8.7       2.18      7.0       3.03      9.5       1.82      6.9       1.80      7.8       3.16      7.8       2.68      7.4       1.89      5.7       2.17      7.4        .61      5.1       1.45      5.9
      Short-term disability....................      .09       .3        .04       .1        .10       .3        .04       .2        .03       .1        .17       .4        .08       .2        .06       .2        .04       .1      (5)       (6)         .03       .1
      Long-term disability.....................      .04       .1        .02       .1        .05       .2        .04       .2        .03       .1        .08       .2        .06       .2        .05       .2        .06       .2      (5)       (6)         .03       .1

    Retirement and savings.....................     1.47      4.6       1.61      5.1       1.30      4.1        .84      3.2        .79      3.4       1.67      4.1       1.49      4.1       1.04      3.1        .93      3.2        .11       .9        .66      2.7
      Defined benefit..........................      .85      2.6       1.07      3.4        .67      2.1        .32      1.2        .35      1.5        .87      2.1        .55      1.5        .37      1.1        .27       .9        .02       .2        .22       .9
      Defined contribution.....................      .63      1.9        .54      1.7        .63      2.0        .53      2.0        .44      1.9        .79      1.9        .94      2.6        .67      2.0        .66      2.2        .09       .7        .44      1.8

    Legally required benefits..................     2.91      9.0       3.50     11.2       2.62      8.2       2.12      8.0       2.03      8.8       2.86      7.0       2.40      6.6       2.56      7.7       2.26      7.7       1.26     10.6       2.09      8.6
      Social Security and Medicare.............     1.85      5.7       1.80      5.8       1.84      5.7       1.59      6.0       1.36      5.9       2.39      5.9       2.04      5.6       2.00      6.0       1.77      6.0        .86      7.2       1.50      6.2
        Social Security(7).....................     1.49      4.6       1.46      4.7       1.48      4.6       1.27      4.8       1.10      4.8       1.91      4.7       1.61      4.5       1.60      4.8       1.42      4.8        .69      5.8       1.21      5.0
        Medicare...............................      .36      1.1        .34      1.1        .36      1.1        .31      1.2        .26      1.1        .47      1.2        .42      1.2        .40      1.2        .35      1.2        .16      1.4        .29      1.2
      Federal unemployment insurance...........      .03       .1        .03       .1        .03       .1        .03       .1        .04       .2        .03       .1        .03       .1        .03       .1        .03       .1        .04       .3        .03       .1
      State unemployment insurance.............      .20       .6        .25       .8        .18       .6        .14       .5        .14       .6        .17       .4        .14       .4        .16       .5        .12       .4        .12      1.0        .13       .5
      Workers' compensation....................      .83      2.6       1.42      4.5        .57      1.8        .36      1.4        .49      2.1        .28       .7        .19       .5        .36      1.1        .35      1.2        .25      2.1        .44      1.8

  1 Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing. The agriculture, forestry, farming, and hunting sector is excluded.
  2 Includes utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste
services; educational services;  health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; other services, except public administration; and public administration.
  3 Includes utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste
services; educational services;  health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.
  4 Includes premium pay for work in addition to the regular work schedule (such as overtime, weekends, and holidays).
  5 Cost per hour worked is $0.01 or less.
  6 Less than .05 percent.
  7 Comprises the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program.




Table 7.   Employer costs per hour worked for employee compensation and costs as a percent of total compensation: Private industry workers, by census region and division, March 2009


                                                                                                                                                                   Census region and division(1)


                                                     Northeast                Northeast divisions                  South                              South divisions                             Midwest                  Midwest divisions                    West                     West divisions
                 Compensation
                   component
                                                                        New England       Middle Atlantic                          South Atlantic    East South Central  West South Central                      East North Central  West North Central                           Mountain            Pacific
                                                   Cost    Percent                                             Cost    Percent                                                                 Cost    Percent                                             Cost    Percent

                                                                       Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent                         Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent                         Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent                         Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent


Total compensation.............................   $31.73    100.0     $32.02    100.0     $31.62    100.0     $24.45    100.0     $25.47    100.0     $20.87    100.0     $24.67    100.0     $26.44    100.0     $26.92    100.0     $25.39    100.0     $29.53    100.0     $26.21    100.0     $30.94    100.0

  Wages and salaries...........................    22.08     69.6      22.54     70.4      21.91     69.3      17.59     71.9      18.31     71.9      14.89     71.4      17.82     72.3      18.57     70.3      18.83     70.0      18.02     71.0      21.00     71.1      19.01     72.5      21.85     70.6

  Total benefits...............................     9.65     30.4       9.48     29.6       9.72     30.7       6.86     28.1       7.16     28.1       5.98     28.6       6.84     27.7       7.86     29.7       8.09     30.0       7.37     29.0       8.53     28.9       7.20     27.5       9.09     29.4

    Paid leave.................................     2.40      7.6       2.45      7.6       2.38      7.5       1.58      6.5       1.68      6.6       1.27      6.1       1.60      6.5       1.76      6.6       1.80      6.7       1.66      6.6       1.95      6.6       1.60      6.1       2.10      6.8
      Vacation.................................     1.20      3.8       1.24      3.9       1.18      3.7        .82      3.3        .86      3.4        .68      3.3        .82      3.3        .93      3.5        .93      3.4        .92      3.6       1.01      3.4        .84      3.2       1.08      3.5
      Holiday..................................      .76      2.4        .81      2.5        .75      2.4        .52      2.1        .54      2.1        .40      1.9        .53      2.2        .57      2.2        .60      2.2        .51      2.0        .63      2.1        .53      2.0        .68      2.2
      Sick.....................................      .32      1.0        .30       .9        .34      1.1        .19       .8        .21       .8        .13       .6        .19       .8        .19       .7        .20       .7        .19       .7        .26       .9        .19       .7        .29       .9
      Personal.................................      .11       .4        .10       .3        .12       .4        .06       .2        .06       .2        .05       .2        .05       .2        .07       .2        .08       .3        .04       .2        .05       .2        .04       .2        .05       .2

    Supplemental pay...........................     1.03      3.2        .88      2.8       1.08      3.4        .66      2.7        .66      2.6        .50      2.4        .73      3.0        .71      2.7        .75      2.8        .62      2.5        .82      2.8        .77      2.9        .84      2.7
      Overtime and premium(2)..................      .29       .9        .28       .9        .29       .9        .26      1.1        .26      1.0        .22      1.1        .28      1.1        .29      1.1        .30      1.1        .26      1.0        .27       .9        .22       .8        .30      1.0
      Shift differentials......................      .07       .2        .06       .2        .07       .2        .06       .3        .07       .3        .07       .4        .05       .2        .08       .3        .09       .3        .07       .3        .06       .2        .05       .2        .06       .2
      Nonproduction bonuses....................      .67      2.1        .54      1.7        .72      2.3        .34      1.4        .34      1.3        .21      1.0        .40      1.6        .34      1.3        .37      1.4        .30      1.2        .49      1.7        .50      1.9        .48      1.6

    Insurance..................................     2.46      7.7       2.42      7.6       2.47      7.8       1.85      7.6       1.90      7.5       1.85      8.9       1.75      7.1       2.28      8.6       2.35      8.7       2.13      8.4       2.17      7.4       1.86      7.1       2.30      7.4
      Life.....................................      .05       .2        .05       .2        .05       .2        .05       .2        .05       .2        .05       .2        .05       .2        .05       .2        .05       .2        .05       .2        .04       .1        .04       .2        .04       .1
      Health...................................     2.29      7.2       2.27      7.1       2.30      7.3       1.71      7.0       1.77      6.9       1.72      8.2       1.62      6.6       2.13      8.1       2.20      8.2       1.99      7.8       2.05      6.9       1.74      6.6       2.18      7.0
      Short-term disability....................      .07       .2        .05       .2        .08       .3        .04       .2        .05       .2        .05       .2        .04       .2        .06       .2        .06       .2        .04       .2        .04       .1        .03       .1        .04       .1
      Long-term disability.....................      .04       .1        .04       .1        .04       .1        .04       .2        .04       .2        .03       .2        .04       .2        .05       .2        .04       .2        .05       .2        .04       .1        .04       .2        .04       .1

    Retirement and savings.....................     1.19      3.7       1.16      3.6       1.20      3.8        .81      3.3        .87      3.4        .56      2.7        .84      3.4        .94      3.6        .96      3.6        .90      3.5       1.02      3.4        .79      3.0       1.11      3.6
      Defined benefit..........................      .51      1.6        .48      1.5        .52      1.6        .32      1.3        .34      1.3        .20      1.0        .37      1.5        .42      1.6        .45      1.7        .35      1.4        .46      1.6        .26      1.0        .54      1.8
      Defined contribution.....................      .68      2.1        .68      2.1        .68      2.1        .49      2.0        .53      2.1        .36      1.7        .47      1.9        .52      2.0        .51      1.9        .55      2.2        .56      1.9        .53      2.0        .57      1.8

    Legally required benefits..................     2.58      8.1       2.56      8.0       2.58      8.2       1.96      8.0       2.05      8.0       1.79      8.6       1.92      7.8       2.17      8.2       2.23      8.3       2.06      8.1       2.57      8.7       2.19      8.4       2.73      8.8
      Social Security and Medicare.............     1.86      5.9       1.91      6.0       1.84      5.8       1.48      6.1       1.54      6.0       1.32      6.3       1.47      6.0       1.56      5.9       1.60      5.9       1.49      5.9       1.76      5.9       1.58      6.0       1.83      5.9
        Social Security(3).....................     1.49      4.7       1.54      4.8       1.47      4.7       1.19      4.9       1.24      4.9       1.07      5.1       1.18      4.8       1.26      4.8       1.29      4.8       1.20      4.7       1.41      4.8       1.27      4.8       1.47      4.7
        Medicare...............................      .37      1.2        .38      1.2        .37      1.2        .29      1.2        .30      1.2        .25      1.2        .29      1.2        .31      1.2        .31      1.2        .29      1.2        .35      1.2        .31      1.2        .36      1.2
      Federal unemployment insurance...........      .03       .1        .03       .1        .03       .1        .03       .1        .03       .1        .03       .2        .03       .1        .03       .1        .03       .1        .03       .1        .03       .1        .03       .1        .03       .1
      State unemployment insurance.............      .22       .7        .23       .7        .22       .7        .08       .3        .09       .3        .08       .4        .08       .3        .16       .6        .17       .6        .14       .5        .17       .6        .12       .5        .19       .6
      Workers' compensation....................      .46      1.5        .39      1.2        .49      1.5        .37      1.5        .39      1.5        .35      1.7        .34      1.4        .42      1.6        .43      1.6        .40      1.6        .61      2.1        .46      1.7        .68      2.2

  1 The States that comprise the census divisions are: New England: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont; Middle Atlantic: New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania; South Atlantic: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South
Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; East South Central: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee; West South Central: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas; East North Central: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin; West North Central: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska,
North Dakota, and South Dakota; Mountain: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming; and Pacific: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington.
  2 Includes premium pay for work in addition to the regular work schedule (such as overtime, weekends, and holidays).
  3 Comprises the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program.




Table 8.   Employer costs per hour worked for employee compensation and costs as a percent of total compensation: Private industry workers, by establishment employment
size, March 2009


                                                                        1-99 workers                                            100 workers or more

                 Compensation
                   component                        1-99 workers        1-49 workers       50-99 workers    100 workers or more   100-499 workers   500 workers or more


                                                   Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent     Cost    Percent


Total compensation.............................   $22.56    100.0     $21.78    100.0     $24.87    100.0     $32.83    100.0     $28.19    100.0     $38.71    100.0

  Wages and salaries...........................    16.69     74.0      16.29     74.8      17.89     71.9      22.46     68.4      19.74     70.0      25.92     67.0

  Total benefits...............................     5.87     26.0       5.49     25.2       6.98     28.1      10.36     31.6       8.45     30.0      12.79     33.0

    Paid leave.................................     1.23      5.5       1.15      5.3       1.46      5.9       2.56      7.8       1.93      6.9       3.35      8.7
      Vacation.................................      .62      2.8        .58      2.7        .73      2.9       1.33      4.1        .99      3.5       1.76      4.6
      Holiday..................................      .43      1.9        .40      1.8        .49      2.0        .80      2.4        .63      2.2       1.01      2.6
      Sick.....................................      .14       .6        .13       .6        .18       .7        .33      1.0        .24       .8        .45      1.2
      Personal.................................      .04       .2        .03       .2        .06       .2        .10       .3        .07       .2        .14       .4

    Supplemental pay...........................      .55      2.4        .51      2.3        .69      2.8       1.02      3.1        .81      2.9       1.29      3.3
      Overtime and premium(1)..................      .20       .9        .18       .8        .27      1.1        .35      1.1        .33      1.2        .38      1.0
      Shift differentials......................      .02       .1      (2)       (3)         .03       .1        .12       .4        .07       .3        .18       .5
      Nonproduction bonuses....................      .33      1.5        .31      1.4        .39      1.6        .55      1.7        .42      1.5        .72      1.9

    Insurance..................................     1.50      6.7       1.37      6.3       1.88      7.5       2.85      8.7       2.38      8.4       3.45      8.9
      Life.....................................      .03       .1        .03       .1        .04       .2        .06       .2        .05       .2        .07       .2
      Health...................................     1.41      6.3       1.30      6.0       1.76      7.1       2.65      8.1       2.22      7.9       3.19      8.2
      Short-term disability....................      .03       .1        .02       .1        .04       .2        .08       .2        .06       .2        .10       .3
      Long-term disability.....................      .02       .1        .02       .1        .03       .1        .06       .2        .04       .2        .09       .2

    Retirement and savings.....................      .56      2.5        .49      2.2        .76      3.1       1.40      4.3       1.01      3.6       1.91      4.9
      Defined benefit..........................      .21       .9        .17       .8        .32      1.3        .64      2.0        .43      1.5        .90      2.3
      Defined contribution.....................      .35      1.6        .32      1.5        .44      1.8        .76      2.3        .57      2.0       1.00      2.6

    Legally required benefits..................     2.03      9.0       1.97      9.1       2.19      8.8       2.53      7.7       2.32      8.2       2.79      7.2
      Social Security and Medicare.............     1.39      6.2       1.35      6.2       1.50      6.0       1.90      5.8       1.64      5.8       2.24      5.8
        Social Security(4).....................     1.12      5.0       1.09      5.0       1.21      4.9       1.53      4.6       1.32      4.7       1.79      4.6
        Medicare...............................      .27      1.2        .26      1.2        .29      1.2        .38      1.2        .33      1.2        .45      1.2
      Federal unemployment insurance...........      .04       .2        .04       .2        .03       .1        .03       .1        .03       .1        .03       .1
      State unemployment insurance.............      .15       .7        .15       .7        .15       .6        .15       .5        .16       .6        .14       .4
      Workers' compensation....................      .45      2.0        .44      2.0        .50      2.0        .45      1.4        .49      1.7        .39      1.0

  1 Includes premium pay for work in addition to the regular work schedule (such as overtime, weekends, and holidays).
  2 Cost per hour worked is $0.01 or less.
  3 Less than .05 percent.
  4 Comprises the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program.




Table 9.   Employer costs per hour worked for employee compensation and costs as a percent of total compensation: Private
industry workers, goods-producing and service-providing industries, by occupational group, March 2009


                                                                                            Benefit costs

                                                        Total    Wages
                       Series                          compen-    and                      Supple-           Retire-  Legally
                                                       sation  salaries   Total    Paid    mental  Insurance  ment   required
                                                                                   leave     pay               and   benefits
                                                                                                             savings



                                                                               Cost per hour worked




All workers in private industry......................  $27.46   $19.45    $8.02    $1.86    $0.78    $2.14    $0.96    $2.27

      Management, professional, and related..........   48.82    34.73    14.08     4.10     1.47     3.18     1.92     3.40
        Management, business, and financial..........   55.17    38.55    16.63     5.03     2.12     3.53     2.29     3.65
        Professional and related.....................   45.85    32.95    12.90     3.67     1.17     3.02     1.75     3.29
      Sales and office...............................   21.40    15.37     6.03     1.35      .49     1.87      .60     1.71
        Sales and related............................   20.00    15.00     5.00     1.06      .50     1.30      .46     1.68
        Office and administrative support............   22.34    15.62     6.72     1.55      .48     2.25      .70     1.73
      Service........................................   13.53    10.18     3.35      .58      .24      .95      .21     1.37
      Natural resources, construction, and
       maintenance...................................   30.97    21.13     9.84     1.53     1.01     2.60     1.50     3.19
        Construction, extraction, farming, fishing,
         and forestry(1).............................   31.27    21.17    10.10     1.10     1.06     2.54     1.82     3.59
        Installation, maintenance, and repair........   30.65    21.09     9.56     2.00      .96     2.66     1.17     2.77
      Production, transportation, and material moving   23.28    15.59     7.69     1.39      .83     2.40      .85     2.22
        Production...................................   23.93    15.90     8.03     1.54      .96     2.61      .73     2.19
        Transportation and material moving...........   22.62    15.28     7.34     1.24      .70     2.18      .97     2.25

    All workers, goods-producing industries(2).......   32.29    21.62    10.67     2.08     1.21     3.00     1.47     2.91

      Management, professional, and related..........   57.35    39.03    18.31     5.15     2.00     4.15     3.10     3.92
      Sales and office...............................   27.61    19.20     8.41     1.91      .83     2.56      .93     2.17
      Natural resources, construction, and
       maintenance...................................   31.83    21.48    10.35     1.24     1.13     2.66     1.78     3.54
      Production, transportation, and material moving   25.18    16.34     8.84     1.63     1.08     2.97      .84     2.32

    All workers, service-providing industries(3).....   26.37    18.96     7.41     1.82      .68     1.95      .84     2.12

      Management, professional, and related..........   47.65    34.15    13.51     3.96     1.40     3.05     1.76     3.33
      Sales and office...............................   20.96    15.10     5.86     1.32      .47     1.82      .58     1.68
      Service........................................   13.44    10.14     3.31      .57      .23      .94      .20     1.36
      Natural resources, construction, and
       maintenance...................................   29.80    20.66     9.14     1.94      .84     2.52     1.13     2.71
      Production, transportation, and material moving   21.59    14.92     6.67     1.18      .61     1.89      .86     2.12

                                                                           Percent of total compensation




All workers in private industry......................   100.0     70.8     29.2      6.8      2.8      7.8      3.5      8.3

      Management, professional, and related..........   100.0     71.1     28.9      8.4      3.0      6.5      3.9      7.0
        Management, business, and financial..........   100.0     69.9     30.1      9.1      3.8      6.4      4.2      6.6
        Professional and related.....................   100.0     71.9     28.1      8.0      2.5      6.6      3.8      7.2
      Sales and office...............................   100.0     71.8     28.2      6.3      2.3      8.7      2.8      8.0
        Sales and related............................   100.0     75.0     25.0      5.3      2.5      6.5      2.3      8.4
        Office and administrative support............   100.0     69.9     30.1      6.9      2.1     10.1      3.1      7.7
      Service........................................   100.0     75.3     24.7      4.3      1.8      7.0      1.5     10.1
      Natural resources, construction, and
       maintenance...................................   100.0     68.2     31.8      5.0      3.3      8.4      4.9     10.3
        Construction, extraction, farming, fishing,
         and forestry(1).............................   100.0     67.7     32.3      3.5      3.4      8.1      5.8     11.5
        Installation, maintenance, and repair........   100.0     68.8     31.2      6.5      3.1      8.7      3.8      9.0
      Production, transportation, and material moving   100.0     67.0     33.0      6.0      3.6     10.3      3.6      9.5
        Production...................................   100.0     66.4     33.6      6.5      4.0     10.9      3.0      9.1
        Transportation and material moving...........   100.0     67.6     32.4      5.5      3.1      9.7      4.3      9.9

    All workers, goods-producing industries(2).......   100.0     66.9     33.1      6.4      3.7      9.3      4.6      9.0

      Management, professional, and related..........   100.0     68.1     31.9      9.0      3.5      7.2      5.4      6.8
      Sales and office...............................   100.0     69.5     30.5      6.9      3.0      9.3      3.4      7.9
      Natural resources, construction, and
       maintenance...................................   100.0     67.5     32.5      3.9      3.6      8.4      5.6     11.1
      Production, transportation, and material moving   100.0     64.9     35.1      6.5      4.3     11.8      3.3      9.2

    All workers, service-providing industries(3).....   100.0     71.9     28.1      6.9      2.6      7.4      3.2      8.0

      Management, professional, and related..........   100.0     71.7     28.3      8.3      2.9      6.4      3.7      7.0
      Sales and office...............................   100.0     72.0     28.0      6.3      2.2      8.7      2.8      8.0
      Service........................................   100.0     75.4     24.6      4.2      1.7      7.0      1.5     10.1
      Natural resources, construction, and
       maintenance...................................   100.0     69.3     30.7      6.5      2.8      8.5      3.8      9.1
      Production, transportation, and material moving   100.0     69.1     30.9      5.4      2.8      8.8      4.0      9.8

  1 Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations were combined with construction and extraction occupational group as of
December 2006.
  2 Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing. The agriculture, forestry, farming, and hunting sector is excluded.
  3 Includes utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; information; finance and insurance;
real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises;
administrative and waste services; educational services;  health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and
recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.




Table 10.   Employer costs per hour worked for employee compensation and costs as a percent of total compensation: Private
industry workers, by industry group, March 2009


                                                                                            Benefit costs

                                                        Total    Wages
                       Series                          compen-    and                      Supple-           Retire-  Legally
                                                       sation  salaries   Total    Paid    mental  Insurance  ment   required
                                                                                   leave     pay               and   benefits
                                                                                                             savings



                                                                               Cost per hour worked




    All workers, goods-producing industries(1).......  $32.29   $21.62   $10.67    $2.08    $1.21    $3.00    $1.47    $2.91

      Construction...................................   31.29    21.68     9.61     1.13     1.07     2.30     1.61     3.50
      Manufacturing..................................   32.03    21.20    10.83     2.45     1.20     3.26     1.30     2.62
        Aircraft manufacturing(2)....................   58.86    37.24    21.62     5.67     3.11     5.55     3.32     3.97

    All workers, service-providing industries(3).....   26.37    18.96     7.41     1.82      .68     1.95      .84     2.12

      Trade, transportation, and utilities...........   23.00    16.33     6.67     1.40      .55     1.90      .79     2.03
        Wholesale trade..............................   29.77    20.95     8.82     2.02      .87     2.57      .92     2.44
        Retail trade.................................   16.77    12.64     4.14      .78      .30     1.15      .34     1.57
        Transportation and warehousing...............   31.95    21.01    10.94     2.24      .82     3.29     1.71     2.87
        Utilities....................................   51.73    32.54    19.18     4.87     1.98     4.74     3.85     3.75
      Information....................................   40.74    27.88    12.86     3.78     1.08     3.47     1.67     2.86
      Financial activities...........................   36.20    24.56    11.64     3.01     1.84     2.89     1.49     2.40
        Finance and insurance........................   39.19    26.29    12.90     3.37     2.15     3.17     1.73     2.48
          Credit intermediation and related
           activities................................   33.54    22.66    10.88     2.82     1.53     2.87     1.46     2.19
          Insurance carriers and related activities..   38.07    25.92    12.15     3.21     1.20     3.33     1.87     2.54
        Real estate and rental and leasing...........   25.26    18.25     7.01     1.71      .71     1.88      .59     2.13
      Professional and business services.............   33.29    24.39     8.91     2.34      .90     2.06     1.04     2.56
        Professional and technical services..........   43.30    31.53    11.77     3.38     1.30     2.71     1.36     3.02
        Administrative and waste services............   20.62    15.71     4.91      .92      .47     1.11      .46     1.96
      Education and health services..................   29.45    21.17     8.28     2.21      .57     2.31      .93     2.26
        Educational services.........................   39.40    28.95    10.45     2.76      .16     3.00     1.71     2.82
          Junior colleges, colleges, and universities   45.93    32.87    13.06     3.69      .16     3.77     2.38     3.06
        Health care and social assistance............   27.89    19.95     7.94     2.13      .64     2.20      .81     2.18
      Leisure and hospitality........................   11.97     9.44     2.53      .39      .14      .64      .11     1.26
        Accommodation and food services..............   11.16     8.84     2.32      .32      .11      .59      .09     1.21
      Other services.................................   24.33    18.02     6.32     1.51      .48     1.57      .66     2.09

                                                                           Percent of total compensation




    All workers, goods-producing industries(1).......   100.0     66.9     33.1      6.4      3.7      9.3      4.6      9.0

      Construction...................................   100.0     69.3     30.7      3.6      3.4      7.4      5.1     11.2
      Manufacturing..................................   100.0     66.2     33.8      7.7      3.8     10.2      4.1      8.2
        Aircraft manufacturing(2)....................   100.0     63.3     36.7      9.6      5.3      9.4      5.6      6.7

    All workers, service-providing industries(3).....   100.0     71.9     28.1      6.9      2.6      7.4      3.2      8.0

      Trade, transportation, and utilities...........   100.0     71.0     29.0      6.1      2.4      8.3      3.4      8.8
        Wholesale trade..............................   100.0     70.4     29.6      6.8      2.9      8.6      3.1      8.2
        Retail trade.................................   100.0     75.3     24.7      4.7      1.8      6.9      2.0      9.3
        Transportation and warehousing...............   100.0     65.8     34.2      7.0      2.6     10.3      5.4      9.0
        Utilities....................................   100.0     62.9     37.1      9.4      3.8      9.2      7.4      7.2
      Information....................................   100.0     68.4     31.6      9.3      2.7      8.5      4.1      7.0
      Financial activities...........................   100.0     67.8     32.2      8.3      5.1      8.0      4.1      6.6
        Finance and insurance........................   100.0     67.1     32.9      8.6      5.5      8.1      4.4      6.3
          Credit intermediation and related
           activities................................   100.0     67.6     32.4      8.4      4.6      8.6      4.3      6.5
          Insurance carriers and related activities..   100.0     68.1     31.9      8.4      3.2      8.7      4.9      6.7
        Real estate and rental and leasing...........   100.0     72.2     27.8      6.8      2.8      7.4      2.3      8.4
      Professional and business services.............   100.0     73.2     26.8      7.0      2.7      6.2      3.1      7.7
        Professional and technical services..........   100.0     72.8     27.2      7.8      3.0      6.3      3.1      7.0
        Administrative and waste services............   100.0     76.2     23.8      4.5      2.3      5.4      2.3      9.5
      Education and health services..................   100.0     71.9     28.1      7.5      1.9      7.8      3.2      7.7
        Educational services.........................   100.0     73.5     26.5      7.0       .4      7.6      4.3      7.2
          Junior colleges, colleges, and universities   100.0     71.6     28.4      8.0       .4      8.2      5.2      6.7
        Health care and social assistance............   100.0     71.5     28.5      7.6      2.3      7.9      2.9      7.8
      Leisure and hospitality........................   100.0     78.8     21.2      3.2      1.1      5.3       .9     10.6
        Accommodation and food services..............   100.0     79.2     20.8      2.9      1.0      5.3       .8     10.8
      Other services.................................   100.0     74.0     26.0      6.2      2.0      6.5      2.7      8.6

  1 Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing. The agriculture, forestry, farming, and hunting sector is excluded.
  2 Data are available beginning with December 2006.
  3 Includes utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; information; finance and insurance;
real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises;
administrative and waste services; educational services;  health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and
recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.




Table 11.   Employer costs per hour worked for employee compensation and costs as a percent of total compensation: Private
industry workers, by occupational group and full-time and part-time status, March 2009


                                                                                            Benefit costs

                                                        Total    Wages
                       Series                          compen-    and                      Supple-           Retire-  Legally
                                                       sation  salaries   Total    Paid    mental  Insurance  ment   required
                                                                                   leave     pay               and   benefits
                                                                                                             savings



                                                                               Cost per hour worked




  All full-time workers in private industry..........  $31.20   $21.72    $9.48    $2.30    $0.94    $2.58    $1.18    $2.48

      Management, professional, and related..........   50.33    35.46    14.87     4.42     1.53     3.39     2.08     3.44
        Management, business, and financial..........   55.70    38.81    16.89     5.13     2.15     3.60     2.34     3.67
        Professional and related.....................   47.37    33.61    13.75     4.04     1.19     3.28     1.94     3.31
      Sales and office...............................   24.53    17.30     7.23     1.73      .62     2.28      .75     1.86
        Sales and related............................   26.10    19.16     6.94     1.66      .78     1.83      .68     2.00
        Office and administrative support............   23.76    16.39     7.38     1.76      .55     2.50      .78     1.79
      Service........................................   16.14    11.54     4.60      .92      .36     1.49      .32     1.50
      Natural resources, construction, and
       maintenance...................................   31.31    21.24    10.07     1.60     1.05     2.66     1.56     3.20
        Construction, extraction, farming, fishing,
         and forestry(1).............................   31.47    21.21    10.27     1.14     1.09     2.58     1.88     3.57
        Installation, maintenance, and repair........   31.13    21.28     9.86     2.10     1.00     2.75     1.21     2.79
      Production, transportation, and material moving   24.90    16.51     8.39     1.58      .92     2.63      .94     2.31
        Production...................................   24.71    16.27     8.43     1.63     1.01     2.78      .78     2.23
        Transportation and material moving...........   25.16    16.82     8.33     1.52      .81     2.44     1.16     2.40

  All part-time workers in private industry..........   15.55    12.20     3.34      .48      .26      .76      .26     1.59

      Management, professional, and related..........   38.18    29.61     8.57     1.85     1.04     1.69      .83     3.16
        Professional and related.....................   38.47    29.73     8.74     1.90     1.07     1.74      .84     3.18
      Sales and office...............................   13.21    10.33     2.88      .38      .14      .79      .23     1.33
        Sales and related............................   11.31     9.06     2.25      .21      .11      .54      .15     1.23
        Office and administrative support............   16.07    12.25     3.82      .63      .19     1.18      .34     1.48
      Service........................................   10.55     8.63     1.92      .19      .10      .33      .08     1.22
      Production, transportation, and material moving   14.51    10.60     3.91      .35      .35     1.14      .34     1.73
        Transportation and material moving...........   14.92    10.59     4.33      .37      .37     1.40      .42     1.77

                                                                           Percent of total compensation




  All full-time workers in private industry..........   100.0     69.6     30.4      7.4      3.0      8.3      3.8      8.0

      Management, professional, and related..........   100.0     70.5     29.5      8.8      3.0      6.7      4.1      6.8
        Management, business, and financial..........   100.0     69.7     30.3      9.2      3.9      6.5      4.2      6.6
        Professional and related.....................   100.0     71.0     29.0      8.5      2.5      6.9      4.1      7.0
      Sales and office...............................   100.0     70.5     29.5      7.0      2.5      9.3      3.1      7.6
        Sales and related............................   100.0     73.4     26.6      6.4      3.0      7.0      2.6      7.6
        Office and administrative support............   100.0     69.0     31.0      7.4      2.3     10.5      3.3      7.5
      Service........................................   100.0     71.5     28.5      5.7      2.3      9.2      2.0      9.3
      Natural resources, construction, and
       maintenance...................................   100.0     67.8     32.2      5.1      3.3      8.5      5.0     10.2
        Construction, extraction, farming, fishing,
         and forestry(1).............................   100.0     67.4     32.6      3.6      3.5      8.2      6.0     11.4
        Installation, maintenance, and repair........   100.0     68.3     31.7      6.8      3.2      8.8      3.9      9.0
      Production, transportation, and material moving   100.0     66.3     33.7      6.4      3.7     10.6      3.8      9.3
        Production...................................   100.0     65.9     34.1      6.6      4.1     11.2      3.1      9.0
        Transportation and material moving...........   100.0     66.9     33.1      6.0      3.2      9.7      4.6      9.6

  All part-time workers in private industry..........   100.0     78.5     21.5      3.1      1.7      4.9      1.6     10.2

      Management, professional, and related..........   100.0     77.5     22.5      4.9      2.7      4.4      2.2      8.3
        Professional and related.....................   100.0     77.3     22.7      4.9      2.8      4.5      2.2      8.3
      Sales and office...............................   100.0     78.2     21.8      2.9      1.1      6.0      1.7     10.1
        Sales and related............................   100.0     80.1     19.9      1.9      1.0      4.8      1.3     10.9
        Office and administrative support............   100.0     76.2     23.8      3.9      1.2      7.3      2.1      9.2
      Service........................................   100.0     81.8     18.2      1.8       .9      3.1       .8     11.5
      Production, transportation, and material moving   100.0     73.0     27.0      2.4      2.4      7.9      2.3     11.9
        Transportation and material moving...........   100.0     71.0     29.0      2.5      2.5      9.4      2.8     11.9

  1 Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations were combined with construction and extraction occupational group as of
December 2006.

Note: The sum of individual items may not equal totals due to rounding.




Table 12.   Employer costs per hour worked for employee compensation and costs as a percent of total compensation:
Private industry workers, by industry group and full-time and part-time status, March 2009


                                                                                      Benefit costs

                                                  Total    Wages
                    Series                       compen-    and                      Supple-           Retire-  Legally
                                                 sation  salaries   Total    Paid    mental  Insurance  ment   required
                                                                             leave     pay               and   benefits
                                                                                                       savings



                                                                         Cost per hour worked




  All full-time workers in private industry....  $31.20   $21.72    $9.48    $2.30    $0.94    $2.58    $1.18    $2.48

    Goods-producing(1).........................   32.66    21.78    10.88     2.13     1.24     3.07     1.51     2.92
      Construction.............................   31.62    21.78     9.85     1.17     1.11     2.38     1.67     3.52
      Manufacturing............................   32.39    21.39    11.01     2.50     1.22     3.32     1.33     2.63

    Service-providing(2).......................   30.75    21.70     9.05     2.35      .85     2.43     1.08     2.34
      Trade, transportation, and utilities.....   27.41    19.18     8.23     1.88      .71     2.33     1.02     2.28
      Information..............................   43.95    29.88    14.07     4.16     1.20     3.82     1.84     3.05
      Financial activities.....................   38.74    26.11    12.64     3.32     2.04     3.11     1.64     2.53
      Professional and business services.......   36.58    26.53    10.06     2.78      .96     2.38     1.23     2.71
      Education and health services............   30.77    21.72     9.05     2.53      .61     2.59     1.04     2.27
      Leisure and hospitality..................   15.10    11.30     3.80      .74      .23     1.20      .19     1.43
      Other services...........................   28.08    20.05     8.03     1.99      .65     2.16      .90     2.32

  All part-time workers in private industry....   15.55    12.20     3.34      .48      .26      .76      .26     1.59

    Service-providing(2).......................   15.43    12.11     3.32      .48      .26      .76      .26     1.57
      Trade, transportation, and utilities.....   13.21    10.01     3.20      .34      .19      .95      .27     1.45
      Professional and business services.......   18.45    14.74     3.72      .40      .68      .61      .19     1.85
      Education and health services............   25.68    19.60     6.08     1.31      .46     1.48      .60     2.24
      Leisure and hospitality..................    9.19     7.79     1.41      .07      .05      .14      .03     1.12

                                                                     Percent of total compensation




  All full-time workers in private industry....   100.0     69.6     30.4      7.4      3.0      8.3      3.8      8.0

    Goods-producing(1).........................   100.0     66.7     33.3      6.5      3.8      9.4      4.6      9.0
      Construction.............................   100.0     68.9     31.1      3.7      3.5      7.5      5.3     11.1
      Manufacturing............................   100.0     66.0     34.0      7.7      3.8     10.2      4.1      8.1

    Service-providing(2).......................   100.0     70.6     29.4      7.6      2.8      7.9      3.5      7.6
      Trade, transportation, and utilities.....   100.0     70.0     30.0      6.9      2.6      8.5      3.7      8.3
      Information..............................   100.0     68.0     32.0      9.5      2.7      8.7      4.2      6.9
      Financial activities.....................   100.0     67.4     32.6      8.6      5.3      8.0      4.2      6.5
      Professional and business services.......   100.0     72.5     27.5      7.6      2.6      6.5      3.4      7.4
      Education and health services............   100.0     70.6     29.4      8.2      2.0      8.4      3.4      7.4
      Leisure and hospitality..................   100.0     74.8     25.2      4.9      1.5      7.9      1.3      9.5
      Other services...........................   100.0     71.4     28.6      7.1      2.3      7.7      3.2      8.3

  All part-time workers in private industry....   100.0     78.5     21.5      3.1      1.7      4.9      1.6     10.2

    Service-providing(2).......................   100.0     78.5     21.5      3.1      1.7      4.9      1.7     10.1
      Trade, transportation, and utilities.....   100.0     75.8     24.2      2.5      1.4      7.2      2.1     11.0
      Professional and business services.......   100.0     79.9     20.1      2.1      3.7      3.3      1.0     10.0
      Education and health services............   100.0     76.3     23.7      5.1      1.8      5.8      2.4      8.7
      Leisure and hospitality..................   100.0     84.7     15.3       .8       .6      1.5       .3     12.1

  1 Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing. The agriculture, forestry, farming, and hunting sector is
excluded.
  2 Includes utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; information; finance and
insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and
enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services;  health care and social assistance; arts,
entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.




Table 13.   Employer costs per hour worked for employee compensation and costs as a percent of total compensation:
Private industry workers, by major industry group and establishment employment size and bargaining unit status, March
2009


                                                                                      Benefit costs

                                                  Total    Wages
                    Series                       compen-    and                      Supple-           Retire-  Legally
                                                 sation  salaries   Total    Paid    mental  Insurance  ment   required
                                                                             leave     pay               and   benefits
                                                                                                       savings



                                                                         Cost per hour worked




    All workers, goods-producing industries(1)   $32.29   $21.62   $10.67    $2.08    $1.21    $3.00    $1.47    $2.91

    1-99 workers...............................   27.24    19.18     8.06     1.22      .86     2.16      .97     2.85
      1-49 workers.............................   26.03    18.73     7.30     1.09      .77     1.87      .74     2.84
      50-99 workers............................   30.22    20.28     9.94     1.56     1.09     2.88     1.55     2.87
    100 workers or more........................   36.57    23.68    12.89     2.81     1.50     3.72     1.90     2.97
      100-499 workers..........................   31.30    20.53    10.76     2.03     1.21     3.28     1.48     2.76
      500 workers or more......................   43.81    28.00    15.80     3.88     1.90     4.31     2.46     3.24

    Union......................................   39.00    23.36    15.64     2.32     1.56     5.01     3.09     3.66
    Nonunion...................................   30.65    21.19     9.46     2.02     1.12     2.51     1.08     2.73

    All workers, service-providing
     industries(2).............................   26.37    18.96     7.41     1.82      .68     1.95      .84     2.12

    1-99 workers...............................   21.65    16.21     5.44     1.23      .49     1.37      .48     1.87
      1-49 workers.............................   21.00    15.84     5.16     1.16      .46     1.28      .44     1.81
      50-99 workers............................   23.65    17.34     6.31     1.44      .60     1.65      .58     2.04
    100 workers or more........................   31.84    22.14     9.70     2.49      .90     2.62     1.27     2.41
      100-499 workers..........................   27.33    19.52     7.81     1.91      .71     2.13      .87     2.20
      500 workers or more......................   37.43    25.40    12.04     3.22     1.14     3.23     1.77     2.68

    Union......................................   35.31    22.44    12.87     2.90      .93     4.13     2.06     2.86
    Nonunion...................................   25.55    18.64     6.91     1.72      .66     1.75      .73     2.05

                                                                     Percent of total compensation




    All workers, goods-producing industries(1)    100.0     66.9     33.1      6.4      3.7      9.3      4.6      9.0

    1-99 workers...............................   100.0     70.4     29.6      4.5      3.2      7.9      3.6     10.5
      1-49 workers.............................   100.0     72.0     28.0      4.2      2.9      7.2      2.8     10.9
      50-99 workers............................   100.0     67.1     32.9      5.1      3.6      9.5      5.1      9.5
    100 workers or more........................   100.0     64.8     35.2      7.7      4.1     10.2      5.2      8.1
      100-499 workers..........................   100.0     65.6     34.4      6.5      3.9     10.5      4.7      8.8
      500 workers or more......................   100.0     63.9     36.1      8.9      4.3      9.8      5.6      7.4

    Union......................................   100.0     59.9     40.1      5.9      4.0     12.9      7.9      9.4
    Nonunion...................................   100.0     69.1     30.9      6.6      3.7      8.2      3.5      8.9

    All workers, service-providing
     industries(2).............................   100.0     71.9     28.1      6.9      2.6      7.4      3.2      8.0

    1-99 workers...............................   100.0     74.9     25.1      5.7      2.3      6.3      2.2      8.6
      1-49 workers.............................   100.0     75.4     24.6      5.5      2.2      6.1      2.1      8.6
      50-99 workers............................   100.0     73.3     26.7      6.1      2.5      7.0      2.5      8.6
    100 workers or more........................   100.0     69.5     30.5      7.8      2.8      8.2      4.0      7.6
      100-499 workers..........................   100.0     71.4     28.6      7.0      2.6      7.8      3.2      8.0
      500 workers or more......................   100.0     67.8     32.2      8.6      3.0      8.6      4.7      7.2

    Union......................................   100.0     63.6     36.4      8.2      2.6     11.7      5.8      8.1
    Nonunion...................................   100.0     73.0     27.0      6.7      2.6      6.8      2.9      8.0

  1 Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing. The agriculture, forestry, farming, and hunting sector is
excluded.
  2 Includes utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; information; finance and
insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and
enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services;  health care and social assistance; arts,
entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.




Table 14.   Employer costs per hour worked for employee compensation and costs as a percent of total compensation:
Private industry health care and social assistance workers, by industry and occupational group, March 2009


                                                                                      Benefit costs

                                                  Total    Wages
                    Series                       compen-    and                      Supple-           Retire-  Legally
                                                 sation  salaries   Total    Paid    mental  Insurance  ment   required
                                                                             leave     pay               and   benefits
                                                                                                       savings



                                                                         Cost per hour worked



  Health care and social assistance............  $27.89   $19.95    $7.94    $2.13    $0.64    $2.20    $0.81    $2.18

      Management, professional, and related....   40.21    28.97    11.24     3.29      .96     2.75     1.26     2.98
        Registered nurses......................   46.66    32.80    13.86     3.93     1.67     3.14     1.63     3.49
      Sales and office.........................   21.21    14.81     6.39     1.56      .36     2.18      .65     1.65
      Service..................................   16.10    11.44     4.66      .99      .38     1.52      .33     1.44

    Hospitals..................................   35.35    24.09    11.26     3.05     1.14     3.25     1.24     2.58

      Management, professional, and related....   43.62    30.18    13.44     3.91     1.47     3.39     1.51     3.16
        Registered nurses......................   47.38    32.54    14.84     4.23     1.94     3.49     1.71     3.47
      Service..................................   20.12    12.94     7.18     1.44      .66     2.82      .69     1.57

    Nursing and residential care facilities....   19.76    14.40     5.36     1.31      .45     1.48      .29     1.83

      Management, professional, and related....   30.70    22.60     8.10     2.26      .68     1.96      .55     2.64
      Service..................................   14.85    10.71     4.15      .87      .37     1.26      .17     1.48

      Nursing care facilities(1)...............   21.27    15.54     5.73     1.46      .53     1.47      .31     1.96

      Management, professional, and related....   33.80    25.16     8.64     2.47      .86     1.85      .56     2.90
      Service..................................   15.58    11.16     4.42      .98      .42     1.30      .19     1.54

                                                                     Percent of total compensation



  Health care and social assistance............   100.0     71.5     28.5      7.6      2.3      7.9      2.9      7.8

      Management, professional, and related....   100.0     72.0     28.0      8.2      2.4      6.8      3.1      7.4
        Registered nurses......................   100.0     70.3     29.7      8.4      3.6      6.7      3.5      7.5
      Sales and office.........................   100.0     69.9     30.1      7.4      1.7     10.3      3.0      7.8
      Service..................................   100.0     71.0     29.0      6.1      2.4      9.4      2.1      9.0

    Hospitals..................................   100.0     68.1     31.9      8.6      3.2      9.2      3.5      7.3

      Management, professional, and related....   100.0     69.2     30.8      9.0      3.4      7.8      3.5      7.2
        Registered nurses......................   100.0     68.7     31.3      8.9      4.1      7.4      3.6      7.3
      Service..................................   100.0     64.3     35.7      7.1      3.3     14.0      3.5      7.8

    Nursing and residential care facilities....   100.0     72.9     27.1      6.7      2.3      7.5      1.5      9.3

      Management, professional, and related....   100.0     73.6     26.4      7.4      2.2      6.4      1.8      8.6
      Service..................................   100.0     72.1     27.9      5.8      2.5      8.5      1.2     10.0

      Nursing care facilities(1)...............   100.0     73.1     26.9      6.9      2.5      6.9      1.4      9.2

      Management, professional, and related....   100.0     74.4     25.6      7.3      2.5      5.5      1.6      8.6
      Service..................................   100.0     71.6     28.4      6.3      2.7      8.3      1.2      9.9

  1 Data are available beginning with December 2006.

Note: The sum of individual items may not equal totals due to rounding.




                                                   TECHNICAL NOTE

     Employer Costs for Employee Compensation (ECEC) measures the average cost to employers for wages and salaries and
benefits per employee hour worked.

     Wages and salaries are defined as the hourly straight-time wage rate or, for workers not paid on an hourly basis,
straight-time earnings divided by the corresponding hours.  Straight-time wage and salary rates are total earnings
before payroll deductions and include production bonuses, incentive earnings, commission payments, and cost-of-living
adjustments.  Not included in straight-time earnings are nonproduction bonuses such as end-of-year payments, shift
differentials, and premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends and holidays; these payments are included in the
benefits component.

     Benefits include:  Paid leave--vacations, holidays, sick leave, and personal leave; supplemental pay--premium pay
for work in addition to the regular work schedule (such as overtime, weekends and holidays), shift differentials, and
nonproduction bonuses (such as referral bonuses and attendance bonuses); insurance benefits--life, health, short-term
disability, and long-term disability; retirement and savings benefits--defined benefit and defined contribution plans;
and legally required benefits--Social Security, Medicare, federal and state unemployment insurance, and workers’
compensation.

     In June 2008, the "other leave" benefit was changed to include only paid personal leave.  Paid personal leave
accounts for the majority of the cost of the prior other leave benefit category.  The National Compensation Survey no
longer collects costs for paid military leave, paid funeral leave, paid jury leave, and paid family leave (access data
are still available on these benefits).

     Employer Costs for Employee Compensation includes data for the civilian economy, which includes data from both private
industry and state and local government.  Excluded from private industry are the self-employed and farm and private
household workers.  Federal government workers are excluded from the public sector.  The private industry series and the
state and local government series provide data for the two sectors separately.

     The cost levels for this quarter were collected from a probability sample of approximately 63,800 occupations
selected from a sample of about 13,400 establishments in private industry and approximately 11,800 occupations from a
sample of about 1,900 establishments in state and local governments.  The state and local government sample, which is
replaced less frequently than the private industry sample, was replaced in its entirety in September 2007.  The private
industry sample is rotated over approximately 5 years, which makes the sample more representative of the economy and
reduces respondent burden.  Data are collected for the pay period including the 12th day of the survey months of
March, June, September, and December.  The sample is replaced on a cross-area, cross-industry basis.

     When respondents do not provide all the data needed, a procedure for assigning missing values is used.  This
imputation procedure is comparable to that used for the Employment Cost Index (ECI).  For a description, see "Accounting
for missing data in the Employment Cost Index," in the April 2006 issue of the Monthly Labor Review at
http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2006/04/art4abs.htm.

     The ECEC percent of total compensation estimates are calculated from cost aggregates and then rounded to the published
level of precision.  This method provides the most precise estimates of the percent of total compensation; however,
estimates of the percentage of total compensation calculated from the published cost estimates may differ slightly from
those calculated from the unpublished cost aggregates.

     Sample establishments are classified by the industry categories based on the 2007 North American Industry Classification
System (NAICS).  Prior to December 2007, the 2002 NAICS classification system was used.  Differences between the two NAICS
systems did not affect any of the published series.  Within a sample establishment, specific job categories are selected
and classified into about 800 occupational classifications according to the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC)
system.  Individual occupations are combined to represent one of ten intermediate aggregations, such as professional and
related occupations, or one of five higher-level aggregations such as management, professional, and related occupations.
Both the NAICS and the SOC classification systems are defined by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB).  For more
detailed information on NAICS and SOC, including background definitions, see the BLS Web sites: www.bls.gov/bls/naics.htm
and www.bls.gov/soc/home.htm.

     To be included in the ECEC, employees in occupations must receive cash payments from the establishment for services
performed and the establishment must pay the employer’s portion of Medicare taxes on that individual’s wages.  Major
exclusions from the survey are the self-employed, individuals who set their own pay (for example, proprietors, owners,
major stockholders, and partners in unincorporated firms), volunteers, unpaid workers, family members being paid token
wages, individuals receiving long-term disability compensation, and U.S. citizens working overseas.

     The state and local government sample consists of 152 areas that represent the Nation’s 361 metropolitan statistical
areas and 573 micropolitan statistical areas as defined by OMB in December 2003 and the remaining portions of the 50 states.
The private industry estimates started the conversion to December 2003 OMB area definitions in the December 2008 reference
period with replacement of one-fifth of the sample under the new area definitions.

     Current employment weights are used to calculate cost levels.  These weights are derived from two BLS programs:
the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) and the Current Employment Statistics (CES).  Combined, these programs
provide the appropriate industry coverage and currency of data needed to match the ECEC.  For more information on these
changes, see "Changes in Calculations for the BLS Employer Costs for Employee Compensation Data, March 2007," at
http://www.bls.gov/ncs/ect/sp/ececcalc.pdf.  In most instances, private industry employment weights used in the ECEC were
total employment estimates for 2-digit industry groups, such as utilities (NAICS 22) or wholesale trade (NAICS 42).  In
a few cases, more detailed private industry employment weights were used.  These include 4-digit educational
establishments--elementary and secondary schools (6111), junior colleges (6112), and colleges and universities (6113)--as
well as the 6-digit aircraft manufacturing industry (336411).  For state and local governments, a more aggregated level
was used reflecting the level of detail published by the CES program.  For both private and government establishments,
the employment data were apportioned based on the sampling weights assigned to the Employment Cost Index (ECI) sample.

     The ECI, which measures the change in employer costs for employee compensation, is calculated with fixed 2002
employment counts to prevent employment shifts among occupations and industries from influencing the changes.  Therefore,
changes over time in the Employer Costs for Employee Compensation survey will differ from those in the ECI.

     Historical ECEC data are available in three listings, all available at: http://www.bls.gov/ect/#tables.  The first
historical listing covers data for the March references periods from 1986 to 2001.  These data use the Standard Industrial
Classification (SIC) and Census of Population classification systems.  The second listing contains data for the March, June,
September, and December reference periods from March 2002 to December 2003.  These data also are based on the SIC and
Census of Population classification systems.  The final listing includes data for March 2004 to the current reference
period.  These are based on the NAICS and SOC classification systems.  Also, data and related articles are included in
the bulletin, Employer Costs for Employee Compensation, 1986-99 (Bulletin 2526), available upon request by calling
(202) 691-6199 or by email to: NCSinfo@bls.gov.

     Beginning with the March 2004 quarter, historical data are available based on the North American Industry Classification
System and the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification.  The new historical tables are available on the Internet site
http://www.bls.gov/ncs/ect/home.htm or upon request.  Information on how costs are calculated appears in "Measuring Trends
in the Structure and Levels of Employer Costs for Employee Compensation," Compensation and Working Conditions, Summer 1997,
at http://www.bls.gov/opub/cwc/archive/summer1997art1.pdf.  An article on changes in employer compensation costs, "Tracking
Changes in Benefit Costs," appears in Compensation and Working Conditions, Spring 1999, at
http://www.bls.gov/opub/cwc/archive/spring1999brief3.pdf.

Relative Standard Errors

     Because the ECEC is a sample survey, it is subject to sampling errors.  Sampling errors are differences that occur
between the results computed from a sample of observations and those computed from all observations in the population.  The
estimates derived from different samples selected using the same sample design may differ from one another.  A measure of
the variation among these differing estimates is the standard error.  It can be used to measure the precision with which
an estimate from a particular sample approximates the expected result of all possible samples.  For more information on
the calculation procedure, see "Changes in Variance Estimation Calculations for the BLS Employer Costs for Employee
Compensation Data, March 2007," at http://www.bls.gov/ncs/ect/sp/ececvmet.pdf.  The chances are about 68 out of 100 that
an estimate from the survey differs from a complete population figure by less than the standard error.  The chances are
about 90 out of 100 that this difference would be less than 1.6 times the standard error.  All the statements of comparisons
appearing in this publication are significant at a 1.6 standard error level or better, unless otherwise indicated.  This
means that for differences cited, the estimated difference is greater than 1.6 times the standard error of the difference.
The relative standard errors (RSE) for all estimates are available shortly after the release is issued at
http://www.bls.gov/ncs/ect/#tables.

     For a more detailed explanation of relative standard errors, see "Measuring Trends in the Structure and Levels of
Employer Costs for Employee Compensation," Compensation and Working Conditions, Summer 1997, at
http://www.bls.gov/opub/cwc/archive/summer1997art1.pdf.  For a detailed explanation of how to use standard error data to
analyze differences in changes over time, see "Analyzing Year-to-Year Changes in Employer Costs for Employee Compensation,"
Compensation and Working Conditions, Spring 1998, at http://www.bls.gov/opub/cwc/archive/spring1998art3.pdf.  This article
supplements an article from the Summer 1997 issue of Compensation and Working Conditions, "Explaining the Differential
Growth Rates of the ECI and ECEC," available at http://www.bls.gov/opub/cwc/archive/summer1997art2.pdf, which examined
how differences in the construction of these measures contribute to differing trends.

     Standard errors relate to differences that occur from sampling errors, but not from nonsampling errors.  Nonsampling
errors are not measured and include survey nonresponse and data collection and processing errors.  Survey nonresponse occurs
when sample members are unwilling or unable to participate in the survey.  Data collection errors include inaccurate data
by respondents and definitional difficulties.  Processing errors include errors in recording, coding, and entering data.
Although nonsampling errors are not measured, BLS quality assurance programs include procedures for reducing such errors.
These procedures include data collection reinterviews, observed interviews, computer data edits, and systematic review
of reports on which data are recorded.  Extensive field economist training also is conducted to maintain high data
collection standards.

Comparing private and public sector data

     Aggregate compensation cost levels in state and local government should not be directly compared with those in private
industry.  Differences between these sectors stem from factors such as variation in work activities and occupational
structures.  Manufacturing and sales, for example, make up a large part of private industry work activities but are rare
in state and local government.  Professional and administrative support occupations (including teachers) account for
two-thirds of the state and local government workforce, compared with one-half of private industry.

     A detailed examination of differences in compensation levels and trends between private industry and state and local
government may be found in "Cost of Employee Compensation in Public and Private Sectors," Monthly Labor Review, May 1993,
on the BLS Internet site http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1993/05/contents.htm and "Compensation Cost Trends in Private
Industry and State and Local Governments," Compensation and Working Conditions, Fall 1999, at
http://www.bls.gov/opub/cwc/archive/fall1999art2.pdf.

Obtaining information

     Articles, bulletins, and other information may be obtained by calling (202) 691-6199, sending e-mail to
NCSinfo@bls.gov, or visiting the Internet site http://www.bls.gov/ect.  Information in this release will be made
available to sensory impaired individuals upon request.  Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service
Number:  1-800-877-8339.


Last Modified Date: June 10, 2009
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