Economic News Release

Employment Projections: 2010-20 News Release


For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Wednesday, February 1, 2012   		  USDL-12-0160

Technical information:   (202) 691-5700  *  ep-info@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/emp
Media contact:           (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                   EMPLOYMENT PROJECTIONS--2010-20


Industries and occupations related to health care, personal care and
social assistance, and construction are projected to have the fastest
job growth between 2010 and 2020, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
reported today. Total employment is projected to grow by 14.3 percent
over the decade, resulting in 20.5 million new jobs. Despite rapid
projected growth, construction is not expected to regain all of the
jobs lost during the 2007-09 recession.

The 2010-20 projections incorporate a new BLS system that depicts
education, training, and related work experience typically needed for
occupations. In occupations in which a master’s degree is typically
needed for entry, employment is expected to grow by 21.7 percent, faster
than the growth rate for any other education category. In occupations in
which apprenticeship is the typical on-the-job training, employment is
expected to grow by 22.5 percent, faster than for any other on-the-job
training category.

This news release focuses on five areas: labor force and the macroeconomy,
industry employment, occupational employment, education and training, and
replacement needs.

Labor force and the macroeconomy

  -- Slower population growth and a decreasing overall labor force
     participation rate are expected to lead to slower civilian labor force
     growth from 2010 to 2020: 0.7 percent annually, compared with 0.8
     percent for 2000-10, and 1.3 percent for 1990-2000. The projected 0.7
     percent growth rate will lead to a civilian labor force increase of
     10.5 million by 2020. (See table 1.)
     
  -- The baby-boom generation moves entirely into the 55-years-and-older 
     age group by 2020, increasing that age group’s share of the labor force
     from 19.5 percent in 2010 to 25.2 percent in 2020. The "prime-age" working
     group (ages 25 to 54) is projected to drop to 63.7 percent of the 2020
     labor force. The 16- to 24-year-old age group is projected to account for
     11.2 percent of the labor force in 2020. (See table 1.)
     
  -- By 2020, the number of Hispanics in the labor force is projected
     to grow by 7.7 million, or 34.0 percent, and their share of the labor
     force is expected to increase from 14.8 percent in 2010 to 18.6
     percent in 2020. The labor force shares for Asians and blacks are
     projected to be 5.7 and 12.0 percent, respectively, up slightly from
     4.7 and 11.6 percent in 2010. (See table 1.)
     
  -- Gross domestic product (GDP) is projected to grow by 3.0 percent
     annually, consistent with slow labor force growth, the assumption of a
     full-employment economy in 2020, and labor productivity growth of 2.0 
     percent annually.

Industry employment

  -- Nonagriculture wage and salary employment, which accounts for
     more than 9 in 10 jobs in the economy, is projected to expand to
     150.2 million by 2020, up from 130.4 million in 2010. (See table 2.)
     
  -- The health care and social assistance sector is projected to gain
     the most jobs (5.6 million), followed by professional and business
     services (3.8 million), and construction (1.8 million). Despite rapid
     growth in the construction sector, employment in 2020 is not expected
     to reach its pre-recessionary annual average peak of 7.7 million in 2006.
     (See table 2.)
     
  -- About 5.0 million new jobs--25 percent of all new jobs--are
     expected in the three detailed industries projected to add the most
     jobs: construction, retail trade, and offices of health practitioners.
     Seven of the 20 industries gaining the most jobs are in the health
     care and social assistance sector, and five are in the professional
     and business services sector. (See table 3.)
     
  -- The 20 detailed industries projected to lose the largest numbers
     of jobs are primarily in the manufacturing sector (11 industries) and
     the federal government (3 industries). The largest job losses are
     projected for the Postal Service (-182,000), federal non-defense
     government (-122,000), and apparel knitting mills (-92,000).
     (See table 4.)

Occupational employment

  -- Of the 22 major occupational groups, employment in healthcare
     support occupations is expected to grow most rapidly (34.5 percent),
     followed by personal care and services occupations (26.8 percent), and
     healthcare practitioners and technical occupations (25.9 percent).
     However, the office and administrative support occupations group, with
     projected slower than average growth of 10.3 percent, is expected to
     add the largest number of new jobs (2.3 million). (See table 5.)
     
  -- The four detailed occupations expected to add the most employment
     are registered nurses (712,000), retail salespersons (707,000), home
     health aides (706,000), and personal care aides (607,000). All have large
     employment in 2010 and are expected to grow faster than the average of
     14.3 percent. (See table 6.)
     
  -- One-third of the projected fastest growing occupations are
     related to health care, reflecting expected increases in demand as the
     population ages and the health care and social assistance industry
     grows. (See table 7.)
     
  -- More than one-fourth of the projected fastest growing occupations
     are related to construction. Employment in most of these occupations,
     still at low levels in 2010 because of the 2007-09 recession, will
     recover along with the construction industry. But employment in most
     construction occupations is not expected to reach pre-recession
     levels. (See table 7.)
     
  -- Production occupations and office and administrative support
     occupations dominate the list of detailed occupations with the largest
     projected employment declines. However, farmers, ranchers, and other
     agricultural managers top the list, with a projected loss of 96,100
     jobs. (See table 8.)

Education and training

  -- Occupations that typically need some type of postsecondary
     education for entry are projected to grow the fastest during the
     2010-20 decade. Occupations classified as needing a master’s degree
     are projected to grow by 21.7 percent, followed by doctoral or
     professional degree occupations at 19.9 percent, and associate’s
     degree occupations at 18.0 percent. (See table 9.)
     
  -- In terms of typical on-the-job training, occupations that
     typically require apprenticeships are projected to grow the fastest
     (22.5 percent). (See table 9.)
     
  -- Of the 30 detailed occupations projected to have the fastest
     employment growth, 17 typically need some type of postsecondary
     education for entry into the occupation. (See table 7.)
     
  -- Two-thirds of the 30 occupations projected to have the largest
     number of new jobs typically require less than a postsecondary
     education, no related work experience, and short- or moderate-term on-
     the-job training. (See table 6.)
     
  -- Only 3 of the 30 detailed occupations projected to have the
     largest employment declines are classified as needing postsecondary
     education for entry. (See table 8.)

Replacement needs

  -- Over the 2010-20 decade, 54.8 million total job openings are expected.
     (See table 9.) While growth will lead to many openings, more than 
     half--61.6 percent--will come from the need to replace workers who
     retire or otherwise permanently leave an occupation.
     
  -- In 4 out of 5 occupations, openings due to replacement needs exceed
     the number due to growth. Replacement needs are expected in every
     occupation, even in those that are declining.
     
  -- More than two-thirds of all job openings are expected to be in
     occupations that typically do not need postsecondary education for
     entry. (See table 9.)
     
  -- Eighteen of the 30 occupations with the largest number of
     projected total job openings are classified as typically needing less
     than a postsecondary education and needing short-term on-the-job
     training. (See table 10.)
     
Interpreting the projections in light of the 2007-09 recession and recovery

The BLS projections are built on the assumption of a full employment
economy in 2020. The 2007-09 recession represented a sharp downturn in
the economy--and the economy, especially the labor market, has been
slow to recover. As a result, the 2010-20 projections reach a robust
2020 target year largely because the 2010 base year began from a
relatively low point. Rapid growth rates for some measures reflect
recovery from the recession and, with some important exceptions,
growth beyond recovery.

A note about labor shortages and surpluses in the context of long-term 
economic projections

Users of these data should not assume that the difference between the
projected increase in the labor force and the projected increase in
employment implies a labor shortage or surplus. The BLS projections
assume labor market equilibrium, that is, one in which labor supply
meets labor demand except for some degree of frictional unemployment.
In addition, the employment and labor force measures use different
concepts. Employment is a count of jobs, and one person may hold more
than one job. Labor force is a count of people, and a person is
counted only once regardless of how many jobs he or she holds. For a
discussion of the basic projections methodology, see "Overview of
projections to 2020," Dixie Sommers and James C. Franklin, January
2012 issue of the Monthly Labor Review.

More information

The BLS projections are used by high school students and their
teachers and parents, college students, career changers, and career
development and guidance specialists. The projections are the
foundation of the BLS Occupational Outlook Handbook, the nation’s most
widely used career information resource. The projections also are
used by state workforce agencies to prepare state and area projections
that, together with the national projections, are widely used by
policymakers and education and training officials to make decisions
about education and training policy, funding, and program offerings.
In addition, other federal agencies, researchers, and academics use
the projections to understand trends in the economy and labor market.
The projections are updated every two years.

More detailed information on the 2010-20 projections appears in five
articles in the January 2012 issue of the Monthly Labor Review,
published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor.
The Monthly Labor Review is available online at
www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/mlrhome.htm.

The 2012-13 edition of the Occupational Outlook Handbook will feature
the 2010-20 projections in assessing job outlook, work activities,
wages, education and training requirements, and more for detailed 
occupations in 341 profiles. The updated Handbook will be available
online in late March 2012, at www.bls.gov/ooh. A graphic representation
of the highlights of the projections appears in the Winter 2011-12 
issue of the Occupational Outlook Quarterly, available online at
www.bls.gov/ooq.

Tables with detailed, comprehensive statistics used in preparing the
projections are available online at www.bls.gov/emp/tables.htm, and
projections methodology are accessible at
www.bls.gov/emp/ep_projections_methods.htm.

Information from this release will be made available to sensory
impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200;
Federal Relay Services: 1 (800) 877-8339.




Table 1. Civilian labor force, by age, sex, race, and ethnicity, 1990, 2000, 2010, and projected 2020
(In thousands)

Age, sex, race, and ethnicity           Levels                        Change               Percent change          Percent distribution        Annual growth rate
                                                                                                                                                    (percent)                                                                          
                            1990    2000    2010    2020     1990-    2000-   2010-   1990-   2000-   2010-    1990    2000    2010    2020   1990-   2000-    2010-
                                                             2000       10      20    2000      10      20                                    2000      10       20

Total, 16 years and old     125,840 142,583 153,889 164,360  16,743  11,306  10,471    13.3     7.9     6.8   100.0   100.0   100.0   100.0     1.3     0.8      0.7

Age, years:  
16 to 24                     22,492  22,520  20,934  18,330      28  -1,586  -2,604     0.1    -7.0   -12.4    17.9    15.8    13.6    11.2     0.0    -0.7     -1.3
25 to 54                     88,322 101,394 102,940 104,619  13,072   1,546   1,679    14.8     1.5     1.6    70.2    71.1    66.9    63.7     1.4     0.2      0.2
55 and older                 15,026  18,669  30,014  41,411   3,643  11,345  11,397    24.2    60.8    38.0    11.9    13.1    19.5    25.2     2.2     4.9      3.3

Sex:
   Men                       69,011  76,280  81,985  87,128   7,269   5,705   5,143    10.5     7.5     6.3    54.8    53.5    53.3    53.0     1.0     0.7      0.6
   Women                     56,829  66,303  71,904  77,232   9,474   5,601   5,328    16.7     8.4     7.4    45.2    46.5    46.7    47.0     1.6     0.8      0.7

Race:
   White                    107,447 118,545 125,084 130,516  11,098   6,539   5,432    10.3     5.5     4.3    85.4    83.1    81.3    79.4     1.0     0.5      0.4
   Black                     13,740  16,397  17,862  19,676   2,657   1,465   1,814    19.3     8.9    10.2    10.9    11.5    11.6    12.0     1.8     0.9      1.0
   Asian                      4,653   6,270   7,248   9,430   1,617     978   2,182    34.8    15.6    30.1     3.7     4.4     4.7     5.7     3.0     1.5      2.7
   All other groups¹           -      1,371   3,694   4,738    -      2,323   1,044    -       -       28.3    -        1.0     2.4     2.9    -       -         2.5

Ethnicity:
   Hispanic origin           10,720  16,689  22,748  30,493   5,969   6,059   7,745    55.7    36.3    34.0     8.5    11.7    14.8    18.6     4.5     3.1      3.0
   Other than Hispanic      115,120 125,894 131,141 133,867  10,774   5,247   2,726     9.4     4.2     2.1    91.5    88.3    85.2    81.4     0.9     0.4      0.2
   White non-Hispanic        97,818 102,729 103,947 102,371   4,911   1,218  -1,576     5.0     1.2    -1.5    77.7    72.0    67.5    62.3     0.5     0.1     -0.2

Age of baby boomers           26 to   36 to   46 to   56 to
                                 44      54      64      74

   1 The "all other groups" category includes (1) those classified as being of multiple racial origin and (2) the race categories of (2a) American Indian and Alaska 
   Native and (2b) Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islanders. Dash indicates no data collected for category.Details may not sum to total because of rounding.




Table 2.  Employment by major industry sector, 2000, 2010, and projected 2020
(In thousands)

                 Industry Sector                           Employment                     Change         Percent Distribution Annual Growth 
                                                                                                                              Rate (percent)
                                                   2000       2010       2020        2000-      2010-    2000    2010   2020  2000-  2010-
                                                                                       10         20                            10     20
Total(1)                                         146,236.0  143,068.2  163,537.1  -3,167.8   20,468.9   100.0   100.0  100.0   -0.2    1.3
  
Nonagriculture wage and salary(2)                132,425.0  130,435.6  150,176.8  -1,989.4   19,741.2    90.6    91.2   91.8   -0.2    1.4

Goods-producing, excluding agriculture            24,569.7   17,705.5   19,496.8  -6,864.2    1,791.3    16.8    12.4   11.9   -3.2    1.0
Mining                                               520.4      655.9      680.7     135.5       24.8     0.4     0.5    0.4    2.3    0.4
Construction                                       6,786.4    5,525.6    7,365.1  -1,260.8    1,839.5     4.6     3.9    4.5   -2.0    2.9
Manufacturing                                     17,262.9   11,524.0   11,450.9  -5,738.9      -73.1    11.8     8.1    7.0   -4.0   -0.1

Services-providing                               107,855.3  112,730.1  130,680.1   4,874.8   17,950.0    73.8    78.8   79.9    0.4    1.5
Utilities                                            601.3      551.8      516.1     -49.5      -35.7     0.4     0.4    0.3   -0.9   -0.7
Wholesale trade                                    5,933.5    5,456.1    6,200.2    -477.4      744.1     4.1     3.8    3.8   -0.8    1.3
Retail trade                                      15,279.8   14,413.7   16,182.2    -866.1    1,768.5    10.4    10.1    9.9   -0.6    1.2
Transportation and warehousing                     4,410.3    4,183.3    5,036.2    -227.0      852.9     3.0     2.9    3.1   -0.5    1.9
Information                                        3,630.6    2,710.9    2,851.2    -919.7      140.3     2.5     1.9    1.7   -2.9    0.5
Financial activities                               7,687.5    7,630.2    8,410.6     -57.3      780.4     5.3     5.3    5.1   -0.1    1.0
Professional and business services                16,666.1   16,688.0   20,497.0      21.9    3,809.0    11.4    11.7   12.5    0.0    2.1
Educational services                               2,390.6    3,149.6    3,968.8     759.0      819.2     1.6     2.2    2.4    2.8    2.3
Health care and social assistance                 12,718.3   16,414.5   22,053.9   3,696.2    5,639.4     8.7    11.5   13.5    2.6    3.0
Leisure and hospitality                           11,861.6   13,019.6   14,362.3   1,158.0    1,342.7     8.1     9.1    8.8    0.9    1.0
Other services                                     5,885.7    6,031.3    6,850.7     145.6      819.4     4.0     4.2    4.2    0.2    1.3
Federal government                                 2,865.0    2,968.0    2,596.0     103.0     -372.0     2.0     2.1    1.6    0.4   -1.3
State and local government                        17,925.0   19,513.1   21,154.8   1,588.1    1,641.7    12.3    13.6   12.9    0.9    0.8

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting(3)     2,396.2    2,135.5    2,005.3    -260.7     -130.2     1.6     1.5    1.2   -1.1   -0.6
Agriculture wage and salary                        1,354.0    1,282.1    1,236.1     -71.9      -46.0     0.9     0.9    0.8   -0.5   -0.4
Agriculture self-employed and unpaid family 
  workers                                          1,042.2      853.4      769.3    -188.8      -84.1     0.7     0.6    0.5   -2.0   -1.0

Nonagriculture self-employed and unpaid
  family workers(4,5)                              9,313.7    8,943.8    9,720.6    -369.9      776.8     6.4     6.3    5.9   -0.4    0.8
  
Secondary wage and salary jobs in agriculture and
  and private household industries                   141.7      111.6      112.7     -30.1        1.1     0.1     0.1    0.1   -2.4    0.1
Secondary jobs as a self-employed or unpaid   
  family worker(4,6)                               1,959.4    1,441.7    1,521.7    -517.7       80.0     1.3     1.0    0.9   -3.0    0.5

1 Employment data for wage and salary workers are from the BLS Current Employment Statistics survey, which counts jobs, whereas 
self-employed, unpaid family workers, and agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting are from the Current Population Survey 
(household survey), which counts workers.
2 Includes wage and salary data from the Current Employment Statistics survey, except private households, which is from the Current 
Population Survey.  Logging workers are excluded.
3 Includes agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting data from the Current Population Survey, except logging, which is from 
Current Employment Statistics survey.  Government wage and salary workers are excluded.
4 Due to methodological changes, these data are not comparable to previously published numbers for these categories of secondary workers.
5 Workers who hold a secondary wage and salary job in agricultural production, forestry, fishing, and private household industries.
6 Wage and salary workers who hold a secondary job as a self-employed or unpaid family worker.




Table 3.  The 20 industries with the largest projected wage and salary employment growth, 2010-20
(In thousands)

Industry Code(1)                Industry Description                            Sector                            Employment          Change   Annual Growth
                                                                                                               2010         2020     2010-20   Rate (percent)
                                                                                                                                               2010-20

23                Construction                                         Construction                         5,525.6      7,365.1     1,839.5     2.9
44, 45            Retail trade                                         Retail trade                        14,413.7     16,182.2     1,768.5     1.2
6211, 6212,   
 6213             Offices of health practitioners                      Health care and social assistance     3,818.2     5,209.6     1,391.4     3.2
622               Hospitals                                            Health care and social assistance     4,685.3     5,563.6       878.3     1.7
6216              Home health care services                            Health care and social assistance     1,080.6     1,952.4       871.8     6.1
722               Food services and drinking places                    Leisure and hospitality               9,351.8    10,212.2       860.4     0.9
6241              Individual and family services                       Health care and social assistance     1,215.0     2,066.4       851.4     5.5
623               Nursing and residential care facilities              Health care and social assistance     3,129.0     3,951.0       822.0     2.4
42                Wholesale trade                                      Wholesale trade                       5,456.1     6,200.2       744.1     1.3
NA                General Local government educational services
                    compensation                                       State and local government            8,010.4     8,751.4       741.0     0.9
5415              Computer systems design and related services         Professional and business services    1,441.5     2,112.8       671.3     3.9
5613              Employment services                                  Professional and business services    2,716.7     3,348.0       631.3     2.1
5416              Management, scientific, and technical consulting 
                    services                                           Professional and business services      991.4     1,567.0       575.6     4.7
6112, 6113        Junior colleges, colleges, universities, and 
                    professional schools                               Educational services                  1,64.09     2,171.1       477.1     2.5
6214, 6215, 
 6219             Outpatient,  laboratory, and other ambulatory care
                    services                                           Health care and social assistaance    1,077.1     1,471.2       394.1     3.2
5413              Architectural, engineering, and related services     Professional and business services    1,276.6     1,635.1       358.5     2.5
5617              Services to buildings and dwellings                  Professional and business services    1,742.5     2,044.8       302.3     1.6
484               Truck transportation                                 Transportation and Warehousing        1,244.0     1,544.0       300.0     2.2
NA                General State government educational services
                    compensation                                       State and local government            2,377.1     2,661.7       284.6     1.1
6244              Child day care services                              Health care and social assistance       851.8     1,101.3       249.5     2.6

1 As defined by the 2007 North American Industrial Classification System codes (NAICS).




Table 4.  The 20 industries with the largest projected wage and salary employment declines, 2010-20
(In thousands)

Industry Code(1)                 Industry Description                              Sector                    Employment      Change   Annual Growth
                                                                                                           2010      2020   2010-20  Rate (percent)
                                                                                                                                            2010-20

491           Postal Service                                          Federal government                  656.4     474.6    -181.8           -3.2
NA            General Federal non-defense government compensation     Federal government                 1667.5    1545.7    -121.8           -0.8
3151          Apparel knitting mills                                  Manufacturing                       157.7      66.1     -91.6           -8.3
5111          Newspaper, periodical, book, and directory publishers   Information                         501.3     439.7     -61.6           -1.3
3399          Other miscellaneous manufacturing                       Manufacturing                       266.0     210.3     -55.7           -2.3
NA            General Federal defense government compensation         Federal government                  545.5     496.0     -49.5           -0.9
3341          Computer and peripheral equipment manufacturing         Manufacturing                       161.6     117.5     -44.1           -3.1
3345          Navigational, measuring, electromedical, and control 
                instruments manufacturing                             Manufacturing                       406.0     363.2     -42.8           -1.1
111           Crop production                                         Agriculture, forestry, fishing 
                                                                       and hunting                        629.5     589.3     -40.2           -0.7
8123          Drycleaning and laundry services                        Other services                      302.1     265.7     -36.4           -1.3
2211          Electric power generation, transmission and 
                distribution                                          Utilities                           396.9     361.4     -35.5           -0.9
NA            State government enterprises                            State and local government          517.8     484.6     -33.2           -0.7
3344          Semiconductor and other electronic component 
                manufacturing                                         Manufacturing                       369.7     336.9     -32.8           -0.9
3342          Communications equipment manufacturing                  Manufacturing                       118.0      85.7     -32.3           -3.1
323           Printing and related support activities                 Manufacturing                       486.9     454.7     -32.2           -0.7
3131          Fiber, yarn, and thread mills                           Manufacturing                       237.8     206.1     -31.7           -1.4
512           Motion picture, video, and sound recording industries   Information                         372.0     347.0     -25.0           -0.7
3335          Metalworking machinery manufacturing                    Manufacturing                       153.2     130.5     -22.7           -1.6
3251          Basic chemical manufacturing                            Manufacturing                       142.4     121.6     -20.8           -1.6
3363          Motor vehicle parts manufacturing                       Manufacturing                       415.1     394.9     -20.2           -0.5

1 As defined by the 2007 North American Industrial Classification System codes (NAICS).




Table 5: Employment by major occupational group, 2010 and projected 2020, and median annual wage, May 2010
(In thousands)

2010 National Employment Matrix title and code                        Employment          Change, 2010-20  Median annual
                                                                        2010       2020    Number Percent  wage, May 2010
00-0000 Total, All Occupations                                     143,068.2  163,537.1  20,468.9    14.3     $33,840
31-0000 Healthcare Support Occupations                               4,190.0    5,633.7   1,443.7    34.5      24,760
39-0000 Personal Care and Service Occupations                        4,994.7    6,331.4   1,336.6    26.8      20,640
29-0000 Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations           7,799.3    9,819.0   2,019.7    25.9      58,490
21-0000 Community and Social Service Occupations                     2,402.7    2,985.0     582.3    24.2      39,280
47-0000 Construction and Extraction Occupations                      6,328.0    7,735.2   1,407.2    22.2      39,080
15-0000 Computer and Mathematical Occupations                        3,542.8    4,321.1     778.3    22.0      73,720
13-0000 Business and Financial Operations Occupations                6,789.2    7,961.7   1,172.5    17.3      60,670
19-0000 Life, Physical, and Social Science Occupations               1,228.8    1,419.6     190.8    15.5      58,530
25-0000 Education, Training, and Library Occupations                 9,193.6   10,597.3   1,403.7    15.3      45,690
53-0000 Transportation and Material Moving Occupations               9,004.8   10,333.4   1,328.7    14.8      28,400
49-0000 Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Occupations            5,428.6    6,228.7     800.2    14.7      40,120
27-0000 Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media Occupations   2,708.5    3,051.0     342.5    12.6      42,870
41-0000 Sales and Related Occupations                               14,915.6   16,784.7   1,869.1    12.5      24,370
37-0000 Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance Occupations    5,498.5    6,162.5     664.0    12.1      22,490
33-0000 Protective Service Occupations                               3,302.5    3,667.0     364.5    11.0      36,660
23-0000 Legal Occupations                                            1,211.9    1,342.9     131.0    10.8      74,580
17-0000 Architecture and Engineering Occupations                     2,433.4    2,686.2     252.8    10.4      70,610
43-0000 Office and Administrative Support Occupations               22,602.5   24,938.2   2,335.7    10.3      30,710
35-0000 Food Preparation and Serving Related Occupations            11,150.3   12,242.8   1,092.5     9.8      18,770
11-0000 Management Occupations                                       8,776.1    9,391.9     615.8     7.0      91,440
51-0000 Production Occupations                                       8,594.4    8,951.2     356.8     4.2      30,330
45-0000 Farming, Fishing, and Forestry Occupations                     972.1      952.6     -19.4    -2.0      19,630

Sources:  Employment data - Employment Projections Program, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics; Wage data - Occupational
Employment Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics




Table 6. The 30 occupations with the largest projected employment growth, 2010-20
(In thousands)
                      Occupation                                         Occupational group                       Employment       Change                        Pre-employment                    During employment
                                                                                                                 2010    2020  Number Percent  Typical education needed   Work experience   Typical on-the-job training(3)
                                                                                                                                               for entry(1)               in a related 
                                                                                                                                                                          occupation(2)

Registered nurses                                      Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations     2,737.4 3,449.3   711.9    26.0  Associate's degree             None          None
Retail salespersons                                    Sales and Related Occupations                          4,261.6 4,968.4   706.8    16.6  Less than high school          None          Short-term on-the-job training
Home health aides                                      Healthcare Support Occupations                         1,017.7 1,723.9   706.3    69.4  Less than high school          None          Short-term on-the-job training
Personal care aides                                    Personal Care and Service Occupations                    861.0 1,468.0   607.0    70.5  Less than high school          None          Short-term on-the-job training
Office clerks, general                                 Office and Administrative Support Occupations          2,950.7 3,440.2   489.5    16.6  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                                 equivalent                   None          Short-term on-the-job training
Combined food preparation and serving workers, 
  including fast food                                  Food Preparation and Serving Related Occupations       2,682.1 3,080.1   398.0    14.8  Less than high school          None          Short-term on-the-job training
Customer service representatives                       Office and Administrative Support Occupations          2,187.3 2,525.6   338.4    15.5  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                                 equivalent                   None          Short-term on-the-job training
Heavy and tractor-trailer truck drivers                Transportation and Material Moving Occupations         1,604.8 1,934.9   330.1    20.6  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                                 equivalent                   1 to 5 years  Short-term on-the-job training
Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand Transportation and Material Moving Occupations         2,068.2 2,387.3   319.1    15.4  Less than high school          None          Short-term on-the-job training
Postsecondary teachers                                 Education, Training, and Library Occupations           1,756.0 2,061.7   305.7    17.4  Doctoral or professional 
                                                                                                                                                 degree                       None          None
Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants               Healthcare Support Occupations                         1,505.3 1,807.2   302.0    20.1  Postsecondary non-degree award None          None
Childcare workers                                      Personal Care and Service Occupations                  1,282.3 1,544.3   262.0    20.4  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                                 equivalent                   None          Short-term on-the-job training
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks           Office and Administrative Support Occupations          1,898.3 2,157.4   259.0    13.6  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                                 equivalent                   None          Moderate-term on-the-job training
Cashiers                                               Sales and Related Occupations                          3,362.6 3,612.8   250.2     7.4  Less than high school          None          Short-term on-the-job training
Elementary school teachers, except special education   Education, Training, and Library Occupations           1,476.5 1,725.3   248.8    16.8  Bachelor's degree              None          Internship/residency
Receptionists and information clerks                   Office and Administrative Support Occupations          1,048.5 1,297.0   248.5    23.7  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                                 equivalent                   None          Short-term on-the-job training
Janitors and cleaners, except maids and housekeeping   Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance
  cleaners                                               Occupations                                          2,310.4 2,556.8   246.4    10.7  Less than high school          None          Short-term on-the-job training
Landscaping and groundskeeping workers                 Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance 
                                                         Occupations                                          1,151.5 1,392.3   240.8    20.9  Less than high school          None          Short-term on-the-job training
Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing, 
  except technical and scientific products             Sales and Related Occupations                          1,430.0 1,653.4   223.4    15.6  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                                 equivalent                   None          Moderate-term on-the-job training
Construction laborers                                  Construction and Extraction Occupations                  998.8 1,211.2   212.4    21.3  Less than high school          None          Short-term on-the-job training
Medical secretaries                                    Office and Administrative Support Occupations            508.7   718.9   210.2    41.3  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                                 equivalent                   None          Moderate-term on-the-job training
First-line supervisors of office and administrative 
  support workers                                      Office and Administrative Support Occupations          1,424.4 1,627.8   203.4    14.3  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                                 equivalent                   1 to 5 years  None
Carpenters                                             Construction and Extraction Occupations                1,001.7 1,197.6   196.0    19.6  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                                 equivalent                   None          Apprenticeship
Waiters and waitresses                                 Food Preparation and Serving Related Occupations       2,260.3 2,456.2   195.9     8.7  Less than high school          None          Short-term on-the-job training
Security guards                                        Protective Service Occupations                         1,035.7 1,230.7   195.0    18.8  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                                 equivalent                   None          Short-term on-the-job training
Teacher assistants                                     Education, Training, and Library Occupations           1,288.3 1,479.3   191.1    14.8  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                                 equivalent                   None          Short-term on-the-job training
Accountants and auditors                               Business and Financial Operations Occupations          1,216.9 1,407.6   190.7    15.7  Bachelor's degree              None          None
Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses      Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations       752.3   920.8   168.5    22.4  Postsecondary non-degree award None          None
Physicians and surgeons                                Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations       691.0   859.3   168.3    24.4  Doctoral or professional 
                                                                                                                                                 degree                       None          Internship/residency
Medical assistants                                     Healthcare Support Occupations                           527.6   690.4   162.9    30.9  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                                 equival                      None          Moderate-term on-the-job training

1 Represents the typical education level needed to enter the occupation.
2 Indicates if work experience in a related occupation is commonly considered necessary by employers for entry, or is a commonly accepted substitute for formal types of training.
3 Indicates the typical on-the-job training needed to attain competency in the occupation.
NOTE:  For more information about the education, work experience, and on-the-job training categories assigned to occupations, see www.bls.gov/emp/ep_education_training_system.htm




Table 7. The 30 occupations with the fastest projected employment growth, 2010-20
(In thousands)
                    Occupation                                    Occupational group                    Employment       Change                    Pre-employment                       During employment
                                                                                                       2010    2020  Number Percent Typical education needed Work experience      Typical on-the-job training(3)
                                                                                                                                    for entry(1)             in a related 
                                                                                                                                                             occupation(2)

Personal care aides                                  Personal Care and Service Occupations            861.0 1,468.0   607.0    70.5  Less than high school       None             Short-term on-the-job training
Home health aides                                    Healthcare Support Occupations                 1,017.7 1,723.9   706.3    69.4  Less than high school       None             Short-term on-the-job training
Biomedical engineers                                 Architecture and Engineering Occupations          15.7    25.4     9.7    61.7  Bachelor's degree           None             None
Helpers--brickmasons, blockmasons, stonemasons, and  
  tile and marble setters                            Construction and Extraction Occupations           29.4    47.0    17.6    60.1  Less than high school       None             Short-term on-the-job training
Helpers--carpenters                                  Construction and Extraction Occupations           46.5    72.4    25.9    55.7  Less than high school       None             Short-term on-the-job training
Veterinary technologists and technicians             Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 
                                                       Occupations                                     80.2   121.9    41.7    52.0  Associate's degree          None             None
Reinforcing iron and rebar workers                   Construction and Extraction Occupations           19.1    28.4     9.3    48.6  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                       equivalent                None             Apprenticeship
Physical therapist assistants                        Healthcare Support Occupations                    67.4    98.2    30.8    45.7  Associate's degree          None             None
Helpers--pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters, and 
  steamfitters                                       Construction and Extraction Occupations           57.9    84.2    26.3    45.4  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                       equivalent                None             Short-term on-the-job training
Meeting, convention, and event planners              Business and Financial Operations Occupations     71.6   102.9    31.3    43.7  Bachelor's degree           Less than 1 year None
Diagnostic medical sonographers                      Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 
                                                       Occupations                                     53.7    77.1    23.4    43.5  Associate's degree          None             None
Occupational therapy assistants                      Healthcare Support Occupations                    28.5    40.8    12.3    43.3  Associate's degree          None             None
Physical therapist aides                             Healthcare Support Occupations                    47.0    67.3    20.3    43.1  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                       equivalent                None             Moderate-term on-the-job training
Glaziers                                             Construction and Extraction Occupations           41.9    59.6    17.7    42.4  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                       equivalent                None             Apprenticeship
Interpreters and translators                         Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media
                                                       Occupations                                     58.4    83.1    24.6    42.2  Bachelor's degree           None             Long-term on-the-job training
Medical secretaries                                  Office and Administrative Support Occupations    508.7   718.9   210.2    41.3  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                       equivalent                None             Moderate-term on-the-job training
Market research analysts and marketing specialists   Business and Financial Operations Occupations    282.7   399.3   116.6    41.2  Bachelor's degree           None             None
Marriage and family therapists                       Community and Social Service Occupations          36.0    50.8    14.8    41.2  Master's degree             None             Internship/residency
Brickmasons and blockmasons                          Construction and Extraction Occupations           89.2   125.3    36.1    40.5  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                       equivalent                None             Apprenticeship
Physical therapists                                  Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 
                                                       Occupations                                    198.6   276.0    77.4    39.0  Doctoral or professional 
                                                                                                                                       degree                    None             None
Dental hygienists                                    Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 
                                                       Occupations                                    181.8   250.3    68.5    37.7  Associate's degree          None             None
Bicycle repairers                                    Installation, Maintenance, and Repair 
                                                       Occupations                                      9.9    13.6     3.7    37.6  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                       equivalent                None             Moderate-term on-the-job training
Audiologists                                         Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 
                                                       Occupations                                     13.0    17.8     4.8    36.8  Doctoral or professional 
                                                                                                                                       degree                    None             None
Health educators                                     Community and Social Service Occupations          63.4    86.6    23.2    36.5  Bachelor's degree           None             None
Stonemasons                                          Construction and Extraction Occupations           15.6    21.4     5.7    36.5  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                       equivalent                None             Apprenticeship
Cost estimators                                      Business and Financial Operations Occupations    185.4   252.9    67.5    36.4  Bachelor's degree           None             None
Medical scientists, except epidemiologists           Life, Physical, and Social Science Occupations   100.0   136.5    36.4    36.4  Doctoral or professional 
                                                                                                                                       degree                    None             None
Mental health counselors                             Community and Social Service Occupations         120.3   163.9    43.6    36.3  Master's degree             None             Internship/residency
Pile-driver operators                                Construction and Extraction Occupations            4.1     5.6     1.5    36.0  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                       equivalent                None             Moderate-term on-the-job training
Veterinarians                                        Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 
                                                       Occupations                                     61.4    83.4    22.0    35.9  Doctoral or professional 
                                                                                                                                       degree                    None             None

1 Represents the typical education level needed to enter the occupation.
2 Indicates if work experience in a related occupation is commonly considered necessary by employers for entry, or is a commonly accepted substitute for formal types of training.
3 Indicates the typical on-the-job training needed to attain competency in the occupation.
NOTE:  For more information about the education, work experience, and on-the-job training categories assigned to occupations, see www.bls.gov/emp/ep_education_training_system.htm.




Table 8. The 30 occupations with the largest projected employment declines, 2010-20
(In thousands)
                     Occupation                                    Occupational group                   Employment       Change                       Pre-employment                        During employment
                                                                                                       2010    2020  Number Percent Typical education needed     Work experience in     Typical on-the-job training(3)
                                                                                                                                    for entry(1)                 a related 
                                                                                                                                                                 occupation(2)

Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers   Management Occupations                         1,202.5 1,106.4   -96.1    -8.0  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                       equivalent                   More than 5 years  None
Postal Service mail sorters, processors, and 
  processing machine operators                       Office and Administrative Support Occupations    142.0    73.0   -68.9   -48.5  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                       equivalent                   None               Short-term on-the-job training
Sewing machine operators                             Production Occupations                           163.2   121.1   -42.1   -25.8  Less than high school          None               Short-term on-the-job training
Postal Service mail carriers                         Office and Administrative Support Occupations    316.7   278.5   -38.1   -12.0  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                       equivalent                   None               Short-term on-the-job training
Switchboard operators, including answering service   Office and Administrative Support Occupations    142.5   109.3   -33.2   -23.3  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                       equivalent                   None               Short-term on-the-job training
Postal Service clerks                                Office and Administrative Support Occupations     65.6    34.0   -31.6   -48.2  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                       equivalent                   None               Short-term on-the-job training
Cooks, fast food                                     Food Preparation and Serving Related
                                                       Occupations                                    530.4   511.4   -19.1    -3.6  Less than high school          None               Short-term on-the-job training
Miscellaneous agricultural workers                   Farming, Fishing, and Forestry Occupations       746.4   727.3   -19.1    -2.6  Less than high school          None               Short-term on-the-job training
Data entry keyers                                    Office and Administrative Support Occupations    234.7   218.8   -15.9    -6.8  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                       equivalent                   None               Moderate-term on-the-job training
Word processors and typists                          Office and Administrative Support Occupations    115.3   102.1   -13.2   -11.5  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                       equivalent                   None               Short-term on-the-job training
Door-to-Door Sales Workers, News and Street Vendors,
  and Related Workers                                Sales and Related Occupations                    153.8   142.3   -11.5    -7.5  High school diploma 
                                                                                                                                       equivalent                   None               Short-term on-the-job training
Food Service Managers                                Management Occupations                           320.6   310.0   -10.6    -3.3  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                       equivalent                   1 to 5 years       None
Electrical and Electronic Equipment Assemblers       Production Occupations                           182.9   172.4   -10.4    -5.7  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                       equivalent                   None               Short-term on-the-job training
File Clerks                                          Office and Administrative Support Occupations    185.0   176.2    -8.8    -4.8  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                       equivalent                   None               Short-term on-the-job training
Prepress Technicians and Workers                     Production Occupations                            50.8    42.8    -8.1   -15.9  Postsecondary non-degree award None               None
Computer Operators                                   Office and Administrative Support Occupations     86.4    78.9    -7.4    -8.6  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                       equivalent                   None               Moderate-term on-the-job training
Postmasters and Mail Superintendents                 Management Occupations                            24.5    17.7    -6.8   -27.8  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                       equivalent                   1 to 5 years       Moderate-term on-the-job training
Office Machine Operators, Except Computer            Production Occupations                            69.8    63.0    -6.8    -9.7  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                       equivalent                   None               Short-term on-the-job training
Pressers, Textile, Garment, and Related Materials    Office and Administrative Support Occupations     57.8    51.0    -6.8   -11.8  Less than high school          None               Short-term on-the-job training
Floral Designers                                     Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media
                                                       Occupations                                     66.5    60.3    -6.2    -9.3  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                       equivalent                   None               Short-term on-the-job training
Petroleum Pump System Operators, Refinery Operators,
  and Gaugers                                        Production Occupations                            44.2    38.0    -6.2   -14.0  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                       equivalent                   None               Long-term on-the-job training
Loan Interviewers and Clerks                         Office and Administrative Support Occupations    182.5   176.8    -5.7    -3.1  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                       equivalent                   None               Short-term on-the-job training
Paper Goods Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders  Production Occupations                            90.9    85.3    -5.5    -6.1  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                       equivalent                   None               Moderate-term on-the-job training
Chemical Plant and System Operators                  Production Occupations                            43.3    38.0    -5.3   -12.2  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                       equivalent                   None               Long-term on-the-job training
Photographic Process Workers and Processing Machine 
  Operators                                          Production Occupations                            58.7    54.2    -4.5    -7.7  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                       equivalent                   None               Short-term on-the-job training
Textile Knitting and Weaving Machine Setters, 
  Operators, and Tenders                             Production Occupations                            22.5    18.4    -4.1   -18.2  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                       equivalent                   None               Moderate-term on-the-job training
Reporters and Correspondents                         Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media
                                                       Occupations                                     51.9    48.0    -3.9    -7.5  Bachelor's degree              None               None
Semiconductor Processors                             Production Occupations                            21.1    17.3    -3.8   -17.9  Associate's degree             None               Moderate-term on-the-job training
Textile Winding, Twisting, and Drawing Out Machine 
  Setters, Operators, and Tenders                    Production Occupations                            29.0    25.4    -3.6   -12.4  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                       equivalent                   None               Moderate-term on-the-job training
Chemical Equipment Operators and Tenders             Production Occupations                            47.4    43.8    -3.5    -7.5  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                       equivalent                   None               Moderate-term on-the-job training

1 Represents the typical education level needed to enter the occupation.
2 Indicates if work experience in a related occupation is commonly considered necessary by employers for entry, or is a commonly accepted substitute for formal types of training.
3 Indicates the typical on-the-job training needed to attain competency in the occupation.
NOTE:  For more information about the education, work experience, and on-the-job training categories assigned to occupations, see www.bls.gov/emp/ep_education_training_system.htm.




Table 9. Employment and total job openings by education, work experience, and on-the-job training 
category, 2010 and projected 2020
(In thousands)

Education, work experience, and                          Employment                           Total job openings
      on-the-job training                                           Percent    Change, 2010-20 due to growth and
                                                    Number       distribution                  replacement needs,
                                                                                                   2010-20(1)
                                                2010       2020   2010   2020   Number Percent    Number   Percent
                                                							 distribution

Typical education needed for entry(2)
     Total, all occupations...........     143,068.2  163,537.1  100.0  100.0  20,468.9   14.3  54,787.4   100.0
Doctoral or professional degree.......       4,409.7    5,286.3    3.1    3.2     876.6   19.9   1,701.8     3.1
Master's degree.......................       1,986.0    2,417.2    1.4    1.5     431.2   21.7     903.9     1.6
Bachelor's degree.....................      22,171.1   25,827.2   15.5   15.8   3,656.1   16.5   8,562.4    15.6
Associate's degree....................       7,994.6    9,434.6    5.6    5.8   1,440.0   18.0   2,941.0     5.4
Postsecondary non-degree award........       6,524.0    7,624.9    4.6    4.7   1,100.9   16.9   2,389.6     4.4
Some college, no degree...............         811.6      953.8    0.6    0.6     142.2   17.5     362.0     0.7
High school diploma or equivalent.....      62,089.6   69,665.7   43.4   42.6   7,576.1   12.2  21,745.9    39.7
Less than high school.................      37,081.7   42,327.4   25.9   25.9   5,245.7   14.1  16,180.8    29.5

Work experience in a related occupation(3)
     Total, all occupations...........     143,068.2  163,537.1  100.0  100.0  20,468.9   14.3  54,787.4   100.0
More than 5 years.....................       4,612.4    4,956.0    3.2    3.0     343.6    7.4   1,368.5     2.5
1 to 5 years..........................      17,103.0   19,078.2   12.0   11.7   1,975.2   11.5   5,638.7    10.3
Less than 1 year......................       3,129.6    3,535.2    2.2    2.2     405.6   13.0   1,125.2     2.1
None..................................     118,223.3  135,967.7   82.6   83.1  17,744.5   15.0  46,654.9    85.2

Typical on-the-job training(4)
     Total, all occupations...........     143,068.2  163,537.1  100.0  100.0  20,468.9   14.3  54,787.4   100.0
Internship/residency..................       5,374.2    6,271.5    3.8    3.8     897.3   16.7   2,193.6     4.0
Apprenticeship........................       2,539.0    3,109.2    1.8    1.9     570.2   22.5   1,183.0     2.2
Long-term.............................       7,039.0    7,920.5    4.9    4.8     881.5   12.5   2,545.5     4.6
Moderate-term.........................      25,007.0   28,244.5   17.5   17.3   3,237.5   12.9   8,682.0    15.8
Short-term............................      58,171.0   66,040.0   40.7   40.4   7,869.0   13.5  23,767.8    43.4
None..................................      44,937.9   51,951.3   31.4   31.8   7,013.4   15.6  16,415.5    30.0

1 Total job openings represent the sum of employment increases and replacement needs. If employment change is
negative, job openings due to growth are zero and total job openings equals replacements.
2 Represents the typical education level needed to enter the occupation.
3 Indicates if work experience in a related occupation is commonly considered necessary by employers for entry, or
is commonly accepted substitute for formal training.
4 Indicates the typical on-the-job training needed to attain competency in the occupation.
NOTE:  For more information about the education, work experience, and on-the-job training categories assigned to
occupations, see www.bls.gov/emp/ep_education_training_system.htm.




Table 10.  The 30 occupations with the largest projected number of total job openings due to growth and replacements, 2010-20
(In thousands)
                  Occupation                                Occupational group                    Employment       Change     Replacement     Total job             Pre-employment                      During employment
                                                                                                 2010    2020  Number Percent needs        openings due  Typical education needed Work experience Typical on-the-job training(4)
                                                                                                                                          to growth and  for entry(2)             in a related
                                                                                                                                          replacements(1)                         occupation(3)

Retail Salespersons                            Sales and Related Occupations                  4,261.6 4,968.4   706.8    16.6     1,251.9       1,958.7  Less than high school       None         Short-term on-the-job training
Cashiers                                       Sales and Related Occupations                  3,362.6 3,612.8   250.2     7.4     1,525.7       1,775.9  Less than high school       None         Short-term on-the-job training
Waiters and Waitresses                         Food Preparation and Serving Related 
                                                 Occupations                                  2,260.3 2,456.2   195.9     8.7     1,128.4       1,324.3  Less than high school       None         Short-term on-the-job training
Registered Nurses                              Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 
                                                 Occupations                                  2,737.4 3,449.3   711.9    26.0       495.5       1,207.4  Associate's degree          None         None
Combined Food Preparation and Serving Workers, 
  Including Fast Food                          Food Preparation and Serving Related 
                                                 Occupations                                  2,682.1 3,080.1   398.0    14.8       748.5       1,146.5  Less than high school       None         Short-term on-the-job training
Office Clerks, General                         Office and Administrative Support Occupations  2,950.7 3,440.2   489.5    16.6       522.0       1,011.5  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                                           equivalent                None         Short-term on-the-job training
Laborers and Freight, Stock, and Material 
  Movers, Hand                                 Transportation and Material Moving Occupations 2,068.2 2,387.3   319.1    15.4       661.1         980.2  Less than high school       None         Short-term on-the-job training
Customer Service Representatives               Office and Administrative Support Occupations  2,187.3 2,525.6   338.4    15.5       621.2         959.6  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                                           equivalent                None         Short-term on-the-job training
Home Health Aides                              Healthcare Support Occupations                 1,017.7 1,723.9   706.3    69.4       131.2         837.5  Less than high school       None         Short-term on-the-job training
Janitors and Cleaners, Except Maids and 
  Housekeeping Cleaners                        Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance 
                                                 Occupations                                  2,310.4 2,556.8   246.4    10.7       435.6         682.0  Less than high school       None         Short-term on-the-job training
Personal Care Aides                            Personal Care and Service Occupations            861.0 1,468.0   607.0    70.5        68.2         675.2  Less than high school       None         Short-term on-the-job training
Childcare Workers                              Personal Care and Service Occupations          1,282.3 1,544.3   262.0    20.4       403.8         665.8  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                                           equivalent                None         Short-term on-the-job training
Heavy and Tractor-Trailer Truck Drivers        Transportation and Material Moving Occupations 1,604.8 1,934.9   330.1    20.6       319.3         649.4  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                                           equivalent                1 to 5 year  Short-term on-the-job training
Postsecondary Teachers                         Education, Training, and Library Occupations   1,756.0 2,061.7   305.7    17.4       280.4         586.1  Doctoral or professional 
                                                                                                                                                           degree                    None         None
First-Line Supervisors of Office and 
  Administrative Support Workers               Office and Administrative Support Occupations  1,424.4 1,627.8   203.4    14.3       381.0         584.4  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                                           equivalent                1 to 5 year  None
Elementary School Teachers, Except Special 
  Education                                    Education, Training, and Library Occupations   1,476.5 1,725.3   248.8    16.8       324.4         573.2  Bachelor's degree           None         Internship/residency
Receptionists and Information Clerks           Office and Administrative Support Occupations  1,048.5 1,297.0   248.5    23.7       317.1         565.6  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                                           equivalent                None         Short-term on-the-job training
Sales Representatives, Wholesale and 
  Manufacturing. Except Technical and
  Scientific Products                          Sales and Related Occupations                  1,430.0 1,653.4   223.4    15.6       336.5         559.9  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                                           equivalent                None         Moderate-term on-the-job training
First-Line Supervisors of Retail Sales Workers Sales and Related Occupations                  1,619.5 1,755.5   136.0     8.4       377.7         513.7  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                                           equivalent                1 to 5 year  None
Nursing Aides, Orderlies, and Attendants       Healthcare Support Occupations                 1,505.3 1,807.2   302.0    20.1       194.1         496.1  Postsecondary non-degree 
                                                                                                                                                           award                     None         None
Teacher Assistants                             Education, Training, and Library Occupations   1,288.3 1,479.3   191.1    14.8       290.5         481.6  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                                           equivalent                None         Short-term on-the-job training
Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks   Office and Administrative Support Occupations  1,898.3 2,157.4   259.0    13.6       208.8         467.8  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                                           equivalent                None         Moderate-term on-the-job training
Stock Clerks and Order Fillers                 Office and Administrative Support Occupations  1,787.4 1,808.3    20.9     1.2       444.1         465.0  Less than high school       None         Short-term on-the-job training
Accountants and Auditors                       Business and Financial Operations Occupations  1,216.9 1,407.6   190.7    15.7       261.4         452.1  Bachelor's degree           None         None
Landscaping and Groundskeeping Workers         Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance
                                                 Occupations                                  1,151.5 1,392.3   240.8    20.9       203.6         444.4  Less than high school       None         Short-term on-the-job training
General and Operations Managers                Management Occupations                         1,767.1 1,848.6    81.6     4.6       328.5         410.1  Associate's degree          1 to 5 year  None
Carpenters                                     Construction and Extraction Occupations        1,001.7 1,197.6   196.0    19.6       212.3         408.3  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                                           equivalent                None         Apprenticeship
Secretaries and Administrative Assistants, 
  Except Legal, Medical, and Executive         Office and Administrative Support Occupations  2,032.2 2,150.8   118.5     5.8       272.5         391.0  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                                           equivalent                None         Short-term on-the-job training
Maintenance and Repair Workers, General        Installation, Maintenance, and Repair 
                                                 Occupations                                  1,289.0 1,431.0   142.0    11.0       237.1         379.1  High school diploma or 
                                                                                                                                                           equivalent                None         Moderate-term on-the-job training
Food Preparation Workers                       Food Preparation and Serving Related 
                                                 Occupations                                    813.7   897.9    84.1    10.3       293.0         377.1  Less than high school       None         Short-term on-the-job training

1 Total job openings represent the sum of employment increases and replacements.  If employment change is negative, job openings due to growth are zero and total job openings equal replacements.  For more 
information about occupational replacement needs, see "Estimating Occupational Replacement Needs," on the Internet at www.bls.gov/emp/ep_replacements.htm.
2 Represents the typical education level needed to enter the occupation.
3 Indicates if work experience in a related occupation is commonly considered necessary by employers for entry, or is a commonly accepted substitute for formal types of training.
4 Indicates the typical on-the-job training needed to attain competency in the occupation.
NOTE:  For more information about the education, work experience, and on-the-job training categories assigned to occupations, see www.bls.gov/emp/ep_education_training_system.htm.




Last Modified Date: February 01, 2012
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