Economic News Release

Employment Projections: 2008-18 News Release


For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Thursday, December 10, 2009          USDL-09-1503

Technical information:  (202) 691-5700  *  ep-info@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/emp
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


   NOTE: This release was reissued on Friday, December 11, 2009, to correct
   the website address in the footnote in tables 6-10.  This correction did 
   not affect any data or analysis in the release.
     
     
                            EMPLOYMENT PROJECTIONS--2008-18                  

Total employment is projected to increase by 15.3 million, or 10.1 percent, 
during the 2008-18 period, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. 
The projections show an aging and more racially and ethnically diverse labor 
force, and employment growth in service-providing industries. More than half of 
the new jobs will be in professional and related occupations and service occupa-
tions. In addition, occupations where a postsecondary degree or award is usually 
required are expected to account for one-third of total job openings during the 
projection period. Job openings from replacement needs--those which occur when 
workers who retire or otherwise leave their occupations need to be replaced--
are projected to be more than double the number of openings due to economic 
growth.

The projected growth for the 2008-18 period is larger than the increase of 10.4 
million over the 1998-2008 period, or 7.4 percent. The relatively slow growth 
rate for the earlier 10-year period was affected by the recession which began 
in December 2007, and the projected growth rate is higher than would otherwise 
be expected because the 2008 starting point is a recession year.

This news release focuses on four areas for which BLS develops projections--labor 
force, industry employment, occupational employment, and education and training.

Labor Force

The civilian labor force is projected to grow by 12.6 million between 2008 and 
2018, to 166.9 million persons. Slower population growth and a decreasing over-
all labor force participation rate are expected to contribute to a slowdown in 
labor force growth. The projected 8.2-percent increase for the 2008-18 period 
is less than the 12.1-percent growth that occurred between 1998 and 2008. (See 
table 1.)

As the members of the large baby boom generation grow older and continue their 
trend of increased labor force participation, the number of persons age 55 years 
and older in the labor force is expected to increase by 12.0 million, or 43.0 
percent, during the 2008-18 period. Persons in the 55 years and older age group 
are projected to make up nearly one-quarter of the labor force in 2018. Young 
people (age 16-24) are expected to account for 12.7 percent of the labor force 
in 2018, and persons in the prime-age working group (age 25 to 54) to account 
for 63.5 percent of the 2018 labor force.

The labor force in 2018 will be more diverse. As a result of higher population 
growth among minorities--due to higher birth rates and increased immigration, 
along with higher labor force participation rates by Hispanics and Asians--the 
share of the labor force held by minorities is projected to increase signifi-
cantly. Whites will remain the largest race group in the labor force in 2018 
(79.4 percent) despite growing by just 5.5 percent between 2008 and 2018. The 
number of Asians in the labor force is projected to increase by 29.8 percent 
and the number of blacks by 14.1 percent. In 2018, Asians are projected to com-
prise 5.6 percent of the labor force and blacks to make up 12.1 percent.

Hispanics (who can be of any race) will join the labor force in greater numbers 
than non-Hispanics. The number of Hispanics in the labor force is projected to 
grow by 7.3 million or 33.1 percent. Their share of the labor force will expand 
from 14.3 percent in 2008 to 17.6 percent in 2018. In contrast, the number of per-
sons in the labor force not of Hispanic origin is expected to grow by 4.0 percent, 
and their share of the labor force to decline to 82.4 percent. 

Industry Employment

Projected employment growth is concentrated in the service-providing sector, con-
tinuing a long-term shift from the goods-producing sector of the economy. From 
2008 to 2018, service-providing industries are projected to add 14.6 million 
jobs, or 96 percent of the increase in total employment. The 2 industry sectors 
expected to have the largest employment growth are professional and business 
services (4.2 million) and health care and social assistance (4.0 million). 
Goods-producing employment, as a whole, is expected to show virtually no growth. 
While employment in the construction industry is projected to increase by 1.3 
million, declines in manufacturing (-1.2 million) and mining (-104,000) will 
nearly offset this growth. By 2018, the goods-producing sector is expected to 
account for 12.9 percent of total jobs, down from 17.3 percent in 1998 and 14.2 
percent in 2008. (See table 2.)

Three of the 10 detailed industries projected to have the most employment growth 
are in professional and business services: management, scientific, and technical 
consulting; computer systems design; and employment services. Altogether, these 
3 industries are expected to add 2.1 million jobs. Four of the top 10 gainers 
are in health care and social assistance industries. Employment in offices of
physicians, home health care, services for the elderly and persons with disabil-
ities, and nursing care facilities is expected to grow by 2.0 million. (See 
table 3.)

Of the 10 detailed industries with the largest projected employment declines, 
4 are in the manufacturing sector and 2 each are within retail trade and in-
formation. The largest decline among the detailed industries is expected to 
be in department stores, with a loss of 159,000 jobs, followed by manufacturers 
of semiconductors (-146,000) and motor vehicle parts (-101,000). (See table 4.)

Occupational Employment

Two major occupational groups--professional and related occupations and service 
occupations--are projected to provide more than half of the total employment 
growth during the 2008-18 period. Production occupations are projected to decline. 
The 30 detailed occupations with the largest gains in employment are expected to 
account for nearly half of all new jobs, and 17 of these occupations are profes-
sional and related occupations and service occupations. The detailed occupation 
projected to add the most jobs is registered nurses (582,000), followed by home 
health aides (461,000) and customer service representatives (400,000). All but 3 
of the top 30 fastest-growing detailed occupations are found within professional 
and related occupations and service occupations. Seventeen of these rapidly grow-
ing occupations are related to healthcare or medical research. (See tables 5, 6, 
and 7.)

Of the 30 detailed occupations projected to have the largest employment declines, 
12 are production occupations and 11 are office and administrative support occupa-
tions. (See table 8.)

Education and Training

Occupations that usually require a postsecondary degree or award are expected to 
account for nearly half of all new jobs from 2008 to 2018 and one-third of total 
job openings. Among the education and training categories, the fastest growth will 
occur in occupations requiring an associate degree. (See table 9.)

Short- and moderate-term on-the-job training are the most significant sources of 
postsecondary education or training for 17 of the 30 detailed occupations projected 
to have the largest employment growth. However, in terms of percent growth, 14 of 
the 30 fastest growing detailed occupations have a bachelor's degree or higher as 
the most significant source of postsecondary education or training. (See tables 6 
and 7.)

Of the 30 detailed occupations projected to have the largest employment declines, 
17 are classified as having short-term on-the-job training as the most significant 
source of education and training, and 10 are in the moderate-term on-the-job train-
ing category. (See table 8.)

Total job openings during the 2008-18 period are projected to be 50.9 million, and 
19.6 million of these jobs are expected to be in the short-term on-the-job training 
category. Sixteen of the 30 detailed occupations with the most job openings will 
have short-term on-the-job training as the most significant source of education and 
training. (See tables 9 and 10.)

A Note on Labor Shortages in the Context of Long-Term Economic Projections

Users of these data should not assume that the difference between the projected in-
crease in the labor force and the projected increase in employment implies a labor 
shortage or surplus. Employment and labor force measures differ in concept. Employ-
ment is a count of jobs, and persons who hold more than one job would be counted for 
each job. Labor force is a count of individuals, and a person is counted only once 
regardless of how many jobs he or she holds. In addition, the BLS projections assume 
a labor market in equilibrium, that is, one where labor supply meets labor demand 
except for some degree of frictional unemployment. For a discussion of the basic 
projection methodology, see "Employment projections, 2008-18," Kristina Bartsch, 
November 2009 Monthly Labor Review.

More Information

The 10-year projections of industry and occupational employment, labor force, and 
economic growth are widely used in career guidance, in education and training pro-
gram planning, and in studying long-range employment trends. The projections, 
which are updated every 2 years, provide information to individuals who are making 
decisions regarding education and training, entering the job market, or changing 
careers.

More detailed information on the 2008-18 projections appears in five articles in 
the November 2009 issue of the Monthly Labor Review, published by the Bureau of 
Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. The Monthly Labor Review is available 
online at www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/mlrhome.htm.

The 2010-11 editions of the Occupational Outlook Handbook and the Career Guide to 
Industries will feature the 2008-18 projections in assessing job prospects, work 
activities, wages, education and training requirements, and more for numerous occu-
pations and industries. The updated Handbook and Career Guide will be available
online on December 17, 2009, at www.bls.gov/oco and www.bls.gov/oco/cg/, respec-
tively. A graphic presentation of the highlights of the projections appears in the 
Winter 2009-10 issue of the Occupational Outlook Quarterly, available online on 
December 10, 2009, at www.bls.gov/ooq.

Tables with detailed, comprehensive statistics used in preparing the projections 
are available online at www.bls.gov/emp/tables.htm and projections methodology 
can be accessed at www.bls.gov/emp/ep_projections_methods.htm.

Print versions of the Occupational Outlook Handbook and Occupational Outlook Quar-
terly are sold by the U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20401. To 
order, visit www.bls.gov/emp/ep_current_publications.htm.

Information from this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals 
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Services: (800) 877-8339.





Table 1.  Civilian labor force by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin, 1998, 2008, and projected 2018
(In thousands)

Age, sex, race, and ethnicity              Level               Change      Percent change    Percent distribution   Average annual
                                                                                                                    rate of change
                                                                                                                                  
                                  1998     2008    2018    1998-    2008-   1998-   2008-    1998   2008    2018     1998-   2008-
                                                           2008     2018    2008    2018                             2008    2018

Total, 16 years and older.....  137,673  154,287  166,911  16,614  12,624    12.1    8.2    100.0   100.0   100.0     1.1     0.8

Age, years:
   16 to 24...................   21,894   22,032   21,131     138    -901      .6   -4.1     15.9    14.3    12.7      .1     -.4
   25 to 54...................   98,718  104,396  105,944   5,678   1,548     5.8    1.5     71.7    67.7    63.5      .6      .1
   55 and older...............   17,061   27,857   39,836  10,796  11,979    63.3   43.0     12.4    18.1    23.9     5.0     3.6

Sex:
   Men........................   73,959   82,520   88,682   8,561   6,162    11.6    7.5     53.7    53.5    53.1     1.1      .7
   Women......................   63,714   71,767   78,229   8,053   6,462    12.6    9.0     46.3    46.5    46.9     1.2      .9

Race:
   White......................  115,415  125,635  132,490  10,220   6,855     8.9    5.5     83.8    81.4    79.4      .9      .5
   Black......................   15,982   17,740   20,244   1,758   2,504    11.0   14.1     11.6    11.5    12.1     1.0     1.3
   Asian......................    6,278    7,202    9,345     924   2,143    14.7   29.8      4.6     4.7     5.6     1.4     2.6
   All other groups (1).......     -       3,710    4,832    -      1,122      -    30.2      -       2.4     2.9      -      2.7

Ethnicity:
   Hispanic origin............   14,317   22,024   29,304   7,707   7,280    53.8   33.1     10.4    14.3    17.6     4.4     2.9
   Other than Hispanic origin.  123,356  132,263  137,607   8,907   5,344     7.2    4.0     89.6    85.7    82.4      .7      .4
      White non-Hispanic......  101,767  105,210  106,834   3,443   1,624     3.4    1.5     73.9    68.2    64.0      .3      .2


   1 The "all other groups" category includes (1) those classified as being of multiple racial origin and (2) the race categories 
of (2a) American Indian and Alaska Native and (2b) Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islanders.
   NOTE:  Dash indicates no data collected for category.  Details may not sum to totals because of rounding.





Table 2. Employment by major industry sector, 1998, 2008, and projected 2018
(In thousands)

                Industry sector                          Employment             Change        Percent distribution  Average annual
                                                                                                                    rate of change
                                                                                                                                  
                                                  1998     2008     2018     1998-    2008-     1998   2008   2018   1998-   2008-
                                                                             2008     2018                           2008    2018 

Total (1)....................................... 140,564  150,932  166,206  10,368   15,274    100.0  100.0  100.0    0.7     1.0

Nonagriculture wage and salary (2).............. 126,625  137,815  152,443  11,190   14,629     90.1   91.3   91.7     .9     1.0

Goods-producing, excluding agriculture..........  24,274   21,363   21,390  -2,911       27     17.3   14.2   12.9   -1.3      .0
   Mining.......................................     565      717      613     152     -104       .4     .5     .4    2.4    -1.6
   Construction.................................   6,149    7,215    8,552   1,066    1,337      4.4    4.8    5.1    1.6     1.7
   Manufacturing................................  17,560   13,431   12,225  -4,128   -1,206     12.5    8.9    7.4   -2.6     -.9

Service-providing............................... 102,351  116,452  131,053  14,101   14,601     72.8   77.2   78.8    1.3     1.2
   Utilities....................................     613      560      500     -54      -59       .4     .4     .3    -.9    -1.1
   Wholesale trade..............................   5,795    5,964    6,220     169      256      4.1    4.0    3.7     .3      .4
   Retail trade.................................  14,610   15,356   16,010     747      654     10.4   10.2    9.6     .5      .4
   Transportation and warehousing...............   4,168    4,505    4,950     337      445      3.0    3.0    3.0     .8      .9
   Information..................................   3,218    2,997    3,115    -222      118      2.3    2.0    1.9    -.7      .4
   Financial activities.........................   7,462    8,146    8,703     683      557      5.3    5.4    5.2     .9      .7
   Professional and business services...........  15,147   17,778   21,968   2,632    4,190     10.8   11.8   13.2    1.6     2.1
   Educational services.........................   2,233    3,037    3,842     804      805      1.6    2.0    2.3    3.1     2.4
   Health care and social assistance............  12,214   15,819   19,816   3,605    3,997      8.7   10.5   11.9    2.6     2.3
   Leisure and hospitality......................  11,232   13,459   14,601   2,227    1,142      8.0    8.9    8.8    1.8      .8
   Other services...............................   5,750    6,333    7,142     583      809      4.1    4.2    4.3    1.0     1.2
   Federal government...........................   2,772    2,764    2,859      -8       95      2.0    1.8    1.7     .0      .3
   State and local government...................  17,137   19,735   21,327   2,598    1,591     12.2   13.1   12.8    1.4      .8

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting (3).   2,528    2,098    2,020    -430      -78      1.8    1.4    1.2   -1.8     -.4
  Agriculture wage and salary...................   1,373    1,210    1,206    -163       -3      1.0     .8     .7   -1.3      .0
  Agriculture self-employed and unpaid family
  workers.......................................   1,155      889      814    -267      -75       .8     .6     .5   -2.6     -.9

Nonagriculture self-employed and unpaid 
  family workers................................   9,342    9,313    9,943     -30      631      6.6    6.2    6.0     .0      .7

Secondary wage and salary jobs in agriculture
  and private household industries (4)..........     172      182      192       9       10       .1     .1     .1     .5      .5
Secondary jobs as a self-employed or unpaid
  family worker (5).............................   1,897    1,524    1,607    -372       83      1.3    1.0    1.0   -2.2      .5


   1 Employment data for wage and salary workers are from the BLS Current Employment Statistics survey, which counts jobs, whereas 
self-employed, unpaid family workers, and agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting are from the Current Population Survey 
(household survey), which counts workers.
   2 Includes wage and salary data from the Current Employment Statistics survey, except private households, which is from the 
Current Population Survey.  Logging workers are excluded.
   3 Includes agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting data from the Current Population Survey, except logging, which is from 
the Current Employment Statistics survey.  Government wage and salary workers are excluded.
   4 Workers who hold a secondary wage and salary job in agricultural production, forestry, fishing, and private household indus-
tries.
   5 Wage and salary workers who hold a secondary job as a self-employed or unpaid family worker.





Table 3.  The 10 industries with the largest wage and salary employment growth, 2008-18 (1)
(In thousands)

                   Industry                                   Sector                   Employment        Change
                                                                                       2008   2018   Number   Percent

Management, scientific, and technical  
  consulting services.........................  Professional and business services..  1,009  1,844    835      82.8
Offices of physicians.........................  Health care and social assistance...  2,266  3,038    772      34.1
Computer systems design and related services..  Professional and business services..  1,450  2,107    656      45.3
Other general merchandise stores..............  Retail trade........................  1,490  2,097    607      40.7
Employment services...........................  Professional and business services..  3,144  3,744    600      19.1
Local government, excluding education and 
  hospitals...................................  Government..........................  5,819  6,306    487       8.4
Home health care services.....................  Health care and social assistance...    958  1,399    441      46.1
Services for the elderly and persons with 
  disabilities................................  Health care and social assistance...    585  1,016    431      73.8
Nursing care facilities.......................  Health care and social assistance...  1,614  2,007    394      24.4
Full-service restaurants......................  Accommodation and food services.....  4,598  4,942    343       7.5


   1 Data are from the National Employment Matrix.





Table 4.  The 10 industries with the largest wage and salary employment declines, 2008-18 (1)
(In thousands)

                 Industry                          Sector                      Employment          Change
                                                                             2008     2018    Number   Percent

Department stores.............................  Retail trade............    1,557    1,398     -159     -10.2
Semiconductor and other electronic component 
  manufacturing...............................  Manufacturing...........      432      287     -146     -33.7
Motor vehicle parts manufacturing.............  Manufacturing...........      544      443     -101     -18.6
Postal service................................  Government..............      748      650      -98     -13.0
Printing and related support activities.......  Manufacturing...........      594      499      -95     -16.0
Cut and sew apparel manufacturing.............  Manufacturing...........      155       67      -89     -57.0
Newspaper publishers..........................  Information.............      326      245      -81     -24.8
Support activities for mining.................  Mining..................      328      252      -76     -23.2
Gasoline stations.............................  Retail trade............      843      769      -75      -8.9
Wired telecommunications carriers.............  Information.............      666      593      -73     -11.0


   1 Data are from the National Employment Matrix.





Table 5. Employment by major occupational group, 2008 and projected 2018
(In thousands)

                Occupational group                       Employment            Percent         Change
                                                                            distribution
                                                                            
                                                        2008      2018     2008    2018    Percent Number

Total, all occupations............................... 150,932   166,206    100.0   100.0    10.1   15,274
Management, business, and financial occupations (1)..  15,747    17,411     10.4    10.5    10.6    1,664
Professional and related occupations (2).............  31,054    36,280     20.6    21.8    16.8    5,227
Service occupations (3)..............................  29,576    33,645     19.6    20.2    13.8    4,069
Sales and related occupations........................  15,903    16,883     10.5    10.2     6.2      980
Office and administrative support occupations........  24,101    25,943     16.0    15.6     7.6    1,842
Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations...........   1,035     1,026       .7      .6     -.9       -9
Construction and extraction occupations..............   7,810     8,829      5.2     5.3    13.0    1,019
Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations....   5,798     6,238      3.8     3.8     7.6      440
Production occupations...............................  10,083     9,734      6.7     5.9    -3.5     -349
Transportation and material moving occupations.......   9,826    10,217      6.5     6.1     4.0      391


   1 Major occupational groups 11-0000 through 13-0000 in the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC).
   2 Major occupational groups 15-0000 through 29-0000 in the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC).
   3 Major occupational groups 31-0000 through 39-0000 in the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC).





Table 6. The 30 occupations with the largest employment growth, 2008-18
(In thousands)

               Occupation                            Occupational group                  Employment     Change      Most significant source of 
                                                                                                                     postsecondary education
                                                                                        2008  2018  Number Percent       or training (1)

Registered nurses.......................  Professional and related occupations (2)...  2,619  3,200   582   22.2    Associate degree

Home health aides.......................  Service occupations (3)....................    922  1,383   461   50.0    Short-term on-the-job 
                                                                                                                      training
                                                                                                                      
Customer service representatives........  Office and administrative support                                         Moderate-term on-the-job
                                            occupations..............................  2,252  2,652   400   17.7      training
Combined food preparation and 
  serving workers, including fast food..  Service occupations (3)....................  2,702  3,096   394   14.6    Short-term on-the-job 
                                                                                                                      training

Personal and home care aides............  Service occupations (3)....................    817  1,193   376   46.0    Short-term on-the-job 
                                                                                                                      training

Retail salespersons.....................  Sales and related occupations..............  4,489  4,864   375    8.4    Short-term on-the-job 
                                                                                                                      training

Office clerks, general..................  Office and administrative support                                         Short-term on-the-job
                                            occupations..............................  3,024  3,383   359   11.9      training 
                                                                                                                      
Accountants and auditors................  Management, business, and financial     
                                            occupations (4)..........................  1,291  1,570   279   21.7    Bachelor's degree

Nursing aides, orderlies, and...........  Service occupations (3)....................  1,470  1,746   276   18.8    Postsecondary vocational 
  attendants                                                                                                          award

Postsecondary teachers..................  Professional and related occupations (2)...  1,699  1,956   257   15.1    Doctoral degree

Construction laborers...................  Construction and extraction occupations....  1,249  1,505   256   20.5    Moderate-term on-the-job 
                                                                                                                      training
Elementary school teachers, except        
  special education.....................  Professional and related occupations (2)...  1,550  1,794   244   15.8    Bachelor's degree

Truck drivers, heavy and 
  tractor-trailer.......................  Transportation and material moving                                        Short-term on-the-job
                                            occupations..............................  1,798  2,031   233   13.0      training 

Landscaping and groundskeeping workers..  Service occupations (3)....................  1,206  1,423   217   18.0    Short-term on-the-job 
                                                                                                                      training
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing   
  clerks................................  Office and administrative support                                         Moderate-term on-the-job
                                            occupations..............................  2,064  2,276   212   10.3      training
                                                                                                                    
Executive secretaries and administra-
  tive assistants.......................  Office and administrative support                                         Work experience in a  
                                            occupations..............................  1,594  1,799   204   12.8      related occupation

Management analysts.....................  Management, business, and financial                                       Bachelor's or higher degree,
                                            occupations (4)..........................    747    925   178   23.9      plus work experience 
Computer software engineers, 
  applications..........................  Professional and related occupations (2)...    515    690   175   34.0    Bachelor's degree

Receptionists and information clerks....  Office and administrative support                                         Short-term on-the-job   
                                            occupations..............................  1,139  1,312   173   15.2      training
                                                                                                                      
Carpenters..............................  Construction and extraction occupations....  1,285  1,450   165   12.9    Long-term on-the-job 
                                                                                                                      training

Medical assistants......................  Service occupations (3)....................    484    648   164   33.9    Moderate-term on-the-job 
                                                                                                                      training
First-line supervisors/managers of 
  office and administrative support 
  workers...............................  Office and administrative support                                         Work experience in a
                                            occupations..............................  1,457  1,618   160   11.0      related occupation 
Network systems and data communica-   
  tions analysts........................  Professional and related occupations (2)...    292    448   156   53.4    Bachelor's degree

Licensed practical and licensed 
  vocational nurses.....................  Professional and related occupations (2)...    754    909   156   20.7    Postsecondary vocational 
                                                                                                                      award

Security guards.........................  Service occupations (3)....................  1,077  1,229   153   14.2    Short-term on-the-job 
                                                                                                                      training

Waiters and waitresses..................  Service occupations (3)....................  2,382  2,533   152    6.4    Short-term on-the-job 
                                                                                                                      training

Maintenance and repair workers, general.  Installation, maintenance, and repair                                     Moderate-term on-the-job
                                            occupations..............................  1,361  1,509   148   10.9      training

Physicians and surgeons.................  Professional and related occupations (2)...    661    806   144   21.8    First professional degree

Child care workers......................  Service occupations (3)....................  1,302  1,444   142   10.9    Short-term on-the-job 
                                                                                                                      training

Teacher assistants......................  Professional and related occupations (2)...  1,313  1,448   135   10.3    Short-term on-the-job 
                                                                                                                      training


   1 An occupation is placed into 1 of 11 categories that best describes the postsecondary education or training needed by most workers to 
become fully qualified in that occupation.  For more information about the categories, see Measures of Education and Training, on the 
Internet at www.bls.gov/emp/ep_projections_methods.htm.
   2 Major occupational groups 15-0000 through 29-0000 in the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC).
   3 Major occupational groups 31-0000 through 39-0000 in the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC).
   4 Major occupational groups 11-0000 through 13-0000 in the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC).





Table 7. The 30 fastest-growing occupations, 2008-18
(In thousands)

                Occupation                                Occupational group              Employment       Change     Most significant source of
                                                                                         2008    2018  Percent Number  postsecondary education
                                                                                            				   or training (1)

Biomedical engineers........................  Professional and related occupations (2)..   16     28    72.0     12   Bachelor's degree

Network systems and data communications 
  analysts..................................  Professional and related occupations (2)..  292    448    53.4    156   Bachelor's degree
  
Home health aides...........................  Service occupations (3)...................  922  1,383    50.0    461   Short-term on-the-job 
                                                                                                                        training

Personal and home care aides................  Service occupations (3)...................  817  1,193    46.0    376   Short-term on-the-job 
                                                                                                                        training

Financial examiners.........................  Management, business, and financial 
                                                occupations (4).........................   27     38    41.2     11   Bachelor's degree
                                                
Medical scientists, except epidemiologists..  Professional and related occupations (2)..  109    154    40.4     44   Doctoral degree

Physician assistants........................  Professional and related occupations (2)..   75    104    39.0     29   Master's degree

Skin care specialists.......................  Service occupations (3)...................   39     54    37.9     15   Postsecondary vocational 
                                                                                                                        award

Biochemists and biophysicists...............  Professional and related occupations (2)..   23     32    37.4      9   Doctoral degree

Athletic trainers...........................  Professional and related occupations (2)..   16     22    37.0      6   Bachelor's degree

Physical therapist aides....................  Service occupations (3)...................   46     63    36.3     17   Short-term on-the-job 
                                                                                                                        training

Dental hygienists...........................  Professional and related occupations (2)..  174    237    36.1     63   Associate degree

Veterinary technologists and technicians....  Professional and related occupations (2)..   80    108    35.8     29   Associate degree

Dental assistants...........................  Service occupations (3)...................  295    401    35.8    106   Moderate-term on-the-job 
                                                                                                                        training

Computer software engineers, applications...  Professional and related occupations (2)..  515    690    34.0    175   Bachelor's degree

Medical assistants..........................  Service occupations (3)...................  484    648    33.9    164   Moderate-term on-the-job 
                                                                                                                        training

Physical therapist assistants...............  Service occupations (3)...................   64     85    33.3     21   Associate degree

Veterinarians...............................  Professional and related occupations (2)..   60     79    33.0     20   First professional degree

Self-enrichment education teachers..........  Professional and related occupations (2)..  254    335    32.1     81   Work experience in a 
                                                                                                                        related occupation                                                                                                                         
Compliance officers, except agriculture, 
  construction, health and safety, and 
  transportation............................  Management, business, and financial
                                                occupations (4).........................  260    341    31.1     81   Long-term on-the-job 
                                                                                                                        training

Occupational therapist aides................  Service occupations (3)...................    8     10    30.7      2   Short-term on-the-job 
                                                                                                                        training

Environmental engineers.....................  Professional and related occupations (2)..   54     71    30.6     17   Bachelor's degree

Pharmacy technicians........................  Professional and related occupations (2)..  326    426    30.6    100   Moderate-term on-the-job 
                                                                                                                        training

Computer software engineers, systems 
  software..................................  Professional and related occupations (2)..  395    515    30.4    120   Bachelor's degree
  
Survey researchers..........................  Professional and related occupations (2)..   23     31    30.4      7   Bachelor's degree

Physical therapists.........................  Professional and related occupations (2)..  186    242    30.3     56   Master's degree

Personal financial advisors.................  Management, business, and financial 
                                                occupations (4).........................  208    271    30.1     63   Bachelor's degree
                                                
Environmental engineering technicians.......  Professional and related occupations (2)..   21     28    30.1      6   Associate degree

Occupational therapist assistants...........  Service occupations (3)...................   27     35    29.8      8   Associate degree

Fitness trainers and aerobics instructors...  Service occupations (3)...................  261    338    29.4     77   Postsecondary vocational 
                                                                                                                        award


   1 An occupation is placed into 1 of 11 categories that best describes the postsecondary education or training needed by most workers to 
become fully qualified in the occupation.  For more information, see Measures of Education and Training, on the Internet at www.bls.gov/emp/
ep_projections_methods.htm.
   2 Major occupational groups 15-0000 through 29-0000 in the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC).
   3 Major occupational groups 31-0000 through 39-0000 in the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC).
   4 Major occupational groups 11-0000 through 13-0000 in the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC).





Table 8.  The 30 occupations with the largest employment declines, 2008-18
(In thousands)

                       Occupation                         Occupational group             Employment     Change        Most significant source of
                                                                                        2008    2018 Number Percent    postsecondary education
                                                                                                                            or training (1)

Farmers and ranchers............................  Management, business, and financial
                                                    occupations (2)....................   986    907   -79   -8.0  Long-term on-the-job training
                                                      
Sewing machine operators........................  Production occupations...............   212    141   -72  -33.7  Moderate-term on-the-job 
                                                                                                                     training
Order clerks....................................  Office and administrative support
                                                    occupations........................   246    182   -64  -26.1  Short-term on-the-job training
Postal service mail sorters, processors, and 
  processing machine operators................... Office and administrative support 
                                                    occupations..............,,........   180    125   -55  -30.3  Short-term on-the-job training
                                                      
File clerks.....................................  Office and administrative support
                                                    occupations........................   212    163   -50  -23.4  Short-term on-the-job training
                                                      
Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks.........  Office and administrative support 
                                                    occupations........ ...............   751    701   -49   -6.6  Short-term on-the-job training
                                                       
Telemarketers...................................  Sales and related occupations........   342    304   -38  -11.1  Short-term on-the-job training

First-line supervisors/managers of production 
  and operating workers.........................  Production occupations...............   681    646   -36   -5.2  Work experience in a related 
                                                                                                                     occupation
Office and administrative support workers, 
  all other.....................................  Office and administrative support 
                                                    occupations.... ...................   307    271   -36  -11.6  Short-term on-the-job training
                                                      
Packers and packagers, hand.....................  Transportation and material moving 
                                                    occupations........................   759    725   -34   -4.5  Short-term on-the-job training

Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, 
  operators, and tenders, metal and plastic ....  Production occupations...............   237    204   -33  -14.1  Moderate-term on-the-job training
  
Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers..  Production occupations...............   213    182   -31  -14.7  Short-term on-the-job training

Machine feeders and offbearers..................  Transportation and material moving 
                                                    occupations........................   141    110   -31  -22.2  Short-term on-the-job training
Door-to-door sales workers, news and street 
  vendors, and related workers..................  Sales and related occupations........   182    155   -27  -14.8  Short-term on-the-job training
  
Information and record clerks, all other........  Office and administrative support
                                                    occupations........................   227    200   -27  -11.8  Short-term on-the-job training
                                                      
Paper goods machine setters, operators, and 
  tenders.......................................  Production occupations...............   103     81   -22  -21.5  Moderate-term on-the-job training
  
Computer operators..............................  Office and administrative support 
                                                    occupations........................   110     90   -21  -18.6  Moderate-term on-the-job training
                                                      
Machinists......................................  Production occupations...............   422    402   -19   -4.6  Long-term on-the-job training

Laborers and freight, stock, and material  
  movers, hand..................................  Transportation and material moving 
                                                    occupations........................ 2,317  2,299   -19    -.8  Short-term on-the-job training
                                                      
Miscellaneous agricultural workers..............  Farming, fishing, and forestry 
                                                    occupations........................   807    789   -18   -2.3  Short-term on-the-job training

Data entry keyers...............................  Office and administrative support
                                                    occupations........................   284    267   -17   -6.1  Moderate-term on-the-job training
Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and 
  weighers......................................  Production occupations...............   465    448   -17   -3.6  Moderate-term on-the-job training
  
Switchboard operators, including answering 
  service.......................................  Office and administrative support
                                                    occupations........................   155    138   -17  -10.9  Short-term on-the-job training
Mail clerks and mail machine operators,  
  except postal service.........................  Office and administrative support 
                                                    occupations........................   141    125   -17  -11.8  Short-term on-the-job training
Lathe and turning machine tool setters,  
  operators and tenders, metal and plastic......  Production occupations...............    56     41   -15  -26.7  Moderate-term on-the-job training
  
Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing 
  machine tool setters, operators, and 
  tenders, metal and plastic....................  Production occupations...............    93     78   -15  -15.9  Moderate-term on-the-job training
  
Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out 
  machine setters, operators, and tenders.......  Production occupations...............    35     21   -14  -40.7  Moderate-term on-the-job training
  
Postal service clerks...........................  Office and administrative support
                                                    occupations........................    76     62   -14  -18.0  Short-term on-the-job training
Multiple machine tool setters, operators,  
  and tenders, metal and plastic................  Production occupations...............    86     73   -13  -14.7  Moderate-term on-the-job training
  
Photographic processing machine operators.......  Production occupations...............    51     39   -13  -24.3  Short-term on-the-job training


   1 An occupation is placed into 1 of 11 categories that best describes the postsecondary education or training needed by most workers to become 
fully qualified in that occupation.  For more information about the categories, see Measures of Education and training, on the Internet at www.bls.gov/
emp/ep_projections_methods.htm.
   2 Major occupational groups 11-0000 through 13-0000 in the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC).





Table 9. Employment and total job openings by postsecondary education or training category, 2008-18
(In thousands)


                                                                                                          Total job openings
                                                                 Employment                               due to growth and
Most significant source of postsecondary                                 Percent             Change       replacement needs,
       education or training (1)                          Number      distribution           2008-18          2008-18 (2)
 
                                                      2008     2018    2008    2018      Number   Percent  Number   Percent

     Total, all occupations........................ 150,932  166,206   100.0   100.0     15,274     10.1   50,929    100.0

First professional degree..........................   2,001    2,354     1.3     1.4        353     17.6      746      1.5
Doctoral degree....................................   2,085    2,430     1.4     1.5        345     16.6      743      1.5
Master's degree....................................   2,531    2,995     1.7     1.8        464     18.3    1,008      2.0
Bachelor's or higher degree, plus work experience..   6,518    7,068     4.3     4.3        550      8.4    2,106      4.1
Bachelor's degree..................................  18,584   21,669    12.3    13.0      3,085     16.6    7,072     13.9
Associate degree...................................   6,129    7,297     4.1     4.4      1,168     19.1    2,372      4.7
Postsecondary vocational award.....................   8,787    9,951     5.8     6.0      1,164     13.2    2,927      5.7
Work experience in a related occupation............  14,517   15,697     9.6     9.4      1,180      8.1    4,196      8.2
Long-term on-the-job training......................  10,815   11,620     7.2     7.0        806      7.5    3,081      6.1
Moderate-term on-the-job training..................  24,568   26,531    16.3    16.0      1,963      8.0    7,058     13.9
Short-term on-the-job training.....................  54,396   58,593    36.0    35.3      4,197      7.7   19,619     38.5


   1 An occupation is placed into 1 of 11 categories that best describes the postsecondary education or training needed by 
most workers to become fully qualified in that occupation.  For more information about the categories, please see Measures
of Education and Training, on the Internet at www.bls.gov/emp/ep_projections_methods.htm.
   2 Total job openings represent the sum of employment increases and replacement needs.  If employment change is negative, 
job openings due to growth are zero and total job openings equal replacements.





Table 10.  The 30 occupations with the largest number of total job openings due to growth and replacements, 2008-18
(In thousands)
                                                                                                           Total job      Most significant
                                                                                                            openings      source of post-    
             Occupation                       Occupational group            Employment    Change Replace- due to growth   secondary education 
                                                                                                  ment        and         or training (2)
                                                                           2008    2018   Number  needs  replacements (1)

Cashiers, except gaming................  Sales and related occupations.... 3,550   3,676   126    1,594      1,720      Short-term on-the-job 
                                                                                                                          training 
                                                                                                                          
Retail salespersons....................  Sales and related occupations.... 4,489   4,864   375    1,252      1,627      Short-term on-the-job 
                                                                                                                          training
                                                                                                                          
Waiters and waitresses.................  Service occupations (3).......... 2,382   2,533   152    1,315      1,466      Short-term on-the-job 
                                                                                                                          training
                                                                                                                          
Customer service representatives.......  Office and administrative                                                      Moderate-term on-the-job
                                           support occupations............ 2,252   2,652   400      709      1,108        training 
                                                                                                                          
Registered nurses......................  Professional and related 
                                           occupations (4)................ 2,619   3,200   582      458      1,039      Associate degree
                                           
Combined food preparation and serving                                                                                   Short-term on-the-job
  workers, including fast food.........  Service occupations (3).......... 2,702   3,096   394      573        967        training
                                                                                                                          
Office clerks, general.................  Office and administrative                                                      Short-term on-the-job
                                           support occupations............ 3,024   3,383   359      412        771        training
                                                                                                                          
Laborers and freight, stock, and 
  material movers, hand................  Transportation and material                                                    Short-term on-the-job 
                                           moving occupations............. 2,317   2,299   -19      746        746        training
Elementary school teachers, except 
  special education....................  Professional and related 
                                           occupations (4)................ 1,550   1,794   244      352        597      Bachelor's degree
                                           
Stock clerks and order fillers.........  Office and administrative                                                      Short-term on-the-job
                                           support occupations............ 1,859   1,993   134      428        563        training
                                                                                                                          
Truck drivers, heavy and 
  tractor-trailer......................  Transportation and material                                                    Short-term on-the-job
                                           moving occupations............. 1,798   2,031   233      322        555        training 
                                                                                                                          
Janitors and cleaners, except maids
  and housekeeping cleaners............  Service occupations (3).......... 2,375   2,479   104      449        553      Short-term on-the-job
                                                                                                                          training
Postsecondary teachers.................  Professional and related 
                                           occupations (4)................ 1,699   1,956   257      296        553      Doctoral degree
                                           
Home health aides......................  Service occupations (3)..........   922   1,383   461       92        553      Short-term on-the-job
                                                                                                                          training
                                                                                                                          
Child care workers.....................  Service occupations (3).......... 1,302   1,444   142      381        523      Short-term on-the-job
                                                                                                                          training
                                                                                                                          
General and operations managers........  Management, business, and                                                      Bachelor's or higher degree,
                                           financial occupations (5)...... 1,733   1,731    -2      502        502        plus work experience 
                                                                                                                          
Accountants and auditors...............  Management, business, and 
                                           financial occupations (5)...... 1,291   1,570   279      218        498      Bachelor's degree
First-line supervisors/managers of
  office and administrative              Office and administrative                                                      Work experience in a related
  support workers......................    support occupations............ 1,457   1,618   160      329        489        occupation
                                                                                                                            
Receptionists and information 
  clerks...............................  Office and administrative                                                      Short-term on-the-job
                                           support occupations............ 1,139   1,312   173      307        480        training
                                                                                                                          
Personal and home care aides...........  Service occupations (3)..........   817   1,193   376      102        478      Short-term on-the-job 
                                                                                                                          training
Bookkeeping, accounting, and 
  auditing clerks......................  Office and administrative                                                      Moderate-term on-the-job
                                           support occupations............ 2,064   2,276   212      248        460        training
Sales representatives, wholesale and 
  manufacturing, except technical                                                                                       Work experience in a related 
  and scientific products..............  Sales and related occupations.... 1,540   1,641   101      357        458        occupation
                                                                                                                         
First-line supervisors/managers of 
  retail sales workers.................  Sales and related occupations.... 1,686   1,774    88      362        450      Work experience in a related 
                                                                                                                          occupation
Counter attendants, cafeteria, food 
  concession, and coffee shop..........  Service occupations (3)..........   525     574    49      386        435      Short-term on-the-job 
                                                                                                                          training
Nursing aides, orderlies, and 
  attendants...........................  Service occupations (3).......... 1,470   1,746   276      146        422      Postsecondary vocational 
                                                                                                                          award
Executive secretaries and 
  administrative assistants............  Office and administrative                                                      Work experience in a related
                                           support occupations............ 1,594   1,799   204      215        419        occupation
                                                                                                                          
Teacher assistants.....................  Professional and related                                                       Short-term on-the-job 
                                           occupations (4)................ 1,313   1,448   135      278        413        training
                                                                                                                          
Secondary school teachers, 
  except special and vocational........  Professional and related       
                                           occupations (4)................ 1,088   1,184    96      316        412      Bachelor's degree
Licensed practical and licensed 
  vocational nurses....................  Professional and related                                                       Postsecondary vocational
                                           occupations (4)................   754     909   156      236        391        award
                                                                                                                          
Security guards........................  Service occupations (3).......... 1,077   1,229   153      222        374      Short-term on-the-job
                                                                                                                          training


   1 Total job openings represent the sum of employment increases and replacements.  If employment change is negative, job openings due to growth 
are zero and total job openings equal replacements.  For more information about occupational replacement needs, see Estimating Occupational 
Replacement Needs, on the Internet at www.bls.gov/emp/ep_projections_methods.htm.
   2 An occupation is placed into 1 of 11 categories that best describes the postsecondary education or training needed by most workers to become 
fully qualified in that occupation.  For more information about the categories, see Measures of Education and Training, on the Internet at 
www.bls.gov/emp/ep_projections_methods.htm.
   3 Major occupational groups 31-0000 through 39-0000 in the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC).
   4 Major occupational groups 15-0000 through 29-0000 in the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC).
   5 Major occupational groups 11-0000 through 13-0000 in the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC).




Last Modified Date: December 11, 2009
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