Economic News Release

Employment Situation News Release


Transmission of material in this release is embargoed                   USDL-11-0002
until 8:30 a.m. (EST) Friday, January 7, 2011

Technical information:
 Household data:       (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:   (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                       THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- DECEMBER 2010


The unemployment rate fell by 0.4 percentage point to 9.4 percent in 
December, and nonfarm payroll employment increased by 103,000, the
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Employment rose in
leisure and hospitality and in health care but was little changed in
other major industries.



    ______________________________________________________________________
   |                                                                      |
   |         Revision of Seasonally Adjusted Household Survey Data        |
   |                                                                      |
   |Seasonally adjusted household survey data have been revised using up- |
   |dated seasonal adjustment factors, a procedure done at the end of each|
   |calendar year. Seasonally adjusted estimates back to January 2006 were|
   |subject to revision. The unemployment rates for January 2010 through  |
   |November 2010 (as originally published and as revised) appear in      |
   |table A, along with additional information about the revisions.       |
   |______________________________________________________________________|



Household Survey Data

The number of unemployed persons decreased by 556,000 to 14.5 million
in December, and the unemployment rate dropped to 9.4 percent. Over
the year, these measures were down from 15.2 million and 9.9 percent,
respectively. (See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult men
(9.4 percent) and whites (8.5 percent) declined in December. The un-
employment rates for adult women (8.1 percent), teenagers (25.4 per-
cent), blacks (15.8 percent), and Hispanics (13.0 percent) showed
little change. The jobless rate for Asians was 7.2 percent, not
seasonally adjusted. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

In December, the number of job losers and persons who completed tem-
porary jobs dropped by 548,000 to 8.9 million. The number of long-
term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more) was little
changed at 6.4 million and accounted for 44.3 percent of the unem-
ployed. (See tables A-11 and A-12.)

The civilian labor force participation rate edged down in December to
64.3 percent, and the employment-population ratio was essentially un-
changed at 58.3 percent. (See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons (some-
times referred to as involuntary part-time workers) was essentially 
unchanged in December at 8.9 million. These individuals were working 
part time because their hours had been cut back or because they were 
unable to find a full-time job. (See table A-8.)

About 2.6 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force
in December, little different than a year earlier. (The data are not
seasonally adjusted.) These individuals were not in the labor force,
wanted and were available for work, and had looked for a job sometime
in the prior 12 months. They were not counted as unemployed because
they had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey.
(See table A-16.)

Among the marginally attached, there were 1.3 million discouraged
workers in December, an increase of 389,000 from December 2009. (The
data are not seasonally adjusted.) Discouraged workers are persons
not currently looking for work because they believe no jobs are
available for them. The remaining 1.3 million persons marginally
attached to the labor force had not searched for work in the 4 weeks
preceding the survey for reasons such as school attendance or family
responsibilities. (See table A-16.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 103,000 in December.
Employment rose in leisure and hospitality and in health care but
changed little in other major industries. Since December 2009, total
payroll employment has increased by 1.1 million, or an average of
94,000 per month. (See table B-1.)

Employment in leisure and hospitality increased by 47,000 in December.
Within the industry, job gains continued in food services and drinking
places (+25,000). Since a recent low in December 2009, the food services 
industry has added 188,000 jobs.

In December, health care employment continued to expand, with a gain
of 36,000. Over the month, job gains continued in ambulatory services
(+21,000), hospitals (+8,000), and nursing and residential care facili-
ties (+7,000). 

Within professional and business services, employment in temporary help 
services continued to trend up in December (+16,000) and has risen by 
495,000 since a recent low in September 2009.

Employment in retail trade changed little in December (+12,000). A 
job gain in motor vehicle and parts dealers (+8,000) offset a loss 
in health and personal care stores (-8,000). Employment in most other
service-providing industries changed little over the month.

In the goods-producing sector, mining employment continued to trend 
up in December, reflecting a job gain in support activities for mining
(+5,000).

Manufacturing employment changed little over the month (+10,000). Fol-
lowing job growth earlier in 2010, employment has been relatively flat, 
on net, since May. Construction employment also was little changed overall 
in December (-16,000). Within construction, there were job losses in heavy 
and civil engineering (-13,000) and in residential building (-6,000).

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls
held at 34.3 hours in December. The manufacturing workweek for all
employees declined by 0.1 hour to 40.2 hours, while factory overtime
remained at 3.1 hours. The average workweek for production and non-
supervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls increased by 0.1
hour to 33.6 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

In December, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm 
payrolls increased by 3 cents, or 0.1 percent, to $22.78. Over the past 12 
months, average hourly earnings have increased by 1.8 percent. In December, 
average hourly earnings of private-sector production and nonsupervisory em-
ployees rose by 2 cents, or 0.1 percent, to $19.21. (See tables B-3 and B-8.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for October was revised
from +172,000 to +210,000, and the change for November was revised
from +39,000 to +71,000.


_________
The Employment Situation for January is scheduled to be released on
Friday, February 4, 2011, at 8:30 a.m. (EST).



    __________________________________________________________________________
   |                                                                          |
   |               Upcoming Changes to Establishment Survey Data              |
   |                                                                          |
   |Effective with the release of January 2011 data on February 4, 2011, the  |
   |establishment survey will begin estimating net business birth/death ad-   |
   |justment factors on a quarterly basis, replacing the current practice of  |
   |estimating the factors annually. This will allow the establishment sur-   |
   |vey to incorporate information from the Quarterly Census of Employment    |
   |and Wages into the birth/death adjustment factors as soon as it becomes   |
   |available and thereby improve the factors. Additional information on this |
   |change is available at www.bls.gov/ces/ces_quarterly_birthdeath.pdf.      |
   |                                                                          |
   |__________________________________________________________________________|


    __________________________________________________________________________
   |                                                                          |
   |                  Upcoming Changes to Household Survey Data               |
   |                                                                          |
   |Effective with the release of January 2011 data on February 4, 2011, two  |
   |additional data series--"Self-employed workers, unincorporated" and "Self-|
   |employed workers, incorporated"--will be added to table A-9. As a result, |
   |the format of table A-9 will change; sample versions in HTML and PDF for- |
   |mats are available at www.bls.gov/cps/empsit_changes_table_a9_2011.htm.   |
   |Data on the incorporated self-employed have not previously been published |
   |on a regular basis.                                                       |
   |                                                                          |
   |Also, in table A-8, the data series currently labeled "Self-employed work-|
   |ers" (one for Agriculture and related industries and one for Nonagricul-  |
   |tural industries) will be renamed "Self-employed workers, unincorporated."|
   |This is strictly a change in title and not in definition; the data shown  |
   |will not be affected. This change is being made to clarify that these data|
   |only include persons operating unincorporated businesses. A similar title |
   |change will be made to one data series in table A-14.                     |
   |                                                                          |
   |In addition, a change affecting data collected on unemployment duration   |
   |will be introduced in the household survey in January 2011. Presently,    |
   |the Current Population Survey can record unemployment durations of up to  |
   |2 years. Starting with data collected for January 2011, respondents will  |
   |be able to report unemployment durations of up to 5 years. This change    |
   |will likely affect one data series in this news release: the average      |
   |(mean) duration of unemployment, which is found in table A-12. The change |
   |does not affect the estimate of total unemployment or other data series on|
   |duration of unemployment. Additional information is available at          |
   |www.bls.gov/cps/duration.htm.                                             |
   |                                                                          |
   |Beginning with data for January 2011, occupation estimates in table A-13  |
   |will reflect the introduction of the 2010 Census occupation classification|
   |system into the household survey. This occupation classification system is|
   |derived from the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification system. Histor-|
   |ical data will not be revised.                                            |
   |                                                                          |
   |__________________________________________________________________________|
 
 
    __________________________________________________________________________
   |                                                                          |
   |              Revisions in the Establishment Survey Data                  |
   |                                                                          |
   |With the release of January 2011 data on February 4, 2011, the Current    |
   |Employment Statistics survey will introduce revisions to nonfarm payroll  |
   |employment, hours, and earnings data to reflect the annual benchmark ad-  |
   |justments for March 2010 and updated seasonal adjustment factors. Not sea-|
   |sonally adjusted data beginning with April 2009 and seasonally adjusted   |
   |data beginning with January 2006 are subject to revision.  		      |
   |									      |
   |__________________________________________________________________________|
 
 
    __________________________________________________________________________
   |                                                                          |
   |                 Revisions in the Household Survey Data                   |
   |                                                                          |
   |Effective with the release of data for January 2011 on February 4, 2011   |
   |2011, revisions will be introduced into the population controls for the   | 
   |household survey. These changes reflect the routine annual updating of    |
   |intercensal population estimates by the U.S. Census Bureau.               |  
   |                                                                          |
   |__________________________________________________________________________|  



         Revision of Seasonally Adjusted Household Survey Data

At the end of each calendar year, BLS routinely updates the seasonal adjustment
factors for the labor force series derived from the Current Population Survey
(CPS), or household survey. As a result of this process, seasonally adjusted 
data for January 2006 through November 2010 were subject to revision.
   
Table A shows the unemployment rates for January 2010 through November 2010, as
first published and as revised. The rates were unchanged in 8 of the 11 months
and changed by one-tenth of a percentage point in the remaining 3 months. Re-
vised seasonally adjusted data for other major labor force series beginning
in December 2009 appear in table B.
   
An article describing the seasonal adjustment methodology for the household 
survey data and revised data for January 2010 through November 2010 is available
at www.bls.gov/cps/cpsrs2011.pdf.

Historical data for the seasonally adjusted household series contained in the
A-tables of this release can be accessed at www.bls.gov/cps/cpsatabs.htm. Re-
vised historical seasonally adjusted monthly and quarterly data for additional
series are available on the Internet at ftp.bls.gov/pub/special.requests/lf/.


Table A.  Seasonally adjusted unemployment rates and changes due to 
revision, January - November 2010

   Year and month         As first           As           Change
                          published        revised

         2010

January ...............      9.7             9.7           0.0
February ..............      9.7             9.7            .0
March .................      9.7             9.7            .0
April .................      9.9             9.8           -.1
May ...................      9.7             9.6           -.1
June ..................      9.5             9.5            .0
July ..................      9.5             9.5            .0
August ................      9.6             9.6            .0
September .............      9.6             9.6            .0
October ...............      9.6             9.7            .1
November ..............      9.8             9.8            .0

 
 
Table B.  Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age, seasonally adjusted

(Numbers in thousands)


						   2009							 		   2010
     Employment status, sex, and age                                                                                    
                                                       
                                                   Dec.          Jan.          Feb.          Mar.          Apr.          May           June          July          Aug.         Sept.          Oct.	    Nov.          Dec.

                   TOTAL
                   
  Civilian noninstitutional population (1)        236924        236832        236998        237159        237329        237499        237690        237890        238099        238322        238530	   238715        238889
    Civilian labor force..................        153172        153353        153558        153895        154520        154237        153684        153628        154117        154124        153960	   153950        153690
          Participation rate..............          64.7          64.8          64.8          64.9          65.1          64.9          64.7          64.6          64.7          64.7          64.5	     64.5          64.3
      Employed............................        137960        138511        138698        138952        139382        139353        139092        138991        139267        139378        139084	   138909        139206
          Employment-population ratio.....          58.2          58.5          58.5          58.6          58.7          58.7          58.5          58.4          58.5          58.5          58.3	     58.2          58.3
      Unemployed..........................         15212         14842         14860         14943         15138         14884         14593         14637         14849         14746         14876	    15041         14485
          Unemployment rate...............           9.9           9.7           9.7           9.7           9.8           9.6           9.5           9.5           9.6           9.6           9.7	      9.8           9.4
      
           Men, 20 years and over         
       
  Civilian noninstitutional population (1)        106125        105998        106100        106198        106301        106407        106522        106641        106761        106887        107007	   107114        107216
    Civilian labor force..................         78463         78386         78568         78841         79279         79178         79094         78993         79295         79289         79016	    78980         78906
          Participation rate..............          73.9          74.0          74.1          74.2          74.6          74.4          74.3          74.1          74.3          74.2          73.8	     73.7          73.6
      Employed............................         70479         70525         70707         70977         71348         71451         71329         71340         71505         71559         71365	    71130         71480
          Employment-population ratio.....          66.4          66.5          66.6          66.8          67.1          67.1          67.0          66.9          67.0          66.9          66.7	     66.4          66.7
      Unemployed..........................          7983          7861          7861          7864          7931          7728          7765          7653          7789          7729          7651	     7849          7426
          Unemployment rate...............	    10.2          10.0          10.0          10.0          10.0           9.8           9.8           9.7           9.8           9.7           9.7	      9.9           9.4
 
          Women, 20 years and over                

  Civilian noninstitutional population (1)        113832        113796        113886        113974        114066        114160        114264        114372        114481        114596        114704	   114801        114894
    Civilian labor force..................         68635         68958         69026         68976         69167         69057         68826         68797         68883         69082         69018	    69151         69027
          Participation rate..............          60.3          60.6          60.6          60.5          60.6          60.5          60.2          60.2          60.2          60.3          60.2	     60.2          60.1
      Employed............................         63037         63549         63516         63479         63501         63487         63483         63340         63379         63562         63400	    63385         63428
          Employment-population ratio.....          55.4          55.8          55.8          55.7          55.7          55.6          55.6          55.4          55.4          55.5          55.3	     55.2          55.2
      Unemployed..........................	    5598          5409          5509          5497          5665          5570          5343          5458          5504          5520          5618	     5766          5599
          Unemployment rate...............	     8.2           7.8           8.0           8.0           8.2           8.1           7.8           7.9           8.0           8.0           8.1	      8.3           8.1
                                                  
         Both sexes, 16 to 19 years                
                                                   
  Civilian noninstitutional population (1)         16967         17038         17012         16987         16962         16932         16904         16877         16857         16839         16819	    16800         16780
    Civilian labor force..................          6075          6009          5964          6078          6074          6002          5764          5838          5939          5754          5927	     5820          5757
          Participation rate..............          35.8          35.3          35.1          35.8          35.8          35.4          34.1          34.6          35.2          34.2          35.2	     34.6          34.3
      Employed............................          4444          4438          4475          4497          4533          4416          4279          4312          4383          4256          4319	     4393          4298
          Employment-population ratio.....	    26.2          26.0          26.3          26.5          26.7          26.1          25.3          25.5          26.0          25.3          25.7	     26.2          25.6
      Unemployed..........................	    1631          1572          1490          1581          1542          1586          1485          1526          1556          1497          1607	     1426          1460
          Unemployment rate...............	    26.8          26.2          25.0          26.0          25.4          26.4          25.8          26.1          26.2          26.0          27.1	     24.5          25.4
          
  Footnotes:        
     1 The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation.
     NOTE: Seasonally adjusted data have been revised to reflect updated seasonal adjustment factors.
 
 
 

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Dec.
2009
Oct.
2010
Nov.
2010
Dec.
2010
Change from:
Nov.
2010-
Dec.
2010

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

236,924 238,530 238,715 238,889 174

Civilian labor force

153,172 153,960 153,950 153,690 -260

Participation rate

64.7 64.5 64.5 64.3 -0.2

Employed

137,960 139,084 138,909 139,206 297

Employment-population ratio

58.2 58.3 58.2 58.3 0.1

Unemployed

15,212 14,876 15,041 14,485 -556

Unemployment rate

9.9 9.7 9.8 9.4 -0.4

Not in labor force

83,752 84,570 84,765 85,199 434

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

9.9 9.7 9.8 9.4 -0.4

Adult men (20 years and over)

10.2 9.7 9.9 9.4 -0.5

Adult women (20 years and over)

8.2 8.1 8.3 8.1 -0.2

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

26.8 27.1 24.5 25.4 0.9

White

9.0 8.8 8.9 8.5 -0.4

Black or African American

16.2 15.7 16.0 15.8 -0.2

Asian (not seasonally adjusted)

8.4 7.1 7.6 7.2 -

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

12.8 12.6 13.2 13.0 -0.2

Total, 25 years and over

8.5 8.2 8.4 8.1 -0.3

Less than a high school diploma

15.3 15.3 15.7 15.3 -0.4

High school graduates, no college

10.6 10.1 10.0 9.8 -0.2

Some college or associate degree

8.8 8.5 8.7 8.1 -0.6

Bachelor's degree and higher

4.9 4.7 5.1 4.8 -0.3

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

9,688 9,070 9,471 8,923 -548

Job leavers

916 854 864 914 50

Reentrants

3,385 3,498 3,427 3,408 -19

New entrants

1,244 1,278 1,269 1,311 42

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,908 2,659 2,824 2,725 -99

5 to 14 weeks

3,483 3,427 3,336 3,184 -152

15 to 26 weeks

2,781 2,500 2,515 2,205 -310

27 weeks and over

6,133 6,234 6,328 6,441 113

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

9,093 9,100 8,960 8,931 -29

Slack work or business conditions

6,397 6,174 6,025 6,011 -14

Could only find part-time work

2,362 2,564 2,557 2,568 11

Part time for noneconomic reasons

18,359 18,230 18,326 18,184 -142

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)

Marginally attached to the labor force

2,486 2,602 2,531 2,609 -

Discouraged workers

929 1,219 1,282 1,318 -

- Over-the-month changes are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Dec.
2009
Oct.
2010
Nov.
2010(p)
Dec.
2010(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

-109 210 71 103

Total private

-83 193 79 113

Goods-producing

-54 10 -5 -2

Mining and logging

0 10 5 4

Construction

-36 4 -2 -16

Manufacturing

-18 -4 -8 10

Durable goods(1)

-11 1 -2 10

Motor vehicles and parts

-1.1 3.2 0.1 3.3

Nondurable goods

-7 -5 -6 0

Private service-providing(1)

-29 183 84 115

Wholesale trade

-4.3 11.1 5.2 8.8

Retail trade

-14.5 38.2 -19.4 12.0

Transportation and warehousing

-4.0 3.9 15.3 8.8

Information

-14 -4 2 -4

Financial activities

-9 3 -4 4

Professional and business services(1)

22 40 49 7

Temporary help services

49.7 28.6 31.1 15.9

Education and health services(1)

37 66 37 44

Health care and social assistance

21.8 42.1 26.6 37.1

Leisure and hospitality

-33 -1 12 47

Other services

-7 25 -12 -14

Government

-26 17 -8 -10

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES(2)
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES

Total nonfarm women employees

49.9 49.6 49.6 49.6

Total private women employees

48.4 48.1 48.1 48.1

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.4 82.4 82.4 82.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

33.8 34.3 34.3 34.3

Average hourly earnings

$22.38 $22.74 $22.75 $22.78

Average weekly earnings

$756.44 $779.98 $780.33 $781.35

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

90.7 93.1 93.1 93.2

Over-the-month percent change

-0.4 0.5 0.0 0.1

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

96.8 100.9 101.0 101.3

Over-the-month percent change

-0.4 0.7 0.1 0.3

HOURS AND EARNINGS
PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

33.2 33.6 33.5 33.6

Average hourly earnings

$18.85 $19.18 $19.19 $19.21

Average weekly earnings

$625.82 $644.45 $642.87 $645.46

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2002=100)(3)

97.9 100.1 99.9 100.3

Over-the-month percent change

0.0 0.4 -0.2 0.4

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2002=100)(4)

123.3 128.3 128.1 128.8

Over-the-month percent change

0.2 0.8 -0.2 0.5

DIFFUSION INDEX(5)
(Over 1-month span)

Total private

39.6 60.4 52.0 60.0

Manufacturing

41.5 49.4 45.7 53.7

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary



    Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates


Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based
estimates of employment and both have strengths and limitations. The
establishment survey employment series has a smaller margin of error on
the measurement of month-to-month change than the household survey because
of its much larger sample size. An over-the-month employment change of
about 100,000 is statistically significant in the establishment survey,
while the threshold for a statistically significant change in the household
survey is about 400,000. However, the household survey has a more expansive
scope than the establishment survey because it includes the self-employed,
unpaid family workers, agricultural workers, and private household workers,
who are excluded by the establishment survey. The household survey also
provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.

Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants.
However, neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to
identify the legal status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to de-
termine how many are counted in either survey. The establishment survey does
not collect data on the legal status of workers. The household survey does
include questions which identify the foreign and native born, but it does not
include questions about the legal status of the foreign born.

Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data
series by incorporating additional information that was not available at
the time of the initial publication of the estimates. The establishment
survey revises its initial monthly estimates twice, in the immediately suc-
ceeding 2 months, to incorporate additional sample receipts from respondents
in the survey and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors. For more informa-
tion on the monthly revisions, please visit www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revi-
sion that re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available
from unemployment insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for
sampling and modeling errors in the estimates. For more information on the
annual benchmark revision, please visit www.bls.gov/web/cesbmart.htm.

Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of busi-
ness establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sam-
ple is designed to maximize the reliability of the total nonfarm employment
estimate; firms from all size classes and industries are appropriately sampled
to achieve that goal.
  
Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account 
for the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The
adjustment comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net 
jobs impact of business births and deaths based on the actual past values of
the net impact that can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of
Employment and Wages. The establishment survey uses modeling rather than sam-
pling for this purpose because the survey is not immediately able to bring new
businesses into the sample. There is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a
new firm and its appearance on the sampling frame and availability for selection.
BLS adds new businesses to the survey twice a year.

Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving
unemployment insurance benefits?

No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of house-
holds. All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available
to work are included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are in-
cluded even if they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or ques-
tion relating to unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who have stopped looking for
work?

Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
want a job, including those who have stopped looking because they believe no jobs
are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in The Employment
Situation news release.





Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the
Current Population Survey (household survey) and the Current Employ-
ment Statistics survey (establishment survey). The household survey 
provides information on the labor force, employment, and unemploy-
ment that appears in the "A" tables, marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a 
sample survey of about 60,000 households conducted by the U.S. Cen-
sus Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). 

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, 
and earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the 
"B" tables, marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each 
month from the payroll records of a sample of nonagricultural busi-
ness establishments. The sample includes about 140,000 businesses and 
government agencies representing approximately 410,000 worksites and is 
drawn from a sampling frame of roughly 8.9 million unemployment  in-
surance tax accounts. The active sample includes approximately one-
third of all nonfarm payroll employees. 

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular 
week or pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is 
generally the calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. 
In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period 
including the 12th, which may or may not correspond directly to the 
calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire
civilian noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series
of questions on work and job search activities, each person 16 years
and over in a sample household is classified as employed, unemployed,
or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as
paid employees during the reference week; worked in their own business, 
profession, or on their own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 
hours in a family business or farm. People are also counted as employ-
ed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs because of illness, 
bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the follow-
ing criteria: they had no employment during the reference week; they 
were available for work at that time; and they made specific efforts 
to find employment sometime during the 4-week period ending with the 
reference week. Persons laid off from a job and expecting recall need 
not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The unemployment 
data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the eli-
gibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed per-
sons. Those not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the
labor force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a per-
cent of the labor force. The labor force participation rate is the
labor force as a percent of the population, and the employment-popula-
tion ratio is the employed as a percent of the population. Additional 
information about the household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/
cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from pri-
vate nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as
well as from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees
on nonfarm payrolls are those who received pay for any part of the
reference pay period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are
counted in each job they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced
for the private sector for all employees and for production and nonsu-
pervisory employees. Production and nonsupervisory employees are defin-
ed as production and related employees in manufacturing and mining and 
logging, construction workers in construction, and nonsupervisory em-
ployees in private service-providing industries. 

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment’s princi-
pal activity in accordance with the 2007 version of the North American 
Industry Classification System. Additional information about the estab-
lishment survey can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/#technical.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and
methodological differences between the household and establishment
surveys result in important distinctions in the employment estimates
derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, the self-
     employed, unpaid family workers, and private household workers
     among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.
  
   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the
     employed. The establishment survey does not.
  
   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and
     older. The establishment survey is not limited by age.
  
   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than
     one job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted
     separately for each appearance.
  
Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and
the levels of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring
fluctuations. These events may result from seasonal changes in weather, 
major holidays, and the opening and closing of schools. The effect of 
such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern
each year, their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by
adjusting for regular seasonal variation. These adjustments make non-
seasonal developments, such as declines in employment or increases
in the participation of women in the labor force, easier to spot. For
example, in the household survey, the large number of youth entering
the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes that
have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if
the level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in
the establishment survey, payroll employment in education declines by
about 20 percent at the end of the spring term and later rises with
the start of the fall term, obscuring the underlying employment trends
in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes at the end and
beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The
seasonally adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to
analyze changes in month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both
the household and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series
for many major estimates, such as total payroll employment, employment
in most major sectors, total employment, and unemployment are computed
by aggregating independently adjusted component series. For example,
total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate
that would be obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining
the duration, reasons, or more detailed age categories.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent
seasonal adjustment methodology is used in which new seasonal factors
are calculated each month using all relevant data, up to and including
the data for the current month. In the household survey, new seasonal
factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the es-
tablishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month 
to adjust the three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months 
are routinely revised to incorporate additional sample reports and re-
calculated seasonal adjustment factors. In both surveys, 5-year revi-
sions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are
subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample rather
than the entire population is surveyed, there is a chance that the
sample estimates may differ from the "true" population values they
represent. The exact difference, or sampling error, varies depending
on the particular sample selected, and this variability is measured by
the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, 
or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ 
by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the "true" population value 
because of sampling error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 
90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in
total nonfarm employment from the establishment survey is on the order
of plus or minus 100,0001. Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment
increases by 50,000 from one month to the next. The 90-percent confi-
dence interval on the monthly change would range from -50,000 to 
+150,000 (50,000 +/- 100,0002). These figures do not mean that the
sample results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is
about a 90-percent chance that the "true" over-the-month change lies
within this interval. Since this range includes values of less than
zero, we could not say with confidence that nonfarm employment had, in
fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported nonfarm employ-
ment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90-percent 
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is 
likely (at least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in 
fact, risen that month. At an unemployment rate of around 5.5 percent, 
the 90-percent confidence interval for the monthly change in unemploy-
ment as measured by the household survey is about +/- 280,000, and for 
the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about +/-0.19 per-
centage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments
have lower standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than
estimates which are based on a small number of observations. The pre-
cision of estimates also is improved when the data are cumulated over 
time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by
nonsampling error, which can occur for many reasons, including the
failure to sample a segment of the population, inability to obtain
information for all respondents in the sample, inability or unwill-
ingness of respondents to provide correct information on a timely 
basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collec-
tion or processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most
recent 2 months are based on incomplete returns; for this reason,
these estimates are labeled preliminary in the tables. It is only
after two successive revisions to a monthly estimate, when nearly 
all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is consi-
dered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment
survey is the inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment
generated by new firms. To correct for this systematic underestima-
tion of employment growth, an estimation procedure with two compo-
nents is used to account for business births. The first component 
excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based 
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from 
business births. This is incorporated into the sample-based esti-
mation procedure by simply not reflecting sample units going out 
of business, but imputing to them the same employment trend as the 
other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for most of the 
net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to
estimate the residual net birth/death employment not accounted for 
by the imputation. The historical time series used to create and 
test the ARIMA model was derived from the unemployment insurance 
universe micro-level database, and reflects the actual residual net 
of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are ad-
justed once a year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll
employment obtained from administrative records of the unemployment
insurance program. The difference between the March sample-based em-
ployment estimates and the March universe counts is known as a bench-
mark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey error. 
The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of 
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions  for 
total nonfarm employment have averaged 0.3 percent, with a range from 
-0.7 to 0.6 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory im-
paired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal 
Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Dec.
2009
Nov.
2010
Dec.
2010
Dec.
2009
Aug.
2010
Sept.
2010
Oct.
2010
Nov.
2010
Dec.
2010

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

236,924 238,715 238,889 236,924 238,099 238,322 238,530 238,715 238,889

Civilian labor force

152,693 153,698 153,156 153,172 154,117 154,124 153,960 153,950 153,690

Participation rate

64.4 64.4 64.1 64.7 64.7 64.7 64.5 64.5 64.3

Employed

137,953 139,415 139,159 137,960 139,267 139,378 139,084 138,909 139,206

Employment-population ratio

58.2 58.4 58.3 58.2 58.5 58.5 58.3 58.2 58.3

Unemployed

14,740 14,282 13,997 15,212 14,849 14,746 14,876 15,041 14,485

Unemployment rate

9.7 9.3 9.1 9.9 9.6 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.4

Not in labor force

84,231 85,017 85,733 83,752 83,983 84,198 84,570 84,765 85,199

Persons who currently want a job

5,939 5,832 6,212 6,218 6,039 6,236 6,279 6,248 6,471

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

114,728 115,640 115,731 114,728 115,317 115,433 115,542 115,640 115,731

Civilian labor force

81,243 81,651 81,504 81,533 82,266 82,165 82,000 81,986 81,845

Participation rate

70.8 70.6 70.4 71.1 71.3 71.2 71.0 70.9 70.7

Employed

72,258 73,540 73,226 72,609 73,600 73,594 73,470 73,337 73,600

Employment-population ratio

63.0 63.6 63.3 63.3 63.8 63.8 63.6 63.4 63.6

Unemployed

8,985 8,111 8,278 8,925 8,666 8,571 8,530 8,649 8,245

Unemployment rate

11.1 9.9 10.2 10.9 10.5 10.4 10.4 10.5 10.1

Not in labor force

33,485 33,988 34,228 33,194 33,051 33,268 33,542 33,653 33,886

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

106,125 107,114 107,216 106,125 106,761 106,887 107,007 107,114 107,216

Civilian labor force

78,392 78,822 78,780 78,463 79,295 79,289 79,016 78,980 78,906

Participation rate

73.9 73.6 73.5 73.9 74.3 74.2 73.8 73.7 73.6

Employed

70,251 71,471 71,235 70,479 71,505 71,559 71,365 71,130 71,480

Employment-population ratio

66.2 66.7 66.4 66.4 67.0 66.9 66.7 66.4 66.7

Unemployed

8,141 7,352 7,545 7,983 7,789 7,729 7,651 7,849 7,426

Unemployment rate

10.4 9.3 9.6 10.2 9.8 9.7 9.7 9.9 9.4

Not in labor force

27,733 28,291 28,436 27,662 27,467 27,599 27,991 28,134 28,310

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

122,197 123,075 123,158 122,197 122,783 122,889 122,988 123,075 123,158

Civilian labor force

71,450 72,046 71,653 71,639 71,851 71,959 71,960 71,964 71,845

Participation rate

58.5 58.5 58.2 58.6 58.5 58.6 58.5 58.5 58.3

Employed

65,694 65,875 65,933 65,351 65,667 65,784 65,613 65,572 65,605

Employment-population ratio

53.8 53.5 53.5 53.5 53.5 53.5 53.3 53.3 53.3

Unemployed

5,756 6,171 5,719 6,287 6,183 6,175 6,346 6,392 6,240

Unemployment rate

8.1 8.6 8.0 8.8 8.6 8.6 8.8 8.9 8.7

Not in labor force

50,747 51,029 51,505 50,558 50,932 50,930 51,028 51,112 51,313

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

113,832 114,801 114,894 113,832 114,481 114,596 114,704 114,801 114,894

Civilian labor force

68,617 69,374 68,999 68,635 68,883 69,082 69,018 69,151 69,027

Participation rate

60.3 60.4 60.1 60.3 60.2 60.3 60.2 60.2 60.1

Employed

63,430 63,779 63,809 63,037 63,379 63,562 63,400 63,385 63,428

Employment-population ratio

55.7 55.6 55.5 55.4 55.4 55.5 55.3 55.2 55.2

Unemployed

5,187 5,595 5,190 5,598 5,504 5,520 5,618 5,766 5,599

Unemployment rate

7.6 8.1 7.5 8.2 8.0 8.0 8.1 8.3 8.1

Not in labor force

45,215 45,427 45,895 45,198 45,598 45,514 45,687 45,651 45,867

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,967 16,800 16,780 16,967 16,857 16,839 16,819 16,800 16,780

Civilian labor force

5,684 5,501 5,378 6,075 5,939 5,754 5,927 5,820 5,757

Participation rate

33.5 32.7 32.0 35.8 35.2 34.2 35.2 34.6 34.3

Employed

4,272 4,165 4,116 4,444 4,383 4,256 4,319 4,393 4,298

Employment-population ratio

25.2 24.8 24.5 26.2 26.0 25.3 25.7 26.2 25.6

Unemployed

1,412 1,335 1,262 1,631 1,556 1,497 1,607 1,426 1,460

Unemployment rate

24.8 24.3 23.5 26.8 26.2 26.0 27.1 24.5 25.4

Not in labor force

11,283 11,299 11,402 10,892 10,918 11,085 10,893 10,980 11,022

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Dec.
2009
Nov.
2010
Dec.
2010
Dec.
2009
Aug.
2010
Sept.
2010
Oct.
2010
Nov.
2010
Dec.
2010

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

191,628 192,641 192,749 191,628 192,245 192,391 192,527 192,641 192,749

Civilian labor force

124,344 124,735 124,309 124,703 125,358 125,333 124,914 124,824 124,700

Participation rate

64.9 64.7 64.5 65.1 65.2 65.1 64.9 64.8 64.7

Employed

113,416 114,254 114,035 113,439 114,457 114,433 113,975 113,728 114,079

Employment-population ratio

59.2 59.3 59.2 59.2 59.5 59.5 59.2 59.0 59.2

Unemployed

10,928 10,481 10,274 11,264 10,901 10,899 10,940 11,096 10,620

Unemployment rate

8.8 8.4 8.3 9.0 8.7 8.7 8.8 8.9 8.5

Not in labor force

67,284 67,907 68,439 66,925 66,887 67,058 67,612 67,817 68,049

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

64,870 65,074 64,978 64,884 65,571 65,579 65,215 65,088 65,041

Participation rate

74.4 74.1 73.9 74.4 74.8 74.8 74.3 74.1 74.0

Employed

58,653 59,492 59,280 58,846 59,720 59,759 59,425 59,137 59,484

Employment-population ratio

67.2 67.7 67.4 67.5 68.2 68.1 67.7 67.3 67.7

Unemployed

6,217 5,583 5,698 6,038 5,850 5,820 5,790 5,951 5,557

Unemployment rate

9.6 8.6 8.8 9.3 8.9 8.9 8.9 9.1 8.5

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

54,823 55,155 54,927 54,817 54,878 54,961 54,846 54,953 54,914

Participation rate

60.0 60.0 59.7 59.9 59.8 59.8 59.7 59.7 59.7

Employed

51,116 51,195 51,261 50,771 50,989 51,000 50,835 50,817 50,920

Employment-population ratio

55.9 55.7 55.7 55.5 55.6 55.5 55.3 55.2 55.3

Unemployed

3,707 3,960 3,667 4,046 3,889 3,961 4,012 4,136 3,994

Unemployment rate

6.8 7.2 6.7 7.4 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.5 7.3

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,651 4,506 4,404 5,002 4,910 4,793 4,853 4,783 4,746

Participation rate

35.9 35.2 34.4 38.6 38.2 37.3 37.8 37.3 37.1

Employed

3,647 3,568 3,494 3,822 3,747 3,674 3,715 3,775 3,676

Employment-population ratio

28.1 27.9 27.3 29.5 29.2 28.6 29.0 29.5 28.7

Unemployed

1,004 938 910 1,180 1,162 1,119 1,138 1,008 1,070

Unemployment rate

21.6 20.8 20.7 23.6 23.7 23.3 23.4 21.1 22.5

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

28,437 28,865 28,896 28,437 28,755 28,794 28,831 28,865 28,896

Civilian labor force

17,484 17,979 17,835 17,616 17,876 17,777 17,946 18,020 17,958

Participation rate

61.5 62.3 61.7 61.9 62.2 61.7 62.2 62.4 62.1

Employed

14,759 15,206 15,120 14,760 14,972 14,920 15,127 15,142 15,119

Employment-population ratio

51.9 52.7 52.3 51.9 52.1 51.8 52.5 52.5 52.3

Unemployed

2,725 2,772 2,715 2,856 2,904 2,857 2,818 2,878 2,839

Unemployment rate

15.6 15.4 15.2 16.2 16.2 16.1 15.7 16.0 15.8

Not in labor force

10,953 10,886 11,061 10,822 10,879 11,017 10,885 10,845 10,939

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

7,896 8,084 8,079 7,919 8,080 8,066 8,072 8,099 8,106

Participation rate

68.7 69.0 68.8 68.9 69.3 69.1 69.0 69.1 69.1

Employed

6,579 6,815 6,758 6,588 6,691 6,661 6,763 6,753 6,764

Employment-population ratio

57.3 58.2 57.6 57.4 57.4 57.1 57.8 57.6 57.6

Unemployed

1,317 1,269 1,321 1,331 1,389 1,405 1,309 1,346 1,341

Unemployment rate

16.7 15.7 16.4 16.8 17.2 17.4 16.2 16.6 16.5

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

8,891 9,238 9,141 8,953 9,114 9,101 9,173 9,228 9,204

Participation rate

62.2 63.6 62.9 62.7 63.1 62.9 63.3 63.6 63.3

Employed

7,786 8,035 7,998 7,783 7,911 7,948 7,998 8,017 7,993

Employment-population ratio

54.5 55.4 55.0 54.5 54.7 54.9 55.2 55.2 55.0

Unemployed

1,105 1,203 1,143 1,170 1,203 1,152 1,176 1,211 1,211

Unemployment rate

12.4 13.0 12.5 13.1 13.2 12.7 12.8 13.1 13.2

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

698 657 615 744 682 611 700 693 648

Participation rate

26.2 24.9 23.4 27.9 25.7 23.1 26.5 26.3 24.6

Employed

394 356 365 389 370 310 366 372 361

Employment-population ratio

14.8 13.5 13.9 14.6 14.0 11.7 13.9 14.1 13.7

Unemployed

303 301 250 355 312 300 334 321 287

Unemployment rate

43.5 45.8 40.7 47.7 45.7 49.2 47.7 46.3 44.2

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

10,904 11,376 11,387 - - - - - -

Civilian labor force

7,163 7,335 7,355 - - - - - -

Participation rate

65.7 64.5 64.6 - - - - - -

Employed

6,560 6,780 6,829 - - - - - -

Employment-population ratio

60.2 59.6 60.0 - - - - - -

Unemployed

602 555 526 - - - - - -

Unemployment rate

8.4 7.6 7.2 - - - - - -

Not in labor force

3,741 4,041 4,032 - - - - - -

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Dec.
2009
Nov.
2010
Dec.
2010
Dec.
2009
Aug.
2010
Sept.
2010
Oct.
2010
Nov.
2010
Dec.
2010

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

33,379 34,102 34,188 33,379 33,836 33,927 34,014 34,102 34,188

Civilian labor force

22,481 22,958 22,929 22,408 22,733 22,896 22,814 22,915 22,868

Participation rate

67.3 67.3 67.1 67.1 67.2 67.5 67.1 67.2 66.9

Employed

19,591 20,042 19,957 19,532 19,991 20,042 19,936 19,899 19,906

Employment-population ratio

58.7 58.8 58.4 58.5 59.1 59.1 58.6 58.4 58.2

Unemployed

2,890 2,916 2,972 2,876 2,742 2,854 2,878 3,016 2,962

Unemployment rate

12.9 12.7 13.0 12.8 12.1 12.5 12.6 13.2 13.0

Not in labor force

10,899 11,145 11,259 10,971 11,102 11,031 11,201 11,188 11,320

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

12,804 13,000 13,115 - - - - - -

Participation rate

82.4 81.8 82.3 - - - - - -

Employed

11,168 11,454 11,431 - - - - - -

Employment-population ratio

71.9 72.1 71.7 - - - - - -

Unemployed

1,636 1,546 1,684 - - - - - -

Unemployment rate

12.8 11.9 12.8 - - - - - -

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

8,720 8,999 8,880 - - - - - -

Participation rate

59.4 60.2 59.2 - - - - - -

Employed

7,806 7,916 7,892 - - - - - -

Employment-population ratio

53.2 52.9 52.7 - - - - - -

Unemployed

915 1,083 988 - - - - - -

Unemployment rate

10.5 12.0 11.1 - - - - - -

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

956 959 934 - - - - - -

Participation rate

30.3 29.4 28.6 - - - - - -

Employed

617 672 633 - - - - - -

Employment-population ratio

19.5 20.6 19.4 - - - - - -

Unemployed

340 288 300 - - - - - -

Unemployment rate

35.5 30.0 32.2 - - - - - -

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2009
Nov.
2010
Dec.
2010
Dec.
2009
Aug.
2010
Sept.
2010
Oct.
2010
Nov.
2010
Dec.
2010

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

12,015 11,730 11,773 11,988 11,815 11,828 11,800 11,803 11,758

Participation rate

45.7 46.3 46.1 45.6 46.4 46.7 47.0 46.6 46.0

Employed

10,123 9,943 9,924 10,160 10,143 10,003 9,995 9,955 9,963

Employment-population ratio

38.5 39.3 38.9 38.7 39.8 39.5 39.8 39.3 39.0

Unemployed

1,892 1,788 1,850 1,829 1,673 1,824 1,805 1,848 1,795

Unemployment rate

15.7 15.2 15.7 15.3 14.2 15.4 15.3 15.7 15.3

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

37,808 37,794 38,231 37,732 38,266 38,151 38,051 37,824 38,203

Participation rate

61.7 61.0 60.9 61.6 61.9 61.9 61.6 61.1 60.9

Employed

33,803 34,178 34,470 33,746 34,352 34,331 34,225 34,035 34,465

Employment-population ratio

55.2 55.2 54.9 55.1 55.5 55.7 55.4 55.0 54.9

Unemployed

4,005 3,616 3,761 3,986 3,915 3,820 3,826 3,789 3,738

Unemployment rate

10.6 9.6 9.8 10.6 10.2 10.0 10.1 10.0 9.8

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

36,796 37,337 36,763 36,878 37,065 37,115 37,120 37,037 36,809

Participation rate

70.4 70.4 70.1 70.5 70.5 70.5 70.0 69.8 70.2

Employed

33,660 34,247 33,869 33,641 33,850 33,746 33,972 33,832 33,821

Employment-population ratio

64.4 64.6 64.6 64.3 64.4 64.1 64.0 63.8 64.5

Unemployed

3,135 3,090 2,894 3,237 3,215 3,369 3,148 3,205 2,988

Unemployment rate

8.5 8.3 7.9 8.8 8.7 9.1 8.5 8.7 8.1

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

45,927 46,330 46,310 45,912 45,677 46,488 46,132 46,322 46,312

Participation rate

77.2 76.6 76.9 77.1 75.8 76.5 76.1 76.6 76.9

Employed

43,752 44,101 44,170 43,654 43,574 44,405 43,971 43,952 44,095

Employment-population ratio

73.5 72.9 73.4 73.3 72.3 73.0 72.6 72.7 73.2

Unemployed

2,175 2,228 2,140 2,258 2,103 2,083 2,161 2,370 2,217

Unemployment rate

4.7 4.8 4.6 4.9 4.6 4.5 4.7 5.1 4.8

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Dec.
2009
Dec.
2010
Dec.
2009
Dec.
2010
Dec.
2009
Dec.
2010

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

22,000 21,833 20,234 20,039 1,766 1,794

Civilian labor force

11,834 11,534 10,736 10,390 1,098 1,144

Participation rate

53.8 52.8 53.1 51.8 62.2 63.8

Employed

10,866 10,576 9,846 9,509 1,020 1,067

Employment-population ratio

49.4 48.4 48.7 47.5 57.8 59.5

Unemployed

968 957 891 881 78 77

Unemployment rate

8.2 8.3 8.3 8.5 7.1 6.7

Not in labor force

10,166 10,299 9,498 9,649 668 650

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,120 2,242 1,755 1,897 365 345

Civilian labor force

1,768 1,794 1,496 1,558 273 236

Participation rate

83.4 80.0 85.2 82.1 74.7 68.3

Employed

1,628 1,584 1,377 1,374 252 210

Employment-population ratio

76.8 70.7 78.4 72.4 69.0 60.8

Unemployed

140 210 119 184 21 26

Unemployment rate

7.9 11.7 8.0 11.8 7.6 10.9

Not in labor force

352 448 259 339 92 109

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,825 2,924 2,374 2,470 451 454

Civilian labor force

2,464 2,530 2,124 2,163 340 367

Participation rate

87.2 86.5 89.5 87.6 75.3 80.9

Employed

2,307 2,395 1,987 2,039 320 356

Employment-population ratio

81.7 81.9 83.7 82.5 70.9 78.5

Unemployed

157 136 137 125 20 11

Unemployment rate

6.4 5.4 6.5 5.8 5.9 3.0

Not in labor force

361 394 250 307 111 87

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

11,130 10,796 10,764 10,448 367 348

Civilian labor force

4,108 3,847 3,974 3,718 135 129

Participation rate

36.9 35.6 36.9 35.6 36.8 37.2

Employed

3,741 3,516 3,615 3,395 126 122

Employment-population ratio

33.6 32.6 33.6 32.5 34.4 34.9

Unemployed

368 331 359 323 9 8

Unemployment rate

8.9 8.6 9.0 8.7 6.5 6.1

Not in labor force

7,022 6,949 6,790 6,730 232 219

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,925 5,871 5,341 5,224 584 647

Civilian labor force

3,494 3,362 3,143 2,951 351 412

Participation rate

59.0 57.3 58.8 56.5 60.1 63.6

Employed

3,190 3,081 2,867 2,701 323 380

Employment-population ratio

53.8 52.5 53.7 51.7 55.3 58.7

Unemployed

304 281 276 249 28 32

Unemployment rate

8.7 8.4 8.8 8.5 8.0 7.8

Not in labor force

2,431 2,508 2,198 2,273 233 235

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

205,980 208,058 89,935 91,143 116,045 116,915

Civilian labor force

138,955 139,806 69,594 70,228 69,361 69,578

Participation rate

67.5 67.2 77.4 77.1 59.8 59.5

Employed

125,705 127,220 61,794 63,082 63,911 64,138

Employment-population ratio

61.0 61.1 68.7 69.2 55.1 54.9

Unemployed

13,250 12,586 7,800 7,146 5,450 5,440

Unemployment rate

9.5 9.0 11.2 10.2 7.9 7.8

Not in labor force

67,025 68,252 20,341 20,915 46,684 47,338

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Dec.
2009
Dec.
2010
Dec.
2009
Dec.
2010

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

27,075 26,984 209,849 211,905

Civilian labor force

5,847 5,679 146,845 147,477

Participation rate

21.6 21.0 70.0 69.6

Employed

5,042 4,869 132,910 134,290

Employment-population ratio

18.6 18.0 63.3 63.4

Unemployed

805 810 13,935 13,187

Unemployment rate

13.8 14.3 9.5 8.9

Not in labor force

21,228 21,305 63,004 64,428

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,629 2,591 74,975 75,101

Participation rate

36.4 34.6 82.5 82.2

Employed

2,238 2,190 66,675 67,517

Employment-population ratio

31.0 29.3 73.4 73.9

Unemployed

391 401 8,300 7,584

Unemployment rate

14.9 15.5 11.1 10.1

Not in labor force

4,602 4,895 15,915 16,208

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,353 2,310 66,063 66,303

Participation rate

30.6 31.2 71.2 70.8

Employed

2,028 1,966 60,818 61,110

Employment-population ratio

26.4 26.5 65.6 65.3

Unemployed

324 344 5,245 5,193

Unemployment rate

13.8 14.9 7.9 7.8

Not in labor force

5,339 5,097 26,686 27,339

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

865 778 5,807 6,073

Participation rate

7.1 6.4 22.2 22.5

Employed

775 713 5,417 5,662

Employment-population ratio

6.4 5.9 20.7 21.0

Unemployed

89 65 390 410

Unemployment rate

10.3 8.4 6.7 6.8

Not in labor force

11,287 11,312 20,403 20,881

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Dec.
2009
Dec.
2010
Dec.
2009
Dec.
2010
Dec.
2009
Dec.
2010

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

35,575 36,545 17,932 18,042 17,643 18,503

Civilian labor force

23,920 24,783 14,179 14,441 9,741 10,342

Participation rate

67.2 67.8 79.1 80.0 55.2 55.9

Employed

21,290 22,153 12,517 12,856 8,773 9,297

Employment-population ratio

59.8 60.6 69.8 71.3 49.7 50.2

Unemployed

2,630 2,630 1,662 1,584 968 1,045

Unemployment rate

11.0 10.6 11.7 11.0 9.9 10.1

Not in labor force

11,655 11,762 3,753 3,602 7,902 8,160

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

201,349 202,344 96,795 97,689 104,554 104,655

Civilian labor force

128,773 128,373 67,064 67,063 61,709 61,310

Participation rate

64.0 63.4 69.3 68.6 59.0 58.6

Employed

116,663 117,006 59,741 60,370 56,922 56,636

Employment-population ratio

57.9 57.8 61.7 61.8 54.4 54.1

Unemployed

12,110 11,367 7,323 6,693 4,787 4,674

Unemployment rate

9.4 8.9 10.9 10.0 7.8 7.6

Not in labor force

72,576 73,971 29,732 30,626 42,845 43,345

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2009
Nov.
2010
Dec.
2010
Dec.
2009
Aug.
2010
Sept.
2010
Oct.
2010
Nov.
2010
Dec.
2010

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

1,952 2,127 2,037 2,079 2,187 2,172 2,348 2,185 2,176

Wage and salary workers

1,228 1,347 1,295 1,313 1,306 1,310 1,446 1,385 1,384

Self-employed workers

707 749 720 760 852 798 823 771 775

Unpaid family workers

17 30 22 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

136,001 137,289 137,123 135,854 136,957 137,266 136,797 136,752 137,001

Wage and salary workers

127,003 128,468 128,436 126,605 128,215 128,438 127,852 127,728 128,043

Government

21,128 20,745 20,745 21,146 20,564 20,855 20,717 20,600 20,759

Private industries

105,875 107,723 107,691 105,481 107,709 107,451 107,100 107,146 107,303

Private households

736 650 635 - - - - - -

Other industries

105,139 107,073 107,056 104,738 107,057 106,859 106,470 106,516 106,665

Self-employed workers

8,915 8,727 8,589 9,119 8,715 8,752 8,862 8,832 8,783

Unpaid family workers

83 93 97 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(1)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(2)

9,354 8,670 9,205 9,093 8,883 9,506 9,100 8,960 8,931

Slack work or business conditions

6,758 5,897 6,347 6,397 6,357 6,732 6,174 6,025 6,011

Could only find part-time work

2,286 2,487 2,499 2,362 2,379 2,478 2,564 2,557 2,568

Part time for noneconomic reasons(3)

19,082 19,290 18,872 18,359 18,566 18,256 18,230 18,326 18,184

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(2)

9,222 8,526 9,029 8,993 8,752 9,380 8,991 8,822 8,789

Slack work or business conditions

6,672 5,805 6,230 6,327 6,276 6,649 6,108 5,941 5,911

Could only find part-time work

2,267 2,468 2,470 2,340 2,347 2,454 2,534 2,555 2,542

Part time for noneconomic reasons(3)

18,740 18,928 18,525 18,020 18,175 17,911 17,848 17,929 17,829

Footnotes
(1) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(3) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2009
Nov.
2010
Dec.
2010
Dec.
2009
Aug.
2010
Sept.
2010
Oct.
2010
Nov.
2010
Dec.
2010

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

137,953 139,415 139,159 137,960 139,267 139,378 139,084 138,909 139,206

16 to 19 years

4,272 4,165 4,116 4,444 4,383 4,256 4,319 4,393 4,298

16 to 17 years

1,381 1,369 1,363 1,446 1,413 1,405 1,434 1,440 1,434

18 to 19 years

2,891 2,796 2,753 3,005 2,979 2,857 2,894 2,961 2,869

20 years and over

133,680 135,250 135,044 133,516 134,885 135,121 134,764 134,515 134,908

20 to 24 years

12,343 12,781 12,611 12,426 12,838 12,825 12,774 12,774 12,713

25 years and over

121,337 122,469 122,433 121,095 122,110 122,254 121,910 121,744 122,196

25 to 54 years

94,030 94,347 94,156 93,838 94,060 94,076 94,011 93,723 93,962

25 to 34 years

29,875 30,458 30,384 29,829 30,341 30,321 30,323 30,214 30,345

35 to 44 years

30,831 30,715 30,528 30,748 30,598 30,538 30,650 30,527 30,447

45 to 54 years

33,325 33,175 33,244 33,260 33,120 33,217 33,037 32,982 33,170

55 years and over

27,307 28,122 28,276 27,257 28,051 28,178 27,899 28,021 28,234

Men, 16 years and over

72,258 73,540 73,226 72,609 73,600 73,594 73,470 73,337 73,600

16 to 19 years

2,008 2,069 1,991 2,129 2,095 2,035 2,106 2,206 2,121

16 to 17 years

618 627 635 673 671 662 660 688 695

18 to 19 years

1,389 1,443 1,356 1,449 1,437 1,371 1,443 1,524 1,420

20 years and over

70,251 71,471 71,235 70,479 71,505 71,559 71,365 71,130 71,480

20 to 24 years

6,127 6,473 6,438 6,245 6,573 6,533 6,542 6,502 6,568

25 years and over

64,124 64,998 64,798 64,224 64,976 65,005 64,803 64,617 64,904

25 to 54 years

49,905 50,304 50,049 49,970 50,345 50,306 50,209 49,970 50,117

25 to 34 years

16,146 16,491 16,443 16,127 16,495 16,436 16,434 16,331 16,428

35 to 44 years

16,615 16,652 16,511 16,631 16,603 16,547 16,573 16,543 16,522

45 to 54 years

17,144 17,162 17,095 17,212 17,247 17,324 17,202 17,096 17,168

55 years and over

14,219 14,693 14,749 14,253 14,630 14,699 14,594 14,648 14,787

Women, 16 years and over

65,694 65,875 65,933 65,351 65,667 65,784 65,613 65,572 65,605

16 to 19 years

2,265 2,096 2,125 2,315 2,288 2,221 2,214 2,187 2,177

16 to 17 years

763 742 728 772 742 743 774 752 739

18 to 19 years

1,502 1,354 1,397 1,556 1,542 1,486 1,452 1,437 1,449

20 years and over

63,430 63,779 63,809 63,037 63,379 63,562 63,400 63,385 63,428

20 to 24 years

6,216 6,308 6,174 6,182 6,265 6,292 6,232 6,272 6,145

25 years and over

57,213 57,471 57,635 56,871 57,135 57,249 57,106 57,127 57,292

25 to 54 years

44,125 44,042 44,108 43,867 43,714 43,770 43,801 43,753 43,845

25 to 34 years

13,728 13,967 13,941 13,702 13,846 13,885 13,889 13,883 13,917

35 to 44 years

14,215 14,063 14,017 14,118 13,995 13,992 14,077 13,983 13,925

45 to 54 years

16,181 16,013 16,150 16,048 15,873 15,894 15,836 15,887 16,003

55 years and over

13,089 13,429 13,527 13,004 13,420 13,479 13,305 13,374 13,447

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present

43,364 43,296 43,119 43,323 43,418 43,701 43,301 43,130 43,081

Married women, spouse present

35,198 34,725 34,850 34,962 34,271 34,469 34,553 34,543 34,612

Women who maintain families

8,403 8,817 8,878 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(1)

109,875 111,348 111,207 110,403 111,805 111,710 111,585 111,187 111,744

Part-time workers(2)

28,078 28,068 27,953 27,492 27,711 27,649 27,433 27,594 27,394

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

6,886 6,816 6,884 6,936 6,805 6,687 6,679 6,734 6,950

Percent of total employed

5.0 4.9 4.9 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.8 4.8 5.0

Footnotes
(1) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(2) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Dec.
2009
Nov.
2010
Dec.
2010
Dec.
2009
Aug.
2010
Sept.
2010
Oct.
2010
Nov.
2010
Dec.
2010

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

15,212 15,041 14,485 9.9 9.6 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.4

16 to 19 years

1,631 1,426 1,460 26.8 26.2 26.0 27.1 24.5 25.4

16 to 17 years

613 476 533 29.8 31.2 30.0 30.3 24.9 27.1

18 to 19 years

1,027 947 933 25.5 23.8 23.3 24.7 24.2 24.5

20 years and over

13,581 13,615 13,025 9.2 9.0 8.9 9.0 9.2 8.8

20 to 24 years

2,310 2,418 2,296 15.7 14.9 14.9 15.3 15.9 15.3

25 years and over

11,245 11,188 10,716 8.5 8.3 8.3 8.2 8.4 8.1

25 to 54 years

9,184 8,983 8,674 8.9 8.6 8.7 8.5 8.7 8.5

25 to 34 years

3,388 3,513 3,418 10.2 9.8 10.0 9.9 10.4 10.1

35 to 44 years

2,956 2,558 2,566 8.8 7.8 8.3 7.9 7.7 7.8

45 to 54 years

2,840 2,912 2,690 7.9 8.2 7.7 7.8 8.1 7.5

55 years and over

2,119 2,184 2,088 7.2 7.3 7.2 7.2 7.2 6.9

Men, 16 years and over

8,925 8,649 8,245 10.9 10.5 10.4 10.4 10.5 10.1

16 to 19 years

941 800 818 30.7 29.5 29.3 29.4 26.6 27.8

16 to 17 years

333 274 284 33.1 32.8 33.3 33.8 28.5 29.0

18 to 19 years

613 523 536 29.7 27.8 26.2 26.8 25.5 27.4

20 years and over

7,983 7,849 7,426 10.2 9.8 9.7 9.7 9.9 9.4

20 to 24 years

1,424 1,440 1,340 18.6 17.3 17.1 16.5 18.1 16.9

25 years and over

6,547 6,417 6,079 9.3 9.1 9.0 8.9 9.0 8.6

25 to 54 years

5,337 5,145 4,926 9.7 9.2 9.3 9.1 9.3 8.9

25 to 34 years

2,011 2,002 1,950 11.1 10.5 10.8 10.4 10.9 10.6

35 to 44 years

1,641 1,417 1,418 9.0 8.2 8.6 8.2 7.9 7.9

45 to 54 years

1,685 1,726 1,558 8.9 9.0 8.6 8.6 9.2 8.3

55 years and over

1,210 1,272 1,152 7.8 8.5 7.9 8.3 8.0 7.2

Women, 16 years and over

6,287 6,392 6,240 8.8 8.6 8.6 8.8 8.9 8.7

16 to 19 years

689 626 641 22.9 22.9 22.8 24.8 22.3 22.8

16 to 17 years

280 202 248 26.6 29.6 26.8 27.0 21.2 25.2

18 to 19 years

414 425 397 21.0 19.7 20.4 22.6 22.8 21.5

20 years and over

5,598 5,766 5,599 8.2 8.0 8.0 8.1 8.3 8.1

20 to 24 years

886 978 956 12.5 12.3 12.4 13.9 13.5 13.5

25 years and over

4,698 4,771 4,638 7.6 7.4 7.4 7.5 7.7 7.5

25 to 54 years

3,846 3,838 3,747 8.1 7.8 7.9 7.9 8.1 7.9

25 to 34 years

1,376 1,511 1,468 9.1 9.1 9.0 9.4 9.8 9.5

35 to 44 years

1,315 1,141 1,147 8.5 7.2 8.1 7.5 7.5 7.6

45 to 54 years

1,156 1,186 1,132 6.7 7.2 6.7 6.9 6.9 6.6

55 years and over(1)

800 887 830 5.8 6.9 6.4 5.9 6.2 5.8

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present

3,357 3,214 3,047 7.2 6.8 6.8 6.9 6.9 6.6

Married women, spouse present

2,184 2,118 2,046 5.9 5.9 5.7 5.7 5.8 5.6

Women who maintain families(1)

1,258 1,317 1,207 13.0 13.4 12.9 12.4 13.0 12.0

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(2)

13,370 13,298 12,650 10.8 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.7 10.2

Part-time workers(3)

1,788 1,690 1,764 6.1 6.7 6.1 6.3 5.8 6.0

Footnotes
(1) Not seasonally adjusted.
(2) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(3) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2009
Nov.
2010
Dec.
2010
Dec.
2009
Aug.
2010
Sept.
2010
Oct.
2010
Nov.
2010
Dec.
2010

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

9,822 8,926 8,995 9,688 9,285 9,286 9,070 9,471 8,923

On temporary layoff

1,683 1,172 1,547 1,530 1,505 1,340 1,293 1,430 1,402

Not on temporary layoff

8,140 7,754 7,448 8,158 7,780 7,947 7,777 8,042 7,521

Permanent job losers

6,718 6,183 5,917 6,736 6,411 6,467 6,254 6,425 5,995

Persons who completed temporary jobs

1,422 1,571 1,530 1,422 1,368 1,479 1,523 1,617 1,526

Job leavers

860 852 861 916 868 809 854 864 914

Reentrants

3,012 3,348 3,031 3,385 3,418 3,441 3,498 3,427 3,408

New entrants

1,046 1,156 1,110 1,244 1,260 1,193 1,278 1,269 1,311

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

66.6 62.5 64.3 63.6 62.6 63.0 61.7 63.0 61.3

On temporary layoff

11.4 8.2 11.1 10.0 10.1 9.1 8.8 9.5 9.6

Not on temporary layoff

55.2 54.3 53.2 53.6 52.5 54.0 52.9 53.5 51.7

Job leavers

5.8 6.0 6.2 6.0 5.9 5.5 5.8 5.8 6.3

Reentrants

20.4 23.4 21.7 22.2 23.0 23.4 23.8 22.8 23.4

New entrants

7.1 8.1 7.9 8.2 8.5 8.1 8.7 8.4 9.0

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

6.4 5.8 5.9 6.3 6.0 6.0 5.9 6.2 5.8

Job leavers

0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6

Reentrants

2.0 2.2 2.0 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.2 2.2

New entrants

0.7 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2009
Nov.
2010
Dec.
2010
Dec.
2009
Aug.
2010
Sept.
2010
Oct.
2010
Nov.
2010
Dec.
2010

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,871 2,639 2,681 2,908 2,756 2,872 2,659 2,824 2,725

5 to 14 weeks

3,335 3,152 3,043 3,483 3,604 3,329 3,427 3,336 3,184

15 weeks and over

8,534 8,491 8,273 8,913 8,471 8,517 8,734 8,843 8,647

15 to 26 weeks

2,638 2,233 2,073 2,781 2,210 2,364 2,500 2,515 2,205

27 weeks and over

5,896 6,258 6,200 6,133 6,261 6,153 6,234 6,328 6,441

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

29.0 34.5 34.0 29.3 33.5 33.4 33.9 33.9 34.2

Median duration, in weeks

20.2 21.7 22.3 20.4 20.6 20.5 21.3 21.7 22.4

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

19.5 18.5 19.2 19.0 18.6 19.5 17.9 18.8 18.7

5 to 14 weeks

22.6 22.1 21.7 22.8 24.3 22.6 23.1 22.2 21.9

15 weeks and over

57.9 59.5 59.1 58.2 57.1 57.9 58.9 58.9 59.4

15 to 26 weeks

17.9 15.6 14.8 18.2 14.9 16.1 16.9 16.8 15.2

27 weeks and over

40.0 43.8 44.3 40.1 42.2 41.8 42.1 42.2 44.3

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Dec.
2009
Dec.
2010
Dec.
2009
Dec.
2010
Dec.
2009
Dec.
2010

Total, 16 years and over(1)

137,953 139,159 14,740 13,997 9.7 9.1

Management, professional, and related occupations

52,131 51,704 2,509 2,468 4.6 4.6

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

20,944 20,393 1,157 1,243 5.2 5.7

Professional and related occupations

31,188 31,310 1,352 1,225 4.2 3.8

Service occupations

24,216 24,717 2,747 2,696 10.2 9.8

Sales and office occupations

33,296 33,407 3,184 3,023 8.7 8.3

Sales and related occupations

15,478 15,521 1,520 1,407 8.9 8.3

Office and administrative support occupations

17,819 17,885 1,664 1,616 8.5 8.3

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

12,617 12,666 2,802 2,407 18.2 16.0

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

869 925 242 268 21.8 22.5

Construction and extraction occupations

7,106 6,849 2,067 1,785 22.5 20.7

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,642 4,892 494 354 9.6 6.7

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

15,692 16,666 2,425 2,245 13.4 11.9

Production occupations

7,420 8,339 1,281 1,109 14.7 11.7

Transportation and material moving occupations

8,272 8,327 1,144 1,137 12.2 12.0

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Dec.
2009
Dec.
2010
Dec.
2009
Dec.
2010

Total, 16 years and over(1)

14,740 13,997 9.7 9.1

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

11,997 11,008 10.2 9.3

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

89 83 11.8 10.8

Construction

2,044 1,749 22.7 20.7

Manufacturing

1,747 1,551 11.9 10.0

Durable goods

1,245 999 13.3 10.4

Nondurable goods

502 551 9.5 9.4

Wholesale and retail trade

1,851 1,698 9.1 8.2

Transportation and utilities

539 428 9.0 7.4

Information

256 244 8.5 8.1

Financial activities

665 568 7.2 6.4

Professional and business services

1,486 1,477 10.3 10.2

Education and health services

1,183 1,139 5.6 5.2

Leisure and hospitality

1,624 1,580 12.6 12.0

Other services

513 491 8.2 7.9

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

292 278 19.7 18.1

Government workers

797 950 3.6 4.4

Self-employed and unpaid family workers

609 650 5.9 6.5

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2009
Nov.
2010
Dec.
2010
Dec.
2009
Aug.
2010
Sept.
2010
Oct.
2010
Nov.
2010
Dec.
2010

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

5.6 5.5 5.4 5.8 5.5 5.5 5.7 5.7 5.6

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

6.4 5.8 5.9 6.3 6.0 6.0 5.9 6.2 5.8

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

9.7 9.3 9.1 9.9 9.6 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.4

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

10.2 10.0 9.9 10.5 10.3 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.2

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

11.1 10.8 10.7 11.4 11.0 11.0 11.2 11.2 10.9

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

17.1 16.3 16.6 17.2 16.7 17.1 17.0 17.0 16.7

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Dec.
2009
Dec.
2010
Dec.
2009
Dec.
2010
Dec.
2009
Dec.
2010

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

84,231 85,733 33,485 34,228 50,747 51,505

Persons who currently want a job

5,939 6,212 2,896 2,936 3,043 3,276

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

2,486 2,609 1,384 1,326 1,102 1,283

Discouraged workers(2)

929 1,318 594 829 334 489

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,558 1,291 790 497 768 794

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

6,886 6,884 3,369 3,259 3,517 3,625

Percent of total employed

5.0 4.9 4.7 4.5 5.4 5.5

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

3,641 3,514 2,010 1,889 1,632 1,624

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

1,818 1,916 549 596 1,268 1,320

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

202 251 123 156 79 95

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,198 1,164 670 597 528 567

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Dec.
2009
Oct.
2010
Nov.
2010(p)
Dec.
2010(p)
Dec.
2009
Oct.
2010
Nov.
2010(p)
Dec.
2010(p)
Change from:
Nov. 2010- Dec. 2010(p)

Total nonfarm

130,448 131,600 131,871 131,514 129,588 130,538 130,609 130,712 103

Total private

107,623 108,970 109,124 108,919 107,107 108,261 108,340 108,453 113

Goods-producing

17,871 18,359 18,257 17,989 17,906 18,048 18,043 18,041 -2

Mining and logging

676 769 771 770 676 759 764 768 4

Logging

47.5 49.1 47.9 48.6 46.9 47.1 46.8 47.7 0.9

Mining

628.1 720.2 723.2 721.2 629.4 711.8 716.8 720.0 3.2

Oil and gas extraction

159.7 169.4 169.2 167.8 159.8 169.8 168.7 167.7 -1.0

Mining, except oil and gas(1)

204.0 222.9 222.9 215.6 207.7 218.3 219.6 219.1 -0.5

Coal mining

79.6 84.9 85.2 85.8 79.2 84.8 84.9 85.3 0.4

Support activities for mining

264.4 327.9 331.1 337.8 261.9 323.7 328.5 333.2 4.7

Construction

5,615 5,850 5,762 5,501 5,696 5,621 5,619 5,603 -16

Construction of buildings

1,282.5 1,292.9 1,282.9 1,245.7 1,282.5 1,256.2 1,257.5 1,251.2 -6.3

Residential building

600.5 589.8 582.9 561.3 599.9 569.5 568.8 562.9 -5.9

Nonresidential building

682.0 703.1 700.0 684.4 682.6 686.7 688.7 688.3 -0.4

Heavy and civil engineering construction

763.3 894.0 862.9 776.1 797.9 829.2 828.7 816.0 -12.7

Specialty trade contractors

3,568.9 3,662.7 3,615.8 3,478.8 3,615.1 3,535.2 3,532.8 3,536.1 3.3

Residential specialty trade contractors

1,538.6 1,576.3 1,551.2 1,498.6 1,567.2 1,519.1 1,519.9 1,524.0 4.1

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,030.5 2,086.4 2,064.6 1,980.2 2,047.9 2,016.1 2,012.9 2,012.1 -0.8

Manufacturing

11,580 11,740 11,724 11,718 11,534 11,668 11,660 11,670 10

Durable goods

7,079 7,225 7,230 7,236 7,036 7,186 7,184 7,194 10

Wood products

347.9 345.8 345.8 343.7 348.9 343.8 344.1 344.3 0.2

Nonmetallic mineral products

379.4 391.5 388.3 376.2 383.9 383.3 382.0 379.6 -2.4

Primary metals

353.4 376.3 375.5 376.8 351.8 374.6 374.2 375.1 0.9

Fabricated metal products

1,277.4 1,335.2 1,334.4 1,336.3 1,266.8 1,322.4 1,324.8 1,328.9 4.1

Machinery

982.0 1,008.1 1,010.3 1,010.9 973.2 1,001.2 1,001.6 998.8 -2.8

Computer and electronic products(1)

1,098.5 1,102.1 1,105.9 1,111.8 1,093.3 1,103.2 1,104.0 1,107.6 3.6

Computer and peripheral equipment

159.3 162.3 163.6 165.5 158.3 162.3 162.6 163.3 0.7

Communication equipment

119.3 123.3 123.1 123.6 119.0 123.3 123.1 123.6 0.5

Semiconductors and electronic components

361.9 368.6 369.1 371.8 359.7 368.8 368.9 370.7 1.8

Electronic instruments

409.6 403.1 404.7 405.7 408.9 403.9 404.6 405.4 0.8

Electrical equipment and appliances

362.7 375.4 374.2 375.5 361.8 374.7 373.1 375.8 2.7

Transportation equipment(1)

1,334.1 1,353.3 1,360.0 1,372.2 1,316.6 1,351.0 1,351.6 1,357.1 5.5

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

667.1 688.5 694.6 702.4 652.2 686.2 686.3 689.6 3.3

Furniture and related products

364.8 357.1 354.5 353.0 363.9 356.1 354.1 352.6 -1.5

Miscellaneous manufacturing

579.1 580.1 581.0 579.8 575.6 575.8 574.7 573.9 -0.8

Nondurable goods

4,501 4,515 4,494 4,482 4,498 4,482 4,476 4,476 0

Food manufacturing

1,459.9 1,472.4 1,459.6 1,459.5 1,455.6 1,449.9 1,448.4 1,450.8 2.4

Beverages and tobacco products

180.8 189.2 185.9 181.1 183.6 184.9 185.4 183.5 -1.9

Textile mills

123.8 123.8 124.2 125.0 124.2 123.6 123.8 124.8 1.0

Textile product mills

123.3 121.4 118.9 117.7 122.1 119.9 117.7 117.7 0.0

Apparel

164.5 164.2 162.3 163.6 166.0 164.4 163.7 165.0 1.3

Leather and allied products

28.4 30.1 29.9 30.6 28.4 29.8 30.0 30.3 0.3

Paper and paper products

398.3 398.5 397.3 397.4 397.6 398.3 396.6 396.8 0.2

Printing and related support activities

504.3 490.6 492.9 488.1 501.0 488.5 488.8 484.8 -4.0

Petroleum and coal products

108.9 117.2 113.5 105.3 112.3 113.9 112.4 110.6 -1.8

Chemicals

792.0 772.8 773.8 775.0 791.2 775.1 773.6 772.7 -0.9

Plastics and rubber products

616.7 635.2 635.5 638.5 616.4 634.1 635.4 639.0 3.6

Private service-providing

89,752 90,611 90,867 90,930 89,201 90,213 90,297 90,412 115

Trade, transportation, and utilities

25,251 24,931 25,275 25,462 24,653 24,849 24,849 24,880 31

Wholesale trade

5,581.9 5,625.9 5,634.2 5,639.9 5,564.0 5,605.0 5,610.2 5,619.0 8.8

Durable goods

2,772.4 2,795.1 2,801.5 2,811.5 2,766.7 2,787.5 2,793.3 2,800.5 7.2

Nondurable goods

1,982.1 1,985.6 1,987.6 1,980.8 1,974.3 1,976.0 1,974.0 1,974.3 0.3

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

827.4 845.2 845.1 847.6 823.0 841.5 842.9 844.2 1.3

Retail trade

14,871.1 14,498.0 14,815.6 14,997.5 14,360.0 14,483.1 14,463.7 14,475.7 12.0

Motor vehicle and parts dealers(1)

1,611.2 1,655.2 1,653.1 1,654.0 1,624.0 1,649.5 1,656.9 1,664.4 7.5

Automobile dealers

1,007.0 1,030.7 1,031.3 1,034.9 1,014.0 1,027.9 1,033.2 1,038.1 4.9

Furniture and home furnishings stores

464.9 449.6 460.1 470.7 439.0 444.9 443.8 447.6 3.8

Electronics and appliance stores

499.1 494.3 512.3 514.2 477.2 491.7 491.4 490.2 -1.2

Building material and garden supply stores

1,121.5 1,123.2 1,113.2 1,106.0 1,150.0 1,137.1 1,133.8 1,134.5 0.7

Food and beverage stores

2,827.0 2,811.4 2,831.1 2,833.3 2,799.8 2,807.7 2,806.8 2,807.3 0.5

Health and personal care stores

996.2 969.3 978.0 978.6 978.7 971.0 968.4 960.8 -7.6

Gasoline stations

820.8 820.7 817.8 814.5 822.5 818.6 818.9 819.1 0.2

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,495.2 1,416.1 1,496.3 1,557.8 1,360.9 1,415.6 1,412.9 1,419.0 6.1

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

659.5 607.6 630.0 655.8 606.9 602.4 600.2 600.8 0.6

General merchandise stores(1)

3,125.1 2,942.8 3,091.8 3,164.3 2,911.8 2,955.0 2,943.9 2,945.3 1.4

Department stores

1,623.1 1,479.7 1,593.2 1,656.9 1,458.7 1,490.8 1,483.8 1,484.5 0.7

Miscellaneous store retailers

793.6 776.3 784.6 787.7 769.4 768.3 767.0 764.9 -2.1

Nonstore retailers

457.0 431.5 447.3 460.6 419.8 421.3 419.7 421.8 2.1

Transportation and warehousing

4,240.1 4,254.9 4,274.4 4,274.0 4,171.8 4,208.2 4,223.5 4,232.3 8.8

Air transportation

451.6 454.9 453.5 455.6 453.8 454.7 454.9 455.6 0.7

Rail transportation

213.7 222.7 223.8 223.7 213.7 222.4 223.0 223.6 0.6

Water transportation

62.9 65.4 64.5 64.8 63.3 64.9 65.1 65.2 0.1

Truck transportation

1,234.5 1,264.8 1,260.6 1,251.1 1,231.3 1,243.9 1,247.5 1,250.1 2.6

Transit and ground passenger transportation

429.0 453.6 453.1 455.3 414.6 437.1 436.6 439.1 2.5

Pipeline transportation

40.8 39.1 39.1 39.1 40.7 38.9 38.9 39.1 0.2

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

24.4 29.6 24.6 22.4 28.1 28.2 27.7 26.5 -1.2

Support activities for transportation

542.6 549.8 548.4 549.0 538.5 546.2 545.7 545.4 -0.3

Couriers and messengers

596.7 521.0 543.5 555.2 553.6 524.2 533.1 536.4 3.3

Warehousing and storage

643.9 654.0 663.3 657.8 634.2 647.7 651.0 651.3 0.3

Utilities

557.6 552.4 551.0 550.5 557.2 552.8 551.8 552.9 1.1

Information

2,763 2,708 2,728 2,721 2,748 2,713 2,715 2,711 -4

Publishing industries, except Internet

774.5 759.9 763.7 763.0 769.3 759.9 759.8 759.4 -0.4

Motion picture and sound recording industries

344.7 347.0 357.3 353.9 341.7 351.4 353.5 354.9 1.4

Broadcasting, except Internet

296.4 299.1 299.6 298.8 294.3 297.8 297.3 296.7 -0.6

Telecommunications

960.0 916.2 918.9 916.5 956.9 916.3 916.0 911.5 -4.5

Data processing, hosting and related services

250.6 244.3 245.7 246.0 250.2 245.2 245.2 245.4 0.2

Other information services

136.3 141.5 142.9 142.8 135.3 141.9 142.7 142.7 0.0

Financial activities

7,667 7,586 7,577 7,590 7,657 7,585 7,581 7,585 4

Finance and insurance

5,704.2 5,648.0 5,653.2 5,657.9 5,693.7 5,650.8 5,650.2 5,650.8 0.6

Monetary authorities - central bank

21.0 21.3 21.8 21.8 21.1 21.5 21.8 21.9 0.1

Credit intermediation and related
activities(1)

2,572.7 2,573.2 2,573.9 2,575.8 2,570.9 2,575.4 2,575.0 2,575.1 0.1

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,752.6 1,764.7 1,765.2 1,768.0 1,750.3 1,766.5 1,766.8 1,768.3 1.5

Commercial banking

1,312.3 1,323.1 1,322.7 1,326.0 1,310.8 1,324.4 1,324.8 1,326.9 2.1

Securities, commodity contracts, investments

799.6 796.9 799.0 805.3 795.9 797.3 798.6 803.0 4.4

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,224.0 2,171.2 2,172.9 2,169.6 2,219.6 2,171.6 2,169.3 2,165.6 -3.7

Funds, trusts, and other financial vehicles

86.9 85.4 85.6 85.4 86.2 85.0 85.5 85.2 -0.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

1,962.7 1,938.2 1,923.4 1,932.1 1,963.3 1,934.2 1,930.9 1,934.5 3.6

Real estate

1,408.6 1,383.1 1,377.6 1,387.5 1,403.5 1,379.8 1,378.8 1,384.7 5.9

Rental and leasing services

528.3 530.8 521.7 520.2 534.2 530.0 527.9 525.6 -2.3

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

25.8 24.3 24.1 24.4 25.6 24.4 24.2 24.2 0.0

Professional and business services

16,569 16,995 17,020 16,951 16,488 16,798 16,847 16,854 7

Professional and technical services(1)

7,471.5 7,404.9 7,436.4 7,475.6 7,431.5 7,428.0 7,436.0 7,437.4 1.4

Legal services

1,107.5 1,107.9 1,107.2 1,111.6 1,104.5 1,107.6 1,106.7 1,105.7 -1.0

Accounting and bookkeeping services

925.4 813.0 824.7 859.3 915.8 875.3 873.2 862.5 -10.7

Architectural and engineering services

1,291.9 1,285.0 1,284.4 1,277.3 1,291.7 1,275.4 1,276.1 1,274.8 -1.3

Computer systems design and related services

1,435.4 1,481.8 1,486.8 1,488.9 1,428.3 1,473.6 1,475.7 1,481.0 5.3

Management and technical consulting services

1,005.1 1,005.8 1,013.8 1,018.4 993.3 996.2 1,000.8 1,003.7 2.9

Management of companies and enterprises

1,828.4 1,835.3 1,835.1 1,841.2 1,819.8 1,834.9 1,835.1 1,836.4 1.3

Administrative and waste services

7,269.4 7,754.9 7,748.1 7,634.3 7,236.4 7,535.5 7,575.5 7,580.1 4.6

Administrative and support services(1)

6,922.8 7,395.9 7,390.8 7,280.8 6,888.7 7,179.8 7,220.2 7,224.9 4.7

Employment services(1)

2,659.7 2,985.1 3,013.6 3,002.9 2,575.0 2,844.9 2,880.4 2,888.7 8.3

Temporary help services

1,981.8 2,293.1 2,313.4 2,304.7 1,911.0 2,172.4 2,203.5 2,219.4 15.9

Business support services

826.7 807.9 820.2 826.4 805.3 800.8 803.1 805.3 2.2

Services to buildings and dwellings

1,654.2 1,783.2 1,739.7 1,645.8 1,725.9 1,730.7 1,725.6 1,723.7 -1.9

Waste management and remediation services

346.6 359.0 357.3 353.5 347.7 355.7 355.3 355.2 -0.1

Education and health services

19,520 19,853 19,956 19,941 19,350 19,691 19,728 19,772 44

Educational services

3,226.3 3,315.7 3,360.3 3,310.0 3,107.3 3,170.4 3,180.9 3,187.4 6.5

Health care and social assistance

16,294.1 16,537.1 16,595.8 16,631.4 16,242.5 16,520.6 16,547.2 16,584.3 37.1

Health care(3)

13,675.3 13,859.3 13,898.0 13,937.5 13,640.6 13,852.9 13,870.7 13,906.4 35.7

Ambulatory health care services(1)

5,866.4 5,986.3 6,001.9 6,027.3 5,847.2 5,980.5 5,986.8 6,007.4 20.6

Offices of physicians

2,318.5 2,333.3 2,338.9 2,348.4 2,306.5 2,330.7 2,331.9 2,335.2 3.3

Outpatient care centers

547.4 559.6 561.0 568.8 546.2 559.6 559.8 566.3 6.5

Home health care services

1,053.2 1,085.1 1,092.4 1,095.3 1,051.0 1,083.6 1,087.5 1,091.8 4.3

Hospitals

4,701.2 4,729.0 4,742.4 4,750.1 4,694.4 4,728.8 4,736.5 4,744.5 8.0

Nursing and residential care facilities(1)

3,107.7 3,144.0 3,153.7 3,160.1 3,099.0 3,143.6 3,147.4 3,154.5 7.1

Nursing care facilities

1,653.2 1,664.0 1,670.9 1,672.0 1,648.2 1,663.6 1,665.6 1,667.5 1.9

Social assistance(1)

2,618.8 2,677.8 2,697.8 2,693.9 2,601.9 2,667.7 2,676.5 2,677.9 1.4

Child day care services

872.5 881.1 888.0 882.8 858.9 870.1 871.2 869.4 -1.8

Leisure and hospitality

12,691 13,128 12,930 12,911 12,991 13,172 13,184 13,231 47

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,739.0 1,855.8 1,750.9 1,762.6 1,886.5 1,898.6 1,898.3 1,916.5 18.2

Performing arts and spectator sports

376.2 410.8 400.7 401.0 391.8 407.9 415.8 417.7 1.9

Museums, historical sites, zoos, and parks

121.9 127.8 123.4 120.6 129.0 127.6 127.9 128.1 0.2

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,240.9 1,317.2 1,226.8 1,241.0 1,365.7 1,363.1 1,354.6 1,370.7 16.1

Accommodation and food services

10,951.5 11,272.0 11,179.0 11,148.1 11,104.5 11,272.9 11,285.5 11,314.6 29.1

Accommodation

1,683.4 1,744.1 1,702.3 1,695.7 1,733.1 1,754.1 1,750.2 1,754.8 4.6

Food services and drinking places

9,268.1 9,527.9 9,476.7 9,452.4 9,371.4 9,518.8 9,535.3 9,559.8 24.5

Other services

5,291 5,410 5,381 5,354 5,314 5,405 5,393 5,379 -14

Repair and maintenance

1,131.8 1,158.8 1,150.1 1,144.4 1,139.8 1,157.4 1,153.7 1,150.9 -2.8

Personal and laundry services

1,268.1 1,278.8 1,272.4 1,276.7 1,269.6 1,281.9 1,276.6 1,280.8 4.2

Membership associations and organizations

2,890.9 2,972.5 2,958.6 2,932.6 2,904.4 2,965.4 2,962.8 2,947.7 -15.1

Government

22,825 22,630 22,747 22,595 22,481 22,277 22,269 22,259 -10

Federal

2,816.0 2,840.0 2,834.0 2,840.0 2,824.0 2,838.0 2,842.0 2,852.0 10.0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,148.8 2,189.7 2,190.7 2,194.5 2,160.1 2,190.8 2,198.4 2,208.7 10.3

U.S. Postal Service

667.5 650.4 642.8 645.5 663.7 646.9 643.6 643.6 0.0

State government

5,281.0 5,331.0 5,360.0 5,295.0 5,178.0 5,182.0 5,184.0 5,184.0 0.0

State government education

2,502.3 2,585.3 2,616.5 2,553.9 2,383.7 2,427.1 2,429.3 2,430.9 1.6

State government, excluding education

2,778.9 2,746.1 2,743.5 2,740.6 2,794.5 2,754.4 2,754.8 2,753.4 -1.4

Local government

14,728.0 14,459.0 14,553.0 14,460.0 14,479.0 14,257.0 14,243.0 14,223.0 -20.0

Local government education

8,363.1 8,154.0 8,257.4 8,218.7 8,040.0 7,914.5 7,906.9 7,899.7 -7.2

Local government, excluding education

6,364.7 6,304.9 6,295.1 6,241.1 6,438.9 6,342.2 6,335.9 6,323.6 -12.3

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Dec.
2009
Oct.
2010
Nov.
2010(p)
Dec.
2010(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.8 34.3 34.3 34.3

Goods-producing

38.8 39.7 39.7 39.7

Mining and logging

42.1 43.3 43.1 43.5

Construction

36.9 38.0 38.0 38.2

Manufacturing

39.6 40.3 40.3 40.2

Durable goods

39.7 40.5 40.6 40.5

Nondurable goods

39.3 40.0 39.8 39.8

Private service-providing

32.8 33.2 33.2 33.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.0 34.4 34.3 34.6

Wholesale trade

37.6 38.5 38.4 38.4

Retail trade

31.2 31.3 31.2 31.6

Transportation and warehousing

37.9 38.7 38.7 38.8

Utilities

40.5 42.0 41.7 41.4

Information

36.5 36.9 36.8 36.7

Financial activities

36.7 37.1 37.2 37.1

Professional and business services

35.1 35.7 35.7 35.8

Education and health services

32.7 33.0 33.0 32.9

Leisure and hospitality

25.6 25.8 25.8 25.7

Other services

31.3 31.9 31.8 31.8

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

2.7 3.1 3.1 3.1

Durable goods

2.5 2.9 3.1 3.0

Nondurable goods

2.9 3.3 3.2 3.2

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Dec.
2009
Oct.
2010
Nov.
2010(p)
Dec.
2010(p)
Dec.
2009
Oct.
2010
Nov.
2010(p)
Dec.
2010(p)

Total private

$22.38 $22.74 $22.75 $22.78 $756.44 $779.98 $780.33 $781.35

Goods-producing

23.84 24.16 24.15 24.18 924.99 959.15 958.76 959.95

Mining and logging

26.97 27.73 27.65 27.62 1,135.44 1,200.71 1,191.72 1,201.47

Construction

25.03 25.30 25.36 25.40 923.61 961.40 963.68 970.28

Manufacturing

23.10 23.40 23.36 23.37 914.76 943.02 941.41 939.47

Durable goods

24.65 24.86 24.84 24.85 978.61 1,006.83 1,008.50 1,006.43

Nondurable goods

20.65 21.03 20.93 20.96 811.55 841.20 833.01 834.21

Private service-providing

22.03 22.39 22.42 22.45 722.58 743.35 744.34 745.34

Trade, transportation, and utilities

19.53 19.87 19.89 19.86 664.02 683.53 682.23 687.16

Wholesale trade

25.91 26.33 26.34 26.31 974.22 1,013.71 1,011.46 1,010.30

Retail trade

15.47 15.64 15.66 15.63 482.66 489.53 488.59 493.91

Transportation and warehousing

20.69 21.20 21.22 21.30 784.15 820.44 821.21 826.44

Utilities

32.93 33.24 33.00 33.23 1,333.67 1,396.08 1,376.10 1,375.72

Information

30.03 31.14 31.22 31.26 1,096.10 1,149.07 1,148.90 1,147.24

Financial activities

26.83 27.30 27.33 27.42 984.66 1,012.83 1,016.68 1,017.28

Professional and business services

27.09 27.43 27.46 27.47 950.86 979.25 980.32 983.43

Education and health services

22.55 23.07 23.07 23.17 737.39 761.31 761.31 762.29

Leisure and hospitality

13.10 13.11 13.10 13.14 335.36 338.24 337.98 337.70

Other services

20.04 20.05 20.16 20.18 627.25 639.60 641.09 641.72

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Dec.
2009
Oct.
2010
Nov.
2010(p)
Dec.
2010(p)
Percent change from:
Nov. 2010- Dec. 2010(p)
Dec.
2009
Oct.
2010
Nov.
2010(p)
Dec.
2010(p)
Percent change from:
Nov. 2010 - Dec. 2010(p)

Total private

90.7 93.1 93.1 93.2 0.1 96.8 100.9 101.0 101.3 0.3

Goods-producing

79.2 81.6 81.6 81.6 0.0 85.3 89.1 89.1 89.2 0.1

Mining and logging

89.4 103.3 103.5 105.0 1.4 96.8 115.0 114.9 116.4 1.3

Construction

72.4 73.6 73.6 73.8 0.3 78.8 80.9 81.1 81.4 0.4

Manufacturing

82.2 84.6 84.5 84.4 -0.1 88.3 92.1 91.8 91.7 -0.1

Durable goods

78.6 81.9 82.1 82.0 -0.1 86.1 90.5 90.6 90.5 -0.1

Nondurable goods

88.2 89.5 88.9 88.9 0.0 92.4 95.5 94.4 94.6 0.2

Private service-providing

94.0 96.2 96.3 96.4 0.1 100.3 104.3 104.6 104.9 0.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

91.1 92.9 92.6 93.6 1.1 95.8 99.4 99.2 100.0 0.8

Wholesale trade

91.3 94.2 94.0 94.1 0.1 98.7 103.5 103.3 103.4 0.1

Retail trade

91.0 92.1 91.6 92.9 1.4 93.1 95.2 94.9 96.0 1.2

Transportation and warehousing

90.5 93.2 93.5 94.0 0.5 95.0 100.3 100.7 101.6 0.9

Utilities

97.6 100.4 99.5 99.0 -0.5 106.2 110.3 108.5 108.7 0.2

Information

91.6 91.4 91.2 90.9 -0.3 97.9 101.4 101.4 101.1 -0.3

Financial activities

92.6 92.7 92.9 92.7 -0.2 97.0 98.8 99.1 99.2 0.1

Professional and business services

91.0 94.3 94.6 94.9 0.3 99.9 104.8 105.2 105.6 0.4

Education and health services

103.0 105.8 106.0 105.9 -0.1 108.8 114.3 114.5 114.9 0.3

Leisure and hospitality

94.9 97.0 97.1 97.0 -0.1 100.3 102.6 102.6 102.9 0.3

Other services

92.2 95.5 95.0 94.8 -0.2 104.8 108.7 108.7 108.5 -0.2

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Dec.
2009
Oct.
2010
Nov.
2010(p)
Dec.
2010(p)
Dec.
2009
Oct.
2010
Nov.
2010(p)
Dec.
2010(p)

Total nonfarm

64,666 64,751 64,746 64,810 49.9 49.6 49.6 49.6

Total private

51,842 52,091 52,105 52,182 48.4 48.1 48.1 48.1

Goods-producing

4,150 4,114 4,111 4,116 23.2 22.8 22.8 22.8

Mining and logging

98 103 104 106 14.5 13.6 13.6 13.8

Construction

759 726 725 729 13.3 12.9 12.9 13.0

Manufacturing

3,293 3,285 3,282 3,281 28.6 28.2 28.1 28.1

Durable goods

1,739 1,735 1,735 1,737 24.7 24.1 24.2 24.1

Nondurable goods

1,554 1,550 1,547 1,544 34.5 34.6 34.6 34.5

Private service-providing

47,692 47,977 47,994 48,066 53.5 53.2 53.2 53.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

10,062 10,041 10,015 10,014 40.8 40.4 40.3 40.2

Wholesale trade

1,684.8 1,686.5 1,687.4 1,688.0 30.3 30.1 30.1 30.0

Retail trade

7,232.6 7,222.5 7,198.8 7,197.3 50.4 49.9 49.8 49.7

Transportation and warehousing

1,006.1 1,000.5 997.1 997.7 24.1 23.8 23.6 23.6

Utilities

138.3 131.8 131.2 130.8 24.8 23.8 23.8 23.7

Information

1,133 1,102 1,108 1,101 41.2 40.6 40.8 40.6

Financial activities

4,533 4,452 4,445 4,446 59.2 58.7 58.6 58.6

Professional and business services

7,389 7,471 7,493 7,515 44.8 44.5 44.5 44.6

Education and health services

14,956 15,184 15,209 15,240 77.3 77.1 77.1 77.1

Leisure and hospitality

6,823 6,884 6,885 6,914 52.5 52.3 52.2 52.3

Other services

2,796 2,843 2,839 2,836 52.6 52.6 52.6 52.7

Government

12,824 12,660 12,641 12,628 57.0 56.8 56.8 56.7

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Dec.
2009
Oct.
2010
Nov.
2010(p)
Dec.
2010(p)

Total private

88,239 89,210 89,281 89,387

Goods-producing

12,886 12,995 12,989 12,982

Mining and logging

490 568 571 577

Construction

4,307 4,257 4,261 4,240

Manufacturing

8,089 8,170 8,157 8,165

Durable goods

4,801 4,914 4,913 4,917

Nondurable goods

3,288 3,256 3,244 3,248

Private service-providing

75,353 76,215 76,292 76,405

Trade, transportation, and utilities

20,876 21,014 21,010 21,053

Wholesale trade

4,470.8 4,483.6 4,485.7 4,490.8

Retail trade

12,329.1 12,463.1 12,448.6 12,472.9

Transportation and warehousing

3,630.7 3,629.1 3,639.5 3,651.2

Utilities

445.0 438.2 436.5 437.8

Information

2,192 2,180 2,181 2,181

Financial activities

5,937 5,829 5,821 5,824

Professional and business services

13,463 13,777 13,834 13,831

Education and health services

16,971 17,270 17,308 17,350

Leisure and hospitality

11,464 11,621 11,623 11,660

Other services

4,450 4,524 4,515 4,506

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Dec.
2009
Oct.
2010
Nov.
2010(p)
Dec.
2010(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.2 33.6 33.5 33.6

Goods-producing

39.6 40.6 40.5 40.5

Mining and logging

43.4 44.5 44.6 44.6

Construction

37.5 38.8 38.6 38.7

Manufacturing

40.5 41.2 41.2 41.2

Durable goods

40.6 41.4 41.5 41.4

Nondurable goods

40.4 40.9 40.8 40.9

Private service-providing

32.1 32.4 32.3 32.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

32.9 33.5 33.5 33.7

Wholesale trade

37.6 38.2 38.2 38.3

Retail trade

30.0 30.3 30.2 30.5

Transportation and warehousing

36.2 37.6 37.8 37.7

Utilities

41.4 42.9 42.7 42.2

Information

36.5 36.4 36.4 36.3

Financial activities

35.9 36.3 36.1 36.2

Professional and business services

34.8 35.3 35.2 35.5

Education and health services

32.3 32.3 32.2 32.2

Leisure and hospitality

24.8 24.9 24.9 24.7

Other services

30.5 30.9 30.8 30.8

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.4 3.9 4.0 4.0

Durable goods

3.3 3.9 4.0 4.1

Nondurable goods

3.6 4.0 3.9 3.8

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Dec.
2009
Oct.
2010
Nov.
2010(p)
Dec.
2010(p)
Dec.
2009
Oct.
2010
Nov.
2010(p)
Dec.
2010(p)

Total private

$18.85 $19.18 $19.19 $19.21 $625.82 $644.45 $642.87 $645.46

Goods-producing

20.04 20.40 20.43 20.44 793.58 828.24 827.42 827.82

Mining and logging

23.47 23.85 23.96 23.96 1,018.60 1,061.33 1,068.62 1,068.62

Construction

22.95 23.42 23.50 23.55 860.63 908.70 907.10 911.39

Manufacturing

18.38 18.66 18.66 18.66 744.39 768.79 768.79 768.79

Durable goods

19.57 19.83 19.86 19.87 794.54 820.96 824.19 822.62

Nondurable goods

16.64 16.86 16.81 16.80 672.26 689.57 685.85 687.12

Private service-providing

18.60 18.93 18.92 18.95 597.06 613.33 611.12 613.98

Trade, transportation, and utilities

16.73 17.03 17.01 17.00 550.42 570.51 569.84 572.90

Wholesale trade

21.35 21.84 21.72 21.75 802.76 834.29 829.70 833.03

Retail trade

13.16 13.37 13.39 13.38 394.80 405.11 404.38 408.09

Transportation and warehousing

19.00 19.23 19.16 19.25 687.80 723.05 724.25 725.73

Utilities

29.91 30.76 30.78 30.68 1,238.27 1,319.60 1,314.31 1,294.70

Information

25.64 26.20 26.18 26.22 935.86 953.68 952.95 951.79

Financial activities

21.11 21.61 21.66 21.67 757.85 784.44 781.93 784.45

Professional and business services

22.58 22.98 22.98 22.99 785.78 811.19 808.90 816.15

Education and health services

19.76 20.19 20.17 20.24 638.25 652.14 649.47 651.73

Leisure and hospitality

11.27 11.30 11.31 11.34 279.50 281.37 281.62 280.10

Other services

16.85 16.91 16.95 16.98 513.93 522.52 522.06 522.98

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Dec.
2009
Oct.
2010
Nov.
2010(p)
Dec.
2010(p)
Percent change from:
Nov.
2010 - Dec.
2010(p)
Dec.
2009
Oct.
2010
Nov.
2010(p)
Dec.
2010(p)
Percent change from:
Nov.
2010 - Dec.
2010(p)

Total private

97.9 100.1 99.9 100.3 0.4 123.3 128.3 128.1 128.8 0.5

Goods-producing

78.0 80.6 80.4 80.3 -0.1 95.7 100.7 100.6 100.6 0.0

Mining and logging

113.0 134.3 135.3 136.8 1.1 154.3 186.3 188.6 190.6 1.1

Construction

80.9 82.7 82.4 82.2 -0.2 100.2 104.6 104.5 104.5 0.0

Manufacturing

75.2 77.3 77.1 77.2 0.1 90.4 94.3 94.1 94.2 0.1

Durable goods

73.2 76.4 76.6 76.5 -0.1 89.5 94.6 95.0 94.9 -0.1

Nondurable goods

78.3 78.5 78.0 78.3 0.4 92.0 93.5 92.6 92.9 0.3

Private service-providing

103.4 105.6 105.4 105.9 0.5 131.9 137.0 136.7 137.5 0.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities

95.7 98.1 98.1 98.9 0.8 114.3 119.2 119.1 119.9 0.7

Wholesale trade

99.0 100.9 100.9 101.3 0.4 124.5 129.8 129.1 129.8 0.5

Retail trade

93.6 95.6 95.2 96.3 1.2 105.6 109.5 109.2 110.4 1.1

Transportation and warehousing

98.9 102.7 103.6 103.6 0.0 119.2 125.3 125.9 126.5 0.5

Utilities

94.2 96.2 95.3 94.5 -0.8 117.6 123.5 122.5 121.0 -1.2

Information

91.3 90.6 90.6 90.4 -0.2 115.9 117.5 117.5 117.3 -0.2

Financial activities

102.0 101.3 100.6 100.9 0.3 133.1 135.3 134.7 135.2 0.4

Professional and business services

105.0 109.0 109.1 110.0 0.8 141.1 149.0 149.2 150.5 0.9

Education and health services

118.2 120.3 120.2 120.5 0.2 153.6 159.7 159.4 160.4 0.6

Leisure and hospitality

104.2 106.1 106.1 105.6 -0.5 133.4 136.1 136.2 135.9 -0.2

Other services

95.2 98.1 97.6 97.4 -0.2 116.9 120.8 120.5 120.5 0.0

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary


Last Modified Date: January 07, 2011
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