Economic News Release

Employment Situation News Release


Transmission of material in this release is embargoed            USDL-10-0141
until 8:30 a.m. (EST) Friday, February 5, 2010

Technical information:
 Household data:       (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:   (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                   THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- JANUARY 2010


The unemployment rate fell from 10.0 to 9.7 percent in January, and nonfarm 
payroll employment was essentially unchanged (-20,000), the U.S. Bureau of 
Labor Statistics reported today. Employment fell in construction and in 
transportation and warehousing, while temporary help services and retail 
trade added jobs.

Household Survey Data

In January, the number of unemployed persons decreased to 14.8 million, 
and the unemployment rate fell by 0.3 percentage point to 9.7 percent. 
(See table A-1.)

In January, unemployment rates for most major worker groups--adult men
(10.0 percent), teenagers (26.4 percent), blacks (16.5 percent), and 
Hispanics (12.6 percent)--showed little change. The jobless rate for adult 
women fell to 7.9 percent, and the rate for whites declined to 8.7 percent. 
The jobless rate for Asians was 8.4 percent, not seasonally adjusted. 
(See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

This release includes new household survey tables with information about 
employment and unemployment of veterans, persons with a disability, and the 
foreign born. In January, the unemployment rate of veterans from Gulf War 
era II (September 2001 to the present) was 12.6 percent, compared with 10.4 
percent for nonveterans. Persons with a disability had a higher jobless rate 
than persons with no disability--15.2 versus 10.4 percent. In addition, the 
labor force participation rate of persons with a disability was 21.8 percent, 
compared with 70.1 percent for those without a disability. The unemployment 
rate for the foreign born was 11.8 percent, and the rate for the native born 
was 10.3 percent. (The data in these new tables are not seasonally adjusted.) 
(See tables A-5, A-6, and A-7.)


    ---------------------------------------------------------------- 
   |                                                                |
   |  Changes to The Employment Situation Text, Tables, and Data    |
   |                                                                |
   |  Several changes to The Employment Situation news release text |
   |  and tables are being introduced with this release. In addi-   |
   |  tion, establishment survey data have been revised as a result |
   |  of the annual benchmarking process and the updating of sea-   |
   |  sonal adjustment factors. Also, household survey data for Jan-|
   |  uary 2010 reflect updated population estimates. See the notes |
   |  at the end of the text for more information about all of      |
   |  these changes.                                                |
   |                                                                |
    ----------------------------------------------------------------


In January, the number of persons unemployed due to job loss decreased by 
378,000 to 9.3 million. Nearly all of this decline occurred among permanent 
job losers.  (See table A-11.)

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks and over) 
continued to trend up in January, reaching 6.3 million. Since the start of 
the recession in December 2007, the number of long-term unemployed has risen 
by 5.0 million. (See table A-12.)

In January, the civilian labor force participation rate was little changed at 
64.7 percent. The employment-population ratio rose from 58.2 to 58.4 percent. 
(See table A-1.)

The number of persons who worked part time for economic reasons (sometimes 
referred to as involuntary part-time workers) fell from 9.2 to 8.3 million 
in January. These individuals were working part time because their hours had 
been cut back or because they were unable to find a full-time job. (See 
table A-8.)

About 2.5 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force in 
January, an increase of 409,000 from a year earlier. (The data are not 
seasonally adjusted.) These individuals were not in the labor force, wanted 
and were available for work, and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 
12 months. They were not counted as unemployed because they had not searched 
for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. (See table A-16.)

Among the marginally attached, there were 1.1 million discouraged workers in 
January, up from 734,000 a year earlier. (The data are not seasonally adjusted.)  
Discouraged workers are persons not currently looking for work because they 
believe no jobs are available for them. The remaining 1.5 million people 
marginally attached to the labor force had not searched for work in the 4 weeks 
preceding the survey for reasons such as school attendance or family responsi-
bilities.

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment was essentially unchanged in January (-20,000). 
Job losses continued in construction and in transportation and warehousing, 
while employment increased in temporary help services and retail trade. Since 
the start of the recession in December 2007, payroll employment has fallen by 
8.4 million. Over the last 3 months, however, employment has shown little net 
change. (See table B-1.)

Construction employment declined by 75,000 in January, with nonresidential 
specialty trade contractors (-48,000) accounting for the majority of the de-
cline. Since December 2007, employment in construction has fallen by 1.9 
million.

In January, transportation and warehousing employment fell by 19,000, due to 
a large job loss among couriers and messengers (-23,000).

Employment in manufacturing was little changed in January (11,000). After expe-
riencing steep job losses earlier in the recession, employment declines 
moderated considerably in the second half of 2009. In January, job gains in 
motor vehicles and parts (23,000) and plastics and rubber products (6,000) 
offset small job losses elsewhere in the industry.

In January, temporary help services added 52,000 jobs. Since reaching a low 
point in September 2009, temporary help services employment has risen by 
247,000.

Retail trade employment rose by 42,000 in January, after showing little 
change in the prior 2 months. Job gains occurred in January among food stores 
(14,000), clothing stores (13,000), and general merchandise retailers (10,000).

Health care employment continued to trend up in January. Ambulatory health 
care services added 15,000 jobs over the month.

In January, the federal government added 33,000 jobs, including 9,000 tempo-
rary positions for Census 2010. Employment in state and local governments, 
excluding education, continued to trend down.

This release includes a new establishment survey table with information about 
women employees. In January, women made up 49.9 percent of total nonfarm pay-
roll employment, compared with 48.8 percent when the recession began in 
December 2007. (See table B-5.)

Also new in this release are data on hours and earnings for all employees in 
the private sector. The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm 
payrolls was up by 0.1 hour to 33.9 hours in January. The manufacturing work-
week for all employees rose by 0.3 hour to 39.9 hours, and factory overtime 
increased by 0.1 hour over the month. Since June, the manufacturing workweek 
has increased by 1.2 hours. In January, the average workweek for production 
and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls rose by 0.1 hour to 
33.3 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

In January, average hourly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm pay-
rolls increased by 4 cents, or 0.2 percent, to $22.45. Over the past 12 months, 
average hourly earnings have risen by 2.0 percent. In January, average hourly 
earnings of private production and nonsupervisory employees rose by 5 cents, 
or 0.3 percent, to $18.89. (See tables B-3 and B-8.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for November was revised from 
4,000 to 64,000, and the change for December was revised from -85,000 to 
-150,000. Monthly revisions result from additional sample reports and the 
monthly recalculation of seasonal factors. The annual benchmark process also 
contributed to these revisions.

_____________
The Employment Situation for February is scheduled to be released on Friday, 
March 5, 2010, at 8:30 a.m. (EST).




    ---------------------------------------------------------------
   |                                                               |
   |      Changes to The Employment Situation Text and Tables      |
   |                                                               |
   | Effective with this release, several changes to The Employ-   |
   | ment Situation news release text and tables have been intro-  |
   | duced. Two new summary tables--one for the household survey   |
   | titled "Summary table A" and one for the establishment survey |
   | titled "Summary table B"--replace what previously had been a  |
   | single table (table A) containing data from both surveys.     |
   |                                                               |
   | Three new household survey data tables provide information on |
   | the employment status of veterans (table A-5), persons with a |
   | disability (table A-6), and the foreign born (table A-7). In  |
   | addition, two new seasonally adjusted series (on permanent    |
   | job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs) are      |
   | being added to table A-11, which shows unemployment by reason.|
   |                                                               |
   | The establishment survey data tables (the B tables) have been |
   | redesigned to include the addition of several data series.    |
   | New data on all employee hours and earnings are being pub-    |
   | lished for the first time. Data on women employees and produc-|
   | tion and nonsupervisory employees are now being published     |
   | concurrent with the newest-available establishment survey em- |
   | ployment data. Previously, employment data on women were      |
   | available with a one-month lag and were not published in The  |
   | Employment Situation news release. The Technical Note section |
   | of this release has been updated to cover the new concepts    |
   | being introduced.                                             |
   |                                                               |
   | Additional information about these changes, including cross-  |
   | walks between the old and new tables, is available at www.    |
   | bls.gov/bls/upcoming_empsit_changes.htm.                      |
   |                                                               |
    ---------------------------------------------------------------
                                   
                                   
                                   
                                   
                  Revisions to Establishment Survey Data

In accordance with annual practice, the establishment survey data have been 
revised to reflect comprehensive universe counts of payroll jobs, or benchmarks. 
These counts are derived principally from unemployment insurance tax records 
for March 2009. As a result of the benchmark process, all data series were 
subject to revision from April 2008 forward, the time period since the last 
benchmark was established. In addition, with this release, the seasonally 
adjusted establishment survey data from January 2005 forward were subject to
revision due to the introduction of updated seasonal adjustment factors.

Table A presents revised total nonfarm employment data on a seasonally adjust-
ed basis for January through December 2009. The revised data for April 2009 
forward incorporate the effect of applying the rate of change measured by the 
sample to the new benchmark level, as well as updated net business birth/death 
model adjustments and new seasonal adjustment factors. The November and 
December 2009 revisions also reflect the routine incorporation of additional 
sample receipts into the November final and December second preliminary 
estimates. The total nonfarm employment level for March 2009 was revised down-
ward by 902,000 (930,000 on a seasonally adjusted basis), or 0.7 percent. The
previously published level for December 2009 was revised downward 1,390,000 
(1,363,000 on a seasonally adjusted basis).

An article that discusses the benchmark and post-benchmark revisions, as well 
as all revised historical Current Employment Statistics (CES) data, can be 
accessed through the CES homepage at www.bls.gov/ces/. Information on the 
revisions released today also may be obtained by calling (202) 691-6555.



  Table A.  Revisions in total nonfarm employment, January-December 2009,
  seasonally adjusted                                                    
                                                                         
  (In thousands)                                                         
  _______________________________________________________________________
                 |                     |                                 
                 |        Level        |      Over-the-month change      
                 |---------------------|---------------------------------
   Year and month|    As    |          |    As    |          |           
                 |previously|    As    |previously|    As    | Difference
                 |published |  revised |published |  revised |           
  _______________|__________|__________|__________|__________|___________
                 |          |          |          |          |           
       2009      |          |          |          |          |           
  January........| 134,333  |  133,549 |   -741   |  -779    |   -38     
  February.......| 133,652  |  132,823 |   -681   |  -726    |   -45     
  March..........| 133,000  |  132,070 |   -652   |  -753    |  -101     
  April..........| 132,481  |  131,488 |   -519   |  -582    |   -63     
  May............| 132,178  |  131,141 |   -303   |  -347    |   -44     
  June...........| 131,715  |  130,637 |   -463   |  -504    |   -41     
  July...........| 131,411  |  130,293 |   -304   |  -344    |   -40     
  August.........| 131,257  |  130,082 |   -154   |  -211    |   -57     
  September......| 131,118  |  129,857 |   -139   |  -225    |   -86     
  October........| 130,991  |  129,633 |   -127   |  -224    |   -97     
  November.......| 130,995  |  129,697 |      4   |    64    |    60     
  December (p)...| 130,910  |  129,547 |    -85   |  -150    |   -65     
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------
     p = preliminary.                                                    




     Adjustments to Population Estimates for the Household Survey

Effective with data for January 2010, updated population estimates have been 
used in the household survey. Population estimates for the household survey 
are developed by the U.S. Census Bureau. Each year, the Census Bureau updates 
the estimates to reflect new information and assumptions about the growth of 
the population during the decade. The change in population reflected in the 
new estimates results primarily from adjustments for net international migra-
tion, updated vital statistics and other information, and some methodological 
changes in the estimation process.

In accordance with usual practice, BLS will not revise the official household
survey estimates for December 2009 or earlier months. To show the impact of 
the population adjustment, however, differences in selected December 2009 labor
force series based on the old and new population estimates are shown in table B. 
The adjustment decreased the estimated size of the civilian noninstitutional 
population in December by 258,000, the civilian labor force by 249,000, and 
employment by 243,000; the new population estimates had a negligible impact 
on unemployment rates and other percentage estimates. Data users are cautioned 
that these annual population adjustments affect the comparability of household 
data series over time. Estimates of large levels, such as total labor force and 
employment, are impacted most. Table C shows the effect of the introduction of 
new population estimates on the changes in selected labor force measures between 
December 2009 and January 2010. More detailed information on the population 
adjustments and their effect on national labor force estimates are available at 
www.bls.gov/cps/cps10adj.pdf.



Table B.  Effect of the updated population controls on December 2009 esti-  
mates by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, not seasonally ad-    
justed                                                                      
                                                                            
(Numbers in thousands)                                                      
                                                                            
____________________________________________________________________________
                     |     |     |      |      |        |       |           
                     |     |     |      |      |  Black |       |           
                     |     |     |      |      |    or  |       |  Hispanic 
      Category       |Total| Men | Women| White| African| Asian | or Latino 
                     |     |     |      |      |American|       | ethnicity 
                     |     |     |      |      |        |       |           
_____________________|_____|_____|______|______|________|_______|___________
                     |     |     |      |      |        |       |           
Civilian noninstitu- |     |     |      |      |        |       |           
 tional population...|-258 |-168 |  -90 | -274 |     56 |  -31  |   -212    
  Civilian labor     |     |     |      |      |        |       |           
    force............|-249 |-185 |  -64 | -235 |     31 |  -42  |   -169    
   Employed..........|-243 |-179 |  -64 | -222 |     22 |  -40  |   -160    
   Unemployed........|  -5 |  -6 |    0 |  -13 |      9 |   -2  |     -8    
    Unemployment     |     |     |      |      |        |       |           
     rate............|  .0 |  .0 |   .0 |   .0 |     .0 |   .0  |     .1    
_____________________|_____|_____|______|______|________|_______|___________
                                                                            
   NOTE:  Detail for men and women may not sum to totals because of round-  
ing.  Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American,
and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all      
races.  Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be  
of any race.                                                                
                                                                            
                                                                            
                                                                            
Table C.  December 2009-January 2010 changes in selected labor force        
measures, with adjustments for population control effects                   
                                                                            
(Numbers in thousands)                                                      
                                                                            
____________________________________________________________________________
                                     |           |            |             
                                     |           |            |  Dec.-Jan.  
                                     | Dec.-Jan. |    2010    |   change,   
                                     |  change,  | population |  after re-  
              Category               |    as     |   control  |  moving the 
                                     | published |   effect   |  population 
                                     |           |            |   control   
                                     |           |            |  effect (1) 
_____________________________________|___________|____________|_____________
                                     |           |            |             
Civilian noninstitutional population.|     -92   |    -258    |     166     
  Civilian labor force...............|     111   |    -249    |     360     
    Participation rate...............|      .1   |      .0    |      .1     
   Employed..........................|     541   |    -243    |     784     
    Employment-population ratio......|      .2   |      .0    |      .2     
   Unemployed........................|    -430   |      -5    |    -425     
    Unemployment rate................|     -.3   |      .0    |     -.3     
                                     |           |            |             
_____________________________________|___________|____________|_____________
                                                                            
   1 This December-January change is calculated by subtracting the population 
control effect from the published over-the-month change.






lang="en">
HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
Numbers in thousands
Category Jan.
2009
Nov.
2009
Dec.
2009
Jan.
2010
Change from:
Dec.
2009-
Jan.
2010

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

234,739 236,743 236,924 236,832 -

Civilian labor force

154,140 153,720 153,059 153,170 -

Participation rate

65.7 64.9 64.6 64.7 0.1

Employed

142,221 138,381 137,792 138,333 -

Employment-population ratio

60.6 58.5 58.2 58.4 0.2

Unemployed

11,919 15,340 15,267 14,837 -

Unemployment rate

7.7 10.0 10.0 9.7 -0.3

Not in labor force

80,599 83,022 83,865 83,663 -

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

7.7 10.0 10.0 9.7 -0.3

Adult men (20 years and over)

7.8 10.4 10.2 10.0 -0.2

Adult women (20 years and over)

6.4 8.0 8.2 7.9 -0.3

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

20.9 26.8 27.1 26.4 -0.7

White

7.0 9.3 9.0 8.7 -0.3

Black or African American

12.8 15.6 16.2 16.5 0.3

Asian (not seasonally adjusted)

6.2 7.3 8.4 8.4 -

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

9.9 12.7 12.9 12.6 -0.3

Total, 25 years and over

6.5 8.5 8.5 8.2 -0.3

Less than a high school diploma

12.4 15.0 15.3 15.2 -0.1

High school graduates, no college

8.1 10.4 10.5 10.1 -0.4

Some college or associate degree

6.4 9.0 9.0 8.5 -0.5

Bachelor's degree and higher

3.9 4.9 5.0 4.9 -0.1

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

7,251 9,965 9,701 9,323 -

Job leavers

912 929 932 914 -

Reentrants

2,792 3,221 3,334 3,585 -

New entrants

792 1,270 1,270 1,235 -

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

3,633 2,774 2,929 3,008 -

5 to 14 weeks

3,622 3,517 3,486 3,362 -

15 to 26 weeks

2,073 3,075 2,840 2,632 -

27 weeks and over

2,689 5,901 6,130 6,313 -

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

7,897 9,225 9,165 8,316 -

Slack work or business conditions

5,833 6,684 6,453 5,873 -

Could only find part-time work

1,689 2,238 2,346 2,295 -

Part time for noneconomic reasons

18,879 18,354 18,364 18,563 -

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)

Marginally attached to the labor force

2,130 2,323 2,486 2,539 -

Discouraged workers

734 861 929 1,065 -

- December - January changes in household data levels are not shown due to the introduction of updated population controls. Over-the-month changes also are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.