Economic News Release

Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this release is embargoed                 USDL-12-0614
until 8:30 a.m. (EDT) Friday, April 6, 2012

Technical information:
 Household data:     (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data: (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces
 
Media contact:       (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                 THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- MARCH 2012


       (NOTE: Data published in this release for women employees in the
       Government and Total nonfarm industries are erroneous. Errors are
       found in Summary table B and table B-5. Additional information is
       available at www.bls.gov/bls/ceswomen_usps.htm.)


Nonfarm payroll employment rose by 120,000 in March, and the unemployment
rate was little changed at 8.2 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
reported today. Employment rose in manufacturing, food services and drinking
places, and health care, but was down in retail trade.

Household Survey Data

The number of unemployed persons (12.7 million) and the unemployment rate
(8.2 percent) were both little changed in March. (See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult men 
(7.6 percent), adult women (7.4 percent), teenagers (25.0 percent), whites
(7.3 percent), blacks (14.0 percent), and Hispanics (10.3 percent) showed
little or no change in March. The jobless rate for Asians was 6.2 percent,
not seasonally adjusted. (See tables A-1, A-2,and A-3.)

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks and over)
was essentially unchanged at 5.3 million in March. These individuals
accounted for 42.5 percent of the unemployed. Since April 2010, the number
of long-term unemployed has fallen by 1.4 million. (See table A-12.)

The civilian labor force participation rate (63.8 percent) and the
employment-population ratio (58.5 percent) were little changed in March.
(See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons (sometimes
referred to as involuntary part-time workers) fell from 8.1 to 7.7 million
over the month. These individuals were working part time because their
hours had been cut back or because they were unable to find a full-time
job. (See table A-8.)

In March, 2.4 million persons were marginally attached to the labor
force, essentially unchanged from a year earlier. (The data are not
seasonally adjusted.) These individuals were not in the labor force,
wanted and were available for work, and had looked for a job sometime
in the prior 12 months. They were not counted as unemployed because they
had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey.
(See table A-16.)

Among the marginally attached, there were 865,000 discouraged workers
in March, about the same as a year earlier. (The data are not seasonally
adjusted.) Discouraged workers are persons not currently looking for
work because they believe no jobs are available for them. The remaining
1.5 million persons marginally attached to the labor force in March had
not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey for reasons such
as school attendance or family responsibilities. (See table A-16.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 120,000 in March. In the prior 
3 months, payroll employment had risen by an average of 246,000 per month.
Private-sector employment grew by 121,000 in March, including gains in
manufacturing, food services and drinking places, and health care. Retail
trade lost jobs over the month. Government employment was essentially
unchanged. (See table B-1.)

Manufacturing employment rose by 37,000 in March, with gains in motor
vehicles and parts (+12,000), machinery (+7,000), fabricated metals
(+5,000), and paper manufacturing (+3,000). Factory employment has risen
by 470,000 since a recent low point in January 2010.

Within leisure and hospitality, employment in food services and drinking
places rose by 37,000 in March and has risen by 563,000 since a recent
low point in February 2010.

In March, health care employment continued to grow (+26,000). Within the
industry, offices of physicians and hospitals each added 8,000 jobs over the
month.

Employment in financial activities was up by 15,000 in March, with most of
the gain occurring in credit intermediation (+11,000).

Employment in professional and business services continued to trend up
in March (+31,000). Employment in the industry has grown by 1.4 million
since a recent low point in September 2009. In March, services to buildings
and dwellings added 23,000 jobs. Employment in temporary help services
was about unchanged over the month after increasing by 55,000 in February.

Retail trade employment fell by 34,000 in March. A large job loss in general
merchandise stores (-32,000) and small losses in other retail industries
more than offset gains in health and personal care stores (+6,000) and in
building material and garden supply stores (+5,000).

Employment in the other major private-sector industries, including mining,
construction, wholesale trade, transportation and warehousing, and information,
changed little in March.

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls edged
down by 0.1 hour to 34.5 hours in March. The manufacturing workweek fell 
by 0.3 hour to 40.7 hours, and factory overtime was unchanged at 3.4 hours.
The average workweek for production and nonsupervisory employees on private
nonfarm payrolls was unchanged at 33.8 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

In March, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm
payrolls rose by 5 cents, or 0.2 percent, to $23.39. Over the past 12 months,
average hourly earnings have increased by 2.1 percent. In March, average
hourly earnings of private-sector production and nonsupervisory employees
rose by 3 cents, or 0.2 percent, to $19.68. (See tables B-3 and B-8.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for January was revised from
+284,000 to +275,000, and the change for February was revised from +227,000
to +240,000.

______________
The Employment Situation for April is scheduled to be released on
Friday, May 4, 2012, at 8:30 a.m. (EDT).




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Mar.
2011
Jan.
2012
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012
Change from:
Feb.
2012-
Mar.
2012

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

239,000 242,269 242,435 242,604 169

Civilian labor force

153,392 154,395 154,871 154,707 -164

Participation rate

64.2 63.7 63.9 63.8 -0.1

Employed

139,764 141,637 142,065 142,034 -31

Employment-population ratio

58.5 58.5 58.6 58.5 -0.1

Unemployed

13,628 12,758 12,806 12,673 -133

Unemployment rate

8.9 8.3 8.3 8.2 -0.1

Not in labor force

85,608 87,874 87,564 87,897 333

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

8.9 8.3 8.3 8.2 -0.1

Adult men (20 years and over)

8.7 7.7 7.7 7.6 -0.1

Adult women (20 years and over)

7.8 7.7 7.7 7.4 -0.3

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

24.5 23.2 23.8 25.0 1.2

White

7.9 7.4 7.3 7.3 0.0

Black or African American

15.6 13.6 14.1 14.0 -0.1

Asian (not seasonally adjusted)

7.1 6.7 6.3 6.2 -

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

11.3 10.5 10.7 10.3 -0.4

Total, 25 years and over

7.5 7.0 7.0 6.8 -0.2

Less than a high school diploma

13.8 13.1 12.9 12.6 -0.3

High school graduates, no college

9.5 8.4 8.3 8.0 -0.3

Some college or associate degree

7.4 7.2 7.3 7.5 0.2

Bachelor's degree and higher

4.4 4.2 4.2 4.2 0.0

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

8,244 7,321 7,209 7,020 -189

Job leavers

900 939 1,031 1,117 86

Reentrants

3,278 3,325 3,361 3,269 -92

New entrants

1,335 1,253 1,392 1,433 41

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,437 2,486 2,541 2,572 31

5 to 14 weeks

2,927 2,884 2,807 2,754 -53

15 to 26 weeks

1,991 1,980 1,971 1,867 -104

27 weeks and over

6,130 5,518 5,426 5,308 -118

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

8,459 8,230 8,119 7,672 -447

Slack work or business conditions

5,634 5,372 5,446 5,081 -365

Could only find part-time work

2,355 2,551 2,404 2,341 -63

Part time for noneconomic reasons

18,425 18,636 18,827 18,523 -304

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)

Marginally attached to the labor force

2,434 2,809 2,608 2,352 -

Discouraged workers

921 1,059 1,006 865 -

- Over-the-month changes are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Mar.
2011
Jan.
2012
Feb.
2012(p)
Mar.
2012(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

246 275 240 120

Total private

261 277 233 121

Goods-producing

48 78 29 31

Mining and logging

15 8 4 1

Construction

7 18 -6 -7

Manufacturing

26 52 31 37

Durable goods(1)

23 40 28 26

Motor vehicles and parts

4.6 8.6 5.2 11.6

Nondurable goods

3 12 3 11

Private service-providing(1)

213 199 204 90

Wholesale trade

14.2 14.6 6.9 4.1

Retail trade

7.7 24.9 -28.6 -33.8

Transportation and warehousing

8.1 17.1 14.4 2.8

Information

-2 -17 13 -9

Financial activities

14 1 9 15

Professional and business services(1)

88 79 86 31

Temporary help services

36.2 36.4 54.9 -7.5

Education and health services(1)

24 31 66 37

Health care and social assistance

28.4 30.8 52.8 26.1

Leisure and hospitality

64 39 45 39

Other services

-5 8 -8 3

Government

-15 -2 7 -1

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES(2)
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES

Total nonfarm women employees

49.5 49.3 49.3 49.3

Total private women employees

48.0 47.8 47.8 47.8

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.4 82.6 82.6 82.6

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.3 34.5 34.6 34.5

Average hourly earnings

$22.92 $23.28 $23.34 $23.39

Average weekly earnings

$786.16 $803.16 $807.56 $806.96

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

93.5 95.5 96.0 95.8

Over-the-month percent change

0.3 0.2 0.5 -0.2

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

102.1 106.0 106.8 106.9

Over-the-month percent change

0.4 0.4 0.8 0.1

HOURS AND EARNINGS
PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

33.6 33.8 33.8 33.8

Average hourly earnings

$19.34 $19.61 $19.65 $19.68

Average weekly earnings

$649.82 $662.82 $664.17 $665.18

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2002=100)(3)

100.6 103.0 103.3 103.4

Over-the-month percent change

0.2 0.6 0.3 0.1

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2002=100)(4)

130.0 135.0 135.7 136.0

Over-the-month percent change

0.3 0.7 0.5 0.2

DIFFUSION INDEX(5)
(Over 1-month span)

Total private (266 industries)

65.8 70.3 60.7 59.6

Manufacturing (81 industries)

66.7 77.8 59.9 67.9

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
of employment and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant
change in the household survey is about 400,000. However, the household survey has
a more expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes the self-
employed, unpaid family workers, agricultural workers, and private household workers,
who are excluded by the establishment survey. The household survey also provides
estimates of employment for demographic groups.

Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
born.

Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
www.bls.gov/web/cesbmart.htm.

Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
designed to maximize the reliability of the total nonfarm employment estimate; firms
from all size classes and industries are appropriately sampled to achieve that goal.

Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because the
survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There is an
unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the sampling
frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey twice a
year.

Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving
unemployment insurance benefits?

No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work
are included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who have stopped
looking for work?

Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
want a job, including those who have stopped looking because they believe no jobs
are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in The Employment
Situation news release.

How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact
on average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for
paid time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other
time off. The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always,
results in a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be
off work for part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while
some workers, such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.

In order for severe weather conditions to reduce the estimate of payroll employment,
employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay period. About half of
all employees in the payroll survey have a 2-week, semi-monthly, or monthly pay
period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
counted in the payroll employment figures. It is not possible to quantify the effect
of extreme weather on estimates of employment from the establishment survey.


In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week’s work for weather-
related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time off.
The household survey collects data on the number of persons who usually work full
time but had reduced hours, or had a job but were not at work due to bad weather.
Current and historical data are available on the household survey’s most requested
statistics page at http://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the
Current Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment
Statistics survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides
information on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears
in the "A" tables, marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about
60,000 eligible households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S.
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). 

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, 
and earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the 
"B" tables, marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each 
month from the payroll records of a sample of nonagricultural business
establishments. Each month the CES program surveys about 141,000 businesses
and government agencies, representing approximately 486,000 individual worksites,
in order to provide detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of
workers on nonfarm payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third
of all nonfarm payroll employees. 

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week
or pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally
the calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which 
may or may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire
civilian noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series
of questions on work and job search activities, each person 16 years
and over in a sample household is classified as employed, unemployed,
or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid
employees during the reference week; worked in their own business, 
profession, or on their own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 
hours in a family business or farm. People are also counted as employed
if they were temporarily absent from their jobs because of illness, bad
weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following
criteria: they had no employment during the reference week; they were
available for work at that time; and they made specific efforts to find
employment sometime during the 4-week period ending with the reference
week. Persons laid off from a job and expecting recall need not be 
looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The unemployment data
derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the eligibility
for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of
the labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force
as a percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is
the employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about
the household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as 
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who received pay for any part of the reference pay 
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector
for all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. 
Production and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and 
related employees in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction
workers in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in private service-
providing industries. 

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment’s principal
activity in accordance with the 2012 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/#technical.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and
methodological differences between the household and establishment
surveys result in important distinctions in the employment estimates
derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, the self-
     employed, unpaid family workers, and private household workers
     among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.
  
   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the
     employed. The establishment survey does not.
  
   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and
     older. The establishment survey is not limited by age.
  
   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than
     one job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted
     separately for each appearance.
  
Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and
the levels of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring
fluctuations. These events may result from seasonal changes in weather, 
major holidays, and the opening and closing of schools. The effect of 
such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern
each year, their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by
adjusting for regular seasonal variation. These adjustments make 
nonseasonal developments, such as declines in employment or increases
in the participation of women in the labor force, easier to spot. For
example, in the household survey, the large number of youth entering
the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes that
have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if
the level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in
the establishment survey, payroll employment in education declines by
about 20 percent at the end of the spring term and later rises with
the start of the fall term, obscuring the underlying employment trends
in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes at the end and
beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The
seasonally adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to
analyze changes in month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both
the household and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series
for many major estimates, such as total payroll employment, employment
in most major sectors, total employment, and unemployment are computed
by aggregating independently adjusted component series. For example,
total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate
that would be obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining
the duration, reasons, or more detailed age categories.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent
seasonal adjustment methodology is used in which new seasonal factors
are calculated each month using all relevant data, up to and including
the data for the current month. In the household survey, new seasonal
factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the 
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month 
to adjust the three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months 
are routinely revised to incorporate additional sample reports and 
recalculated seasonal adjustment factors. In both surveys, 5-year revisions
to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are
subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample rather
than the entire population is surveyed, there is a chance that the
sample estimates may differ from the "true" population values they
represent. The exact difference, or sampling error, varies depending
on the particular sample selected, and this variability is measured by
the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, 
or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ 
by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the "true" population value 
because of sampling error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 
90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in
total nonfarm employment from the establishment survey is on the order
of plus or minus 100,000. Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment
increases by 50,000 from one month to the next. The 90-percent confidence
interval on the monthly change would range from -50,000 to +150,000 
(50,000 +/- 100,000). These figures do not mean that the sample results
are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the "true" over-the-month change lies within this interval.
Since this range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with
confidence that nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month.
If, however, the reported nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all
of the values within the 90-percent confidence interval would be greater
than zero. In this case, it is likely (at least a 90-percent chance) that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month. At an unemployment rate
of around 5.5 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval for the monthly
change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is about 
+/- 280,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is
about +/-0.19 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments
have lower standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than
estimates which are based on a small number of observations. The precision
of estimates also is improved when the data are cumulated over time, such
as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by
nonsampling error, which can occur for many reasons, including the failure
to sample a segment of the population, inability to obtain information
for all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of 
respondents to provide correct information on a timely basis, mistakes
made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or processing of
the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most
recent 2 months are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these
estimates are labeled preliminary in the tables. It is only after two
successive revisions to a monthly estimate, when nearly all sample
reports have been received, that the estimate is considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey
is the inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by
new firms. To correct for this systematic underestimation of employment
growth, an estimation procedure with two components is used to account
for business births. The first component excludes employment losses from
business deaths from sample-based estimation in order to offset the 
missing employment gains from business births. This is incorporated into
the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not reflecting sample
units going out of business, but imputing to them the same employment
trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for most
of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate
the residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the 
imputation. The historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA
model was derived from the unemployment insurance universe micro-level
database, and reflects the actual residual net of births and deaths over
the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted
once a year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment
obtained from administrative records of the unemployment insurance program.
The difference between the March sample-based employment estimates and
the March universe counts is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as
a rough proxy for total survey error. The new benchmarks also incorporate
changes in the classification of industries. Over the past decade, absolute
benchmark revisions  for total nonfarm employment have averaged 0.3 percent,
with a range from -0.7 to 0.6 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Mar.
2011
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012
Mar.
2011
Nov.
2011
Dec.
2011
Jan.
2012
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

239,000 242,435 242,604 239,000 240,441 240,584 242,269 242,435 242,604

Civilian labor force

153,022 154,114 154,316 153,392 153,937 153,887 154,395 154,871 154,707

Participation rate

64.0 63.6 63.6 64.2 64.0 64.0 63.7 63.9 63.8

Employed

138,962 140,684 141,412 139,764 140,614 140,790 141,637 142,065 142,034

Employment-population ratio

58.1 58.0 58.3 58.5 58.5 58.5 58.5 58.6 58.5

Unemployed

14,060 13,430 12,904 13,628 13,323 13,097 12,758 12,806 12,673

Unemployment rate

9.2 8.7 8.4 8.9 8.7 8.5 8.3 8.3 8.2

Not in labor force

85,977 88,322 88,288 85,608 86,503 86,697 87,874 87,564 87,897

Persons who currently want a job

6,250 6,376 6,041 6,500 6,595 6,385 6,319 6,378 6,299

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

115,988 116,896 116,986 115,988 116,755 116,832 116,808 116,896 116,986

Civilian labor force

81,491 81,609 81,830 81,701 82,341 82,373 82,070 82,165 82,179

Participation rate

70.3 69.8 69.9 70.4 70.5 70.5 70.3 70.3 70.2

Employed

73,187 74,035 74,507 74,051 74,975 75,235 75,288 75,318 75,369

Employment-population ratio

63.1 63.3 63.7 63.8 64.2 64.4 64.5 64.4 64.4

Unemployed

8,304 7,573 7,323 7,651 7,366 7,138 6,781 6,846 6,810

Unemployment rate

10.2 9.3 8.9 9.4 8.9 8.7 8.3 8.3 8.3

Not in labor force

34,497 35,288 35,156 34,286 34,414 34,459 34,739 34,732 34,807

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

107,381 108,188 108,289 107,381 108,203 108,290 108,087 108,188 108,289

Civilian labor force

78,788 78,986 79,175 78,805 79,440 79,436 79,234 79,317 79,337

Participation rate

73.4 73.0 73.1 73.4 73.4 73.4 73.3 73.3 73.3

Employed

71,207 72,152 72,567 71,918 72,846 73,080 73,170 73,240 73,286

Employment-population ratio

66.3 66.7 67.0 67.0 67.3 67.5 67.7 67.7 67.7

Unemployed

7,581 6,834 6,608 6,887 6,594 6,356 6,064 6,077 6,051

Unemployment rate

9.6 8.7 8.3 8.7 8.3 8.0 7.7 7.7 7.6

Not in labor force

28,593 29,201 29,114 28,576 28,763 28,854 28,853 28,870 28,952

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

123,012 125,539 125,619 123,012 123,686 123,753 125,461 125,539 125,619

Civilian labor force

71,532 72,505 72,486 71,691 71,596 71,514 72,326 72,706 72,529

Participation rate

58.1 57.8 57.7 58.3 57.9 57.8 57.6 57.9 57.7

Employed

65,775 66,648 66,906 65,714 65,639 65,555 66,349 66,747 66,665

Employment-population ratio

53.5 53.1 53.3 53.4 53.1 53.0 52.9 53.2 53.1

Unemployed

5,756 5,857 5,580 5,977 5,957 5,959 5,977 5,960 5,863

Unemployment rate

8.0 8.1 7.7 8.3 8.3 8.3 8.3 8.2 8.1

Not in labor force

51,481 53,034 53,133 51,321 52,090 52,238 53,135 52,833 53,090

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

114,792 117,170 117,260 114,792 115,526 115,602 117,082 117,170 117,260

Civilian labor force

68,903 69,823 69,755 68,852 68,711 68,748 69,449 69,815 69,589

Participation rate

60.0 59.6 59.5 60.0 59.5 59.5 59.3 59.6 59.3

Employed

63,681 64,486 64,756 63,515 63,352 63,323 64,078 64,454 64,413

Employment-population ratio

55.5 55.0 55.2 55.3 54.8 54.8 54.7 55.0 54.9

Unemployed

5,223 5,337 4,998 5,336 5,359 5,425 5,370 5,361 5,176

Unemployment rate

7.6 7.6 7.2 7.8 7.8 7.9 7.7 7.7 7.4

Not in labor force

45,888 47,348 47,505 45,940 46,815 46,854 47,634 47,355 47,671

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,827 17,078 17,056 16,827 16,711 16,693 17,100 17,078 17,056

Civilian labor force

5,331 5,305 5,386 5,735 5,786 5,704 5,713 5,739 5,781

Participation rate

31.7 31.1 31.6 34.1 34.6 34.2 33.4 33.6 33.9

Employed

4,075 4,046 4,089 4,332 4,416 4,387 4,389 4,371 4,335

Employment-population ratio

24.2 23.7 24.0 25.7 26.4 26.3 25.7 25.6 25.4

Unemployed

1,257 1,259 1,297 1,404 1,370 1,316 1,324 1,367 1,447

Unemployment rate

23.6 23.7 24.1 24.5 23.7 23.1 23.2 23.8 25.0

Not in labor force

11,496 11,773 11,669 11,092 10,925 10,989 11,387 11,339 11,274

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Mar.
2011
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012
Mar.
2011
Nov.
2011
Dec.
2011
Jan.
2012
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

192,688 192,691 192,788 192,688 193,598 193,682 192,600 192,691 192,788

Civilian labor force

124,156 123,223 123,209 124,489 124,652 124,543 123,579 123,848 123,713

Participation rate

64.4 63.9 63.9 64.6 64.4 64.3 64.2 64.3 64.2

Employed

113,877 113,467 113,909 114,652 115,130 115,254 114,458 114,754 114,697

Employment-population ratio

59.1 58.9 59.1 59.5 59.5 59.5 59.4 59.6 59.5

Unemployed

10,279 9,755 9,301 9,837 9,522 9,288 9,121 9,094 9,016

Unemployment rate

8.3 7.9 7.5 7.9 7.6 7.5 7.4 7.3 7.3

Not in labor force

68,532 69,469 69,579 68,199 68,945 69,139 69,021 68,843 69,076

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

64,890 64,327 64,340 64,902 65,366 65,373 64,495 64,642 64,552

Participation rate

73.8 73.5 73.5 73.8 73.9 73.8 73.8 73.9 73.8

Employed

59,254 59,266 59,532 59,846 60,605 60,751 60,059 60,245 60,192

Employment-population ratio

67.4 67.8 68.0 68.0 68.5 68.6 68.7 68.9 68.8

Unemployed

5,635 5,061 4,808 5,057 4,761 4,623 4,436 4,397 4,360

Unemployment rate

8.7 7.9 7.5 7.8 7.3 7.1 6.9 6.8 6.8

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

54,900 54,660 54,476 54,905 54,520 54,481 54,434 54,609 54,473

Participation rate

59.8 59.1 58.9 59.8 59.1 59.0 58.9 59.0 58.9

Employed

51,169 50,889 50,959 51,132 50,774 50,768 50,729 50,890 50,873

Employment-population ratio

55.7 55.0 55.1 55.7 55.0 55.0 54.9 55.0 55.0

Unemployed

3,730 3,772 3,517 3,773 3,746 3,713 3,705 3,719 3,600

Unemployment rate

6.8 6.9 6.5 6.9 6.9 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.6

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,367 4,235 4,393 4,682 4,766 4,688 4,650 4,596 4,688

Participation rate

34.0 33.3 34.6 36.4 37.3 36.8 36.5 36.1 36.9

Employed

3,454 3,312 3,418 3,675 3,751 3,736 3,670 3,619 3,632

Employment-population ratio

26.9 26.0 26.9 28.6 29.4 29.3 28.8 28.4 28.6

Unemployed

913 923 976 1,007 1,015 952 980 977 1,056

Unemployment rate

20.9 21.8 22.2 21.5 21.3 20.3 21.1 21.3 22.5

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

29,005 29,760 29,792 29,005 29,259 29,286 29,727 29,760 29,792

Civilian labor force

17,705 18,219 18,339 17,829 17,934 18,110 18,206 18,363 18,427

Participation rate

61.0 61.2 61.6 61.5 61.3 61.8 61.2 61.7 61.9

Employed

14,965 15,651 15,829 15,047 15,151 15,248 15,725 15,769 15,843

Employment-population ratio

51.6 52.6 53.1 51.9 51.8 52.1 52.9 53.0 53.2

Unemployed

2,740 2,568 2,510 2,782 2,783 2,862 2,482 2,593 2,584

Unemployment rate

15.5 14.1 13.7 15.6 15.5 15.8 13.6 14.1 14.0

Not in labor force

11,300 11,541 11,453 11,176 11,325 11,176 11,521 11,398 11,365

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

8,093 8,187 8,262 8,113 8,195 8,272 8,256 8,239 8,283

Participation rate

68.5 67.7 68.2 68.6 68.5 69.0 68.4 68.1 68.4

Employed

6,635 6,942 7,044 6,746 6,851 6,969 7,205 7,064 7,137

Employment-population ratio

56.1 57.4 58.1 57.1 57.3 58.2 59.7 58.4 58.9

Unemployed

1,458 1,245 1,218 1,367 1,344 1,302 1,052 1,175 1,147

Unemployment rate

18.0 15.2 14.7 16.8 16.4 15.7 12.7 14.3 13.8

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

8,990 9,380 9,445 9,048 9,095 9,160 9,287 9,410 9,473

Participation rate

61.7 62.6 62.9 62.1 61.8 62.2 62.0 62.8 63.1

Employed

7,953 8,272 8,393 7,913 7,911 7,885 8,113 8,240 8,307

Employment-population ratio

54.6 55.2 55.9 54.3 53.7 53.5 54.2 55.0 55.4

Unemployed

1,037 1,108 1,052 1,135 1,184 1,275 1,174 1,171 1,166

Unemployment rate

11.5 11.8 11.1 12.5 13.0 13.9 12.6 12.4 12.3

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

623 651 632 668 643 679 663 713 671

Participation rate

23.8 24.3 23.7 25.6 25.0 26.5 24.7 26.6 25.1

Employed

378 436 392 388 388 393 407 466 399

Employment-population ratio

14.5 16.3 14.7 14.9 15.1 15.3 15.2 17.4 14.9

Unemployed

245 215 239 280 255 286 255 247 272

Unemployment rate

39.3 33.1 37.9 41.9 39.6 42.1 38.5 34.7 40.5

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

11,301 12,713 12,766 - - - - - -

Civilian labor force

7,410 8,016 8,113 - - - - - -

Participation rate

65.6 63.1 63.6 - - - - - -

Employed

6,881 7,508 7,607 - - - - - -

Employment-population ratio

60.9 59.1 59.6 - - - - - -

Unemployed

529 508 506 - - - - - -

Unemployment rate

7.1 6.3 6.2 - - - - - -

Not in labor force

3,892 4,696 4,652 - - - - - -

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Mar.
2011
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012
Mar.
2011
Nov.
2011
Dec.
2011
Jan.
2012
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

34,155 36,384 36,463 34,155 34,808 34,885 36,301 36,384 36,463

Civilian labor force

22,585 24,167 24,109 22,643 23,222 23,270 24,045 24,206 24,128

Participation rate

66.1 66.4 66.1 66.3 66.7 66.7 66.2 66.5 66.2

Employed

19,896 21,407 21,510 20,083 20,574 20,699 21,513 21,628 21,638

Employment-population ratio

58.3 58.8 59.0 58.8 59.1 59.3 59.3 59.4 59.3

Unemployed

2,690 2,760 2,598 2,560 2,648 2,571 2,532 2,579 2,491

Unemployment rate

11.9 11.4 10.8 11.3 11.4 11.0 10.5 10.7 10.3

Not in labor force

11,570 12,218 12,354 11,512 11,586 11,615 12,256 12,178 12,335

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

12,889 13,262 13,246 - - - - - -

Participation rate

81.6 81.1 80.8 - - - - - -

Employed

11,452 11,881 11,952 - - - - - -

Employment-population ratio

72.5 72.6 72.9 - - - - - -

Unemployed

1,437 1,381 1,294 - - - - - -

Unemployment rate

11.1 10.4 9.8 - - - - - -

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

8,788 9,836 9,813 - - - - - -

Participation rate

58.7 60.1 59.8 - - - - - -

Employed

7,825 8,752 8,829 - - - - - -

Employment-population ratio

52.3 53.4 53.8 - - - - - -

Unemployed

963 1,085 984 - - - - - -

Unemployment rate

11.0 11.0 10.0 - - - - - -

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

909 1,068 1,050 - - - - - -

Participation rate

26.8 29.2 28.8 - - - - - -

Employed

619 774 730 - - - - - -

Employment-population ratio

18.3 21.2 20.0 - - - - - -

Unemployed

290 294 320 - - - - - -

Unemployment rate

31.9 27.5 30.5 - - - - - -

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2011
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012
Mar.
2011
Nov.
2011
Dec.
2011
Jan.
2012
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

11,565 11,119 11,349 11,676 11,713 11,688 11,469 11,488 11,493

Participation rate

45.7 45.1 45.7 46.2 47.0 46.7 45.6 46.6 46.3

Employed

9,809 9,469 9,788 10,069 10,161 10,080 9,968 10,006 10,044

Employment-population ratio

38.8 38.4 39.4 39.8 40.8 40.3 39.7 40.6 40.4

Unemployed

1,756 1,650 1,561 1,608 1,552 1,608 1,501 1,483 1,449

Unemployment rate

15.2 14.8 13.8 13.8 13.3 13.8 13.1 12.9 12.6

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

37,541 37,011 36,614 37,294 37,089 36,902 36,850 36,799 36,475

Participation rate

60.6 59.3 59.2 60.2 60.3 59.8 59.6 59.0 59.0

Employed

33,604 33,589 33,402 33,761 33,807 33,684 33,737 33,761 33,573

Employment-population ratio

54.3 53.9 54.0 54.5 54.9 54.5 54.6 54.1 54.3

Unemployed

3,937 3,422 3,212 3,533 3,282 3,218 3,113 3,039 2,902

Unemployment rate

10.5 9.2 8.8 9.5 8.8 8.7 8.4 8.3 8.0

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

36,519 37,485 37,369 36,584 36,816 37,024 37,214 37,282 37,405

Participation rate

69.5 69.5 69.3 69.6 68.5 69.1 69.2 69.1 69.3

Employed

33,708 34,669 34,507 33,866 34,009 34,167 34,525 34,571 34,613

Employment-population ratio

64.1 64.3 64.0 64.4 63.3 63.7 64.2 64.1 64.2

Unemployed

2,811 2,817 2,863 2,718 2,807 2,857 2,689 2,711 2,793

Unemployment rate

7.7 7.5 7.7 7.4 7.6 7.7 7.2 7.3 7.5

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

46,979 47,841 48,389 46,897 47,117 47,131 47,481 47,890 48,191

Participation rate

77.0 76.3 76.6 76.8 75.9 76.0 75.6 76.4 76.2

Employed

44,943 45,808 46,415 44,831 45,058 45,201 45,492 45,875 46,189

Employment-population ratio

73.6 73.0 73.4 73.4 72.6 72.9 72.4 73.1 73.1

Unemployed

2,036 2,034 1,974 2,065 2,059 1,930 1,989 2,015 2,002

Unemployment rate

4.3 4.3 4.1 4.4 4.4 4.1 4.2 4.2 4.2

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Mar.
2011
Mar.
2012
Mar.
2011
Mar.
2012
Mar.
2011
Mar.
2012

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

21,729 21,286 19,932 19,475 1,797 1,811

Civilian labor force

11,273 11,161 10,136 10,004 1,137 1,158

Participation rate

51.9 52.4 50.9 51.4 63.3 63.9

Employed

10,259 10,328 9,234 9,256 1,025 1,072

Employment-population ratio

47.2 48.5 46.3 47.5 57.0 59.2

Unemployed

1,014 834 902 748 112 86

Unemployment rate

9.0 7.5 8.9 7.5 9.9 7.4

Not in labor force

10,456 10,125 9,796 9,471 660 653

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,449 2,713 1,980 2,219 469 495

Civilian labor force

1,948 2,184 1,632 1,841 316 343

Participation rate

79.6 80.5 82.4 83.0 67.5 69.4

Employed

1,736 1,960 1,443 1,654 293 306

Employment-population ratio

70.9 72.2 72.9 74.5 62.4 61.9

Unemployed

213 224 189 187 24 37

Unemployment rate

10.9 10.3 11.6 10.2 7.5 10.8

Not in labor force

500 530 348 378 152 152

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,953 3,020 2,521 2,550 432 471

Civilian labor force

2,480 2,557 2,154 2,190 326 367

Participation rate

84.0 84.7 85.4 85.9 75.6 78.0

Employed

2,274 2,413 1,973 2,071 301 342

Employment-population ratio

77.0 79.9 78.3 81.2 69.6 72.6

Unemployed

207 144 181 119 26 25

Unemployment rate

8.3 5.6 8.4 5.4 7.9 6.9

Not in labor force

472 463 367 360 105 104

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

10,558 9,974 10,236 9,649 322 325

Civilian labor force

3,602 3,281 3,473 3,159 129 122

Participation rate

34.1 32.9 33.9 32.7 40.0 37.5

Employed

3,292 3,039 3,177 2,921 115 119

Employment-population ratio

31.2 30.5 31.0 30.3 35.8 36.7

Unemployed

310 241 296 238 14 3

Unemployment rate

8.6 7.3 8.5 7.5 10.6 2.2

Not in labor force

6,956 6,693 6,763 6,490 193 203

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,770 5,579 5,196 5,057 574 521

Civilian labor force

3,243 3,140 2,877 2,814 365 326

Participation rate

56.2 56.3 55.4 55.6 63.6 62.5

Employed

2,958 2,916 2,641 2,611 316 305

Employment-population ratio

51.3 52.3 50.8 51.6 55.1 58.6

Unemployed

285 224 236 203 49 21

Unemployment rate

8.8 7.1 8.2 7.2 13.4 6.4

Not in labor force

2,527 2,439 2,318 2,243 209 195

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

208,483 212,427 91,497 92,943 116,986 119,484

Civilian labor force

140,108 141,430 70,506 70,984 69,602 70,446

Participation rate

67.2 66.6 77.1 76.4 59.5 59.0

Employed

127,531 129,852 63,349 64,661 64,182 65,190

Employment-population ratio

61.2 61.1 69.2 69.6 54.9 54.6

Unemployed

12,577 11,578 7,157 6,322 5,420 5,256

Unemployment rate

9.0 8.2 10.2 8.9 7.8 7.5

Not in labor force

68,375 70,998 20,990 21,959 47,384 49,039

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Mar.
2011
Mar.
2012
Mar.
2011
Mar.
2012

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

27,631 28,158 211,369 214,446

Civilian labor force

5,794 5,671 147,228 148,645

Participation rate

21.0 20.1 69.7 69.3

Employed

4,891 4,810 134,071 136,603

Employment-population ratio

17.7 17.1 63.4 63.7

Unemployed

903 861 13,157 12,042

Unemployment rate

15.6 15.2 8.9 8.1

Not in labor force

21,836 22,487 64,141 65,801

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,671 2,513 74,933 74,997

Participation rate

35.2 33.8 82.3 82.1

Employed

2,196 2,073 67,376 68,374

Employment-population ratio

29.0 27.9 74.0 74.8

Unemployed

474 440 7,557 6,622

Unemployment rate

17.8 17.5 10.1 8.8

Not in labor force

4,907 4,922 16,158 16,362

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,238 2,281 66,171 66,850

Participation rate

29.3 28.6 71.0 70.8

Employed

1,876 1,913 60,952 61,828

Employment-population ratio

24.5 24.0 65.4 65.5

Unemployed

362 368 5,219 5,021

Unemployment rate

16.2 16.1 7.9 7.5

Not in labor force

5,406 5,686 27,065 27,615

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

886 877 6,124 6,799

Participation rate

7.1 6.9 22.6 23.8

Employed

819 824 5,743 6,400

Employment-population ratio

6.6 6.5 21.2 22.4

Unemployed

67 54 380 399

Unemployment rate

7.6 6.1 6.2 5.9

Not in labor force

11,524 11,879 20,917 21,824

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Mar.
2011
Mar.
2012
Mar.
2011
Mar.
2012
Mar.
2011
Mar.
2012

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

35,996 37,664 17,886 18,449 18,110 19,215

Civilian labor force

24,034 24,958 14,259 14,486 9,775 10,471

Participation rate

66.8 66.3 79.7 78.5 54.0 54.5

Employed

21,728 22,785 12,886 13,248 8,842 9,537

Employment-population ratio

60.4 60.5 72.0 71.8 48.8 49.6

Unemployed

2,306 2,173 1,373 1,239 933 934

Unemployment rate

9.6 8.7 9.6 8.6 9.5 8.9

Not in labor force

11,961 12,706 3,626 3,963 8,335 8,744

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

203,004 204,941 98,102 98,537 104,902 106,404

Civilian labor force

128,988 129,358 67,231 67,344 61,756 62,015

Participation rate

63.5 63.1 68.5 68.3 58.9 58.3

Employed

117,234 118,628 60,301 61,259 56,933 57,369

Employment-population ratio

57.7 57.9 61.5 62.2 54.3 53.9

Unemployed

11,754 10,731 6,931 6,084 4,823 4,646

Unemployment rate

9.1 8.3 10.3 9.0 7.8 7.5

Not in labor force

74,016 75,582 30,870 31,193 43,146 44,389

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2011
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012
Mar.
2011
Nov.
2011
Dec.
2011
Jan.
2012
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,145 2,030 2,123 2,244 2,262 2,349 2,208 2,185 2,218

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,303 1,238 1,296 1,431 1,359 1,429 1,376 1,353 1,394

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

824 767 799 838 849 874 800 814 811

Unpaid family workers

17 26 28 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

136,818 138,654 139,290 137,619 138,304 138,411 139,491 139,945 139,984

Wage and salary workers(1)

128,060 130,204 130,778 128,706 129,604 129,662 130,569 131,365 131,370

Government

21,082 20,772 20,536 20,791 20,434 20,616 20,583 20,617 20,338

Private industries

106,978 109,432 110,241 107,963 109,159 109,064 109,966 110,778 111,114

Private households

695 621 656 - - - - - -

Other industries

106,283 108,811 109,585 107,252 108,485 108,407 109,353 110,138 110,469

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,652 8,343 8,433 8,754 8,628 8,587 8,769 8,477 8,514

Unpaid family workers

105 106 79 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

8,737 8,455 7,867 8,459 8,469 8,098 8,230 8,119 7,672

Slack work or business conditions

5,812 5,790 5,146 5,634 5,578 5,305 5,372 5,446 5,081

Could only find part-time work

2,529 2,338 2,427 2,355 2,496 2,419 2,551 2,404 2,341

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

18,912 19,358 19,022 18,425 18,363 18,372 18,636 18,827 18,523

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

8,537 8,302 7,753 8,297 8,358 7,952 8,083 7,988 7,584

Slack work or business conditions

5,708 5,694 5,062 5,542 5,502 5,199 5,278 5,356 5,000

Could only find part-time work

2,503 2,313 2,418 2,326 2,518 2,423 2,563 2,365 2,295

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

18,565 18,980 18,615 18,035 17,941 17,969 18,298 18,399 18,100

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2011
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012
Mar.
2011
Nov.
2011
Dec.
2011
Jan.
2012
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

138,962 140,684 141,412 139,764 140,614 140,790 141,637 142,065 142,034

16 to 19 years

4,075 4,046 4,089 4,332 4,416 4,387 4,389 4,371 4,335

16 to 17 years

1,172 1,171 1,233 1,340 1,413 1,304 1,333 1,337 1,395

18 to 19 years

2,903 2,875 2,856 2,997 2,995 3,060 3,064 3,050 2,955

20 years and over

134,887 136,638 137,324 135,433 136,198 136,403 137,248 137,694 137,699

20 to 24 years

12,823 13,104 13,212 13,005 13,200 13,195 13,335 13,395 13,371

25 years and over

122,064 123,534 124,112 122,476 122,973 123,234 123,901 124,243 124,407

25 to 54 years

93,442 93,346 93,816 93,935 93,708 93,882 93,991 94,056 94,267

25 to 34 years

30,303 30,190 30,359 30,523 30,743 30,771 30,367 30,483 30,568

35 to 44 years

30,453 30,421 30,574 30,579 30,222 30,271 30,614 30,638 30,672

45 to 54 years

32,686 32,734 32,884 32,833 32,743 32,841 33,009 32,935 33,027

55 years and over

28,622 30,188 30,295 28,541 29,264 29,352 29,910 30,187 30,140

Men, 16 years and over

73,187 74,035 74,507 74,051 74,975 75,235 75,288 75,318 75,369

16 to 19 years

1,980 1,883 1,940 2,133 2,129 2,155 2,118 2,079 2,083

16 to 17 years

604 554 590 684 654 635 620 650 656

18 to 19 years

1,376 1,329 1,350 1,451 1,465 1,501 1,487 1,424 1,424

20 years and over

71,207 72,152 72,567 71,918 72,846 73,080 73,170 73,240 73,286

20 to 24 years

6,579 6,622 6,776 6,730 6,980 6,998 7,003 6,851 6,927

25 years and over

64,628 65,530 65,791 65,184 65,853 66,084 66,169 66,376 66,327

25 to 54 years

49,659 49,622 49,836 50,202 50,368 50,528 50,358 50,382 50,393

25 to 34 years

16,401 16,195 16,265 16,662 16,895 16,885 16,440 16,498 16,538

35 to 44 years

16,319 16,342 16,326 16,459 16,370 16,422 16,573 16,564 16,470

45 to 54 years

16,939 17,084 17,246 17,082 17,102 17,221 17,346 17,319 17,385

55 years and over

14,969 15,909 15,954 14,981 15,485 15,556 15,811 15,994 15,934

Women, 16 years and over

65,775 66,648 66,906 65,714 65,639 65,555 66,349 66,747 66,665

16 to 19 years

2,095 2,163 2,149 2,199 2,287 2,232 2,270 2,293 2,252

16 to 17 years

568 616 644 655 759 669 713 687 739

18 to 19 years

1,527 1,546 1,506 1,546 1,530 1,559 1,577 1,625 1,531

20 years and over

63,681 64,486 64,756 63,515 63,352 63,323 64,078 64,454 64,413

20 to 24 years

6,244 6,482 6,436 6,275 6,220 6,198 6,332 6,544 6,444

25 years and over

57,436 58,003 58,321 57,292 57,119 57,150 57,732 57,867 58,079

25 to 54 years

43,783 43,724 43,980 43,733 43,340 43,354 43,633 43,674 43,873

25 to 34 years

13,902 13,995 14,093 13,861 13,848 13,886 13,928 13,985 14,030

35 to 44 years

14,135 14,079 14,248 14,120 13,852 13,849 14,041 14,074 14,202

45 to 54 years

15,746 15,650 15,638 15,751 15,641 15,620 15,664 15,615 15,642

55 years and over

13,653 14,279 14,341 13,559 13,779 13,796 14,099 14,193 14,206

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present

42,636 43,201 43,320 42,914 43,933 43,709 43,658 43,556 43,635

Married women, spouse present

34,292 34,603 34,477 34,173 34,442 34,177 34,445 34,341 34,325

Women who maintain families

8,744 9,181 9,429 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(1)

111,186 112,587 113,916 112,604 113,212 113,765 113,845 114,408 115,290

Part-time workers(2)

27,776 28,096 27,497 27,145 27,378 27,040 27,739 27,576 26,912

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

6,809 7,116 7,052 6,752 7,004 7,013 7,038 6,999 6,985

Percent of total employed

4.9 5.1 5.0 4.8 5.0 5.0 5.0 4.9 4.9

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

5,169 5,226 5,130 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,476 9,110 9,232 9,592 9,478 9,461 9,569 9,291 9,325

Footnotes
(1) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(2) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Mar.
2011
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012
Mar.
2011
Nov.
2011
Dec.
2011
Jan.
2012
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

13,628 12,806 12,673 8.9 8.7 8.5 8.3 8.3 8.2

16 to 19 years

1,404 1,367 1,447 24.5 23.7 23.1 23.2 23.8 25.0

16 to 17 years

540 570 564 28.7 23.3 27.8 28.8 29.9 28.8

18 to 19 years

869 800 877 22.5 23.4 21.3 20.5 20.8 22.9

20 years and over

12,224 11,439 11,226 8.3 8.1 8.0 7.7 7.7 7.5

20 to 24 years

2,279 2,140 2,028 14.9 14.2 14.4 13.3 13.8 13.2

25 years and over

9,910 9,293 9,140 7.5 7.3 7.2 7.0 7.0 6.8

25 to 54 years

7,967 7,391 7,191 7.8 7.6 7.6 7.4 7.3 7.1

25 to 34 years

3,084 2,899 2,878 9.2 9.2 9.4 9.0 8.7 8.6

35 to 44 years

2,369 2,236 2,112 7.2 7.0 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.4

45 to 54 years

2,514 2,256 2,202 7.1 6.7 6.5 6.4 6.4 6.2

55 years and over

1,977 1,888 1,988 6.5 6.4 6.2 5.9 5.9 6.2

Men, 16 years and over

7,651 6,846 6,810 9.4 8.9 8.7 8.3 8.3 8.3

16 to 19 years

763 769 759 26.4 26.6 26.6 25.3 27.0 26.7

16 to 17 years

272 327 283 28.4 26.7 30.5 32.0 33.5 30.1

18 to 19 years

493 448 476 25.4 26.7 25.1 22.3 23.9 25.1

20 years and over

6,887 6,077 6,051 8.7 8.3 8.0 7.7 7.7 7.6

20 to 24 years

1,308 1,270 1,135 16.3 15.6 15.3 14.2 15.6 14.1

25 years and over

5,527 4,796 4,875 7.8 7.4 7.2 6.9 6.7 6.8

25 to 54 years

4,430 3,822 3,812 8.1 7.7 7.5 7.2 7.1 7.0

25 to 34 years

1,720 1,546 1,554 9.4 9.2 9.5 9.0 8.6 8.6

35 to 44 years

1,292 1,125 1,147 7.3 7.0 6.7 6.4 6.4 6.5

45 to 54 years

1,418 1,151 1,111 7.7 6.8 6.3 6.2 6.2 6.0

55 years and over

1,097 974 1,063 6.8 6.7 6.1 5.9 5.7 6.3

Women, 16 years and over

5,977 5,960 5,863 8.3 8.3 8.3 8.3 8.2 8.1

16 to 19 years

641 598 687 22.6 20.7 19.3 21.1 20.7 23.4

16 to 17 years

268 243 281 29.0 20.0 25.0 25.8 26.1 27.6

18 to 19 years

376 352 401 19.6 20.1 17.1 18.6 17.8 20.7

20 years and over

5,336 5,361 5,176 7.8 7.8 7.9 7.7 7.7 7.4

20 to 24 years

971 870 893 13.4 12.6 13.4 12.3 11.7 12.2

25 years and over

4,383 4,497 4,265 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.2 7.2 6.8

25 to 54 years

3,537 3,569 3,380 7.5 7.5 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.2

25 to 34 years

1,364 1,354 1,324 9.0 9.2 9.3 9.0 8.8 8.6

35 to 44 years

1,077 1,110 965 7.1 6.9 7.0 7.4 7.3 6.4

45 to 54 years

1,096 1,105 1,091 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.6 6.6 6.5

55 years and over(1)

846 920 895 5.8 5.8 5.7 5.9 6.1 5.9

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present

2,736 2,292 2,360 6.0 5.3 5.1 5.1 5.0 5.1

Married women, spouse present

2,078 2,012 1,912 5.7 5.3 5.4 5.6 5.5 5.3

Women who maintain families(1)

1,224 1,222 1,139 12.3 12.4 12.9 12.0 11.7 10.8

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(2)

11,817 10,992 10,863 9.5 9.2 9.0 8.8 8.8 8.6

Part-time workers(3)

1,832 1,768 1,765 6.3 6.0 6.3 5.9 6.0 6.2

Footnotes
(1) Not seasonally adjusted.
(2) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(3) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2011
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012
Mar.
2011
Nov.
2011
Dec.
2011
Jan.
2012
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

8,841 7,866 7,415 8,244 7,599 7,602 7,321 7,209 7,020

On temporary layoff

1,489 1,526 1,354 1,209 1,181 1,216 1,284 1,135 1,120

Not on temporary layoff

7,352 6,340 6,060 7,035 6,418 6,386 6,037 6,075 5,900

Permanent job losers

5,877 4,923 4,742 5,642 5,033 5,089 4,807 4,755 4,632

Persons who completed temporary jobs

1,475 1,416 1,318 1,393 1,385 1,296 1,230 1,320 1,268

Job leavers

857 1,032 1,064 900 1,005 953 939 1,031 1,117

Reentrants

3,233 3,337 3,189 3,278 3,355 3,399 3,325 3,361 3,269

New entrants

1,129 1,196 1,236 1,335 1,276 1,280 1,253 1,392 1,433

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

62.9 58.6 57.5 59.9 57.4 57.4 57.0 55.5 54.7

On temporary layoff

10.6 11.4 10.5 8.8 8.9 9.2 10.0 8.7 8.7

Not on temporary layoff

52.3 47.2 47.0 51.1 48.5 48.3 47.0 46.7 46.0

Job leavers

6.1 7.7 8.2 6.5 7.6 7.2 7.3 7.9 8.7

Reentrants

23.0 24.8 24.7 23.8 25.3 25.7 25.9 25.9 25.5

New entrants

8.0 8.9 9.6 9.7 9.6 9.7 9.8 10.7 11.2

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

5.8 5.1 4.8 5.4 4.9 4.9 4.7 4.7 4.5

Job leavers

0.6 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7

Reentrants

2.1 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.1

New entrants

0.7 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2011
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012
Mar.
2011
Nov.
2011
Dec.
2011
Jan.
2012
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,161 2,366 2,270 2,437 2,510 2,669 2,486 2,541 2,572

5 to 14 weeks

3,230 3,454 3,005 2,927 2,896 2,858 2,884 2,807 2,754

15 weeks and over

8,669 7,609 7,629 8,122 7,766 7,628 7,498 7,397 7,175

15 to 26 weeks

2,407 2,199 2,244 1,991 2,087 2,039 1,980 1,971 1,867

27 weeks and over

6,263 5,411 5,385 6,130 5,680 5,588 5,518 5,426 5,308

Average (mean) duration, in weeks(1)

39.8 39.1 40.2 38.9 40.9 40.8 40.1 40.0 39.4

Median duration, in weeks

22.7 19.3 20.5 21.6 21.5 21.0 21.1 20.3 19.9

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

15.4 17.6 17.6 18.1 19.1 20.3 19.3 19.9 20.6

5 to 14 weeks

23.0 25.7 23.3 21.7 22.0 21.7 22.4 22.0 22.0

15 weeks and over

61.7 56.7 59.1 60.2 59.0 58.0 58.3 58.0 57.4

15 to 26 weeks

17.1 16.4 17.4 14.8 15.8 15.5 15.4 15.5 14.9

27 weeks and over

44.5 40.3 41.7 45.5 43.1 42.5 42.9 42.6 42.5

Footnotes
(1) Beginning in January 2011, this series reflects a change to the collection of data on unemployment duration. For more information, see www.bls.gov/cps/duration.htm.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Mar.
2011
Mar.
2012
Mar.
2011
Mar.
2012
Mar.
2011
Mar.
2012

Total, 16 years and over(1)

138,962 141,412 14,060 12,904 9.2 8.4

Management, professional, and related occupations

53,243 53,771 2,381 2,330 4.3 4.2

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

21,598 22,267 1,082 1,019 4.8 4.4

Professional and related occupations

31,646 31,503 1,299 1,311 3.9 4.0

Service occupations

24,223 25,229 2,744 2,468 10.2 8.9

Sales and office occupations

33,000 33,250 3,082 2,908 8.5 8.0

Sales and related occupations

14,983 15,241 1,441 1,341 8.8 8.1

Office and administrative support occupations

18,018 18,009 1,642 1,567 8.4 8.0

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

12,575 12,323 2,464 1,942 16.4 13.6

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

876 880 225 217 20.4 19.8

Construction and extraction occupations

6,898 6,784 1,754 1,393 20.3 17.0

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,801 4,659 486 332 9.2 6.7

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

15,921 16,840 2,218 1,960 12.2 10.4

Production occupations

7,997 8,427 1,059 902 11.7 9.7

Transportation and material moving occupations

7,924 8,414 1,159 1,058 12.8 11.2

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Mar.
2011
Mar.
2012
Mar.
2011
Mar.
2012

Total, 16 years and over(1)

14,060 12,904 9.2 8.4

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

11,288 10,106 9.5 8.4

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

46 62 5.9 6.3

Construction

1,695 1,431 20.0 17.2

Manufacturing

1,475 1,164 9.7 7.6

Durable goods

957 684 10.0 7.2

Nondurable goods

518 480 9.3 8.2

Wholesale and retail trade

1,796 1,763 8.8 8.6

Transportation and utilities

562 383 9.6 6.7

Information

236 232 7.6 8.0

Financial activities

649 536 7.1 5.7

Professional and business services

1,488 1,521 10.0 9.7

Education and health services

1,152 1,172 5.3 5.3

Leisure and hospitality

1,695 1,395 13.2 10.9

Other services

495 447 8.1 6.9

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

216 232 14.5 15.7

Government workers

888 787 4.0 3.7

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

540 543 5.3 5.5

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2011
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012
Mar.
2011
Nov.
2011
Dec.
2011
Jan.
2012
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

5.7 4.9 4.9 5.3 5.0 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.6

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

5.8 5.1 4.8 5.4 4.9 4.9 4.7 4.7 4.5

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

9.2 8.7 8.4 8.9 8.7 8.5 8.3 8.3 8.2

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

9.7 9.3 8.9 9.4 9.3 9.1 8.9 8.9 8.7

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

10.6 10.2 9.7 10.3 10.2 10.0 9.9 9.8 9.6

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

16.2 15.6 14.8 15.7 15.6 15.2 15.1 14.9 14.5

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Mar.
2011
Mar.
2012
Mar.
2011
Mar.
2012
Mar.
2011
Mar.
2012

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

85,977 88,288 34,497 35,156 51,481 53,133

Persons who currently want a job

6,250 6,041 2,987 2,873 3,263 3,168

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

2,434 2,352 1,280 1,226 1,154 1,126

Discouraged workers(2)

921 865 569 510 351 355

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,513 1,488 711 717 802 771

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

6,809 7,052 3,292 3,451 3,517 3,601

Percent of total employed

4.9 5.0 4.5 4.6 5.3 5.4

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

3,659 3,667 1,994 2,040 1,664 1,628

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

1,816 1,992 555 629 1,261 1,364

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

240 223 180 128 60 95

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,048 1,120 537 631 511 489

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Mar.
2011
Jan.
2012
Feb.
2012(p)
Mar.
2012(p)
Mar.
2011
Jan.
2012
Feb.
2012(p)
Mar.
2012(p)
Change from:
Feb.2012 - Mar.2012(p)

Total nonfarm

130,061 130,297 131,199 132,010 130,922 132,461 132,701 132,821 120

Total private

107,466 108,439 108,888 109,594 108,725 110,470 110,703 110,824 121

Goods-producing

17,487 17,726 17,720 17,877 17,942 18,254 18,283 18,314 31

Mining and logging

741 813 817 820 756 830 834 835 1

Logging

48.1 48.2 47.3 45.7 50.3 49.0 48.2 47.8 -0.4

Mining

692.7 765.0 770.0 774.1 705.6 781.0 786.0 787.1 1.1

Oil and gas extraction

165.5 186.7 187.5 191.7 166.8 188.4 190.0 193.1 3.1

Mining, except oil and gas(1)

204.4 209.7 209.7 211.6 212.8 220.8 221.0 220.2 -0.8

Coal mining

84.4 86.5 86.0 85.5 84.5 86.5 86.4 86.0 -0.4

Support activities for mining

322.8 368.6 372.8 370.8 326.0 371.8 375.0 373.8 -1.2

Construction

5,158 5,158 5,129 5,215 5,496 5,564 5,558 5,551 -7

Construction of buildings

1,162.1 1,172.2 1,168.3 1,172.9 1,218.6 1,231.5 1,239.0 1,228.4 -10.6

Residential building

536.5 538.7 538.2 539.7 566.5 570.9 574.0 569.0 -5.0

Nonresidential building

625.6 633.5 630.1 633.2 652.1 660.6 665.0 659.4 -5.6

Heavy and civil engineering construction

744.9 731.7 731.1 763.8 825.3 840.7 840.7 844.9 4.2

Specialty trade contractors

3,251.0 3,254.4 3,229.4 3,278.2 3,452.4 3,491.3 3,477.9 3,477.4 -0.5

Residential specialty trade contractors

1,346.3 1,354.1 1,345.7 1,374.0 1,436.3 1,460.5 1,460.6 1,465.1 4.5

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

1,904.7 1,900.3 1,883.7 1,904.2 2,016.1 2,030.8 2,017.3 2,012.3 -5.0

Manufacturing

11,588 11,755 11,774 11,842 11,690 11,860 11,891 11,928 37

Durable goods

7,176 7,352 7,372 7,418 7,226 7,401 7,429 7,455 26

Wood products

333.5 325.9 324.1 326.4 341.9 333.3 335.2 334.3 -0.9

Nonmetallic mineral products

354.7 352.7 354.0 359.0 368.5 370.3 372.2 371.6 -0.6

Primary metals

380.2 402.4 402.5 403.5 381.2 402.9 403.7 404.5 0.8

Fabricated metal products

1,321.3 1,370.9 1,376.8 1,383.9 1,331.6 1,377.3 1,385.5 1,390.4 4.9

Machinery

1,037.1 1,085.9 1,089.9 1,097.3 1,040.6 1,088.2 1,093.2 1,099.7 6.5

Computer and electronic products(1)

1,100.6 1,105.6 1,106.0 1,108.0 1,102.5 1,107.9 1,107.7 1,109.9 2.2

Computer and peripheral equipment

157.2 162.2 162.8 163.2 157.1 162.4 162.7 163.0 0.3

Communications equipment

115.3 111.0 110.3 110.3 116.1 111.1 111.0 111.1 0.1

Semiconductors and electronic components

381.2 386.2 387.1 387.2 381.2 387.0 387.7 387.5 -0.2

Electronic instruments

404.3 401.0 401.2 402.1 405.0 402.0 401.1 402.8 1.7

Electrical equipment and appliances

361.9 369.9 370.8 371.7 364.5 370.6 372.6 373.8 1.2

Transportation equipment(1)

1,367.7 1,421.7 1,428.2 1,447.1 1,367.6 1,424.0 1,431.4 1,444.4 13.0

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

710.9 744.1 750.4 766.8 709.6 746.2 751.4 763.0 11.6

Furniture and related products

349.5 343.7 346.1 347.4 353.7 349.7 351.5 351.2 -0.3

Miscellaneous manufacturing

569.9 573.3 573.6 573.3 573.4 577.2 575.6 575.6 0.0

Nondurable goods

4,412 4,403 4,402 4,424 4,464 4,459 4,462 4,473 11

Food manufacturing

1,431.5 1,421.7 1,419.2 1,424.3 1,460.8 1,446.6 1,449.1 1,453.1 4.0

Beverages and tobacco products

177.2 187.5 187.8 189.6 183.7 193.8 195.1 196.1 1.0

Textile mills

120.3 119.5 119.6 120.2 120.6 120.5 120.4 120.3 -0.1

Textile product mills

117.3 111.5 112.4 113.1 118.2 112.8 113.7 113.6 -0.1

Apparel

151.4 146.6 148.6 149.3 152.1 150.3 149.7 150.0 0.3

Leather and allied products

29.1 30.5 30.5 30.0 29.1 30.6 30.5 30.0 -0.5

Paper and paper products

388.1 391.9 389.1 392.6 391.0 392.6 391.7 395.1 3.4

Printing and related support activities

474.0 456.7 454.1 453.5 475.7 460.5 457.9 455.1 -2.8

Petroleum and coal products

108.7 109.6 110.7 111.2 112.3 115.2 115.1 114.7 -0.4

Chemicals

782.4 794.0 793.0 797.5 784.3 796.8 796.4 799.3 2.9

Plastics and rubber products

632.0 633.0 637.0 642.3 636.2 639.5 642.3 645.7 3.4

Private service-providing

89,979 90,713 91,168 91,717 90,783 92,216 92,420 92,510 90

Trade, transportation, and utilities

24,600 25,047 24,837 24,907 24,896 25,239 25,232 25,206 -26

Wholesale trade

5,478.9 5,531.3 5,539.1 5,564.8 5,510.4 5,583.4 5,590.3 5,594.4 4.1

Durable goods

2,731.1 2,757.5 2,758.9 2,765.7 2,745.0 2,776.7 2,778.6 2,778.6 0.0

Nondurable goods

1,920.6 1,930.8 1,936.2 1,948.7 1,934.9 1,957.5 1,961.0 1,962.2 1.2

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

827.2 843.0 844.0 850.4 830.5 849.2 850.7 853.6 2.9

Retail trade

14,343.3 14,662.4 14,443.1 14,468.2 14,563.2 14,756.4 14,727.8 14,694.0 -33.8

Motor vehicle and parts dealers(1)

1,658.9 1,682.4 1,691.2 1,705.0 1,674.7 1,713.7 1,717.6 1,719.9 2.3

Automobile dealers

1,039.9 1,065.0 1,069.6 1,075.3 1,045.3 1,077.1 1,079.3 1,080.0 0.7

Furniture and home furnishings stores

433.3 453.0 443.5 442.7 439.9 448.3 449.7 449.7 0.0

Electronics and appliance stores

524.9 516.5 509.7 504.1 529.9 512.8 512.9 509.3 -3.6

Building material and garden supply stores

1,132.8 1,087.1 1,099.3 1,150.2 1,145.7 1,147.1 1,150.3 1,155.6 5.3

Food and beverage stores

2,782.8 2,842.7 2,827.8 2,819.3 2,812.7 2,856.0 2,858.0 2,851.9 -6.1

Health and personal care stores

968.1 989.6 986.1 992.2 975.3 990.5 993.2 999.1 5.9

Gasoline stations

812.6 817.2 814.3 815.6 824.0 828.4 827.5 827.6 0.1

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,295.0 1,362.8 1,305.7 1,312.4 1,343.0 1,365.8 1,363.1 1,363.0 -0.1

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

562.6 559.6 551.5 546.4 579.7 553.2 561.4 562.6 1.2

General merchandise stores(1)

3,004.8 3,159.4 3,024.4 3,005.6 3,042.7 3,136.1 3,085.1 3,052.8 -32.3

Department stores

1,499.7 1,626.9 1,523.0 1,492.8 1,532.3 1,591.8 1,551.1 1,530.1 -21.0

Miscellaneous store retailers

748.9 750.4 758.0 749.8 766.7 766.1 770.1 766.9 -3.2

Nonstore retailers

418.6 441.7 431.6 424.9 428.9 438.4 438.9 435.6 -3.3

Transportation and warehousing

4,226.7 4,294.9 4,297.1 4,313.8 4,269.5 4,338.9 4,353.3 4,356.1 2.8

Air transportation

453.3 455.8 454.4 456.7 454.4 457.9 456.3 457.5 1.2

Rail transportation

225.7 230.8 230.6 230.8 226.8 232.1 231.9 231.9 0.0

Water transportation

60.7 64.0 65.4 65.5 62.7 65.6 67.3 67.2 -0.1

Truck transportation

1,264.6 1,295.3 1,299.2 1,306.9 1,291.1 1,322.7 1,334.4 1,332.5 -1.9

Transit and ground passenger transportation

446.6 447.8 446.2 443.8 433.8 437.5 435.3 432.5 -2.8

Pipeline transportation

42.6 43.8 43.7 43.7 42.8 43.5 43.8 43.8 0.0

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

21.7 22.1 24.0 24.6 27.8 30.4 32.0 31.2 -0.8

Support activities for transportation

555.0 573.4 573.6 581.0 559.4 578.7 578.5 585.0 6.5

Couriers and messengers

517.4 520.9 517.7 517.2 527.4 522.9 524.7 526.5 1.8

Warehousing and storage

639.1 641.0 642.3 643.6 643.3 647.6 649.1 648.0 -1.1

Utilities

551.5 558.1 558.0 560.5 552.8 559.9 560.5 561.7 1.2

Information

2,667 2,599 2,643 2,628 2,672 2,628 2,641 2,632 -9

Publishing industries, except Internet

748.0 738.6 739.6 738.6 749.6 741.6 740.8 740.2 -0.6

Motion picture and sound recording industries

360.4 331.0 374.3 360.9 362.4 352.3 370.7 362.8 -7.9

Broadcasting, except Internet

282.0 279.4 279.2 282.5 283.0 280.4 279.8 282.7 2.9

Telecommunications

883.1 846.9 843.6 838.1 882.8 847.0 841.2 837.6 -3.6

Data processing, hosting and related services

243.7 238.3 240.6 241.0 243.1 240.6 241.2 240.6 -0.6

Other information services

149.7 165.1 165.4 166.8 151.1 166.3 166.9 168.2 1.3

Financial activities

7,641 7,645 7,652 7,681 7,683 7,697 7,706 7,721 15

Finance and insurance

5,749.5 5,742.1 5,748.2 5,764.6 5,756.3 5,757.2 5,760.6 5,769.7 9.1

Monetary authorities - central bank

18.6 18.8 18.8 18.8 18.6 18.9 18.9 18.9 0.0

Credit intermediation and related
activities(1)

2,551.3 2,569.3 2,573.6 2,587.8 2,554.8 2,575.0 2,578.8 2,589.8 11.0

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,727.3 1,743.8 1,745.6 1,753.9 1,732.1 1,748.3 1,752.2 1,758.3 6.1

Commercial banking

1,306.9 1,318.2 1,319.7 1,327.6 1,309.7 1,321.0 1,324.2 1,329.9 5.7

Securities, commodity contracts, investments

806.3 799.0 801.1 800.2 806.6 801.8 802.3 800.7 -1.6

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,287.1 2,270.7 2,270.6 2,273.1 2,289.9 2,277.1 2,276.2 2,275.5 -0.7

Funds, trusts, and other financial vehicles

86.2 84.3 84.1 84.7 86.4 84.4 84.4 84.8 0.4

Real estate and rental and leasing

1,891.4 1,902.7 1,903.8 1,916.6 1,926.3 1,939.9 1,945.7 1,950.8 5.1

Real estate

1,375.0 1,386.8 1,386.9 1,393.4 1,396.7 1,410.4 1,412.5 1,415.0 2.5

Rental and leasing services

492.6 492.1 493.2 499.7 505.6 505.6 509.4 512.1 2.7

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

23.8 23.8 23.7 23.5 24.0 23.9 23.8 23.7 -0.1

Professional and business services

16,994 17,335 17,488 17,596 17,192 17,672 17,758 17,789 31

Professional and technical services(1)

7,668.8 7,866.1 7,956.4 7,952.0 7,606.0 7,841.9 7,873.9 7,887.7 13.8

Legal services

1,109.6 1,110.5 1,111.5 1,111.5 1,114.3 1,117.5 1,117.7 1,116.4 -1.3

Accounting and bookkeeping services

1,013.7 1,059.4 1,110.1 1,089.8 899.7 963.6 971.1 973.4 2.3

Architectural and engineering services

1,268.8 1,290.1 1,294.5 1,300.2 1,286.7 1,310.0 1,314.3 1,317.9 3.6

Computer systems design and related services

1,501.5 1,551.8 1,567.3 1,565.7 1,509.9 1,558.8 1,570.0 1,573.9 3.9

Management and technical consulting services

1,039.0 1,093.0 1,106.1 1,111.0 1,048.5 1,107.0 1,114.8 1,120.1 5.3

Management of companies and enterprises

1,899.1 1,931.0 1,924.8 1,929.2 1,905.8 1,936.1 1,934.6 1,935.7 1.1

Administrative and waste services

7,426.3 7,537.6 7,607.2 7,714.5 7,680.6 7,893.5 7,949.8 7,965.2 15.4

Administrative and support services(1)

7,071.3 7,173.5 7,243.6 7,351.6 7,317.3 7,522.7 7,577.9 7,593.8 15.9

Employment services(1)

2,820.7 2,926.0 3,004.4 3,034.2 2,929.0 3,083.9 3,150.9 3,136.7 -14.2

Temporary help services

2,205.2 2,300.7 2,363.4 2,392.8 2,295.5 2,432.7 2,487.6 2,480.1 -7.5

Business support services

813.0 823.3 822.0 817.2 809.9 821.3 817.3 814.6 -2.7

Services to buildings and dwellings

1,641.4 1,621.1 1,615.9 1,677.5 1,770.1 1,788.5 1,783.6 1,806.6 23.0

Waste management and remediation services

355.0 364.1 363.6 362.9 363.3 370.8 371.9 371.4 -0.5

Education and health services

19,891 19,977 20,298 20,356 19,749 20,110 20,176 20,213 37

Educational services

3,368.0 3,192.6 3,446.4 3,458.0 3,215.1 3,278.4 3,292.1 3,303.0 10.9

Health care and social assistance

16,522.6 16,784.7 16,852.0 16,897.7 16,533.4 16,831.1 16,883.9 16,910.0 26.1

Health care(3)

13,921.4 14,173.9 14,220.7 14,258.7 13,949.5 14,219.2 14,261.2 14,287.2 26.0

Ambulatory health care services(1)

6,071.7 6,222.7 6,259.4 6,275.3 6,084.7 6,250.8 6,277.0 6,289.1 12.1

Offices of physicians

2,329.4 2,387.2 2,395.8 2,405.0 2,333.6 2,392.9 2,401.9 2,409.5 7.6

Outpatient care centers

615.6 640.9 647.7 650.4 615.9 642.4 647.2 649.8 2.6

Home health care services

1,123.7 1,157.5 1,167.6 1,171.9 1,125.8 1,164.8 1,170.1 1,174.0 3.9

Hospitals

4,698.7 4,780.9 4,792.2 4,801.5 4,706.0 4,787.2 4,800.5 4,808.6 8.1

Nursing and residential care facilities(1)

3,151.0 3,170.3 3,169.1 3,181.9 3,158.8 3,181.2 3,183.7 3,189.5 5.8

Nursing care facilities

1,664.4 1,659.9 1,651.1 1,658.6 1,668.6 1,663.9 1,659.9 1,663.4 3.5

Social assistance(1)

2,601.2 2,610.8 2,631.3 2,639.0 2,583.9 2,611.9 2,622.7 2,622.8 0.1

Child day care services

866.6 844.0 852.5 854.3 847.3 836.4 839.2 835.5 -3.7

Leisure and hospitality

12,881 12,817 12,943 13,212 13,259 13,503 13,548 13,587 39

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,763.1 1,698.0 1,720.3 1,775.1 1,916.3 1,925.2 1,926.6 1,926.7 0.1

Performing arts and spectator sports

378.3 356.8 367.4 380.4 403.1 400.4 399.2 402.5 3.3

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

122.7 122.7 122.7 127.5 131.1 135.5 135.4 135.9 0.5

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,262.1 1,218.5 1,230.2 1,267.2 1,382.1 1,389.3 1,392.0 1,388.3 -3.7

Accommodation and food services

11,117.6 11,118.9 11,222.6 11,436.8 11,342.6 11,578.1 11,621.7 11,659.9 38.2

Accommodation

1,721.3 1,704.8 1,715.1 1,740.8 1,787.8 1,801.4 1,805.0 1,806.3 1.3

Food services and drinking places

9,396.3 9,414.1 9,507.5 9,696.0 9,554.8 9,776.7 9,816.7 9,853.6 36.9

Other services

5,305 5,293 5,307 5,337 5,332 5,367 5,359 5,362 3

Repair and maintenance

1,156.1 1,149.4 1,150.2 1,156.3 1,158.5 1,166.9 1,160.4 1,159.0 -1.4

Personal and laundry services

1,273.4 1,270.7 1,274.9 1,284.7 1,280.6 1,291.4 1,290.8 1,291.6 0.8

Membership associations and organizations

2,875.7 2,873.1 2,881.5 2,896.2 2,892.5 2,908.9 2,908.0 2,911.0 3.0

Government

22,595 21,858 22,311 22,416 22,197 21,991 21,998 21,997 -1

Federal

2,861.0 2,807.0 2,798.0 2,810.0 2,879.0 2,831.0 2,826.0 2,826.0 0.0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,224.5 2,188.7 2,182.9 2,196.3 2,237.9 2,211.5 2,206.3 2,208.3 2.0

U.S. Postal Service

636.6 618.6 614.9 613.8 640.6 619.3 619.3 617.2 -2.1

State government

5,239.0 4,955.0 5,187.0 5,207.0 5,104.0 5,052.0 5,063.0 5,065.0 2.0

State government education

2,527.6 2,304.3 2,540.4 2,557.9 2,383.2 2,389.9 2,405.6 2,409.3 3.7

State government, excluding education

2,711.6 2,650.6 2,646.8 2,649.4 2,720.3 2,662.0 2,657.3 2,655.8 -1.5

Local government

14,495.0 14,096.0 14,326.0 14,399.0 14,214.0 14,108.0 14,109.0 14,106.0 -3.0

Local government education

8,300.3 7,962.7 8,191.9 8,247.2 7,923.0 7,858.4 7,862.9 7,860.2 -2.7

Local government, excluding education

6,194.4 6,133.0 6,134.2 6,151.7 6,291.4 6,249.8 6,246.0 6,245.8 -0.2

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Mar.
2011
Jan.
2012
Feb.
2012(p)
Mar.
2012(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.3 34.5 34.6 34.5

Goods-producing

39.9 40.4 40.5 40.2

Mining and logging

44.2 45.1 44.6 43.8

Construction

38.0 38.6 38.9 38.6

Manufacturing

40.5 40.9 41.0 40.7

Durable goods

40.9 41.2 41.4 41.1

Nondurable goods

39.8 40.3 40.2 40.1

Private service-providing

33.2 33.4 33.4 33.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.6 34.8 34.8 34.7

Wholesale trade

38.6 38.8 38.8 38.7

Retail trade

31.5 31.9 32.0 31.9

Transportation and warehousing

38.9 38.4 38.2 38.2

Utilities

42.0 41.3 41.2 41.2

Information

36.6 36.7 36.7 36.7

Financial activities

37.1 37.4 37.3 37.3

Professional and business services

35.7 35.9 35.9 35.9

Education and health services

32.8 32.8 32.9 32.9

Leisure and hospitality

25.8 26.2 26.2 26.2

Other services

31.8 31.6 31.7 31.8

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.3 3.4 3.4 3.4

Durable goods

3.3 3.4 3.4 3.4

Nondurable goods

3.3 3.4 3.3 3.3

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Mar.
2011
Jan.
2012
Feb.
2012(p)
Mar.
2012(p)
Mar.
2011
Jan.
2012
Feb.
2012(p)
Mar.
2012(p)

Total private

$22.92 $23.28 $23.34 $23.39 $786.16 $803.16 $807.56 $806.96

Goods-producing

24.29 24.57 24.61 24.65 969.17 992.63 996.71 990.93

Mining and logging

28.17 28.16 28.63 29.00 1,245.11 1,270.02 1,276.90 1,270.20

Construction

25.34 25.49 25.53 25.59 962.92 983.91 993.12 987.77

Manufacturing

23.55 23.89 23.90 23.91 953.78 977.10 979.90 973.14

Durable goods

25.06 25.35 25.30 25.31 1,024.95 1,044.42 1,047.42 1,040.24

Nondurable goods

21.04 21.41 21.49 21.52 837.39 862.82 863.90 862.95

Private service-providing

22.59 22.97 23.03 23.08 749.99 767.20 769.20 770.87

Trade, transportation, and utilities

19.90 20.19 20.20 20.27 688.54 702.61 702.96 703.37

Wholesale trade

26.22 26.48 26.51 26.67 1,012.09 1,027.42 1,028.59 1,032.13

Retail trade

15.74 16.02 16.05 16.05 495.81 511.04 513.60 512.00

Transportation and warehousing

21.39 21.94 21.91 21.96 832.07 842.50 836.96 838.87

Utilities

33.41 33.66 33.41 33.75 1,403.22 1,390.16 1,376.49 1,390.50

Information

31.65 31.58 31.61 31.60 1,158.39 1,158.99 1,160.09 1,159.72

Financial activities

27.68 28.54 28.69 28.84 1,026.93 1,067.40 1,070.14 1,075.73

Professional and business services

27.53 27.86 27.90 28.02 982.82 1,000.17 1,001.61 1,005.92

Education and health services

23.46 24.04 24.20 24.18 769.49 788.51 796.18 795.52

Leisure and hospitality

13.18 13.31 13.30 13.33 340.04 348.72 348.46 349.25

Other services

20.30 20.61 20.63 20.58 645.54 651.28 653.97 654.44

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Mar.
2011
Jan.
2012
Feb.
2012(p)
Mar.
2012(p)
Percent change from:
Feb.
2012 - Mar.
2012(p)
Mar.
2011
Jan.
2012
Feb.
2012(p)
Mar.
2012(p)
Percent change from:
Feb.
2012 - Mar.
2012(p)

Total private

93.5 95.5 96.0 95.8 -0.2 102.1 106.0 106.8 106.9 0.1

Goods-producing

81.6 84.0 84.4 83.9 -0.6 89.5 93.3 93.8 93.4 -0.4

Mining and logging

105.0 117.6 116.9 114.9 -1.7 118.8 133.0 134.4 133.8 -0.4

Construction

72.0 74.0 74.5 73.9 -0.8 79.3 82.0 82.7 82.1 -0.7

Manufacturing

85.2 87.3 87.7 87.3 -0.5 93.3 97.0 97.5 97.1 -0.4

Durable goods

83.2 85.8 86.6 86.3 -0.3 92.6 96.7 97.3 97.0 -0.3

Nondurable goods

88.7 89.7 89.5 89.5 0.0 94.7 97.4 97.6 97.8 0.2

Private service-providing

96.8 98.9 99.1 99.2 0.1 105.9 110.1 110.6 111.0 0.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

93.7 95.5 95.5 95.1 -0.4 100.3 103.8 103.8 103.8 0.0

Wholesale trade

92.8 94.5 94.6 94.5 -0.1 101.5 104.5 104.7 105.1 0.4

Retail trade

93.2 95.6 95.7 95.2 -0.5 97.0 101.3 101.6 101.0 -0.6

Transportation and warehousing

95.1 95.4 95.2 95.2 0.0 103.2 106.2 105.8 106.1 0.3

Utilities

100.5 100.0 99.9 100.1 0.2 110.9 111.3 110.3 111.7 1.3

Information

89.3 88.1 88.5 88.2 -0.3 100.6 99.0 99.6 99.3 -0.3

Financial activities

93.9 94.9 94.7 94.9 0.2 101.5 105.7 106.1 106.8 0.7

Professional and business services

96.5 99.8 100.3 100.4 0.1 107.7 112.6 113.3 114.0 0.6

Education and health services

105.5 107.4 108.1 108.3 0.2 115.9 120.9 122.5 122.6 0.1

Leisure and hospitality

97.6 100.9 101.3 101.6 0.3 103.8 108.4 108.7 109.2 0.5

Other services

93.9 94.0 94.1 94.5 0.4 108.2 109.9 110.2 110.3 0.1

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Mar.
2011
Jan.
2012
Feb.
2012(p)
Mar.
2012(p)
Mar.
2011
Jan.
2012
Feb.
2012(p)
Mar.
2012(p)

Total nonfarm

64,804 65,319 65,401 65,439 49.5 49.3 49.3 49.3

Total private

52,195 52,812 52,888 52,926 48.0 47.8 47.8 47.8

Goods-producing

4,070 4,064 4,064 4,077 22.7 22.3 22.2 22.3

Mining and logging

103 111 110 113 13.6 13.4 13.2 13.5

Construction

709 709 706 706 12.9 12.7 12.7 12.7

Manufacturing

3,258 3,244 3,248 3,258 27.9 27.4 27.3 27.3

Durable goods

1,723 1,722 1,725 1,730 23.8 23.3 23.2 23.2

Nondurable goods

1,535 1,522 1,523 1,528 34.4 34.1 34.1 34.2

Private service-providing

48,125 48,748 48,824 48,849 53.0 52.9 52.8 52.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

10,015 10,054 10,033 10,001 40.2 39.8 39.8 39.7

Wholesale trade

1,655.5 1,679.1 1,679.0 1,679.5 30.0 30.1 30.0 30.0

Retail trade

7,219.7 7,228.1 7,207.2 7,176.1 49.6 49.0 48.9 48.8

Transportation and warehousing

1,004.8 1,007.8 1,007.6 1,006.3 23.5 23.2 23.1 23.1

Utilities

135.4 138.5 139.2 139.4 24.5 24.7 24.8 24.8

Information

1,086 1,064 1,066 1,064 40.6 40.5 40.4 40.4

Financial activities

4,488 4,478 4,480 4,489 58.4 58.2 58.1 58.1

Professional and business services

7,624 7,837 7,861 7,878 44.3 44.3 44.3 44.3

Education and health services

15,186 15,434 15,487 15,503 76.9 76.7 76.8 76.7

Leisure and hospitality

6,923 7,055 7,072 7,095 52.2 52.2 52.2 52.2

Other services

2,803 2,826 2,825 2,819 52.6 52.7 52.7 52.6

Government

12,609 12,507 12,513 12,513 56.8 56.9 56.9 56.9

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Mar.
2011
Jan.
2012
Feb.
2012(p)
Mar.
2012(p)

Total private

89,628 91,219 91,495 91,553

Goods-producing

12,927 13,176 13,212 13,236

Mining and logging

568 628 635 629

Construction

4,162 4,212 4,203 4,208

Manufacturing

8,197 8,336 8,374 8,399

Durable goods

4,949 5,090 5,119 5,137

Nondurable goods

3,248 3,246 3,255 3,262

Private service-providing

76,701 78,043 78,283 78,317

Trade, transportation, and utilities

21,067 21,395 21,405 21,377

Wholesale trade

4,412.8 4,488.3 4,498.2 4,503.4

Retail trade

12,540.0 12,720.2 12,707.1 12,665.8

Transportation and warehousing

3,673.3 3,741.0 3,752.3 3,760.6

Utilities

441.0 445.9 446.9 447.4

Information

2,149 2,114 2,126 2,118

Financial activities

5,890 5,909 5,922 5,936

Professional and business services

14,133 14,561 14,658 14,664

Education and health services

17,309 17,633 17,713 17,732

Leisure and hospitality

11,684 11,927 11,970 12,000

Other services

4,469 4,504 4,489 4,490

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Mar.
2011
Jan.
2012
Feb.
2012(p)
Mar.
2012(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.6 33.8 33.8 33.8

Goods-producing

40.7 41.2 41.3 41.1

Mining and logging

45.8 47.7 47.2 45.9

Construction

38.6 39.1 39.2 39.2

Manufacturing

41.5 41.8 41.9 41.7

Durable goods

41.9 42.2 42.3 42.1

Nondurable goods

40.7 41.1 41.2 41.0

Private service-providing

32.4 32.5 32.5 32.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.7 33.9 33.9 33.8

Wholesale trade

38.5 38.6 38.9 38.6

Retail trade

30.4 30.8 30.8 30.8

Transportation and warehousing

38.2 37.7 37.7 37.6

Utilities

42.5 40.8 40.6 40.4

Information

36.3 36.2 36.0 36.1

Financial activities

36.3 36.6 36.6 36.7

Professional and business services

35.1 35.3 35.3 35.3

Education and health services

32.2 32.4 32.4 32.4

Leisure and hospitality

24.9 24.9 25.0 25.0

Other services

30.8 30.8 30.7 30.8

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.2 4.2 4.2 4.3

Durable goods

4.4 4.4 4.4 4.5

Nondurable goods

4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Mar.
2011
Jan.
2012
Feb.
2012(p)
Mar.
2012(p)
Mar.
2011
Jan.
2012
Feb.
2012(p)
Mar.
2012(p)

Total private

$19.34 $19.61 $19.65 $19.68 $649.82 $662.82 $664.17 $665.18

Goods-producing

20.58 20.78 20.84 20.89 837.61 856.14 860.69 858.58

Mining and logging

24.39 24.89 25.56 25.64 1,117.06 1,187.25 1,206.43 1,176.88

Construction

23.51 23.74 23.82 23.94 907.49 928.23 933.74 938.45

Manufacturing

18.90 19.03 19.03 19.06 784.35 795.45 797.36 794.80

Durable goods

20.10 20.16 20.16 20.17 842.19 850.75 852.77 849.16

Nondurable goods

17.01 17.20 17.21 17.27 692.31 706.92 709.05 708.07

Private service-providing

19.08 19.37 19.39 19.42 618.19 629.53 630.18 631.15

Trade, transportation, and utilities

17.06 17.28 17.30 17.31 574.92 585.79 586.47 585.08

Wholesale trade

21.86 22.06 22.03 22.07 841.61 851.52 856.97 851.90

Retail trade

13.42 13.68 13.72 13.71 407.97 421.34 422.58 422.27

Transportation and warehousing

19.34 19.63 19.62 19.64 738.79 740.05 739.67 738.46

Utilities

30.68 31.01 30.94 31.07 1,303.90 1,265.21 1,256.16 1,255.23

Information

26.50 26.74 26.67 26.66 961.95 967.99 960.12 962.43

Financial activities

21.77 22.36 22.43 22.48 790.25 818.38 820.94 825.02

Professional and business services

23.01 23.14 23.13 23.26 807.65 816.84 816.49 821.08

Education and health services

20.56 21.04 21.09 21.08 662.03 681.70 683.32 682.99

Leisure and hospitality

11.40 11.54 11.57 11.59 283.86 287.35 289.25 289.75

Other services

17.22 17.40 17.44 17.38 530.38 535.92 535.41 535.30

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Mar.
2011
Jan.
2012
Feb.
2012(p)
Mar.
2012(p)
Percent change from:
Feb.
2012 - Mar.
2012(p)
Mar.
2011
Jan.
2012
Feb.
2012(p)
Mar.
2012(p)
Percent change from:
Feb.
2012 - Mar.
2012(p)

Total private

100.6 103.0 103.3 103.4 0.1 130.0 135.0 135.7 136.0 0.2

Goods-producing

80.4 83.0 83.4 83.1 -0.4 101.3 105.6 106.4 106.4 0.0

Mining and logging

138.2 159.2 159.3 153.4 -3.7 196.1 230.4 236.8 228.8 -3.4

Construction

80.4 82.5 82.5 82.6 0.1 102.1 105.7 106.1 106.8 0.7

Manufacturing

78.1 80.0 80.5 80.4 -0.1 96.5 99.5 100.2 100.2 0.0

Durable goods

77.9 80.7 81.4 81.3 -0.1 97.8 101.6 102.4 102.4 0.0

Nondurable goods

77.9 78.6 79.0 78.8 -0.3 93.6 95.5 96.1 96.2 0.1

Private service-providing

106.3 108.5 108.8 108.8 0.0 139.0 144.0 144.6 144.9 0.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

99.0 101.1 101.2 100.7 -0.5 120.4 124.6 124.8 124.4 -0.3

Wholesale trade

100.1 102.0 103.0 102.4 -0.6 128.8 132.6 133.7 133.1 -0.4

Retail trade

96.5 99.2 99.1 98.7 -0.4 111.0 116.3 116.5 116.0 -0.4

Transportation and warehousing

105.6 106.2 106.5 106.4 -0.1 129.6 132.2 132.5 132.6 0.1

Utilities

95.9 93.0 92.8 92.4 -0.4 122.7 120.4 119.8 119.9 0.1

Information

89.0 87.3 87.4 87.3 -0.1 116.8 115.6 115.3 115.2 -0.1

Financial activities

102.3 103.5 103.7 104.3 0.6 137.7 143.1 143.8 144.9 0.8

Professional and business services

111.2 115.2 116.0 116.0 0.0 152.2 158.6 159.6 160.6 0.6

Education and health services

120.2 123.2 123.8 123.9 0.1 162.5 170.5 171.6 171.7 0.1

Leisure and hospitality

106.6 108.8 109.6 109.9 0.3 138.0 142.6 144.0 144.6 0.4

Other services

96.5 97.3 96.6 97.0 0.4 121.1 123.3 122.8 122.8 0.0

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary


Last Modified Date: May 14, 2012
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