Economic News Release

Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this release is embargoed                   USDL-14-0701
until 8:30 a.m. (EDT) Friday, May 2, 2014

Technical information:
 Household data:       (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:   (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                         THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- APRIL 2014


Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 288,000, and the unemployment rate 
fell by 0.4 percentage point to 6.3 percent in April, the U.S. Bureau of Labor 
Statistics reported today. Employment gains were widespread, led by job growth 
in professional and business services, retail trade, food services and drinking 
places, and construction.

Household Survey Data

In April, the unemployment rate fell from 6.7 percent to 6.3 percent, and the 
number of unemployed persons, at 9.8 million, decreased by 733,000. Both 
measures had shown little movement over the prior 4 months. Over the year, the
unemployment rate and the number of unemployed persons declined by 1.2 
percentage points and 1.9 million, respectively. (See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, unemployment rates declined in April for adult 
men (5.9 percent), adult women (5.7 percent), teenagers (19.1 percent), whites 
(5.3 percent), blacks (11.6 percent), and Hispanics (7.3 percent). The jobless 
rate for Asians was 5.7 percent (not seasonally adjusted), little changed over 
the year. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

In April, the number of unemployed reentrants and new entrants declined by 
417,000 and 126,000, respectively. (Reentrants are persons who previously 
worked but were not in the labor force prior to beginning their job search, 
and new entrants are persons who have never worked.) The number of job losers 
and persons who completed temporary jobs decreased by 253,000 to 5.2 million. 
(See table A-11.) 

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more) 
declined by 287,000 in April to 3.5 million; these individuals accounted for 
35.3 percent of the unemployed. Over the past 12 months, the number of long-term 
unemployed has decreased by 908,000. (See table A-12.)

The civilian labor force dropped by 806,000 in April, following an increase of 
503,000 in March. The labor force participation rate fell by 0.4 percentage 
point to 62.8 percent in April. The participation rate has shown no clear trend 
in recent months and currently is the same as it was this past October. The 
employment-population ratio showed no change over the month (58.9 percent) and 
has changed little over the year. (See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons (sometimes referred 
to as involuntary part-time workers) was little changed at 7.5 million in April. 
These individuals were working part time because their hours had been cut back 
or because they were unable to find full-time work. (See table A-8.)

In April, 2.2 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force, down 
slightly from a year earlier. (The data are not seasonally adjusted.) These 
individuals were not in the labor force, wanted and were available for work, 
and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months. They were not counted 
as unemployed because they had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding 
the survey. (See table A-16.)

Among the marginally attached, there were 783,000 discouraged workers in April, 
little changed from a year earlier. (The data are not seasonally adjusted.) 
Discouraged workers are persons not currently looking for work because they 
believe no jobs are available for them. The remaining 1.4 million persons 
marginally attached to the labor force in April had not searched for work for 
reasons such as school attendance or family responsibilities. (See table A-16.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 288,000 in April. Job growth 
had averaged 190,000 per month over the prior 12 months. In April, employment 
growth was widespread, led by gains in professional and business services, 
retail trade, food services and drinking places, and construction. (See 
table B-1.)

Professional and business services added 75,000 jobs in April. Employment in 
this industry had increased by an average of 55,000 per month over the prior 
12 months. In April, employment growth continued in temporary help services 
(+24,000), in management of companies and enterprises (+12,000), and in 
computer systems design and related services (+9,000).

Retail trade employment rose by 35,000 in April. Over the past 12 months, 
employment in this industry has grown by 327,000. Within retail trade, job 
growth over the month occurred in food and beverage stores (+9,000), general 
merchandise stores (+8,000), motor vehicle and parts dealers (+6,000), and 
nonstore retailers (+4,000). Electronics and appliance stores lost 11,000 
jobs in April. Wholesale trade added 16,000 jobs over the month and has added 
126,000 jobs over the year. 

In April, employment rose in food services and drinking places (+33,000), 
about in line with its prior 12-month average gain of 28,000 per month.  

In April, employment in construction grew by 32,000, with job growth in heavy 
and civil engineering construction (+11,000) and residential building (+7,000). 
Construction has added 189,000 jobs over the past year, with almost three-fourths 
of the gain occurring in the past 6 months.  

Health care employment increased by 19,000 in April, about in line with the 
prior 12-month average gain of 17,000 per month. Employment in other services, 
which includes membership associations and personal and laundry services, rose 
by 15,000 over the month.  

Mining added 10,000 jobs in April, with most of the gain in support activities 
for mining (+7,000). 

Employment in other major industries, including manufacturing, transportation 
and warehousing, information, financial activities, and government, changed 
little over the month. 

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls was unchanged 
at 34.5 hours in April. The manufacturing workweek decreased by 0.2 hour in 
April to 40.8 hours, and factory overtime was unchanged at 3.5 hours. The average 
workweek for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls 
was unchanged at 33.7 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

In April, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls 
were unchanged at $24.31. Over the past 12 months, average hourly earnings 
have risen by 1.9 percent. In April, average hourly earnings of private-sector 
production and nonsupervisory employees edged up by 3 cents to $20.50. (See 
tables B-3 and B-8.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for February was revised from 
+197,000 to +222,000, and the change for March was revised from +192,000 to 
+203,000. With these revisions, employment gains in February and March were 
36,000 higher than previously reported. 

_____________
The Employment Situation for May is scheduled to be released on Friday, June 6, 
2014, at 8:30 a.m. (EDT).



    ----------------------------------------------------------------------
   |                                                                      |
   |          Upcoming Changes to the Establishment Survey Data           |
   |                                                                      |
   | Effective with the release of July 2014 data on August 1, 2014, the  |
   | establishment survey will implement new sample units into production |
   | on a quarterly basis, replacing the current practice of implementing |
   | new sample units annually. There is no change to the establishment   |
   | survey sample design. More information about the quarterly sample    |
   | implementation is available at www.bls.gov/ces/cesqsi.htm.           |
   |                                                                      |
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    
    

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Apr.
2013
Feb.
2014
Mar.
2014
Apr.
2014
Change from:
Mar.
2014-
Apr.
2014

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

245,175 247,085 247,258 247,439 181

Civilian labor force

155,359 155,724 156,227 155,421 -806

Participation rate

63.4 63.0 63.2 62.8 -0.4

Employed

143,676 145,266 145,742 145,669 -73

Employment-population ratio

58.6 58.8 58.9 58.9 0.0

Unemployed

11,683 10,459 10,486 9,753 -733

Unemployment rate

7.5 6.7 6.7 6.3 -0.4

Not in labor force

89,815 91,361 91,030 92,018 988

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

7.5 6.7 6.7 6.3 -0.4

Adult men (20 years and over)

7.1 6.4 6.2 5.9 -0.3

Adult women (20 years and over)

6.6 5.9 6.2 5.7 -0.5

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

23.7 21.4 20.9 19.1 -1.8

White

6.6 5.8 5.8 5.3 -0.5

Black or African American

13.1 12.0 12.4 11.6 -0.8

Asian (not seasonally adjusted)

5.1 6.0 5.4 5.7 -

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

9.0 8.1 7.9 7.3 -0.6

Total, 25 years and over

6.1 5.5 5.4 5.2 -0.2

Less than a high school diploma

11.5 9.8 9.6 8.9 -0.7

High school graduates, no college

7.5 6.4 6.3 6.3 0.0

Some college or associate degree

6.3 6.2 6.1 5.7 -0.4

Bachelor's degree and higher

3.9 3.4 3.4 3.3 -0.1

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

6,367 5,448 5,489 5,236 -253

Job leavers

857 823 815 784 -31

Reentrants

3,131 2,997 3,037 2,620 -417

New entrants

1,268 1,229 1,169 1,043 -126

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,491 2,373 2,461 2,447 -14

5 to 14 weeks

2,844 2,568 2,581 2,359 -222

15 to 26 weeks

1,969 1,615 1,677 1,533 -144

27 weeks and over

4,360 3,849 3,739 3,452 -287

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

7,929 7,186 7,411 7,465 54

Slack work or business conditions

5,124 4,251 4,512 4,555 43

Could only find part-time work

2,549 2,692 2,731 2,669 -62

Part time for noneconomic reasons

18,921 19,027 19,216 18,886 -330

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)

Marginally attached to the labor force

2,347 2,303 2,168 2,160 -

Discouraged workers

835 755 698 783 -

- Over-the-month changes are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Apr.
2013
Feb.
2014
Mar.
2014(p)
Apr.
2014(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

203 222 203 288

Total private

188 201 202 273

Goods-producing

-11 48 29 53

Mining and logging

-3 4 5 9

Construction

-2 24 17 32

Manufacturing

-6 20 7 12

Durable goods(1)

0 17 14 11

Motor vehicles and parts

-0.7 11.8 0.4 5.2

Nondurable goods

-6 3 -7 1

Private service-providing(1)

199 153 173 220

Wholesale trade

5.7 14.7 4.4 15.7

Retail trade

22.6 -5.6 24.8 34.5

Transportation and warehousing

5.7 -4.9 12.0 11.3

Information

-6 -11 -1 -3

Financial activities

10 10 0 6

Professional and business services(1)

72 82 52 75

Temporary help services

22.0 25.4 24.7 24.0

Education and health services(1)

51 32 37 40

Health care and social assistance

44.1 23.8 31.0 27.9

Leisure and hospitality

33 35 34 28

Other services

4 1 7 15

Government

15 21 1 15

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES(2)
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES

Total nonfarm women employees

49.4 49.4 49.4 49.4

Total private women employees

48.0 48.0 48.0 48.0

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.6 82.7 82.7 82.7

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.4 34.3 34.5 34.5

Average hourly earnings

$23.86 $24.29 $24.31 $24.31

Average weekly earnings

$820.78 $833.15 $838.70 $838.70

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

98.0 99.4 100.1 100.4

Over-the-month percent change

-0.2 -0.1 0.7 0.3

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

111.6 115.2 116.2 116.5

Over-the-month percent change

0.1 0.2 0.9 0.3

HOURS AND EARNINGS
PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

33.7 33.4 33.7 33.7

Average hourly earnings

$20.04 $20.49 $20.47 $20.50

Average weekly earnings

$675.35 $684.37 $689.84 $690.85

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2002=100)(3)

105.8 106.6 107.8 108.1

Over-the-month percent change

-0.1 -0.4 1.1 0.3

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2002=100)(4)

141.6 146.0 147.5 148.1

Over-the-month percent change

-0.1 0.1 1.0 0.4

DIFFUSION INDEX(5)
(Over 1-month span)

Total private (264 industries)

59.5 61.0 61.0 67.0

Manufacturing (81 industries)

46.9 53.1 53.7 58.6

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

1. Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

   The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
   of   employment, and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
   employment series has a   smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
   month change   than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
   over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
   the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant change
   in the household survey is about 400,000. However, the household survey has a more
   expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes self-employed
   workers whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, agricultural
   workers, and private household workers, who are excluded by the establishment survey.
   The household survey also provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.
   For more information on the differences between the two surveys, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/ces_cps_trends.pdf.

2. Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

   It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
   neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
   status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
   either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
   workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
   native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
   born. Data on the foreign and native born are published each month in table A-7 of
   The Employment Situation news release.

3. Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

   The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
   incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
   initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
   monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
   additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
   adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
   www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

   On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
   re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
   insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
   in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
   www.bls.gov/web/empsit/cesbmart.htm.

4. Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

   Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
   establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
   designed to maximize the reliability of the statewide total nonfarm employment
   estimate; firms from all states, size classes, and industries are appropriately
   sampled to achieve that goal.

5. Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

   Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
   the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
   comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
   business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
   can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
   establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because
   the survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There
   is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the
   sampling frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey
   twice a year.

6. Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving unemployment
   insurance benefits?

   No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
   All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work are
   included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
   they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
   unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

7. Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who want a job but are not currently
   looking for work?

   Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
   want a job, including those who are not currently looking because they believe no
   jobs are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
   underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
   officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in table A-15 of The
   Employment Situation news release. For more information about these alternative
   measures, please visit www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm#altmeasures.

8. How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

   In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
   the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact on
   average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for paid
   time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other time off.
   The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always, results in
   a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be off work for
   part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while some workers,
   such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.

   In order for severe weather conditions to reduce the estimate of payroll employment,
   employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay period. Slightly more
   than 20 percent of all employees in the payroll survey sample have a weekly pay
   period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
   counted in the payroll employment figures. It is not possible to quantify the effect
   of extreme weather on estimates of over-the-month change in employment.

   In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
   includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week's work for weather-
   related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time
   off. The household survey collects data on the number of persons who had a job but
   were not at work due to bad weather. It also provides a measure of the number of
   persons who usually work full time but had reduced hours due to bad weather. 
   Current and historical data are available on the  household survey's most
   requested statistics page at http://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the Current
Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment Statistics
survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides information
on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears in the "A" tables,
marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, and
earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the "B" tables,
marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each month from the payroll
records of a sample of nonagricultural business establishments. Each month
the CES program surveys about 144,000 businesses and government agencies,
representing approximately 554,000 individual worksites, in order to provide
detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of workers on nonfarm
payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm
payroll employees.

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week or
pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally the
calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which may or
may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire civilian 
noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series of questions on 
work and job search activities, each person 16 years and over in a sample
household is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid employees
during the reference week; worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 hours in a family business or farm.
People are also counted as employed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs
because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal
reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following criteria:
they had no employment during the reference week; they were available for work at
that time; and they made specific efforts to find employment sometime during the
4-week period ending with the reference week. Persons laid off from a job and
expecting recall need not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The
unemployment data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the
eligibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those persons not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the 
labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force as a 
percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is the 
employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about the 
household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who received pay for any part of the reference pay
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector for
all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. Production
and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and related employees
in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction workers in construction,
and nonsupervisory employees in private service-providing industries.

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment’s principal
activity in accordance with the 2012 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and methodological
differences between the household and establishment  surveys result in important
distinctions in the employment estimates derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, self-employed workers
     whose businesses are unincorporated, unpaid family workers, and private
     household workers among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.

   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the employed.
     The establishment survey does not.

   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and older.
     The establishment survey is not limited by age.

   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than one
     job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted separately
     for each appearance.

Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and the levels
of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring fluctuations. These 
events may result from seasonal changes in weather, major holidays, and the opening
and closing of schools. The effect of such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year,
their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by adjusting for regular
seasonal variation. These adjustments make nonseasonal developments, such as
declines in employment or increases in the participation of women in the labor
force, easier to spot. For example, in the household survey, the large number of
youth entering the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes
that have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if the 
level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in the establishment
survey, payroll employment in education declines by about 20 percent at the end
of the spring term and later rises with the start of the fall term, obscuring the
underlying employment trends in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes
at the end and beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The seasonally
adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in
month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both the household
and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series for many major estimates,
such as total payroll employment, employment in most major sectors, total employment,
and unemployment are computed by aggregating independently adjusted component series.
For example, total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate that would be
obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining
the duration, reasons, or more detailed age categories.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent seasonal adjustment
methodology is used in which new seasonal factors are calculated each month using all
relevant data, up to and including the data for the current month. In the household
survey, new seasonal factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month to adjust the
three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months are routinely revised to
incorporate additional sample reports and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors.
In both surveys, 5-year revisions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are subject to both
sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than the entire population,
is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the true
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs
because samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability
is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent
chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the true population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in total nonfarm
employment from the establishment survey is on the order of plus or minus 90,000.
Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment increases by 50,000 from one month to
the next. The 90-percent confidence interval on the monthly change would range from
-40,000 to +140,000 (50,000 +/- 90,000). These figures do not mean that the sample
results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the true over-the-month change lies within this interval. Since this
range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with confidence that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported
nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90- percent
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is likely (at
least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month.
At an unemployment rate of around 6.0 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval
for the monthly change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is
about +/- 300,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about
+/- 0.2 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments have lower
standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than estimates which are based
on a small number of observations. The precision of estimates also is improved when
the data are cumulated over time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by nonsampling error,
which can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the
population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample,
inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or
processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most recent 2 months
are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these estimates are labeled
preliminary in the tables. It is only after two successive revisions to a monthly
estimate, when nearly all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is
considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey is the
inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by new firms. To
correct for this systematic underestimation of employment growth, an estimation
procedure with two components is used to account for business births. The first
component excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from business births.
This is incorporated into the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not
reflecting sample units going out of business, but imputing to them the same
employment trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for
most of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate the
residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the imputation. The
historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA model was derived from
the unemployment insurance universe micro- level database, and reflects the actual
residual net of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted once a
year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment obtained from
administrative records of the unemployment insurance program. The difference 
between the March sample-based employment estimates and the March universe counts
is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey
error. The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions for total nonfarm
employment have averaged 0.3 percent, with a range from -0.7 to 0.6 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Apr.
2013
Mar.
2014
Apr.
2014
Apr.
2013
Dec.
2013
Jan.
2014
Feb.
2014
Mar.
2014
Apr.
2014

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

245,175 247,258 247,439 245,175 246,745 246,915 247,085 247,258 247,439

Civilian labor force

154,739 155,627 154,845 155,359 154,937 155,460 155,724 156,227 155,421

Participation rate

63.1 62.9 62.6 63.4 62.8 63.0 63.0 63.2 62.8

Employed

143,724 145,090 145,767 143,676 144,586 145,224 145,266 145,742 145,669

Employment-population ratio

58.6 58.7 58.9 58.6 58.6 58.8 58.8 58.9 58.9

Unemployed

11,014 10,537 9,079 11,683 10,351 10,236 10,459 10,486 9,753

Unemployment rate

7.1 6.8 5.9 7.5 6.7 6.6 6.7 6.7 6.3

Not in labor force

90,436 91,630 92,594 89,815 91,808 91,455 91,361 91,030 92,018

Persons who currently want a job

6,329 5,891 6,088 6,389 6,111 6,348 6,060 6,146 6,146

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

118,296 119,395 119,488 118,296 119,103 119,218 119,306 119,395 119,488

Civilian labor force

82,201 82,586 82,104 82,713 82,323 82,662 82,597 83,052 82,586

Participation rate

69.5 69.2 68.7 69.9 69.1 69.3 69.2 69.6 69.1

Employed

76,029 76,718 77,086 76,270 76,723 77,060 76,808 77,416 77,292

Employment-population ratio

64.3 64.3 64.5 64.5 64.4 64.6 64.4 64.8 64.7

Unemployed

6,172 5,868 5,018 6,443 5,599 5,602 5,789 5,636 5,294

Unemployment rate

7.5 7.1 6.1 7.8 6.8 6.8 7.0 6.8 6.4

Not in labor force

36,095 36,809 37,384 35,583 36,780 36,556 36,709 36,343 36,902

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

109,736 110,930 111,027 109,736 110,613 110,746 110,838 110,930 111,027

Civilian labor force

79,551 79,949 79,571 79,868 79,464 79,892 79,917 80,171 79,851

Participation rate

72.5 72.1 71.7 72.8 71.8 72.1 72.1 72.3 71.9

Employed

74,042 74,711 75,059 74,161 74,467 74,916 74,780 75,230 75,134

Employment-population ratio

67.5 67.3 67.6 67.6 67.3 67.6 67.5 67.8 67.7

Unemployed

5,509 5,238 4,512 5,707 4,997 4,975 5,137 4,941 4,718

Unemployment rate

6.9 6.6 5.7 7.1 6.3 6.2 6.4 6.2 5.9

Not in labor force

30,184 30,981 31,456 29,868 31,149 30,855 30,921 30,760 31,176

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

126,878 127,863 127,951 126,878 127,642 127,696 127,779 127,863 127,951

Civilian labor force

72,538 73,041 72,741 72,646 72,614 72,797 73,128 73,175 72,835

Participation rate

57.2 57.1 56.9 57.3 56.9 57.0 57.2 57.2 56.9

Employed

67,695 68,373 68,680 67,406 67,862 68,163 68,458 68,325 68,376

Employment-population ratio

53.4 53.5 53.7 53.1 53.2 53.4 53.6 53.4 53.4

Unemployed

4,843 4,669 4,061 5,240 4,752 4,634 4,670 4,850 4,459

Unemployment rate

6.7 6.4 5.6 7.2 6.5 6.4 6.4 6.6 6.1

Not in labor force

54,340 54,822 55,210 54,232 55,028 54,899 54,652 54,688 55,116

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

118,612 119,669 119,760 118,612 119,433 119,497 119,583 119,669 119,760

Civilian labor force

69,833 70,402 70,100 69,764 69,831 70,023 70,331 70,361 70,037

Participation rate

58.9 58.8 58.5 58.8 58.5 58.6 58.8 58.8 58.5

Employed

65,533 66,170 66,452 65,148 65,617 65,909 66,183 66,008 66,057

Employment-population ratio

55.3 55.3 55.5 54.9 54.9 55.2 55.3 55.2 55.2

Unemployed

4,300 4,232 3,648 4,616 4,214 4,114 4,148 4,352 3,980

Unemployment rate

6.2 6.0 5.2 6.6 6.0 5.9 5.9 6.2 5.7

Not in labor force

48,778 49,267 49,660 48,847 49,602 49,475 49,252 49,309 49,724

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,827 16,658 16,652 16,827 16,700 16,671 16,664 16,658 16,652

Civilian labor force

5,355 5,276 5,174 5,727 5,642 5,545 5,476 5,696 5,534

Participation rate

31.8 31.7 31.1 34.0 33.8 33.3 32.9 34.2 33.2

Employed

4,149 4,209 4,256 4,368 4,502 4,399 4,303 4,503 4,479

Employment-population ratio

24.7 25.3 25.6 26.0 27.0 26.4 25.8 27.0 26.9

Unemployed

1,206 1,066 918 1,360 1,140 1,147 1,173 1,193 1,055

Unemployment rate

22.5 20.2 17.7 23.7 20.2 20.7 21.4 20.9 19.1

Not in labor force

11,473 11,382 11,478 11,100 11,058 11,125 11,188 10,962 11,119

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Apr.
2013
Mar.
2014
Apr.
2014
Apr.
2013
Dec.
2013
Jan.
2014
Feb.
2014
Mar.
2014
Apr.
2014

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

194,041 195,117 195,210 194,041 194,927 194,944 195,029 195,117 195,210

Civilian labor force

123,048 123,157 122,659 123,544 122,879 123,500 123,641 123,763 123,111

Participation rate

63.4 63.1 62.8 63.7 63.0 63.4 63.4 63.4 63.1

Employed

115,231 115,851 116,536 115,338 115,623 116,409 116,447 116,581 116,601

Employment-population ratio

59.4 59.4 59.7 59.4 59.3 59.7 59.7 59.7 59.7

Unemployed

7,817 7,306 6,123 8,206 7,256 7,091 7,193 7,183 6,510

Unemployment rate

6.4 5.9 5.0 6.6 5.9 5.7 5.8 5.8 5.3

Not in labor force

70,993 71,959 72,550 70,497 72,048 71,444 71,388 71,353 72,099

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

64,441 64,407 64,216 64,687 64,221 64,551 64,594 64,724 64,445

Participation rate

73.0 72.4 72.1 73.3 72.3 72.6 72.6 72.7 72.4

Employed

60,450 60,730 61,097 60,552 60,637 61,048 61,020 61,282 61,182

Employment-population ratio

68.5 68.3 68.6 68.6 68.3 68.7 68.6 68.9 68.7

Unemployed

3,992 3,677 3,119 4,134 3,584 3,503 3,574 3,441 3,264

Unemployment rate

6.2 5.7 4.9 6.4 5.6 5.4 5.5 5.3 5.1

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

54,300 54,537 54,358 54,233 54,173 54,505 54,635 54,509 54,277

Participation rate

58.3 58.2 58.0 58.2 57.8 58.2 58.3 58.1 57.9

Employed

51,374 51,674 51,984 51,149 51,308 51,695 51,822 51,597 51,730

Employment-population ratio

55.1 55.1 55.4 54.9 54.8 55.2 55.3 55.0 55.2

Unemployed

2,926 2,864 2,374 3,084 2,866 2,810 2,813 2,911 2,547

Unemployment rate

5.4 5.3 4.4 5.7 5.3 5.2 5.1 5.3 4.7

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,307 4,213 4,085 4,624 4,485 4,444 4,412 4,531 4,389

Participation rate

34.4 34.0 33.0 36.9 36.1 35.8 35.6 36.5 35.4

Employed

3,408 3,448 3,455 3,636 3,678 3,666 3,606 3,701 3,690

Employment-population ratio

27.2 27.8 27.9 29.0 29.6 29.5 29.1 29.9 29.8

Unemployed

899 765 630 988 806 777 807 830 699

Unemployment rate

20.9 18.2 15.4 21.4 18.0 17.5 18.3 18.3 15.9

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

30,290 30,719 30,755 30,290 30,569 30,651 30,685 30,719 30,755

Civilian labor force

18,532 18,763 18,675 18,605 18,401 18,558 18,654 18,756 18,720

Participation rate

61.2 61.1 60.7 61.4 60.2 60.5 60.8 61.1 60.9

Employed

16,240 16,501 16,682 16,162 16,215 16,310 16,416 16,437 16,556

Employment-population ratio

53.6 53.7 54.2 53.4 53.0 53.2 53.5 53.5 53.8

Unemployed

2,292 2,262 1,993 2,442 2,186 2,249 2,237 2,319 2,164

Unemployment rate

12.4 12.1 10.7 13.1 11.9 12.1 12.0 12.4 11.6

Not in labor force

11,758 11,956 12,080 11,685 12,168 12,093 12,031 11,963 12,035

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

8,326 8,531 8,391 8,377 8,255 8,367 8,430 8,496 8,435

Participation rate

67.0 67.3 66.1 67.5 65.6 66.2 66.6 67.0 66.4

Employed

7,287 7,471 7,520 7,313 7,302 7,359 7,345 7,470 7,522

Employment-population ratio

58.7 58.9 59.2 58.9 58.0 58.2 58.0 58.9 59.2

Unemployed

1,039 1,059 872 1,065 953 1,008 1,085 1,026 913

Unemployment rate

12.5 12.4 10.4 12.7 11.5 12.0 12.9 12.1 10.8

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,543 9,635 9,626 9,514 9,451 9,525 9,594 9,614 9,583

Participation rate

62.4 62.1 62.0 62.2 61.2 61.5 61.9 62.0 61.7

Employed

8,531 8,628 8,722 8,425 8,466 8,537 8,646 8,554 8,590

Employment-population ratio

55.8 55.6 56.1 55.1 54.8 55.1 55.8 55.1 55.3

Unemployed

1,012 1,006 903 1,090 986 988 948 1,060 993

Unemployment rate

10.6 10.4 9.4 11.5 10.4 10.4 9.9 11.0 10.4

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

663 598 658 713 694 666 630 646 701

Participation rate

25.7 23.7 26.2 27.6 27.4 26.4 24.9 25.6 27.9

Employed

422 401 440 425 448 413 425 413 443

Employment-population ratio

16.3 15.9 17.5 16.5 17.7 16.4 16.9 16.4 17.6

Unemployed

241 197 218 288 246 253 204 233 258

Unemployment rate

36.4 32.9 33.2 40.4 35.5 38.0 32.4 36.1 36.8

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

13,244 13,769 13,841 - - - - - -

Civilian labor force

8,456 8,889 8,782 - - - - - -

Participation rate

63.9 64.6 63.4 - - - - - -

Employed

8,025 8,409 8,283 - - - - - -

Employment-population ratio

60.6 61.1 59.8 - - - - - -

Unemployed

431 480 498 - - - - - -

Unemployment rate

5.1 5.4 5.7 - - - - - -

Not in labor force

4,788 4,880 5,059 - - - - - -

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Apr.
2013
Mar.
2014
Apr.
2014
Apr.
2013
Dec.
2013
Jan.
2014
Feb.
2014
Mar.
2014
Apr.
2014

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

37,320 38,126 38,203 37,320 37,955 37,976 38,053 38,126 38,203

Civilian labor force

24,475 25,158 25,028 24,531 24,863 25,053 25,061 25,266 25,055

Participation rate

65.6 66.0 65.5 65.7 65.5 66.0 65.9 66.3 65.6

Employed

22,412 23,126 23,343 22,327 22,805 22,961 23,021 23,264 23,232

Employment-population ratio

60.1 60.7 61.1 59.8 60.1 60.5 60.5 61.0 60.8

Unemployed

2,063 2,031 1,685 2,205 2,058 2,092 2,040 2,002 1,824

Unemployment rate

8.4 8.1 6.7 9.0 8.3 8.4 8.1 7.9 7.3

Not in labor force

12,845 12,968 13,175 12,788 13,092 12,923 12,992 12,859 13,148

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

13,640 13,922 13,869 - - - - - -

Participation rate

81.1 80.8 80.3 - - - - - -

Employed

12,602 12,968 13,080 - - - - - -

Employment-population ratio

74.9 75.2 75.7 - - - - - -

Unemployed

1,037 954 789 - - - - - -

Unemployment rate

7.6 6.9 5.7 - - - - - -

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,796 10,200 10,136 - - - - - -

Participation rate

58.2 59.2 58.7 - - - - - -

Employed

9,062 9,342 9,462 - - - - - -

Employment-population ratio

53.8 54.2 54.8 - - - - - -

Unemployed

734 857 674 - - - - - -

Unemployment rate

7.5 8.4 6.6 - - - - - -

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,039 1,036 1,023 - - - - - -

Participation rate

28.5 28.4 28.0 - - - - - -

Employed

748 816 801 - - - - - -

Employment-population ratio

20.5 22.3 21.9 - - - - - -

Unemployed

291 220 222 - - - - - -

Unemployment rate

28.0 21.3 21.7 - - - - - -

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2013
Mar.
2014
Apr.
2014
Apr.
2013
Dec.
2013
Jan.
2014
Feb.
2014
Mar.
2014
Apr.
2014

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

11,072 11,150 10,946 10,960 10,748 11,004 11,154 11,199 10,891

Participation rate

45.1 45.7 44.9 44.6 43.7 44.5 46.2 45.9 44.6

Employed

9,810 10,011 10,006 9,696 9,699 9,953 10,056 10,128 9,925

Employment-population ratio

39.9 41.0 41.0 39.5 39.4 40.2 41.7 41.5 40.7

Unemployed

1,262 1,139 940 1,264 1,049 1,051 1,098 1,071 965

Unemployment rate

11.4 10.2 8.6 11.5 9.8 9.6 9.8 9.6 8.9

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

36,224 36,214 36,050 36,252 36,242 35,924 36,108 36,392 36,089

Participation rate

58.7 58.5 57.9 58.8 58.0 58.1 58.5 58.8 58.0

Employed

33,614 33,759 33,890 33,551 33,677 33,593 33,792 34,106 33,830

Employment-population ratio

54.5 54.5 54.4 54.4 53.9 54.3 54.7 55.1 54.3

Unemployed

2,610 2,455 2,160 2,702 2,565 2,331 2,316 2,286 2,258

Unemployment rate

7.2 6.8 6.0 7.5 7.1 6.5 6.4 6.3 6.3

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

37,058 37,065 37,176 37,338 37,021 36,992 37,169 37,158 37,364

Participation rate

67.8 67.0 66.9 68.3 67.6 67.3 66.9 67.1 67.3

Employed

34,820 34,812 35,165 34,971 34,750 34,758 34,876 34,904 35,218

Employment-population ratio

63.7 62.9 63.3 64.0 63.4 63.3 62.8 63.0 63.4

Unemployed

2,238 2,253 2,011 2,367 2,272 2,234 2,293 2,254 2,146

Unemployment rate

6.0 6.1 5.4 6.3 6.1 6.0 6.2 6.1 5.7

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

49,663 50,257 50,212 49,445 49,759 50,427 50,240 49,908 49,934

Participation rate

75.9 75.2 75.5 75.5 75.3 75.7 75.2 74.7 75.1

Employed

47,888 48,570 48,684 47,529 48,134 48,797 48,543 48,198 48,279

Employment-population ratio

73.2 72.7 73.2 72.6 72.8 73.2 72.6 72.2 72.6

Unemployed

1,775 1,687 1,527 1,916 1,625 1,629 1,697 1,711 1,655

Unemployment rate

3.6 3.4 3.0 3.9 3.3 3.2 3.4 3.4 3.3

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Apr.
2013
Apr.
2014
Apr.
2013
Apr.
2014
Apr.
2013
Apr.
2014

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

21,467 21,239 19,247 18,992 2,220 2,247

Civilian labor force

11,185 10,727 9,766 9,337 1,420 1,390

Participation rate

52.1 50.5 50.7 49.2 63.9 61.8

Employed

10,492 10,124 9,139 8,815 1,353 1,308

Employment-population ratio

48.9 47.7 47.5 46.4 61.0 58.2

Unemployed

693 603 627 522 66 81

Unemployment rate

6.2 5.6 6.4 5.6 4.7 5.8

Not in labor force

10,282 10,512 9,481 9,655 800 857

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,804 3,019 2,245 2,444 558 575

Civilian labor force

2,256 2,403 1,874 2,019 381 385

Participation rate

80.5 79.6 83.5 82.6 68.3 66.9

Employed

2,086 2,240 1,732 1,885 354 355

Employment-population ratio

74.4 74.2 77.1 77.1 63.4 61.7

Unemployed

170 163 143 134 27 30

Unemployment rate

7.5 6.8 7.6 6.6 7.2 7.7

Not in labor force

548 615 371 425 177 190

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,425 3,421 2,738 2,704 687 717

Civilian labor force

2,850 2,764 2,337 2,246 513 518

Participation rate

83.2 80.8 85.4 83.0 74.6 72.2

Employed

2,693 2,635 2,198 2,144 495 491

Employment-population ratio

78.6 77.0 80.3 79.3 72.0 68.5

Unemployed

157 129 139 102 18 27

Unemployment rate

5.5 4.7 5.9 4.5 3.5 5.2

Not in labor force

575 658 401 458 174 199

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

9,916 9,476 9,538 9,120 378 356

Civilian labor force

3,135 2,755 3,009 2,659 126 96

Participation rate

31.6 29.1 31.5 29.2 33.4 26.9

Employed

2,915 2,620 2,799 2,536 116 85

Employment-population ratio

29.4 27.7 29.3 27.8 30.7 23.8

Unemployed

220 134 210 123 10 11

Unemployment rate

7.0 4.9 7.0 4.6 8.3 11.6

Not in labor force

6,781 6,721 6,529 6,461 252 260

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,322 5,323 4,726 4,724 596 599

Civilian labor force

2,944 2,805 2,545 2,414 399 391

Participation rate

55.3 52.7 53.9 51.1 66.9 65.3

Employed

2,798 2,629 2,409 2,251 389 378

Employment-population ratio

52.6 49.4 51.0 47.6 65.2 63.1

Unemployed

146 177 136 163 10 13

Unemployment rate

5.0 6.3 5.3 6.8 2.6 3.4

Not in labor force

2,378 2,518 2,181 2,310 197 208

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

214,659 217,259 94,424 95,940 120,236 121,319

Civilian labor force

141,712 142,440 71,577 71,995 70,134 70,445

Participation rate

66.0 65.6 75.8 75.0 58.3 58.1

Employed

131,871 134,317 66,284 67,700 65,588 66,617

Employment-population ratio

61.4 61.8 70.2 70.6 54.5 54.9

Unemployed

9,840 8,123 5,293 4,295 4,547 3,828

Unemployment rate

6.9 5.7 7.4 6.0 6.5 5.4

Not in labor force

72,948 74,819 22,847 23,945 50,101 50,874

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Beginning with data for January 2014, estimates for veterans incorporate updated weighting procedures.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Apr.
2013
Apr.
2014
Apr.
2013
Apr.
2014

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

28,908 28,915 216,267 218,524

Civilian labor force

5,985 5,528 148,754 149,317

Participation rate

20.7 19.1 68.8 68.3

Employed

5,215 4,838 138,509 140,929

Employment-population ratio

18.0 16.7 64.0 64.5

Unemployed

770 690 10,245 8,389

Unemployment rate

12.9 12.5 6.9 5.6

Not in labor force

22,922 23,388 67,513 69,207

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,680 2,488 75,010 74,982

Participation rate

35.0 32.5 81.9 81.5

Employed

2,312 2,128 69,465 70,562

Employment-population ratio

30.2 27.8 75.8 76.7

Unemployed

367 359 5,545 4,421

Unemployment rate

13.7 14.4 7.4 5.9

Not in labor force

4,966 5,172 16,614 17,038

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,281 2,057 66,597 66,893

Participation rate

28.7 26.4 70.2 70.2

Employed

1,943 1,782 62,273 63,250

Employment-population ratio

24.5 22.8 65.6 66.4

Unemployed

338 275 4,325 3,643

Unemployment rate

14.8 13.4 6.5 5.4

Not in labor force

5,659 5,745 28,297 28,425

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

1,024 983 7,147 7,442

Participation rate

7.7 7.3 24.0 23.9

Employed

960 927 6,771 7,117

Employment-population ratio

7.2 6.9 22.8 22.8

Unemployed

64 56 375 325

Unemployment rate

6.3 5.7 5.3 4.4

Not in labor force

12,297 12,470 22,602 23,743

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Apr.
2013
Apr.
2014
Apr.
2013
Apr.
2014
Apr.
2013
Apr.
2014

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

37,842 38,391 18,500 18,592 19,342 19,799

Civilian labor force

24,982 25,127 14,572 14,590 10,410 10,536

Participation rate

66.0 65.5 78.8 78.5 53.8 53.2

Employed

23,292 23,713 13,636 13,828 9,656 9,885

Employment-population ratio

61.6 61.8 73.7 74.4 49.9 49.9

Unemployed

1,690 1,414 936 763 754 652

Unemployment rate

6.8 5.6 6.4 5.2 7.2 6.2

Not in labor force

12,860 13,264 3,929 4,001 8,932 9,263

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

207,332 209,049 99,796 100,896 107,537 108,152

Civilian labor force

129,757 129,718 67,629 67,514 62,128 62,205

Participation rate

62.6 62.1 67.8 66.9 57.8 57.5

Employed

120,432 122,054 62,393 63,259 58,039 58,795

Employment-population ratio

58.1 58.4 62.5 62.7 54.0 54.4

Unemployed

9,325 7,664 5,236 4,255 4,089 3,409

Unemployment rate

7.2 5.9 7.7 6.3 6.6 5.5

Not in labor force

77,575 79,330 32,167 33,383 45,409 45,948

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2013
Mar.
2014
Apr.
2014
Apr.
2013
Dec.
2013
Jan.
2014
Feb.
2014
Mar.
2014
Apr.
2014

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

1,951 2,008 2,048 2,048 2,229 2,183 2,150 2,148 2,161

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,144 1,265 1,265 1,243 1,377 1,391 1,373 1,375 1,382

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

783 727 773 779 812 760 768 743 767

Unpaid family workers

23 16 10 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

141,774 143,082 143,718 141,604 142,337 142,970 143,132 143,543 143,531

Wage and salary workers(1)

133,065 134,512 135,119 132,861 133,858 134,384 134,428 134,745 134,860

Government

20,635 20,862 20,626 20,319 20,063 20,383 20,192 20,401 20,320

Private industries

112,429 113,650 114,494 112,555 113,818 114,001 114,177 114,327 114,532

Private households

617 861 868 - - - - - -

Other industries

111,813 112,788 113,625 111,911 112,918 113,164 113,317 113,444 113,643

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,632 8,521 8,518 8,651 8,506 8,569 8,697 8,674 8,559

Unpaid family workers

77 49 81 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

7,709 7,455 7,243 7,929 7,771 7,257 7,186 7,411 7,465

Slack work or business conditions

4,920 4,397 4,346 5,124 4,884 4,405 4,251 4,512 4,555

Could only find part-time work

2,530 2,741 2,615 2,549 2,592 2,571 2,692 2,731 2,669

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

19,829 19,732 19,707 18,921 18,731 19,165 19,027 19,216 18,886

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

7,590 7,321 7,120 7,796 7,650 7,130 7,071 7,324 7,333

Slack work or business conditions

4,845 4,325 4,277 5,051 4,801 4,327 4,208 4,454 4,487

Could only find part-time work

2,513 2,713 2,604 2,465 2,586 2,550 2,653 2,697 2,623

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

19,494 19,424 19,393 18,582 18,436 18,856 18,672 18,903 18,603

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2013
Mar.
2014
Apr.
2014
Apr.
2013
Dec.
2013
Jan.
2014
Feb.
2014
Mar.
2014
Apr.
2014

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

143,724 145,090 145,767 143,676 144,586 145,224 145,266 145,742 145,669

16 to 19 years

4,149 4,209 4,256 4,368 4,502 4,399 4,303 4,503 4,479

16 to 17 years

1,361 1,409 1,325 1,486 1,530 1,608 1,512 1,591 1,472

18 to 19 years

2,787 2,800 2,931 2,876 2,943 2,776 2,830 2,922 3,016

20 years and over

139,576 140,881 141,511 139,309 140,083 140,825 140,963 141,238 141,190

20 to 24 years

13,444 13,729 13,765 13,567 13,875 13,761 13,704 13,905 13,879

25 years and over

126,132 127,152 127,745 125,682 126,289 126,992 127,260 127,246 127,211

25 to 54 years

94,591 95,100 95,421 94,395 94,660 95,212 95,241 95,360 95,151

25 to 34 years

31,185 31,697 31,751 31,153 31,546 31,776 31,883 31,849 31,713

35 to 44 years

30,749 30,940 31,031 30,642 30,741 31,059 31,007 30,960 30,905

45 to 54 years

32,658 32,463 32,639 32,600 32,372 32,377 32,351 32,552 32,533

55 years and over

31,540 32,052 32,324 31,287 31,629 31,780 32,019 31,886 32,060

Men, 16 years and over

76,029 76,718 77,086 76,270 76,723 77,060 76,808 77,416 77,292

16 to 19 years

1,987 2,007 2,027 2,109 2,257 2,144 2,028 2,186 2,159

16 to 17 years

607 621 571 660 743 762 673 706 644

18 to 19 years

1,380 1,385 1,457 1,439 1,489 1,369 1,375 1,481 1,516

20 years and over

74,042 74,711 75,059 74,161 74,467 74,916 74,780 75,230 75,134

20 to 24 years

6,877 7,099 7,099 6,990 7,097 7,032 7,005 7,223 7,206

25 years and over

67,166 67,612 67,960 67,102 67,400 67,769 67,731 67,961 67,875

25 to 54 years

50,543 50,730 50,903 50,568 50,626 50,926 50,810 51,101 50,909

25 to 34 years

16,837 17,144 17,132 16,898 17,007 17,123 17,218 17,340 17,185

35 to 44 years

16,666 16,619 16,674 16,657 16,610 16,760 16,613 16,706 16,657

45 to 54 years

17,040 16,967 17,097 17,013 17,009 17,043 16,980 17,055 17,066

55 years and over

16,623 16,882 17,056 16,534 16,774 16,843 16,921 16,860 16,966

Women, 16 years and over

67,695 68,373 68,680 67,406 67,862 68,163 68,458 68,325 68,376

16 to 19 years

2,162 2,203 2,228 2,258 2,246 2,255 2,275 2,317 2,320

16 to 17 years

755 788 754 826 787 845 839 885 828

18 to 19 years

1,408 1,415 1,474 1,436 1,454 1,407 1,455 1,441 1,500

20 years and over

65,533 66,170 66,452 65,148 65,617 65,909 66,183 66,008 66,057

20 to 24 years

6,567 6,630 6,666 6,577 6,778 6,729 6,700 6,683 6,672

25 years and over

58,966 59,540 59,786 58,580 58,888 59,223 59,529 59,285 59,336

25 to 54 years

44,048 44,370 44,518 43,827 44,034 44,286 44,431 44,259 44,242

25 to 34 years

14,348 14,553 14,619 14,255 14,539 14,653 14,665 14,509 14,528

35 to 44 years

14,083 14,321 14,357 13,985 14,131 14,299 14,395 14,254 14,247

45 to 54 years

15,618 15,496 15,542 15,587 15,363 15,334 15,371 15,497 15,466

55 years and over

14,918 15,170 15,268 14,753 14,855 14,937 15,098 15,026 15,094

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present

43,905 44,183 44,449 44,016 43,939 44,187 44,292 44,483 44,525

Married women, spouse present

34,442 34,838 34,830 34,434 34,404 34,448 34,619 34,779 34,813

Women who maintain families

9,465 9,344 9,602 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(1)

115,674 116,985 118,073 116,062 117,278 117,656 117,819 118,003 118,415

Part-time workers(2)

28,050 28,106 27,693 27,552 27,372 27,540 27,330 27,695 27,297

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,029 7,143 7,162 6,982 6,877 6,849 6,960 6,998 7,093

Percent of total employed

4.9 4.9 4.9 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.8 4.8 4.9

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

5,342 5,462 5,384 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,415 9,249 9,290 9,430 9,317 9,329 9,465 9,417 9,326

Footnotes
(1) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(2) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Apr.
2013
Mar.
2014
Apr.
2014
Apr.
2013
Dec.
2013
Jan.
2014
Feb.
2014
Mar.
2014
Apr.
2014

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

11,683 10,486 9,753 7.5 6.7 6.6 6.7 6.7 6.3

16 to 19 years

1,360 1,193 1,055 23.7 20.2 20.7 21.4 20.9 19.1

16 to 17 years

559 399 418 27.3 23.8 21.9 21.8 20.1 22.1

18 to 19 years

808 765 634 21.9 18.3 19.8 21.0 20.7 17.4

20 years and over

10,323 9,293 8,698 6.9 6.2 6.1 6.2 6.2 5.8

20 to 24 years

2,046 1,938 1,642 13.1 11.1 11.9 11.9 12.2 10.6

25 years and over

8,174 7,313 6,984 6.1 5.6 5.4 5.5 5.4 5.2

25 to 54 years

6,384 5,712 5,431 6.3 5.8 5.6 5.8 5.7 5.4

25 to 34 years

2,492 2,334 2,251 7.4 6.9 6.8 7.0 6.8 6.6

35 to 44 years

1,885 1,674 1,593 5.8 5.4 5.0 5.1 5.1 4.9

45 to 54 years

2,008 1,704 1,588 5.8 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.0 4.7

55 years and over

1,810 1,585 1,569 5.5 5.1 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.7

Men, 16 years and over

6,443 5,636 5,294 7.8 6.8 6.8 7.0 6.8 6.4

16 to 19 years

736 695 576 25.9 21.1 22.6 24.3 24.1 21.1

16 to 17 years

296 238 236 31.0 24.6 23.0 25.0 25.2 26.8

18 to 19 years

447 442 333 23.7 18.9 22.0 24.2 23.0 18.0

20 years and over

5,707 4,941 4,718 7.1 6.3 6.2 6.4 6.2 5.9

20 to 24 years

1,141 1,103 982 14.0 11.8 12.9 13.4 13.2 12.0

25 years and over

4,493 3,815 3,710 6.3 5.7 5.5 5.6 5.3 5.2

25 to 54 years

3,500 2,967 2,865 6.5 5.8 5.7 5.8 5.5 5.3

25 to 34 years

1,384 1,194 1,215 7.6 7.0 6.9 7.0 6.4 6.6

35 to 44 years

1,008 871 831 5.7 5.3 5.0 5.2 5.0 4.8

45 to 54 years

1,107 902 819 6.1 5.0 5.2 5.3 5.0 4.6

55 years and over

994 848 845 5.7 5.3 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.7

Women, 16 years and over

5,240 4,850 4,459 7.2 6.5 6.4 6.4 6.6 6.1

16 to 19 years

624 498 479 21.6 19.3 18.7 18.7 17.7 17.1

16 to 17 years

263 162 182 24.2 23.0 20.9 19.1 15.4 18.0

18 to 19 years

361 323 301 20.1 17.6 17.6 17.6 18.3 16.7

20 years and over

4,616 4,352 3,980 6.6 6.0 5.9 5.9 6.2 5.7

20 to 24 years

906 835 660 12.1 10.4 10.9 10.3 11.1 9.0

25 years and over

3,681 3,498 3,274 5.9 5.5 5.3 5.4 5.6 5.2

25 to 54 years

2,885 2,745 2,566 6.2 5.7 5.5 5.7 5.8 5.5

25 to 34 years

1,108 1,140 1,036 7.2 6.7 6.6 7.1 7.3 6.7

35 to 44 years

876 803 761 5.9 5.4 5.1 5.0 5.3 5.1

45 to 54 years

901 802 769 5.5 5.2 4.9 4.9 4.9 4.7

55 years and over

800 734 721 5.1 4.9 4.6 4.5 4.7 4.6

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present

2,042 1,744 1,617 4.4 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.5

Married women, spouse present

1,593 1,538 1,404 4.4 4.5 3.9 4.2 4.2 3.9

Women who maintain families(1)

1,086 923 897 10.3 8.7 9.1 9.1 9.0 8.5

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(2)

9,925 8,881 8,206 7.9 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.0 6.5

Part-time workers(3)

1,749 1,581 1,500 6.0 5.9 5.1 5.6 5.4 5.2

Footnotes
(1) Not seasonally adjusted.
(2) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(3) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2013
Mar.
2014
Apr.
2014
Apr.
2013
Dec.
2013
Jan.
2014
Feb.
2014
Mar.
2014
Apr.
2014

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

6,079 5,779 4,972 6,367 5,366 5,407 5,448 5,489 5,236

On temporary layoff

1,080 1,236 931 1,179 997 986 1,036 1,051 1,021

Not on temporary layoff

4,998 4,543 4,041 5,188 4,369 4,421 4,412 4,438 4,215

Permanent job losers

3,840 3,370 2,996 3,933 3,219 3,341 3,230 3,295 3,077

Persons who completed temporary jobs

1,158 1,174 1,045 1,255 1,150 1,080 1,182 1,143 1,138

Job leavers

836 780 751 857 862 818 823 815 784

Reentrants

2,966 2,929 2,425 3,131 3,036 2,937 2,997 3,037 2,620

New entrants

1,133 1,049 932 1,268 1,201 1,184 1,229 1,169 1,043

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

55.2 54.8 54.8 54.8 51.3 52.3 51.9 52.2 54.1

On temporary layoff

9.8 11.7 10.3 10.1 9.5 9.5 9.9 10.0 10.5

Not on temporary layoff

45.4 43.1 44.5 44.6 41.8 42.7 42.0 42.2 43.5

Job leavers

7.6 7.4 8.3 7.4 8.2 7.9 7.8 7.8 8.1

Reentrants

26.9 27.8 26.7 26.9 29.0 28.4 28.5 28.9 27.1

New entrants

10.3 10.0 10.3 10.9 11.5 11.4 11.7 11.1 10.8

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

3.9 3.7 3.2 4.1 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.4

Job leavers

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

Reentrants

1.9 1.9 1.6 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.7

New entrants

0.7 0.7 0.6 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2013
Mar.
2014
Apr.
2014
Apr.
2013
Dec.
2013
Jan.
2014
Feb.
2014
Mar.
2014
Apr.
2014

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,045 2,064 1,993 2,491 2,255 2,434 2,373 2,461 2,447

5 to 14 weeks

2,375 2,766 1,946 2,844 2,506 2,429 2,568 2,581 2,359

15 weeks and over

6,594 5,708 5,139 6,329 5,530 5,336 5,464 5,417 4,985

15 to 26 weeks

2,106 1,913 1,653 1,969 1,651 1,689 1,615 1,677 1,533

27 weeks and over

4,488 3,795 3,486 4,360 3,878 3,646 3,849 3,739 3,452

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

39.0 36.2 37.1 36.6 37.1 35.4 37.1 35.6 35.1

Median duration, in weeks

20.0 17.3 18.4 17.3 17.1 16.0 16.4 16.3 16.0

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

18.6 19.6 22.0 21.4 21.9 23.9 22.8 23.5 25.0

5 to 14 weeks

21.6 26.2 21.4 24.4 24.4 23.8 24.7 24.7 24.1

15 weeks and over

59.9 54.2 56.6 54.3 53.7 52.3 52.5 51.8 50.9

15 to 26 weeks

19.1 18.2 18.2 16.9 16.0 16.6 15.5 16.0 15.7

27 weeks and over

40.8 36.0 38.4 37.4 37.7 35.8 37.0 35.8 35.3

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Apr.
2013
Apr.
2014
Apr.
2013
Apr.
2014
Apr.
2013
Apr.
2014

Total, 16 years and over(1)

143,724 145,767 11,014 9,079 7.1 5.9

Management, professional, and related occupations

54,767 55,896 1,980 1,642 3.5 2.9

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

22,737 22,707 836 748 3.5 3.2

Professional and related occupations

32,031 33,189 1,144 894 3.4 2.6

Service occupations

25,840 25,755 2,294 1,777 8.2 6.5

Sales and office occupations

33,616 33,873 2,501 2,079 6.9 5.8

Sales and related occupations

15,457 16,076 1,151 997 6.9 5.8

Office and administrative support occupations

18,159 17,797 1,349 1,082 6.9 5.7

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

12,680 13,178 1,483 1,168 10.5 8.1

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

858 935 104 152 10.8 14.0

Construction and extraction occupations

6,786 7,536 1,137 821 14.3 9.8

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

5,036 4,707 242 195 4.6 4.0

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

16,821 17,065 1,601 1,446 8.7 7.8

Production occupations

8,009 8,184 726 671 8.3 7.6

Transportation and material moving occupations

8,811 8,881 875 776 9.0 8.0

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Apr.
2013
Apr.
2014
Apr.
2013
Apr.
2014

Total, 16 years and over(1)

11,014 9,079 7.1 5.9

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

8,608 7,105 7.1 5.8

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

73 39 6.1 3.8

Construction

1,077 796 13.2 9.4

Manufacturing

963 790 6.4 5.2

Durable goods

583 441 6.2 4.6

Nondurable goods

379 349 6.7 6.1

Wholesale and retail trade

1,484 1,225 7.4 5.9

Transportation and utilities

355 372 5.7 6.0

Information

152 175 5.4 5.7

Financial activities

515 470 5.4 5.0

Professional and business services

1,259 1,062 8.1 6.8

Education and health services

983 826 4.4 3.7

Leisure and hospitality

1,327 1,047 9.6 8.0

Other services

420 304 6.7 4.8

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

110 151 9.1 11.0

Government workers

715 581 3.3 2.7

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

447 310 4.5 3.2

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2013
Mar.
2014
Apr.
2014
Apr.
2013
Dec.
2013
Jan.
2014
Feb.
2014
Mar.
2014
Apr.
2014

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

4.3 3.7 3.3 4.1 3.6 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.2

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

3.9 3.7 3.2 4.1 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.4

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

7.1 6.8 5.9 7.5 6.7 6.6 6.7 6.7 6.3

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

7.6 7.2 6.3 8.0 7.2 7.1 7.2 7.1 6.7

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

8.5 8.1 7.2 8.9 8.1 8.1 8.1 8.0 7.6

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

13.4 12.8 11.8 13.9 13.1 12.7 12.6 12.7 12.3

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Apr.
2013
Apr.
2014
Apr.
2013
Apr.
2014
Apr.
2013
Apr.
2014

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

90,436 92,594 36,095 37,384 54,340 55,210

Persons who currently want a job

6,329 6,088 2,958 2,963 3,370 3,125

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

2,347 2,160 1,220 1,192 1,127 969

Discouraged workers(2)

835 783 496 488 339 295

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,512 1,378 724 704 788 674

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,029 7,162 3,493 3,498 3,536 3,665

Percent of total employed

4.9 4.9 4.6 4.5 5.2 5.3

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

3,761 3,805 2,177 2,105 1,583 1,699

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

1,934 2,008 587 686 1,347 1,322

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

198 246 104 149 93 97

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,089 1,055 608 539 481 516

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2013
Feb.
2014
Mar.
2014(p)
Apr.
2014(p)
Apr.
2013
Feb.
2014
Mar.
2014(p)
Apr.
2014(p)
Change from:
Mar.2014 - Apr.2014(p)

Total nonfarm

135,911 136,192 137,136 138,288 135,885 137,761 137,964 138,252 288

Total private

113,617 114,047 114,881 115,990 114,010 115,908 116,110 116,383 273

Goods-producing

18,458 18,383 18,556 18,807 18,669 18,924 18,953 19,006 53

Mining and logging

848 875 884 896 857 892 897 906 9

Logging

48.9 52.5 52.6 50.5 52.3 54.1 55.2 54.0 -1.2

Mining

799.3 822.3 830.9 845.8 805.1 837.9 842.1 851.7 9.6

Oil and gas extraction

194.0 206.9 206.8 208.2 194.9 207.8 207.8 208.9 1.1

Mining, except oil and gas(1)

208.3 204.0 205.8 211.2 210.8 212.9 212.4 213.6 1.2

Coal mining

78.1 78.5 77.7 78.2 78.1 78.7 78.0 78.5 0.5

Support activities for mining

397.0 411.4 418.3 426.4 399.4 417.2 421.9 429.2 7.3

Construction

5,669 5,529 5,655 5,867 5,811 5,951 5,968 6,000 32

Construction of buildings

1,247.0 1,270.3 1,287.1 1,317.1 1,279.8 1,334.4 1,339.3 1,350.3 11.0

Residential building

592.2 614.9 622.9 641.8 609.2 648.4 652.4 659.3 6.9

Nonresidential building

654.8 655.4 664.2 675.3 670.6 686.0 686.9 691.0 4.1

Heavy and civil engineering construction

850.2 793.2 822.4 889.1 879.9 902.4 904.3 914.8 10.5

Specialty trade contractors

3,572.0 3,465.4 3,545.2 3,660.5 3,650.8 3,713.7 3,724.4 3,734.6 10.2

Residential specialty trade contractors

1,504.3 1,470.0 1,505.7 1,562.4 1,540.2 1,585.9 1,591.8 1,598.0 6.2

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,067.7 1,995.4 2,039.5 2,098.1 2,110.6 2,127.8 2,132.6 2,136.6 4.0

Manufacturing

11,941 11,979 12,017 12,044 12,001 12,081 12,088 12,100 12

Durable goods

7,513 7,551 7,586 7,606 7,533 7,599 7,613 7,624 11

Wood products

345.6 356.4 358.0 362.5 348.5 362.6 363.8 365.8 2.0

Nonmetallic mineral products

368.6 363.8 371.4 380.3 372.0 379.2 381.0 382.8 1.8

Primary metals

397.4 395.4 396.5 398.0 397.3 397.0 397.0 397.3 0.3

Fabricated metal products

1,424.5 1,438.0 1,438.8 1,446.2 1,428.4 1,447.9 1,446.8 1,450.6 3.8

Machinery

1,104.9 1,110.8 1,114.9 1,118.0 1,107.1 1,112.8 1,115.8 1,120.0 4.2

Computer and electronic products(1)

1,065.1 1,052.8 1,055.2 1,051.3 1,069.0 1,057.4 1,057.6 1,055.2 -2.4

Computer and peripheral equipment

156.6 161.5 161.9 162.1 157.4 162.0 162.5 162.7 0.2

Communications equipment

103.2 99.0 99.7 100.3 103.6 99.5 99.9 100.6 0.7

Semiconductors and electronic components

373.9 369.5 367.9 365.8 375.2 370.5 368.7 367.2 -1.5

Electronic instruments

393.0 384.7 387.7 384.7 394.0 386.8 388.2 386.1 -2.1

Electrical equipment and appliances

373.4 375.6 375.8 377.6 375.0 376.7 377.8 379.2 1.4

Transportation equipment(1)

1,500.5 1,524.4 1,533.8 1,530.9 1,499.1 1,524.0 1,526.5 1,529.4 2.9

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

810.9 845.0 850.9 851.2 808.6 843.8 844.2 849.4 5.2

Furniture and related products

355.6 357.9 362.8 364.5 356.7 363.0 364.7 365.2 0.5

Miscellaneous durable goods manufacturing

576.9 576.2 578.5 576.6 579.7 578.4 581.5 578.9 -2.6

Nondurable goods

4,428 4,428 4,431 4,438 4,468 4,482 4,475 4,476 1

Food manufacturing

1,445.9 1,460.4 1,458.0 1,455.5 1,474.4 1,490.4 1,485.9 1,484.0 -1.9

Textile mills

116.9 116.4 116.9 117.2 117.0 117.4 117.1 117.4 0.3

Textile product mills

113.1 109.6 110.7 111.2 113.5 111.0 111.3 111.5 0.2

Apparel

142.8 136.7 135.6 134.9 142.4 136.7 135.7 134.9 -0.8

Paper and paper products

377.6 374.9 374.5 374.7 379.6 376.8 376.5 376.6 0.1

Printing and related support activities

450.8 440.3 441.2 443.1 451.8 442.7 442.8 443.8 1.0

Petroleum and coal products

110.1 109.2 110.5 111.4 111.1 113.1 112.9 112.2 -0.7

Chemicals

792.1 794.5 797.0 798.2 793.4 796.4 797.1 798.6 1.5

Plastics and rubber products

654.7 659.5 659.1 661.3 656.3 663.5 660.7 662.3 1.6

Miscellaneous nondurable goods manufacturing

223.7 226.1 227.8 230.4 228.1 233.7 234.6 234.7 0.1

Private service-providing

95,159 95,664 96,325 97,183 95,341 96,984 97,157 97,377 220

Trade, transportation, and utilities

25,500 25,771 25,877 26,048 25,718 26,171 26,215 26,274 59

Wholesale trade

5,704.5 5,780.1 5,799.3 5,833.2 5,724.0 5,829.8 5,834.2 5,849.9 15.7

Durable goods

2,853.4 2,903.2 2,916.8 2,921.6 2,865.2 2,919.5 2,928.3 2,931.4 3.1

Nondurable goods

1,971.2 1,980.9 1,985.4 2,007.6 1,976.5 2,006.4 2,003.8 2,012.0 8.2

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

879.9 896.0 897.1 904.0 882.3 903.9 902.1 906.5 4.4

Retail trade

14,801.7 14,940.8 15,002.9 15,122.0 14,967.0 15,234.6 15,259.4 15,293.9 34.5

Motor vehicle and parts dealers(1)

1,778.2 1,808.8 1,822.6 1,842.5 1,778.0 1,833.2 1,835.7 1,841.4 5.7

Automobile dealers

1,127.2 1,154.2 1,157.6 1,162.1 1,127.9 1,162.4 1,162.0 1,162.6 0.6

Furniture and home furnishings stores

439.0 443.8 442.2 444.6 444.4 448.9 449.0 450.0 1.0

Electronics and appliance stores

482.4 502.8 497.6 481.2 489.8 504.3 502.1 491.6 -10.5

Building material and garden supply stores

1,236.7 1,172.8 1,206.9 1,262.8 1,193.7 1,222.4 1,218.9 1,221.7 2.8

Food and beverage stores

2,881.8 2,953.6 2,958.4 2,971.7 2,910.9 2,985.1 2,993.4 3,002.4 9.0

Health and personal care stores

1,009.0 1,003.0 1,008.1 1,006.5 1,015.3 1,009.2 1,015.1 1,013.8 -1.3

Gasoline stations

852.0 855.0 859.3 866.6 858.9 871.7 873.1 873.7 0.6

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,327.3 1,344.4 1,339.9 1,356.0 1,379.8 1,398.9 1,397.8 1,408.3 10.5

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

569.3 572.9 574.5 574.9 588.7 589.5 594.9 596.4 1.5

General merchandise stores(1)

2,997.2 3,035.1 3,053.3 3,060.9 3,048.7 3,101.3 3,104.0 3,112.2 8.2

Department stores

1,309.5 1,308.1 1,301.3 1,297.7 1,344.7 1,339.1 1,337.2 1,332.7 -4.5

Miscellaneous store retailers

784.2 781.1 774.2 786.0 799.4 794.8 797.5 800.4 2.9

Nonstore retailers

444.6 467.5 465.9 468.3 459.4 475.3 477.9 482.0 4.1

Transportation and warehousing

4,442.4 4,502.7 4,525.0 4,543.9 4,475.5 4,557.2 4,569.2 4,580.5 11.3

Air transportation

448.8 450.8 455.2 453.3 448.5 453.4 455.9 452.7 -3.2

Rail transportation

232.8 231.8 232.7 234.1 232.5 233.1 233.2 233.6 0.4

Water transportation

65.0 65.6 65.3 66.9 65.9 67.5 66.7 67.6 0.9

Truck transportation

1,364.7 1,355.1 1,367.7 1,386.4 1,380.7 1,390.4 1,394.7 1,401.5 6.8

Transit and ground passenger transportation

463.0 465.1 468.0 466.0 447.3 451.5 453.9 451.2 -2.7

Pipeline transportation

43.3 45.1 45.1 45.3 43.7 45.2 45.3 45.6 0.3

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

26.0 22.5 23.8 26.5 28.7 29.2 29.1 29.2 0.1

Support activities for transportation

588.1 598.8 599.9 607.2 589.2 601.6 603.2 608.0 4.8

Couriers and messengers

514.4 547.2 540.9 531.7 534.0 556.1 554.4 555.7 1.3

Warehousing and storage

696.3 720.7 726.4 726.5 705.0 729.2 732.8 735.4 2.6

Utilities

551.1 547.3 550.2 548.7 551.9 549.8 551.7 549.6 -2.1

Information

2,684 2,646 2,653 2,648 2,688 2,660 2,659 2,656 -3

Publishing industries, except Internet

733.5 726.4 726.6 725.7 735.7 729.7 728.8 727.8 -1.0

Motion picture and sound recording industries

357.8 310.0 313.0 302.7 358.0 318.2 315.0 307.7 -7.3

Broadcasting, except Internet

285.9 286.6 287.5 289.1 285.3 287.1 287.5 288.4 0.9

Telecommunications

850.9 853.6 854.4 856.5 852.3 852.9 854.6 857.5 2.9

Data processing, hosting and related services

266.5 267.2 267.9 268.7 265.5 268.7 268.0 268.1 0.1

Other information services

189.8 202.4 203.7 204.8 191.5 203.7 205.1 206.4 1.3

Financial activities

7,834 7,861 7,869 7,889 7,863 7,910 7,910 7,916 6

Finance and insurance

5,858.6 5,872.8 5,868.6 5,862.3 5,870.7 5,880.8 5,875.9 5,874.3 -1.6

Monetary authorities - central bank

17.7 18.1 18.0 18.0 17.9 18.3 18.2 18.2 0.0

Credit intermediation and related
activities(1)

2,619.9 2,578.6 2,570.6 2,565.2 2,623.0 2,582.3 2,575.3 2,569.6 -5.7

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,735.5 1,708.2 1,705.3 1,699.9 1,737.5 1,709.9 1,707.4 1,701.9 -5.5

Commercial banking

1,313.8 1,283.2 1,281.0 1,275.1 1,316.0 1,283.7 1,281.4 1,277.3 -4.1

Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and funds and trusts

860.4 868.9 871.2 870.1 862.4 870.5 871.3 871.8 0.5

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,360.6 2,407.2 2,408.8 2,409.0 2,367.4 2,409.7 2,411.1 2,414.7 3.6

Real estate and rental and leasing

1,975.8 1,988.1 2,000.1 2,027.1 1,991.8 2,028.7 2,033.8 2,041.9 8.1

Real estate

1,439.4 1,450.5 1,457.2 1,471.3 1,447.6 1,473.6 1,478.1 1,480.0 1.9

Rental and leasing services

513.4 515.6 520.8 533.8 521.0 532.9 533.4 539.7 6.3

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

23.0 22.0 22.1 22.0 23.2 22.2 22.3 22.2 -0.1

Professional and business services

18,404 18,696 18,833 19,074 18,434 18,973 19,025 19,100 75

Professional and technical services(1)

8,163.1 8,318.5 8,328.0 8,364.4 8,090.8 8,253.1 8,264.8 8,289.9 25.1

Legal services

1,132.0 1,129.6 1,134.3 1,132.6 1,135.7 1,136.4 1,137.6 1,136.4 -1.2

Accounting and bookkeeping services

1,027.9 1,063.9 1,051.4 1,038.3 926.0 934.2 934.2 936.6 2.4

Architectural and engineering services

1,334.5 1,362.4 1,369.0 1,380.0 1,344.8 1,381.8 1,386.6 1,390.4 3.8

Computer systems design and related services

1,682.0 1,730.8 1,729.1 1,744.6 1,686.9 1,735.9 1,739.4 1,748.3 8.9

Management and technical consulting services

1,161.7 1,195.5 1,201.5 1,212.6 1,165.4 1,206.3 1,211.0 1,216.0 5.0

Management of companies and enterprises

2,073.6 2,107.2 2,113.6 2,123.5 2,084.1 2,119.7 2,121.7 2,133.6 11.9

Administrative and waste services

8,167.5 8,269.8 8,391.6 8,585.8 8,259.4 8,599.9 8,638.0 8,676.6 38.6

Administrative and support services(1)

7,796.6 7,902.0 8,021.0 8,210.3 7,884.2 8,223.6 8,259.7 8,297.3 37.6

Employment services(1)

3,202.5 3,358.8 3,425.5 3,486.5 3,274.5 3,495.8 3,530.5 3,558.1 27.6

Temporary help services

2,548.3 2,685.6 2,739.5 2,794.6 2,612.1 2,806.8 2,831.5 2,855.5 24.0

Business support services

838.5 861.2 858.3 855.4 844.8 860.4 861.1 862.4 1.3

Services to buildings and dwellings

1,865.2 1,764.3 1,801.9 1,923.1 1,867.9 1,926.8 1,923.3 1,925.2 1.9

Waste management and remediation services

370.9 367.8 370.6 375.5 375.2 376.3 378.3 379.3 1.0

Education and health services

21,222 21,388 21,486 21,553 21,040 21,290 21,327 21,367 40

Educational services

3,509.8 3,514.8 3,541.4 3,567.1 3,345.1 3,378.5 3,384.1 3,396.5 12.4

Health care and social assistance

17,712.0 17,873.5 17,944.1 17,985.5 17,695.1 17,911.9 17,942.9 17,970.8 27.9

Health care(3)

14,456.8 14,578.9 14,626.9 14,652.6 14,470.0 14,627.6 14,649.5 14,668.2 18.7

Ambulatory health care services(1)

6,446.1 6,570.5 6,599.0 6,619.6 6,450.8 6,592.4 6,612.4 6,625.0 12.6

Offices of physicians

2,421.0 2,464.9 2,473.9 2,477.8 2,427.9 2,471.9 2,477.6 2,483.2 5.6

Outpatient care centers

672.5 703.7 706.3 710.4 672.5 704.1 706.8 710.3 3.5

Home health care services

1,225.4 1,257.2 1,267.3 1,272.6 1,224.1 1,263.9 1,270.6 1,273.1 2.5

Hospitals

4,793.4 4,781.3 4,793.0 4,788.8 4,799.0 4,790.1 4,793.2 4,794.9 1.7

Nursing and residential care facilities(1)

3,217.3 3,227.1 3,234.9 3,244.2 3,220.2 3,245.1 3,243.9 3,248.3 4.4

Nursing care facilities

1,654.0 1,640.8 1,643.4 1,649.7 1,656.0 1,651.0 1,647.9 1,651.5 3.6

Social assistance(1)

3,255.2 3,294.6 3,317.2 3,332.9 3,225.1 3,284.3 3,293.4 3,302.6 9.2

Child day care services

868.8 868.0 876.3 878.3 845.2 852.3 853.5 853.5 0.0

Leisure and hospitality

14,070 13,873 14,145 14,470 14,145 14,495 14,529 14,557 28

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,969.9 1,885.1 1,940.1 2,019.8 2,018.3 2,089.2 2,084.6 2,075.4 -9.2

Performing arts and spectator sports

434.8 405.0 420.4 447.0 423.3 435.3 435.6 434.9 -0.7

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

137.3 130.8 134.7 140.4 139.5 142.2 142.3 142.5 0.2

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,397.8 1,349.3 1,385.0 1,432.4 1,455.5 1,511.7 1,506.7 1,498.0 -8.7

Accommodation and food services

12,100.4 11,987.9 12,205.2 12,450.4 12,127.1 12,405.8 12,444.2 12,481.7 37.5

Accommodation

1,813.5 1,779.6 1,805.6 1,833.5 1,860.0 1,870.1 1,873.2 1,878.1 4.9

Food services and drinking places

10,286.9 10,208.3 10,399.6 10,616.9 10,267.1 10,535.7 10,571.0 10,603.6 32.6

Other services

5,445 5,429 5,462 5,501 5,453 5,485 5,492 5,507 15

Repair and maintenance

1,212.3 1,196.3 1,207.7 1,216.2 1,209.9 1,208.2 1,211.1 1,213.2 2.1

Personal and laundry services

1,335.1 1,337.5 1,351.2 1,368.1 1,333.2 1,355.0 1,359.4 1,365.4 6.0

Membership associations and organizations

2,897.8 2,895.4 2,903.5 2,916.2 2,910.3 2,921.3 2,921.9 2,928.0 6.1

Government

22,294 22,145 22,255 22,298 21,875 21,853 21,854 21,869 15

Federal

2,795.0 2,702.0 2,703.0 2,718.0 2,791.0 2,718.0 2,711.0 2,708.0 -3.0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,187.5 2,115.5 2,115.6 2,118.9 2,190.2 2,129.4 2,123.4 2,119.4 -4.0

U.S. Postal Service

607.9 586.6 587.1 598.7 600.6 588.6 587.8 588.6 0.8

State government

5,211.0 5,188.0 5,210.0 5,221.0 5,053.0 5,066.0 5,061.0 5,062.0 1.0

State government education

2,558.8 2,539.5 2,557.6 2,566.4 2,399.7 2,407.4 2,403.9 2,405.5 1.6

State government, excluding education

2,651.8 2,648.5 2,651.9 2,654.1 2,653.1 2,658.2 2,657.4 2,656.1 -1.3

Local government

14,288.0 14,255.0 14,342.0 14,359.0 14,031.0 14,069.0 14,082.0 14,099.0 17.0

Local government education

8,106.3 8,087.0 8,148.2 8,139.0 7,767.8 7,779.8 7,786.6 7,798.6 12.0

Local government, excluding education

6,181.3 6,167.8 6,193.6 6,219.8 6,263.6 6,289.1 6,295.6 6,300.4 4.8

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Apr.
2013
Feb.
2014
Mar.
2014(p)
Apr.
2014(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.4 34.3 34.5 34.5

Goods-producing

40.3 40.2 40.6 40.5

Mining and logging

43.2 45.0 45.5 44.1

Construction

39.0 38.1 39.1 39.2

Manufacturing

40.7 40.8 41.0 40.8

Durable goods

41.1 41.3 41.4 41.3

Nondurable goods

40.0 40.1 40.4 40.1

Private service-providing

33.3 33.1 33.3 33.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.5 34.3 34.4 34.4

Wholesale trade

38.5 38.7 38.9 38.8

Retail trade

31.4 31.1 31.2 31.2

Transportation and warehousing

38.6 38.6 38.6 38.7

Utilities

42.2 42.2 42.3 42.1

Information

36.6 36.9 37.0 36.9

Financial activities

37.2 37.1 37.2 37.1

Professional and business services

36.0 36.1 36.3 36.2

Education and health services

32.7 32.5 32.6 32.8

Leisure and hospitality

26.1 25.8 26.2 26.2

Other services

31.8 31.6 31.8 31.8

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.4 3.3 3.5 3.5

Durable goods

3.4 3.4 3.5 3.5

Nondurable goods

3.4 3.2 3.4 3.4

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Apr.
2013
Feb.
2014
Mar.
2014(p)
Apr.
2014(p)
Apr.
2013
Feb.
2014
Mar.
2014(p)
Apr.
2014(p)

Total private

$23.86 $24.29 $24.31 $24.31 $820.78 $833.15 $838.70 $838.70

Goods-producing

24.98 25.58 25.61 25.59 1,006.69 1,028.32 1,039.77 1,036.40

Mining and logging

29.12 30.76 30.88 30.70 1,257.98 1,384.20 1,405.04 1,353.87

Construction

26.04 26.56 26.50 26.58 1,015.56 1,011.94 1,036.15 1,041.94

Manufacturing

24.18 24.71 24.75 24.70 984.13 1,008.17 1,014.75 1,007.76

Durable goods

25.56 26.10 26.13 26.04 1,050.52 1,077.93 1,081.78 1,075.45

Nondurable goods

21.78 22.28 22.35 22.35 871.20 893.43 902.94 896.24

Private service-providing

23.60 23.99 24.00 24.01 785.88 794.07 799.20 799.53

Trade, transportation, and utilities

20.92 21.30 21.34 21.40 721.74 730.59 734.10 736.16

Wholesale trade

27.60 27.96 28.05 28.10 1,062.60 1,082.05 1,091.15 1,090.28

Retail trade

16.61 16.84 16.88 16.93 521.55 523.72 526.66 528.22

Transportation and warehousing

22.23 22.84 22.86 23.00 858.08 881.62 882.40 890.10

Utilities

34.88 35.93 35.66 35.50 1,471.94 1,516.25 1,508.42 1,494.55

Information

32.82 33.38 33.67 33.83 1,201.21 1,231.72 1,245.79 1,248.33

Financial activities

30.00 30.47 30.59 30.50 1,116.00 1,130.44 1,137.95 1,131.55

Professional and business services

28.48 28.92 28.94 28.91 1,025.28 1,044.01 1,050.52 1,046.54

Education and health services

24.35 24.59 24.58 24.58 796.25 799.18 801.31 806.22

Leisure and hospitality

13.43 13.76 13.73 13.78 350.52 355.01 359.73 361.04

Other services

21.24 21.87 21.72 21.73 675.43 691.09 690.70 691.01

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Apr.
2013
Feb.
2014
Mar.
2014(p)
Apr.
2014(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2014 - Apr.
2014(p)
Apr.
2013
Feb.
2014
Mar.
2014(p)
Apr.
2014(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2014 - Apr.
2014(p)

Total private

98.0 99.4 100.1 100.4 0.3 111.6 115.2 116.2 116.5 0.3

Goods-producing

85.7 86.7 87.7 87.7 0.0 96.8 100.2 101.5 101.4 -0.1

Mining and logging

116.3 126.1 128.2 125.5 -2.1 136.0 155.8 159.0 154.8 -2.6

Construction

78.1 78.2 80.4 81.1 0.9 88.4 90.2 92.6 93.6 1.1

Manufacturing

87.9 88.7 89.2 88.8 -0.4 98.8 101.9 102.6 102.0 -0.6

Durable goods

87.2 88.4 88.7 88.6 -0.1 99.0 102.4 103.0 102.5 -0.5

Nondurable goods

89.2 89.7 90.2 89.6 -0.7 98.6 101.4 102.3 101.6 -0.7

Private service-providing

101.6 102.7 103.5 103.8 0.3 116.3 119.5 120.5 120.8 0.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

96.5 97.6 98.1 98.3 0.2 108.7 111.9 112.7 113.2 0.4

Wholesale trade

96.2 98.4 99.0 99.0 0.0 110.7 114.9 115.9 116.1 0.2

Retail trade

95.5 96.2 96.7 96.9 0.2 104.8 107.1 107.9 108.5 0.6

Transportation and warehousing

98.9 100.7 100.9 101.5 0.6 111.5 116.7 117.1 118.4 1.1

Utilities

100.8 100.4 101.0 100.1 -0.9 116.1 119.2 119.0 117.4 -1.3

Information

89.8 89.6 89.8 89.5 -0.3 105.0 106.5 107.7 107.8 0.1

Financial activities

95.8 96.1 96.4 96.2 -0.2 112.1 114.2 115.0 114.4 -0.5

Professional and business services

104.4 107.7 108.6 108.7 0.1 120.4 126.2 127.4 127.4 0.0

Education and health services

110.4 111.1 111.6 112.5 0.8 126.7 128.6 129.2 130.2 0.8

Leisure and hospitality

105.3 106.7 108.6 108.8 0.2 114.1 118.5 120.3 121.0 0.6

Other services

96.1 96.0 96.8 97.0 0.2 115.8 119.2 119.3 119.7 0.3

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Apr.
2013
Feb.
2014
Mar.
2014(p)
Apr.
2014(p)
Apr.
2013
Feb.
2014
Mar.
2014(p)
Apr.
2014(p)

Total nonfarm

67,171 68,065 68,165 68,331 49.4 49.4 49.4 49.4

Total private

54,692 55,590 55,685 55,838 48.0 48.0 48.0 48.0

Goods-producing

4,111 4,151 4,154 4,162 22.0 21.9 21.9 21.9

Mining and logging

118 119 119 121 13.8 13.3 13.3 13.4

Construction

741 754 758 759 12.8 12.7 12.7 12.7

Manufacturing

3,252 3,278 3,277 3,282 27.1 27.1 27.1 27.1

Durable goods

1,738 1,751 1,751 1,754 23.1 23.0 23.0 23.0

Nondurable goods

1,514 1,527 1,526 1,528 33.9 34.1 34.1 34.1

Private service-providing

50,581 51,439 51,531 51,676 53.1 53.0 53.0 53.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

10,391 10,602 10,628 10,660 40.4 40.5 40.5 40.6

Wholesale trade

1,693.3 1,725.7 1,719.9 1,726.4 29.6 29.6 29.5 29.5

Retail trade

7,513.3 7,669.7 7,694.2 7,718.1 50.2 50.3 50.4 50.5

Transportation and warehousing

1,048.5 1,072.5 1,079.9 1,081.6 23.4 23.5 23.6 23.6

Utilities

136.3 134.0 134.1 133.4 24.7 24.4 24.3 24.3

Information

1,068 1,068 1,069 1,068 39.7 40.2 40.2 40.2

Financial activities

4,542 4,543 4,536 4,538 57.8 57.4 57.3 57.3

Professional and business services

8,186 8,467 8,493 8,535 44.4 44.6 44.6 44.7

Education and health services

16,176 16,351 16,375 16,408 76.9 76.8 76.8 76.8

Leisure and hospitality

7,362 7,536 7,550 7,577 52.0 52.0 52.0 52.1

Other services

2,856 2,872 2,880 2,890 52.4 52.4 52.4 52.5

Government

12,479 12,475 12,480 12,493 57.0 57.1 57.1 57.1

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Apr.
2013
Feb.
2014
Mar.
2014(p)
Apr.
2014(p)

Total private

94,175 95,814 96,008 96,275

Goods-producing

13,437 13,641 13,675 13,743

Mining and logging

632 655 658 665

Construction

4,391 4,503 4,520 4,556

Manufacturing

8,414 8,483 8,497 8,522

Durable goods

5,175 5,230 5,243 5,264

Nondurable goods

3,239 3,253 3,254 3,258

Private service-providing

80,738 82,173 82,333 82,532

Trade, transportation, and utilities

21,762 22,119 22,153 22,197

Wholesale trade

4,608.9 4,707.0 4,710.4 4,737.4

Retail trade

12,838.7 13,026.7 13,043.8 13,055.8

Transportation and warehousing

3,869.2 3,940.4 3,952.2 3,959.0

Utilities

444.8 445.2 446.1 444.9

Information

2,178 2,155 2,154 2,154

Financial activities

6,056 6,098 6,097 6,108

Professional and business services

15,229 15,735 15,789 15,866

Education and health services

18,462 18,697 18,731 18,762

Leisure and hospitality

12,495 12,802 12,832 12,858

Other services

4,556 4,567 4,577 4,587

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Apr.
2013
Feb.
2014
Mar.
2014(p)
Apr.
2014(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.7 33.4 33.7 33.7

Goods-producing

41.2 40.8 41.5 41.4

Mining and logging

45.5 47.5 47.8 47.3

Construction

39.6 38.4 39.5 39.7

Manufacturing

41.8 41.5 42.0 41.9

Durable goods

42.1 42.0 42.4 42.3

Nondurable goods

41.2 40.9 41.4 41.2

Private service-providing

32.4 32.2 32.4 32.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.6 33.2 33.5 33.6

Wholesale trade

38.6 38.5 38.7 38.6

Retail trade

30.1 29.6 29.9 30.0

Transportation and warehousing

38.5 38.0 38.4 38.5

Utilities

41.8 42.1 42.0 41.9

Information

35.9 36.2 36.1 36.1

Financial activities

36.7 36.6 36.8 36.6

Professional and business services

35.3 35.3 35.5 35.5

Education and health services

32.2 31.9 32.0 32.1

Leisure and hospitality

25.0 24.8 25.2 25.2

Other services

30.8 30.6 30.8 30.8

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.3 4.3 4.6 4.4

Durable goods

4.3 4.4 4.7 4.6

Nondurable goods

4.3 4.1 4.4 4.2

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Apr.
2013
Feb.
2014
Mar.
2014(p)
Apr.
2014(p)
Apr.
2013
Feb.
2014
Mar.
2014(p)
Apr.
2014(p)

Total private

$20.04 $20.49 $20.47 $20.50 $675.35 $684.37 $689.84 $690.85

Goods-producing

21.17 21.46 21.50 21.55 872.20 875.57 892.25 892.17

Mining and logging

26.63 26.72 26.44 26.53 1,211.67 1,269.20 1,263.83 1,254.87

Construction

24.24 24.56 24.53 24.66 959.90 943.10 968.94 979.00

Manufacturing

19.21 19.48 19.54 19.53 802.98 808.42 820.68 818.31

Durable goods

20.24 20.54 20.64 20.63 852.10 862.68 875.14 872.65

Nondurable goods

17.52 17.72 17.74 17.72 721.82 724.75 734.44 730.06

Private service-providing

19.80 20.28 20.26 20.28 641.52 653.02 656.42 657.07

Trade, transportation, and utilities

17.63 18.17 18.16 18.24 592.37 603.24 608.36 612.86

Wholesale trade

22.47 23.26 23.15 23.29 867.34 895.51 895.91 898.99

Retail trade

13.94 14.23 14.26 14.30 419.59 421.21 426.37 429.00

Transportation and warehousing

19.63 20.28 20.39 20.52 755.76 770.64 782.98 790.02

Utilities

31.98 32.96 32.83 32.75 1,336.76 1,387.62 1,378.86 1,372.23

Information

27.94 28.70 28.71 28.89 1,003.05 1,038.94 1,036.43 1,042.93

Financial activities

23.71 24.45 24.57 24.57 870.16 894.87 904.18 899.26

Professional and business services

23.61 24.13 24.10 24.07 833.43 851.79 855.55 854.49

Education and health services

21.19 21.53 21.49 21.49 682.32 686.81 687.68 689.83

Leisure and hospitality

11.72 11.94 11.96 11.96 293.00 296.11 301.39 301.39

Other services

17.89 18.36 18.27 18.32 551.01 561.82 562.72 564.26

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Apr.
2013
Feb.
2014
Mar.
2014(p)
Apr.
2014(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2014 - Apr.
2014(p)
Apr.
2013
Feb.
2014
Mar.
2014(p)
Apr.
2014(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2014 - Apr.
2014(p)

Total private

105.8 106.6 107.8 108.1 0.3 141.6 146.0 147.5 148.1 0.4

Goods-producing

84.6 85.0 86.7 86.9 0.2 109.7 111.8 114.2 114.7 0.4

Mining and logging

152.8 165.3 167.1 167.2 0.1 236.7 256.9 257.0 257.9 0.4

Construction

87.1 86.6 89.4 90.6 1.3 114.0 114.8 118.4 120.6 1.9

Manufacturing

80.7 80.8 81.9 82.0 0.1 101.4 103.0 104.7 104.7 0.0

Durable goods

81.9 82.5 83.5 83.7 0.2 103.4 105.8 107.6 107.8 0.2

Nondurable goods

78.6 78.4 79.4 79.1 -0.4 97.3 98.2 99.5 99.0 -0.5

Private service-providing

111.4 112.7 113.6 113.9 0.3 151.3 156.7 157.9 158.4 0.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

101.9 102.4 103.5 104.0 0.5 128.2 132.7 134.0 135.3 1.0

Wholesale trade

104.8 106.7 107.4 107.7 0.3 138.7 146.2 146.4 147.7 0.9

Retail trade

97.8 97.6 98.7 99.1 0.4 116.9 119.0 120.7 121.5 0.7

Transportation and warehousing

112.1 112.7 114.2 114.7 0.4 139.6 145.0 147.8 149.3 1.0

Utilities

95.1 95.9 95.8 95.3 -0.5 126.9 131.9 131.3 130.3 -0.8

Information

89.2 89.0 88.8 88.8 0.0 123.4 126.5 126.1 126.9 0.6

Financial activities

104.6 105.1 105.6 105.2 -0.4 152.6 158.0 159.7 159.1 -0.4

Professional and business services

120.5 124.5 125.6 126.2 0.5 169.3 178.8 180.2 180.8 0.3

Education and health services

126.9 127.3 127.9 128.5 0.5 177.4 180.8 181.4 182.3 0.5

Leisure and hospitality

114.4 116.3 118.4 118.7 0.3 152.3 157.7 160.9 161.2 0.2

Other services

98.4 98.0 98.9 99.1 0.2 128.3 131.1 131.6 132.3 0.5

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary


Last Modified Date: May 02, 2014
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