Economic News Release

Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this release is embargoed                   USDL-12-0816
until 8:30 a.m. (EDT) Friday, May 4, 2012

Technical information:
 Household data:       (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:   (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                         THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- APRIL 2012


      (NOTE: Data published in this release for women employees in the
      Government and Total nonfarm industries are erroneous. Errors are
      found in Summary table B and table B-5. Additional information is
      available at www.bls.gov/bls/ceswomen_usps.htm.)


Nonfarm payroll employment rose by 115,000 in April, and the unemployment
rate was little changed at 8.1 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
reported today. Employment increased in professional and business services,
retail trade, and health care, but declined in transportation and warehousing.

Household Survey Data

Both the number of unemployed persons (12.5 million) and the unemployment
rate (8.1 percent) changed little in April. (See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult men 
(7.5 percent), adult women (7.4 percent), teenagers (24.9 percent), whites
(7.4 percent), and Hispanics (10.3 percent) showed little or no change in
April, while the rate for blacks (13.0 percent) declined over the month.
The jobless rate for Asians was 5.2 percent in April (not seasonally
adjusted), little changed from a year earlier. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks and over)
was little changed at 5.1 million in April. These individuals made up 41.3
percent of the unemployed. Over the year, the number of long-term unemployed
has fallen by 759,000. (See table A-12.)

The civilian labor force participation rate declined in April to 63.6 percent,
while the employment-population ratio, at 58.4 percent, changed little.
(See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons (sometimes 
referred to as involuntary part-time workers) was essentially unchanged in
April at 7.9 million. These individuals were working part time because their
hours had been cut back or because they were unable to find a full-time job.
(See table A-8.)

In April, 2.4 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force,
essentially unchanged from a year earlier. (The data are not seasonally
adjusted.) These individuals were not in the labor force, wanted and were
available for work, and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months.
They were not counted as unemployed because they had not searched for work in
the 4 weeks preceding the survey. (See table A-16.)

Among the marginally attached, there were 968,000 discouraged workers in April,
about the same as a year earlier. (The data are not seasonally adjusted.)
Discouraged workers are persons not currently looking for work because they
believe no jobs are available for them. The remaining 1.4 million persons
marginally attached to the labor force in April had not searched for work
in the 4 weeks preceding the survey for reasons such as school attendance
or family responsibilities. (See table A-16.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment rose by 115,000 in April. This increase 
followed a gain of 154,000 in March and gains averaging 252,000 per month
for December to February. In April, employment rose in professional and
business services, retail trade, and health care. Transportation and
warehousing lost jobs over the month. (See table B-1.)

Employment in professional and business services increased by 62,000 in
April. Since a recent low point in September 2009, employment in this
industry has grown by 1.5 million. In April, employment in temporary help
services edged up by 21,000. Employment grew in architectural and
engineering services (+7,000) and in computer systems design and related
services (+7,000).

Retail trade employment rose by 29,000 over the month. General merchandise
stores added 21,000 jobs in April but has shown no definitive trend in recent
months. Employment in building material and garden supply stores continued to
trend up; the industry has added 19,000 jobs since December.

Health care continued to add jobs (+19,000) in April. Within the industry,
employment in ambulatory health care services, which includes home health care
and offices of physicians, rose by 15,000.

Within leisure and hospitality, employment in food services and drinking
places continued to trend up (+20,000) in April. Since February 2010, food
services and drinking places has added 576,000 jobs.

Manufacturing employment continued to trend up (+16,000) in April, with
job growth in fabricated metal products (+6,000) and machinery (+5,000).
Since its most recent employment low in January 2010, manufacturing has
added 489,000 jobs, largely in durable goods manufacturing.

Transportation and warehousing lost 17,000 jobs in April, with employment
declines in transit and ground passenger transportation (-11,000) and in
couriers and messengers (-7,000).

Employment in other major industries, including mining and logging, construction,
wholesale trade, information, financial activities, and government changed
little in April.

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls was unchanged
at 34.5 hours in April. The manufacturing workweek edged up by 0.1 hour to
40.8 hours, and factory overtime rose by 0.1 hour to 3.4 hours. The average
workweek for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls
was unchanged at 33.8 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

In April, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls
rose by 1 cent to $23.38. Over the past 12 months, average hourly earnings have
increased by 1.8 percent. In April, average hourly earnings of private-sector
production and nonsupervisory employees rose by 3 cents to $19.72.
(See tables B-3 and B-8.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for February was revised from
+240,000 to +259,000, and the change for March was revised from +120,000 to
+154,000.

______________
The Employment Situation for May is scheduled to be released on
Friday, June 1, 2012, at 8:30 a.m. (EDT).




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Apr.
2011
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012
Apr.
2012
Change from:
Mar.
2012-
Apr.
2012

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

239,146 242,435 242,604 242,784 180

Civilian labor force

153,420 154,871 154,707 154,365 -342

Participation rate

64.2 63.9 63.8 63.6 -0.2

Employed

139,628 142,065 142,034 141,865 -169

Employment-population ratio

58.4 58.6 58.5 58.4 -0.1

Unemployed

13,792 12,806 12,673 12,500 -173

Unemployment rate

9.0 8.3 8.2 8.1 -0.1

Not in labor force

85,726 87,564 87,897 88,419 522

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

9.0 8.3 8.2 8.1 -0.1

Adult men (20 years and over)

8.8 7.7 7.6 7.5 -0.1

Adult women (20 years and over)

7.9 7.7 7.4 7.4 0.0

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

24.9 23.8 25.0 24.9 -0.1

White

8.1 7.3 7.3 7.4 0.1

Black or African American

16.2 14.1 14.0 13.0 -1.0

Asian (not seasonally adjusted)

6.4 6.3 6.2 5.2 -

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

11.8 10.7 10.3 10.3 0.0

Total, 25 years and over

7.6 7.0 6.8 6.8 0.0

Less than a high school diploma

14.6 12.9 12.6 12.5 -0.1

High school graduates, no college

9.7 8.3 8.0 7.9 -0.1

Some college or associate degree

7.5 7.3 7.5 7.6 0.1

Bachelor's degree and higher

4.5 4.2 4.2 4.0 -0.2

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

8,181 7,209 7,020 6,852 -168

Job leavers

944 1,031 1,117 997 -120

Reentrants

3,387 3,361 3,269 3,341 72

New entrants

1,322 1,392 1,433 1,384 -49

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,725 2,541 2,572 2,543 -29

5 to 14 weeks

2,931 2,807 2,754 2,814 60

15 to 26 weeks

2,058 1,971 1,867 1,884 17

27 weeks and over

5,860 5,426 5,308 5,101 -207

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

8,571 8,119 7,672 7,853 181

Slack work or business conditions

5,714 5,446 5,081 5,187 106

Could only find part-time work

2,444 2,404 2,341 2,367 26

Part time for noneconomic reasons

18,326 18,827 18,523 18,832 309

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)

Marginally attached to the labor force

2,466 2,608 2,352 2,363 -

Discouraged workers

989 1,006 865 968 -

- Over-the-month changes are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Apr.
2011
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012(p)
Apr.
2012(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

251 259 154 115

Total private

264 254 166 130

Goods-producing

39 36 38 14

Mining and logging

12 7 0 0

Construction

-1 -1 -3 -2

Manufacturing

28 30 41 16

Durable goods(1)

19 27 28 15

Motor vehicles and parts

2.8 4.8 11.5 1.3

Nondurable goods

9 3 13 1

Private service-providing(1)

225 218 128 116

Wholesale trade

7.2 7.0 2.9 7.4

Retail trade

67.5 -15.2 -20.9 29.3

Transportation and warehousing

10.0 14.3 1.8 -16.6

Information

-1 8 -6 -2

Financial activities

-4 7 14 1

Professional and business services(1)

50 89 37 62

Temporary help services

-1.3 49.6 -9.4 21.1

Education and health services(1)

55 71 45 23

Health care and social assistance

37.6 48.9 26.8 18.4

Leisure and hospitality

36 45 52 12

Other services

3 -9 2 -2

Government

-13 5 -12 -15

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES(2)
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES

Total nonfarm women employees

49.5 49.3 49.3 49.3

Total private women employees

48.0 47.8 47.8 47.8

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.4 82.6 82.6 82.6

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.4 34.6 34.5 34.5

Average hourly earnings

$22.97 $23.33 $23.37 $23.38

Average weekly earnings

$790.17 $807.22 $806.27 $806.61

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

94.0 96.0 95.9 96.0

Over-the-month percent change

0.5 0.5 -0.1 0.1

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

102.9 106.8 106.8 107.0

Over-the-month percent change

0.8 0.8 0.0 0.2

HOURS AND EARNINGS
PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

33.7 33.8 33.8 33.8

Average hourly earnings

$19.39 $19.65 $19.69 $19.72

Average weekly earnings

$653.44 $664.17 $665.52 $666.54

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2002=100)(3)

101.2 103.3 103.5 103.6

Over-the-month percent change

0.6 0.3 0.2 0.1

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2002=100)(4)

131.1 135.7 136.1 136.5

Over-the-month percent change

0.8 0.5 0.3 0.3

DIFFUSION INDEX(5)
(Over 1-month span)

Total private (266 industries)

65.2 62.2 64.7 56.8

Manufacturing (81 industries)

66.7 63.0 69.8 59.9

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
of employment and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant
change in the household survey is about 400,000. However, the household survey has
a more expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes the self-
employed, unpaid family workers, agricultural workers, and private household workers,
who are excluded by the establishment survey. The household survey also provides
estimates of employment for demographic groups.

Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
born.

Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
www.bls.gov/web/cesbmart.htm.

Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
designed to maximize the reliability of the total nonfarm employment estimate; firms
from all size classes and industries are appropriately sampled to achieve that goal.

Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because the
survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There is an
unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the sampling
frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey twice a
year.

Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving
unemployment insurance benefits?

No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work
are included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who have stopped
looking for work?

Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
want a job, including those who have stopped looking because they believe no jobs
are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in The Employment
Situation news release.

How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact
on average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for
paid time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other
time off. The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always,
results in a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be
off work for part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while
some workers, such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.

In order for severe weather conditions to reduce the estimate of payroll employment,
employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay period. About half of
all employees in the payroll survey have a 2-week, semi-monthly, or monthly pay
period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
counted in the payroll employment figures. It is not possible to quantify the effect
of extreme weather on estimates of employment from the establishment survey.


In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week’s work for weather-
related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time off.
The household survey collects data on the number of persons who usually work full
time but had reduced hours, or had a job but were not at work due to bad weather.
Current and historical data are available on the household survey’s most requested
statistics page at http://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the
Current Population Survey (CPS; household survey) and the Current Employment
Statistics survey (CES; establishment survey). The household survey provides
information on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears
in the "A" tables, marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about
60,000 eligible households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S.
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). 

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, 
and earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the 
"B" tables, marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each 
month from the payroll records of a sample of nonagricultural business
establishments. Each month the CES program surveys about 141,000 businesses
and government agencies, representing approximately 486,000 individual worksites,
in order to provide detailed industry data on employment, hours, and earnings of
workers on nonfarm payrolls. The active sample includes approximately one-third
of all nonfarm payroll employees. 

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week
or pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally
the calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which 
may or may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire
civilian noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series
of questions on work and job search activities, each person 16 years
and over in a sample household is classified as employed, unemployed,
or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid
employees during the reference week; worked in their own business, 
profession, or on their own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 
hours in a family business or farm. People are also counted as employed
if they were temporarily absent from their jobs because of illness, bad
weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following
criteria: they had no employment during the reference week; they were
available for work at that time; and they made specific efforts to find
employment sometime during the 4-week period ending with the reference
week. Persons laid off from a job and expecting recall need not be 
looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The unemployment data
derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the eligibility
for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of
the labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force
as a percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is
the employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about
the household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as 
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who received pay for any part of the reference pay 
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector
for all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. 
Production and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and 
related employees in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction
workers in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in private service-
providing industries. 

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment’s principal
activity in accordance with the 2012 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/#technical.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and
methodological differences between the household and establishment
surveys result in important distinctions in the employment estimates
derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, the self-
     employed, unpaid family workers, and private household workers
     among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.
  
   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the
     employed. The establishment survey does not.
  
   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and
     older. The establishment survey is not limited by age.
  
   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than
     one job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted
     separately for each appearance.
  
Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and
the levels of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring
fluctuations. These events may result from seasonal changes in weather, 
major holidays, and the opening and closing of schools. The effect of 
such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern
each year, their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by
adjusting for regular seasonal variation. These adjustments make 
nonseasonal developments, such as declines in employment or increases
in the participation of women in the labor force, easier to spot. For
example, in the household survey, the large number of youth entering
the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes that
have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if
the level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in
the establishment survey, payroll employment in education declines by
about 20 percent at the end of the spring term and later rises with
the start of the fall term, obscuring the underlying employment trends
in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes at the end and
beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The
seasonally adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to
analyze changes in month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both
the household and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series
for many major estimates, such as total payroll employment, employment
in most major sectors, total employment, and unemployment are computed
by aggregating independently adjusted component series. For example,
total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate
that would be obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining
the duration, reasons, or more detailed age categories.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent
seasonal adjustment methodology is used in which new seasonal factors
are calculated each month using all relevant data, up to and including
the data for the current month. In the household survey, new seasonal
factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the 
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month 
to adjust the three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months 
are routinely revised to incorporate additional sample reports and 
recalculated seasonal adjustment factors. In both surveys, 5-year revisions
to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are
subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample rather
than the entire population is surveyed, there is a chance that the
sample estimates may differ from the "true" population values they
represent. The exact difference, or sampling error, varies depending
on the particular sample selected, and this variability is measured by
the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, 
or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ 
by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the "true" population value 
because of sampling error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 
90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in
total nonfarm employment from the establishment survey is on the order
of plus or minus 100,000. Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment
increases by 50,000 from one month to the next. The 90-percent confidence
interval on the monthly change would range from -50,000 to +150,000 
(50,000 +/- 100,000). These figures do not mean that the sample results
are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the "true" over-the-month change lies within this interval.
Since this range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with
confidence that nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month.
If, however, the reported nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all
of the values within the 90-percent confidence interval would be greater
than zero. In this case, it is likely (at least a 90-percent chance) that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month. At an unemployment rate
of around 5.5 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval for the monthly
change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is about 
+/- 280,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is
about +/-0.19 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments
have lower standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than
estimates which are based on a small number of observations. The precision
of estimates also is improved when the data are cumulated over time, such
as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by
nonsampling error, which can occur for many reasons, including the failure
to sample a segment of the population, inability to obtain information
for all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of 
respondents to provide correct information on a timely basis, mistakes
made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or processing of
the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most
recent 2 months are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these
estimates are labeled preliminary in the tables. It is only after two
successive revisions to a monthly estimate, when nearly all sample
reports have been received, that the estimate is considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey
is the inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by
new firms. To correct for this systematic underestimation of employment
growth, an estimation procedure with two components is used to account
for business births. The first component excludes employment losses from
business deaths from sample-based estimation in order to offset the 
missing employment gains from business births. This is incorporated into
the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not reflecting sample
units going out of business, but imputing to them the same employment
trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for most
of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate
the residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the 
imputation. The historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA
model was derived from the unemployment insurance universe micro-level
database, and reflects the actual residual net of births and deaths over
the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted
once a year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment
obtained from administrative records of the unemployment insurance program.
The difference between the March sample-based employment estimates and
the March universe counts is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as
a rough proxy for total survey error. The new benchmarks also incorporate
changes in the classification of industries. Over the past decade, absolute
benchmark revisions  for total nonfarm employment have averaged 0.3 percent,
with a range from -0.7 to 0.6 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Apr.
2011
Mar.
2012
Apr.
2012
Apr.
2011
Dec.
2011
Jan.
2012
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012
Apr.
2012

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

239,146 242,604 242,784 239,146 240,584 242,269 242,435 242,604 242,784

Civilian labor force

152,898 154,316 153,905 153,420 153,887 154,395 154,871 154,707 154,365

Participation rate

63.9 63.6 63.4 64.2 64.0 63.7 63.9 63.8 63.6

Employed

139,661 141,412 141,995 139,628 140,790 141,637 142,065 142,034 141,865

Employment-population ratio

58.4 58.3 58.5 58.4 58.5 58.5 58.6 58.5 58.4

Unemployed

13,237 12,904 11,910 13,792 13,097 12,758 12,806 12,673 12,500

Unemployment rate

8.7 8.4 7.7 9.0 8.5 8.3 8.3 8.2 8.1

Not in labor force

86,248 88,288 88,879 85,726 86,697 87,874 87,564 87,897 88,419

Persons who currently want a job

6,482 6,041 6,328 6,518 6,385 6,319 6,378 6,299 6,366

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

116,067 116,986 117,081 116,067 116,832 116,808 116,896 116,986 117,081

Civilian labor force

81,354 81,830 81,629 81,716 82,373 82,070 82,165 82,179 81,983

Participation rate

70.1 69.9 69.7 70.4 70.5 70.3 70.3 70.2 70.0

Employed

73,761 74,507 75,074 73,969 75,235 75,288 75,318 75,369 75,256

Employment-population ratio

63.6 63.7 64.1 63.7 64.4 64.5 64.4 64.4 64.3

Unemployed

7,593 7,323 6,555 7,747 7,138 6,781 6,846 6,810 6,727

Unemployment rate

9.3 8.9 8.0 9.5 8.7 8.3 8.3 8.3 8.2

Not in labor force

34,713 35,156 35,452 34,350 34,459 34,739 34,732 34,807 35,098

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

107,469 108,289 108,396 107,469 108,290 108,087 108,188 108,289 108,396

Civilian labor force

78,702 79,175 78,839 78,895 79,436 79,234 79,317 79,337 79,050

Participation rate

73.2 73.1 72.7 73.4 73.4 73.3 73.3 73.3 72.9

Employed

71,822 72,567 73,010 71,942 73,080 73,170 73,240 73,286 73,119

Employment-population ratio

66.8 67.0 67.4 66.9 67.5 67.7 67.7 67.7 67.5

Unemployed

6,880 6,608 5,829 6,953 6,356 6,064 6,077 6,051 5,930

Unemployment rate

8.7 8.3 7.4 8.8 8.0 7.7 7.7 7.6 7.5

Not in labor force

28,767 29,114 29,557 28,573 28,854 28,853 28,870 28,952 29,346

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

123,079 125,619 125,703 123,079 123,753 125,461 125,539 125,619 125,703

Civilian labor force

71,544 72,486 72,276 71,704 71,514 72,326 72,706 72,529 72,382

Participation rate

58.1 57.7 57.5 58.3 57.8 57.6 57.9 57.7 57.6

Employed

65,900 66,906 66,921 65,659 65,555 66,349 66,747 66,665 66,609

Employment-population ratio

53.5 53.3 53.2 53.3 53.0 52.9 53.2 53.1 53.0

Unemployed

5,644 5,580 5,355 6,045 5,959 5,977 5,960 5,863 5,773

Unemployment rate

7.9 7.7 7.4 8.4 8.3 8.3 8.2 8.1 8.0

Not in labor force

51,535 53,133 53,427 51,376 52,238 53,135 52,833 53,090 53,321

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

114,868 117,260 117,353 114,868 115,602 117,082 117,170 117,260 117,353

Civilian labor force

68,863 69,755 69,643 68,860 68,748 69,449 69,815 69,589 69,562

Participation rate

59.9 59.5 59.3 59.9 59.5 59.3 59.6 59.3 59.3

Employed

63,733 64,756 64,822 63,431 63,323 64,078 64,454 64,413 64,425

Employment-population ratio

55.5 55.2 55.2 55.2 54.8 54.7 55.0 54.9 54.9

Unemployed

5,130 4,998 4,820 5,430 5,425 5,370 5,361 5,176 5,137

Unemployment rate

7.4 7.2 6.9 7.9 7.9 7.7 7.7 7.4 7.4

Not in labor force

46,005 47,505 47,711 46,008 46,854 47,634 47,355 47,671 47,791

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,809 17,056 17,034 16,809 16,693 17,100 17,078 17,056 17,034

Civilian labor force

5,333 5,386 5,423 5,665 5,704 5,713 5,739 5,781 5,753

Participation rate

31.7 31.6 31.8 33.7 34.2 33.4 33.6 33.9 33.8

Employed

4,106 4,089 4,163 4,255 4,387 4,389 4,371 4,335 4,321

Employment-population ratio

24.4 24.0 24.4 25.3 26.3 25.7 25.6 25.4 25.4

Unemployed

1,227 1,297 1,260 1,410 1,316 1,324 1,367 1,447 1,432

Unemployment rate

23.0 24.1 23.2 24.9 23.1 23.2 23.8 25.0 24.9

Not in labor force

11,476 11,669 11,611 11,145 10,989 11,387 11,339 11,274 11,282

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Apr.
2011
Mar.
2012
Apr.
2012
Apr.
2011
Dec.
2011
Jan.
2012
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012
Apr.
2012

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

192,771 192,788 192,893 192,771 193,682 192,600 192,691 192,788 192,893

Civilian labor force

124,140 123,209 122,997 124,642 124,543 123,579 123,848 123,713 123,499

Participation rate

64.4 63.9 63.8 64.7 64.3 64.2 64.3 64.2 64.0

Employed

114,597 113,909 114,313 114,603 115,254 114,458 114,754 114,697 114,355

Employment-population ratio

59.4 59.1 59.3 59.5 59.5 59.4 59.6 59.5 59.3

Unemployed

9,542 9,301 8,684 10,039 9,288 9,121 9,094 9,016 9,144

Unemployment rate

7.7 7.5 7.1 8.1 7.5 7.4 7.3 7.3 7.4

Not in labor force

68,632 69,579 69,896 68,129 69,139 69,021 68,843 69,076 69,394

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

64,904 64,340 64,212 65,083 65,373 64,495 64,642 64,552 64,410

Participation rate

73.7 73.5 73.3 73.9 73.8 73.8 73.9 73.8 73.5

Employed

59,869 59,532 59,975 59,909 60,751 60,059 60,245 60,192 60,046

Employment-population ratio

68.0 68.0 68.5 68.1 68.6 68.7 68.9 68.8 68.6

Unemployed

5,035 4,808 4,237 5,175 4,623 4,436 4,397 4,360 4,364

Unemployment rate

7.8 7.5 6.6 8.0 7.1 6.9 6.8 6.8 6.8

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

54,882 54,476 54,421 54,898 54,481 54,434 54,609 54,473 54,435

Participation rate

59.7 58.9 58.8 59.7 59.0 58.9 59.0 58.9 58.8

Employed

51,275 50,959 50,919 51,065 50,768 50,729 50,890 50,873 50,719

Employment-population ratio

55.8 55.1 55.0 55.6 55.0 54.9 55.0 55.0 54.8

Unemployed

3,606 3,517 3,502 3,833 3,713 3,705 3,719 3,600 3,716

Unemployment rate

6.6 6.5 6.4 7.0 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.6 6.8

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,354 4,393 4,365 4,661 4,688 4,650 4,596 4,688 4,654

Participation rate

33.9 34.6 34.4 36.3 36.8 36.5 36.1 36.9 36.7

Employed

3,453 3,418 3,419 3,629 3,736 3,670 3,619 3,632 3,591

Employment-population ratio

26.9 26.9 26.9 28.3 29.3 28.8 28.4 28.6 28.3

Unemployed

901 976 946 1,031 952 980 977 1,056 1,063

Unemployment rate

20.7 22.2 21.7 22.1 20.3 21.1 21.3 22.5 22.8

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

29,035 29,792 29,824 29,035 29,286 29,727 29,760 29,792 29,824

Civilian labor force

17,765 18,339 18,227 17,847 18,110 18,206 18,363 18,427 18,274

Participation rate

61.2 61.6 61.1 61.5 61.8 61.2 61.7 61.9 61.3

Employed

14,966 15,829 15,940 14,964 15,248 15,725 15,769 15,843 15,891

Employment-population ratio

51.5 53.1 53.4 51.5 52.1 52.9 53.0 53.2 53.3

Unemployed

2,799 2,510 2,286 2,883 2,862 2,482 2,593 2,584 2,383

Unemployment rate

15.8 13.7 12.5 16.2 15.8 13.6 14.1 14.0 13.0

Not in labor force

11,270 11,453 11,597 11,187 11,176 11,521 11,398 11,365 11,550

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

8,091 8,262 8,133 8,102 8,272 8,256 8,239 8,283 8,162

Participation rate

68.4 68.2 67.0 68.5 69.0 68.4 68.1 68.4 67.3

Employed

6,688 7,044 7,018 6,723 6,969 7,205 7,064 7,137 7,054

Employment-population ratio

56.5 58.1 57.8 56.8 58.2 59.7 58.4 58.9 58.1

Unemployed

1,403 1,218 1,114 1,379 1,302 1,052 1,175 1,147 1,108

Unemployment rate

17.3 14.7 13.7 17.0 15.7 12.7 14.3 13.8 13.6

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,032 9,445 9,459 9,060 9,160 9,287 9,410 9,473 9,443

Participation rate

61.9 62.9 62.9 62.1 62.2 62.0 62.8 63.1 62.8

Employed

7,877 8,393 8,503 7,839 7,885 8,113 8,240 8,307 8,423

Employment-population ratio

54.0 55.9 56.6 53.7 53.5 54.2 55.0 55.4 56.1

Unemployed

1,155 1,052 956 1,221 1,275 1,174 1,171 1,166 1,019

Unemployment rate

12.8 11.1 10.1 13.5 13.9 12.6 12.4 12.3 10.8

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

642 632 635 686 679 663 713 671 669

Participation rate

24.6 23.7 23.9 26.3 26.5 24.7 26.6 25.1 25.1

Employed

402 392 419 403 393 407 466 399 413

Employment-population ratio

15.4 14.7 15.7 15.5 15.3 15.2 17.4 14.9 15.5

Unemployed

241 239 216 283 286 255 247 272 256

Unemployment rate

37.5 37.9 34.1 41.3 42.1 38.5 34.7 40.5 38.2

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

11,378 12,766 12,774 - - - - - -

Civilian labor force

7,295 8,113 7,965 - - - - - -

Participation rate

64.1 63.6 62.4 - - - - - -

Employed

6,832 7,607 7,553 - - - - - -

Employment-population ratio

60.0 59.6 59.1 - - - - - -

Unemployed

463 506 412 - - - - - -

Unemployment rate

6.4 6.2 5.2 - - - - - -

Not in labor force

4,083 4,652 4,809 - - - - - -

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Apr.
2011
Mar.
2012
Apr.
2012
Apr.
2011
Dec.
2011
Jan.
2012
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012
Apr.
2012

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

34,233 36,463 36,546 34,233 34,885 36,301 36,384 36,463 36,546

Civilian labor force

22,672 24,109 24,201 22,783 23,270 24,045 24,206 24,128 24,253

Participation rate

66.2 66.1 66.2 66.6 66.7 66.2 66.5 66.2 66.4

Employed

20,124 21,510 21,839 20,102 20,699 21,513 21,628 21,638 21,755

Employment-population ratio

58.8 59.0 59.8 58.7 59.3 59.3 59.4 59.3 59.5

Unemployed

2,548 2,598 2,362 2,680 2,571 2,532 2,579 2,491 2,498

Unemployment rate

11.2 10.8 9.8 11.8 11.0 10.5 10.7 10.3 10.3

Not in labor force

11,561 12,354 12,345 11,450 11,615 12,256 12,178 12,335 12,293

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

12,899 13,246 13,284 - - - - - -

Participation rate

81.4 80.8 80.8 - - - - - -

Employed

11,568 11,952 12,146 - - - - - -

Employment-population ratio

73.0 72.9 73.9 - - - - - -

Unemployed

1,331 1,294 1,138 - - - - - -

Unemployment rate

10.3 9.8 8.6 - - - - - -

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

8,896 9,813 9,826 - - - - - -

Participation rate

59.3 59.8 59.7 - - - - - -

Employed

7,884 8,829 8,886 - - - - - -

Employment-population ratio

52.6 53.8 54.0 - - - - - -

Unemployed

1,012 984 939 - - - - - -

Unemployment rate

11.4 10.0 9.6 - - - - - -

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

878 1,050 1,092 - - - - - -

Participation rate

25.9 28.8 29.9 - - - - - -

Employed

672 730 807 - - - - - -

Employment-population ratio

19.8 20.0 22.1 - - - - - -

Unemployed

206 320 285 - - - - - -

Unemployment rate

23.4 30.5 26.1 - - - - - -

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2011
Mar.
2012
Apr.
2012
Apr.
2011
Dec.
2011
Jan.
2012
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012
Apr.
2012

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

11,703 11,349 11,490 11,558 11,688 11,469 11,488 11,493 11,366

Participation rate

46.1 45.7 45.7 45.5 46.7 45.6 46.6 46.3 45.2

Employed

10,000 9,788 10,069 9,869 10,080 9,968 10,006 10,044 9,947

Employment-population ratio

39.4 39.4 40.1 38.8 40.3 39.7 40.6 40.4 39.6

Unemployed

1,703 1,561 1,421 1,689 1,608 1,501 1,483 1,449 1,419

Unemployment rate

14.5 13.8 12.4 14.6 13.8 13.1 12.9 12.6 12.5

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

37,485 36,614 36,812 37,483 36,902 36,850 36,799 36,475 36,718

Participation rate

60.4 59.2 59.3 60.4 59.8 59.6 59.0 59.0 59.2

Employed

33,886 33,402 33,959 33,864 33,684 33,737 33,761 33,573 33,834

Employment-population ratio

54.6 54.0 54.7 54.6 54.5 54.6 54.1 54.3 54.5

Unemployed

3,599 3,212 2,852 3,619 3,218 3,113 3,039 2,902 2,884

Unemployment rate

9.6 8.8 7.7 9.7 8.7 8.4 8.3 8.0 7.9

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

36,463 37,369 36,966 36,590 37,024 37,214 37,282 37,405 37,168

Participation rate

69.3 69.3 68.6 69.6 69.1 69.2 69.1 69.3 69.0

Employed

33,829 34,507 34,270 33,844 34,167 34,525 34,571 34,613 34,344

Employment-population ratio

64.3 64.0 63.6 64.4 63.7 64.2 64.1 64.2 63.7

Unemployed

2,634 2,863 2,696 2,745 2,857 2,689 2,711 2,793 2,824

Unemployment rate

7.2 7.7 7.3 7.5 7.7 7.2 7.3 7.5 7.6

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

46,913 48,389 48,075 46,889 47,131 47,481 47,890 48,191 47,977

Participation rate

77.0 76.6 76.4 77.0 76.0 75.6 76.4 76.2 76.2

Employed

44,976 46,415 46,310 44,796 45,201 45,492 45,875 46,189 46,062

Employment-population ratio

73.8 73.4 73.6 73.6 72.9 72.4 73.1 73.1 73.2

Unemployed

1,937 1,974 1,765 2,093 1,930 1,989 2,015 2,002 1,915

Unemployment rate

4.1 4.1 3.7 4.5 4.1 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Apr.
2011
Apr.
2012
Apr.
2011
Apr.
2012
Apr.
2011
Apr.
2012

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

21,697 21,256 19,898 19,444 1,799 1,812

Civilian labor force

11,318 11,114 10,191 9,994 1,128 1,120

Participation rate

52.2 52.3 51.2 51.4 62.7 61.8

Employed

10,445 10,329 9,427 9,266 1,018 1,063

Employment-population ratio

48.1 48.6 47.4 47.7 56.6 58.7

Unemployed

873 785 764 729 110 57

Unemployment rate

7.7 7.1 7.5 7.3 9.7 5.0

Not in labor force

10,379 10,142 9,707 9,450 671 692

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,466 2,701 1,996 2,214 470 487

Civilian labor force

1,962 2,127 1,646 1,814 315 314

Participation rate

79.5 78.8 82.5 81.9 67.1 64.3

Employed

1,748 1,932 1,454 1,650 293 283

Employment-population ratio

70.9 71.5 72.9 74.5 62.5 58.0

Unemployed

214 195 192 164 22 31

Unemployment rate

10.9 9.2 11.7 9.0 6.9 9.9

Not in labor force

505 574 350 400 155 174

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,855 2,950 2,417 2,471 437 478

Civilian labor force

2,406 2,479 2,087 2,114 319 366

Participation rate

84.3 84.1 86.3 85.5 72.9 76.5

Employed

2,248 2,351 1,953 1,994 296 357

Employment-population ratio

78.7 79.7 80.8 80.7 67.6 74.6

Unemployed

158 129 135 120 23 9

Unemployment rate

6.6 5.2 6.5 5.7 7.3 2.4

Not in labor force

449 470 330 358 119 112

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

10,529 9,949 10,201 9,627 327 322

Civilian labor force

3,582 3,293 3,444 3,170 139 122

Participation rate

34.0 33.1 33.8 32.9 42.4 38.1

Employed

3,354 3,072 3,235 2,956 119 116

Employment-population ratio

31.9 30.9 31.7 30.7 36.5 36.0

Unemployed

229 221 209 215 19 7

Unemployment rate

6.4 6.7 6.1 6.8 13.9 5.3

Not in labor force

6,946 6,656 6,758 6,457 189 199

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,847 5,656 5,283 5,131 565 525

Civilian labor force

3,368 3,214 3,013 2,897 355 318

Participation rate

57.6 56.8 57.0 56.4 62.9 60.6

Employed

3,095 2,974 2,786 2,666 309 308

Employment-population ratio

52.9 52.6 52.7 52.0 54.8 58.7

Unemployed

273 240 227 230 45 10

Unemployment rate

8.1 7.5 7.6 8.0 12.8 3.1

Not in labor force

2,479 2,441 2,270 2,235 210 207

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

208,727 212,630 91,652 93,088 117,075 119,542

Civilian labor force

139,957 141,057 70,399 70,766 69,558 70,291

Participation rate

67.1 66.3 76.8 76.0 59.4 58.8

Employed

128,072 130,362 63,803 65,175 64,269 65,187

Employment-population ratio

61.4 61.3 69.6 70.0 54.9 54.5

Unemployed

11,885 10,695 6,596 5,591 5,289 5,104

Unemployment rate

8.5 7.6 9.4 7.9 7.6 7.3

Not in labor force

68,771 71,572 21,253 22,321 47,518 49,251

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Apr.
2011
Apr.
2012
Apr.
2011
Apr.
2012

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

27,603 28,209 211,543 214,574

Civilian labor force

5,699 5,736 147,199 148,169

Participation rate

20.6 20.3 69.6 69.1

Employed

4,873 5,021 134,789 136,974

Employment-population ratio

17.7 17.8 63.7 63.8

Unemployed

827 715 12,410 11,195

Unemployment rate

14.5 12.5 8.4 7.6

Not in labor force

21,904 22,473 64,344 66,406

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,591 2,488 74,820 74,867

Participation rate

34.5 33.4 82.0 81.9

Employed

2,172 2,163 67,901 68,876

Employment-population ratio

28.9 29.1 74.4 75.4

Unemployed

418 325 6,920 5,991

Unemployment rate

16.1 13.1 9.2 8.0

Not in labor force

4,929 4,951 16,399 16,541

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,229 2,296 66,156 66,573

Participation rate

28.9 29.1 71.0 70.4

Employed

1,890 1,964 61,012 61,761

Employment-population ratio

24.5 24.9 65.5 65.3

Unemployed

339 332 5,144 4,811

Unemployment rate

15.2 14.5 7.8 7.2

Not in labor force

5,497 5,592 27,047 27,996

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

879 952 6,223 6,729

Participation rate

7.1 7.4 22.9 23.5

Employed

810 894 5,876 6,337

Employment-population ratio

6.6 6.9 21.7 22.2

Unemployed

69 58 347 393

Unemployment rate

7.8 6.1 5.6 5.8

Not in labor force

11,478 11,930 20,898 21,869

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Apr.
2011
Apr.
2012
Apr.
2011
Apr.
2012
Apr.
2011
Apr.
2012

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

35,737 37,215 17,848 18,249 17,889 18,966

Civilian labor force

23,915 24,460 14,174 14,220 9,741 10,241

Participation rate

66.9 65.7 79.4 77.9 54.5 54.0

Employed

21,741 22,619 12,911 13,233 8,830 9,386

Employment-population ratio

60.8 60.8 72.3 72.5 49.4 49.5

Unemployed

2,174 1,842 1,263 986 911 855

Unemployment rate

9.1 7.5 8.9 6.9 9.3 8.3

Not in labor force

11,822 12,755 3,674 4,030 8,148 8,725

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

203,409 205,569 98,219 98,831 105,191 106,737

Civilian labor force

128,984 129,444 67,180 67,409 61,804 62,035

Participation rate

63.4 63.0 68.4 68.2 58.8 58.1

Employed

117,920 119,376 60,850 61,840 57,070 57,535

Employment-population ratio

58.0 58.1 62.0 62.6 54.3 53.9

Unemployed

11,063 10,068 6,330 5,569 4,733 4,500

Unemployment rate

8.6 7.8 9.4 8.3 7.7 7.3

Not in labor force

74,425 76,124 31,039 31,422 43,387 44,702

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2011
Mar.
2012
Apr.
2012
Apr.
2011
Dec.
2011
Jan.
2012
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012
Apr.
2012

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,061 2,123 2,107 2,090 2,349 2,208 2,185 2,218 2,150

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,198 1,296 1,282 1,241 1,429 1,376 1,353 1,394 1,342

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

830 799 798 825 874 800 814 811 793

Unpaid family workers

33 28 26 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

137,601 139,290 139,888 137,505 138,411 139,491 139,945 139,984 139,749

Wage and salary workers(1)

128,814 130,778 131,257 128,756 129,662 130,569 131,365 131,370 131,136

Government

21,112 20,536 20,356 20,629 20,616 20,583 20,617 20,338 19,896

Private industries

107,702 110,241 110,901 108,167 109,064 109,966 110,778 111,114 111,249

Private households

671 656 724 - - - - - -

Other industries

107,031 109,585 110,176 107,466 108,407 109,353 110,138 110,469 110,527

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,693 8,433 8,558 8,645 8,587 8,769 8,477 8,514 8,512

Unpaid family workers

94 79 72 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

8,425 7,867 7,694 8,571 8,098 8,230 8,119 7,672 7,853

Slack work or business conditions

5,547 5,146 4,997 5,714 5,305 5,372 5,446 5,081 5,187

Could only find part-time work

2,605 2,427 2,467 2,444 2,419 2,551 2,404 2,341 2,367

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

19,163 19,022 19,443 18,326 18,372 18,636 18,827 18,523 18,832

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

8,305 7,753 7,581 8,453 7,952 8,083 7,988 7,584 7,737

Slack work or business conditions

5,448 5,062 4,909 5,602 5,199 5,278 5,356 5,000 5,086

Could only find part-time work

2,595 2,418 2,456 2,448 2,423 2,563 2,365 2,295 2,324

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

18,803 18,615 19,097 18,004 17,969 18,298 18,399 18,100 18,418

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2011
Mar.
2012
Apr.
2012
Apr.
2011
Dec.
2011
Jan.
2012
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012
Apr.
2012

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

139,661 141,412 141,995 139,628 140,790 141,637 142,065 142,034 141,865

16 to 19 years

4,106 4,089 4,163 4,255 4,387 4,389 4,371 4,335 4,321

16 to 17 years

1,145 1,233 1,304 1,262 1,304 1,333 1,337 1,395 1,421

18 to 19 years

2,961 2,856 2,859 2,982 3,060 3,064 3,050 2,955 2,875

20 years and over

135,555 137,324 137,832 135,373 136,403 137,248 137,694 137,699 137,544

20 to 24 years

12,864 13,212 13,224 12,958 13,195 13,335 13,395 13,371 13,329

25 years and over

122,691 124,112 124,608 122,364 123,234 123,901 124,243 124,407 124,166

25 to 54 years

93,762 93,816 94,307 93,638 93,882 93,991 94,056 94,267 94,128

25 to 34 years

30,318 30,359 30,750 30,343 30,771 30,367 30,483 30,568 30,724

35 to 44 years

30,483 30,574 30,640 30,404 30,271 30,614 30,638 30,672 30,539

45 to 54 years

32,961 32,884 32,917 32,891 32,841 33,009 32,935 33,027 32,866

55 years and over

28,929 30,295 30,300 28,726 29,352 29,910 30,187 30,140 30,038

Men, 16 years and over

73,761 74,507 75,074 73,969 75,235 75,288 75,318 75,369 75,256

16 to 19 years

1,939 1,940 2,064 2,027 2,155 2,118 2,079 2,083 2,136

16 to 17 years

531 590 633 586 635 620 650 656 685

18 to 19 years

1,408 1,350 1,431 1,441 1,501 1,487 1,424 1,424 1,461

20 years and over

71,822 72,567 73,010 71,942 73,080 73,170 73,240 73,286 73,119

20 to 24 years

6,651 6,776 6,778 6,716 6,998 7,003 6,851 6,927 6,863

25 years and over

65,171 65,791 66,232 65,148 66,084 66,169 66,376 66,327 66,156

25 to 54 years

49,988 49,836 50,290 50,059 50,528 50,358 50,382 50,393 50,329

25 to 34 years

16,447 16,265 16,566 16,534 16,885 16,440 16,498 16,538 16,624

35 to 44 years

16,401 16,326 16,417 16,409 16,422 16,573 16,564 16,470 16,425

45 to 54 years

17,140 17,246 17,308 17,116 17,221 17,346 17,319 17,385 17,280

55 years and over

15,183 15,954 15,942 15,089 15,556 15,811 15,994 15,934 15,827

Women, 16 years and over

65,900 66,906 66,921 65,659 65,555 66,349 66,747 66,665 66,609

16 to 19 years

2,167 2,149 2,099 2,228 2,232 2,270 2,293 2,252 2,184

16 to 17 years

614 644 671 677 669 713 687 739 736

18 to 19 years

1,554 1,506 1,427 1,541 1,559 1,577 1,625 1,531 1,414

20 years and over

63,733 64,756 64,822 63,431 63,323 64,078 64,454 64,413 64,425

20 to 24 years

6,213 6,436 6,446 6,242 6,198 6,332 6,544 6,444 6,467

25 years and over

57,520 58,321 58,376 57,216 57,150 57,732 57,867 58,079 58,010

25 to 54 years

43,774 43,980 44,017 43,579 43,354 43,633 43,674 43,873 43,800

25 to 34 years

13,871 14,093 14,185 13,809 13,886 13,928 13,985 14,030 14,099

35 to 44 years

14,082 14,248 14,223 13,995 13,849 14,041 14,074 14,202 14,114

45 to 54 years

15,821 15,638 15,609 15,775 15,620 15,664 15,615 15,642 15,586

55 years and over

13,746 14,341 14,359 13,637 13,796 14,099 14,193 14,206 14,211

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present

42,992 43,320 43,530 43,015 43,709 43,658 43,556 43,635 43,582

Married women, spouse present

34,211 34,477 34,369 34,029 34,177 34,445 34,341 34,325 34,207

Women who maintain families

8,968 9,429 9,530 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(1)

111,844 113,916 113,999 112,347 113,765 113,845 114,408 115,290 114,478

Part-time workers(2)

27,817 27,497 27,996 27,229 27,040 27,739 27,576 26,912 27,420

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

6,887 7,052 6,947 6,798 7,013 7,038 6,999 6,985 6,870

Percent of total employed

4.9 5.0 4.9 4.9 5.0 5.0 4.9 4.9 4.8

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

5,030 5,130 5,258 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,523 9,232 9,357 9,470 9,461 9,569 9,291 9,325 9,305

Footnotes
(1) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(2) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Apr.
2011
Mar.
2012
Apr.
2012
Apr.
2011
Dec.
2011
Jan.
2012
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012
Apr.
2012

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

13,792 12,673 12,500 9.0 8.5 8.3 8.3 8.2 8.1

16 to 19 years

1,410 1,447 1,432 24.9 23.1 23.2 23.8 25.0 24.9

16 to 17 years

560 564 509 30.7 27.8 28.8 29.9 28.8 26.4

18 to 19 years

855 877 935 22.3 21.3 20.5 20.8 22.9 24.5

20 years and over

12,383 11,226 11,068 8.4 8.0 7.7 7.7 7.5 7.4

20 to 24 years

2,263 2,028 2,029 14.9 14.4 13.3 13.8 13.2 13.2

25 years and over

10,132 9,140 9,034 7.6 7.2 7.0 7.0 6.8 6.8

25 to 54 years

8,125 7,191 7,017 8.0 7.6 7.4 7.3 7.1 6.9

25 to 34 years

3,196 2,878 2,711 9.5 9.4 9.0 8.7 8.6 8.1

35 to 44 years

2,410 2,112 2,139 7.3 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.4 6.5

45 to 54 years

2,519 2,202 2,167 7.1 6.5 6.4 6.4 6.2 6.2

55 years and over

2,000 1,988 2,026 6.5 6.2 5.9 5.9 6.2 6.3

Men, 16 years and over

7,747 6,810 6,727 9.5 8.7 8.3 8.3 8.3 8.2

16 to 19 years

794 759 797 28.1 26.6 25.3 27.0 26.7 27.2

16 to 17 years

279 283 279 32.3 30.5 32.0 33.5 30.1 28.9

18 to 19 years

516 476 521 26.4 25.1 22.3 23.9 25.1 26.3

20 years and over

6,953 6,051 5,930 8.8 8.0 7.7 7.7 7.6 7.5

20 to 24 years

1,276 1,135 1,124 16.0 15.3 14.2 15.6 14.1 14.1

25 years and over

5,647 4,875 4,781 8.0 7.2 6.9 6.7 6.8 6.7

25 to 54 years

4,520 3,812 3,720 8.3 7.5 7.2 7.1 7.0 6.9

25 to 34 years

1,814 1,554 1,459 9.9 9.5 9.0 8.6 8.6 8.1

35 to 44 years

1,280 1,147 1,129 7.2 6.7 6.4 6.4 6.5 6.4

45 to 54 years

1,425 1,111 1,132 7.7 6.3 6.2 6.2 6.0 6.1

55 years and over

1,127 1,063 1,062 6.9 6.1 5.9 5.7 6.3 6.3

Women, 16 years and over

6,045 5,863 5,773 8.4 8.3 8.3 8.2 8.1 8.0

16 to 19 years

615 687 635 21.6 19.3 21.1 20.7 23.4 22.5

16 to 17 years

281 281 230 29.4 25.0 25.8 26.1 27.6 23.8

18 to 19 years

339 401 414 18.0 17.1 18.6 17.8 20.7 22.7

20 years and over

5,430 5,176 5,137 7.9 7.9 7.7 7.7 7.4 7.4

20 to 24 years

986 893 905 13.6 13.4 12.3 11.7 12.2 12.3

25 years and over

4,485 4,265 4,253 7.3 7.3 7.2 7.2 6.8 6.8

25 to 54 years

3,605 3,380 3,297 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.2 7.0

25 to 34 years

1,382 1,324 1,252 9.1 9.3 9.0 8.8 8.6 8.2

35 to 44 years

1,130 965 1,010 7.5 7.0 7.4 7.3 6.4 6.7

45 to 54 years

1,094 1,091 1,035 6.5 6.7 6.6 6.6 6.5 6.2

55 years and over(1)

782 895 878 5.4 5.7 5.9 6.1 5.9 5.8

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present

2,777 2,360 2,370 6.1 5.1 5.1 5.0 5.1 5.2

Married women, spouse present

2,055 1,912 1,919 5.7 5.4 5.6 5.5 5.3 5.3

Women who maintain families(1)

1,193 1,139 1,078 11.7 12.9 12.0 11.7 10.8 10.2

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(2)

11,974 10,863 10,691 9.6 9.0 8.8 8.8 8.6 8.5

Part-time workers(3)

1,834 1,765 1,846 6.3 6.3 5.9 6.0 6.2 6.3

Footnotes
(1) Not seasonally adjusted.
(2) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(3) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2011
Mar.
2012
Apr.
2012
Apr.
2011
Dec.
2011
Jan.
2012
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012
Apr.
2012

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

7,958 7,415 6,555 8,181 7,602 7,321 7,209 7,020 6,852

On temporary layoff

1,186 1,354 1,009 1,241 1,216 1,284 1,135 1,120 1,083

Not on temporary layoff

6,772 6,060 5,546 6,941 6,386 6,037 6,075 5,900 5,768

Permanent job losers

5,449 4,742 4,397 5,524 5,089 4,807 4,755 4,632 4,529

Persons who completed temporary jobs

1,323 1,318 1,149 1,417 1,296 1,230 1,320 1,268 1,239

Job leavers

911 1,064 962 944 953 939 1,031 1,117 997

Reentrants

3,217 3,189 3,184 3,387 3,399 3,325 3,361 3,269 3,341

New entrants

1,151 1,236 1,210 1,322 1,280 1,253 1,392 1,433 1,384

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

60.1 57.5 55.0 59.1 57.4 57.0 55.5 54.7 54.5

On temporary layoff

9.0 10.5 8.5 9.0 9.2 10.0 8.7 8.7 8.6

Not on temporary layoff

51.2 47.0 46.6 50.2 48.3 47.0 46.7 46.0 45.9

Job leavers

6.9 8.2 8.1 6.8 7.2 7.3 7.9 8.7 7.9

Reentrants

24.3 24.7 26.7 24.5 25.7 25.9 25.9 25.5 26.6

New entrants

8.7 9.6 10.2 9.6 9.7 9.8 10.7 11.2 11.0

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

5.2 4.8 4.3 5.3 4.9 4.7 4.7 4.5 4.4

Job leavers

0.6 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.6

Reentrants

2.1 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.2

New entrants

0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2011
Mar.
2012
Apr.
2012
Apr.
2011
Dec.
2011
Jan.
2012
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012
Apr.
2012

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,325 2,270 2,165 2,725 2,669 2,486 2,541 2,572 2,543

5 to 14 weeks

2,478 3,005 2,368 2,931 2,858 2,884 2,807 2,754 2,814

15 weeks and over

8,434 7,629 7,377 7,919 7,628 7,498 7,397 7,175 6,984

15 to 26 weeks

2,333 2,244 2,109 2,058 2,039 1,980 1,971 1,867 1,884

27 weeks and over

6,101 5,385 5,268 5,860 5,588 5,518 5,426 5,308 5,101

Average (mean) duration, in weeks(1)

41.4 40.2 42.0 38.3 40.8 40.1 40.0 39.4 39.1

Median duration, in weeks

24.3 20.5 22.3 20.8 21.0 21.1 20.3 19.9 19.4

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

17.6 17.6 18.2 20.1 20.3 19.3 19.9 20.6 20.6

5 to 14 weeks

18.7 23.3 19.9 21.6 21.7 22.4 22.0 22.0 22.8

15 weeks and over

63.7 59.1 61.9 58.3 58.0 58.3 58.0 57.4 56.6

15 to 26 weeks

17.6 17.4 17.7 15.2 15.5 15.4 15.5 14.9 15.3

27 weeks and over

46.1 41.7 44.2 43.2 42.5 42.9 42.6 42.5 41.3

Footnotes
(1) Beginning in January 2011, this series reflects a change to the collection of data on unemployment duration. For more information, see www.bls.gov/cps/duration.htm.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Apr.
2011
Apr.
2012
Apr.
2011
Apr.
2012
Apr.
2011
Apr.
2012

Total, 16 years and over(1)

139,661 141,995 13,237 11,910 8.7 7.7

Management, professional, and related occupations

53,216 54,055 2,196 2,062 4.0 3.7

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

21,640 22,590 1,050 934 4.6 4.0

Professional and related occupations

31,576 31,465 1,146 1,128 3.5 3.5

Service occupations

24,354 25,303 2,598 2,426 9.6 8.8

Sales and office occupations

32,974 33,290 2,929 2,745 8.2 7.6

Sales and related occupations

15,134 15,320 1,402 1,266 8.5 7.6

Office and administrative support occupations

17,841 17,970 1,528 1,478 7.9 7.6

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

12,735 12,377 2,110 1,608 14.2 11.5

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

862 913 206 196 19.3 17.6

Construction and extraction occupations

7,042 6,734 1,448 1,137 17.1 14.4

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,831 4,731 455 276 8.6 5.5

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

16,382 16,970 2,208 1,822 11.9 9.7

Production occupations

8,098 8,348 1,074 863 11.7 9.4

Transportation and material moving occupations

8,284 8,622 1,134 959 12.0 10.0

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Apr.
2011
Apr.
2012
Apr.
2011
Apr.
2012

Total, 16 years and over(1)

13,237 11,910 8.7 7.7

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

10,560 9,197 8.9 7.7

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

28 43 3.5 4.2

Construction

1,501 1,156 17.8 14.5

Manufacturing

1,444 1,046 9.4 6.9

Durable goods

951 620 9.8 6.5

Nondurable goods

493 427 8.6 7.4

Wholesale and retail trade

1,776 1,603 8.8 7.9

Transportation and utilities

500 453 8.4 7.6

Information

218 243 7.1 8.3

Financial activities

621 505 6.7 5.5

Professional and business services

1,340 1,322 9.1 8.5

Education and health services

1,088 1,058 5.0 4.8

Leisure and hospitality

1,482 1,290 11.7 9.8

Other services

564 478 9.2 7.4

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

182 233 13.7 16.0

Government workers

778 786 3.5 3.7

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

565 484 5.5 4.9

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2011
Mar.
2012
Apr.
2012
Apr.
2011
Dec.
2011
Jan.
2012
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012
Apr.
2012

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

5.5 4.9 4.8 5.2 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.6 4.5

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

5.2 4.8 4.3 5.3 4.9 4.7 4.7 4.5 4.4

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

8.7 8.4 7.7 9.0 8.5 8.3 8.3 8.2 8.1

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

9.2 8.9 8.3 9.6 9.1 8.9 8.9 8.7 8.7

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

10.1 9.7 9.1 10.4 10.0 9.9 9.8 9.6 9.5

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

15.5 14.8 14.1 15.9 15.2 15.1 14.9 14.5 14.5

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Apr.
2011
Apr.
2012
Apr.
2011
Apr.
2012
Apr.
2011
Apr.
2012

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

86,248 88,879 34,713 35,452 51,535 53,427

Persons who currently want a job

6,482 6,328 3,159 3,141 3,323 3,187

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

2,466 2,363 1,361 1,311 1,105 1,053

Discouraged workers(2)

989 968 566 611 423 357

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,477 1,395 795 699 682 696

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

6,887 6,947 3,302 3,501 3,585 3,446

Percent of total employed

4.9 4.9 4.5 4.7 5.4 5.1

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

3,586 3,549 1,896 2,026 1,691 1,523

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

1,831 1,914 618 621 1,213 1,293

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

221 289 149 194 72 95

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,211 1,134 626 634 586 500

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2011
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012(p)
Apr.
2012(p)
Apr.
2011
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012(p)
Apr.
2012(p)
Change from:
Mar.2012 - Apr.2012(p)

Total nonfarm

131,240 131,210 132,071 132,967 131,173 132,720 132,874 132,989 115

Total private

108,619 108,887 109,667 110,563 108,989 110,724 110,890 111,020 130

Goods-producing

17,755 17,726 17,889 18,100 17,981 18,290 18,328 18,342 14

Mining and logging

756 820 822 827 768 837 837 837 0

Logging

44.9 47.3 46.1 43.7 49.0 48.1 47.9 47.0 -0.9

Mining

710.6 772.4 776.1 783.1 718.9 788.5 788.9 789.5 0.6

Oil and gas extraction

168.5 187.5 191.1 191.0 170.0 189.8 192.5 193.3 0.8

Mining, except oil and gas(1)

212.6 209.8 211.9 217.5 215.4 221.2 220.7 220.8 0.1

Coal mining

85.3 86.0 85.6 85.0 85.8 86.3 85.8 85.4 -0.4

Support activities for mining

329.5 375.1 373.1 374.6 333.5 377.5 375.7 375.4 -0.3

Construction

5,356 5,133 5,223 5,394 5,495 5,563 5,560 5,558 -2

Construction of buildings

1,181.6 1,168.2 1,171.7 1,186.7 1,217.3 1,238.2 1,227.6 1,224.0 -3.6

Residential building

544.6 538.4 538.5 545.2 564.9 573.7 568.1 565.6 -2.5

Nonresidential building

637.0 629.8 633.2 641.5 652.4 664.5 659.5 658.4 -1.1

Heavy and civil engineering construction

810.1 731.7 763.8 818.0 830.1 841.6 845.2 848.5 3.3

Specialty trade contractors

3,363.8 3,232.8 3,287.4 3,389.0 3,448.0 3,483.1 3,487.1 3,485.0 -2.1

Residential specialty trade contractors

1,401.4 1,345.7 1,372.7 1,425.8 1,439.0 1,461.1 1,465.8 1,472.1 6.3

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

1,962.4 1,887.1 1,914.7 1,963.2 2,009.0 2,022.0 2,021.3 2,012.9 -8.4

Manufacturing

11,643 11,773 11,844 11,879 11,718 11,890 11,931 11,947 16

Durable goods

7,216 7,372 7,419 7,445 7,245 7,428 7,456 7,471 15

Wood products

337.1 324.2 325.9 328.9 339.6 335.2 333.3 332.0 -1.3

Nonmetallic mineral products

365.8 353.5 358.6 365.9 367.0 371.7 371.1 370.8 -0.3

Primary metals

384.1 402.5 403.9 405.9 385.8 403.8 404.9 405.2 0.3

Fabricated metal products

1,327.2 1,375.7 1,383.7 1,390.3 1,337.7 1,385.0 1,390.3 1,396.0 5.7

Machinery

1,042.8 1,090.6 1,097.0 1,099.8 1,046.5 1,093.3 1,099.1 1,104.0 4.9

Computer and electronic products(1)

1,102.6 1,106.0 1,108.0 1,106.8 1,106.0 1,107.7 1,109.9 1,109.8 -0.1

Computer and peripheral equipment

157.1 162.8 163.3 163.7 157.9 162.9 163.3 164.0 0.7

Communications equipment

116.8 110.3 110.2 109.1 117.1 110.7 110.7 109.6 -1.1

Semiconductors and electronic components

381.2 387.2 387.3 387.4 382.2 387.8 387.4 387.4 0.0

Electronic instruments

404.1 401.2 402.2 401.5 405.0 401.2 403.1 403.0 -0.1

Electrical equipment and appliances

363.5 370.8 371.8 372.0 365.8 372.5 373.7 373.7 0.0

Transportation equipment(1)

1,370.4 1,428.8 1,448.1 1,445.8 1,371.2 1,430.7 1,443.7 1,446.0 2.3

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

713.2 751.1 767.2 765.6 712.4 751.0 762.5 763.8 1.3

Furniture and related products

351.1 346.0 347.6 352.5 352.9 351.8 352.1 354.6 2.5

Miscellaneous manufacturing

571.1 574.0 574.5 576.7 572.5 576.7 577.4 578.7 1.3

Nondurable goods

4,427 4,401 4,425 4,434 4,473 4,462 4,475 4,476 1

Food manufacturing

1,436.3 1,418.9 1,425.1 1,426.6 1,467.5 1,449.7 1,453.6 1,455.3 1.7

Beverages and tobacco products

180.6 187.9 189.7 192.7 185.4 195.2 196.3 197.0 0.7

Textile mills

121.2 119.4 120.0 120.0 121.4 120.3 120.2 119.9 -0.3

Textile product mills

117.5 112.4 113.1 113.9 118.3 113.8 113.7 113.7 0.0

Apparel

152.7 148.5 149.6 151.5 152.9 150.1 150.6 151.3 0.7

Leather and allied products

29.0 30.5 30.1 30.1 29.0 30.6 30.1 30.2 0.1

Paper and paper products

389.4 389.1 391.9 391.1 391.3 391.4 394.4 393.4 -1.0

Printing and related support activities

471.6 454.1 454.4 454.9 474.4 458.6 456.5 456.7 0.2

Petroleum and coal products

111.4 110.5 111.0 114.4 112.1 115.3 114.7 115.2 0.5

Chemicals

783.9 792.4 797.7 796.2 786.5 795.4 799.0 798.2 -0.8

Plastics and rubber products

633.0 637.0 642.8 642.2 634.0 641.9 645.7 644.8 -0.9

Private service-providing

90,864 91,161 91,778 92,463 91,008 92,434 92,562 92,678 116

Trade, transportation, and utilities

24,782 24,837 24,928 25,048 24,982 25,246 25,230 25,252 22

Wholesale trade

5,505.2 5,539.5 5,563.4 5,587.0 5,517.6 5,590.4 5,593.3 5,600.7 7.4

Durable goods

2,737.5 2,759.6 2,767.5 2,770.7 2,747.5 2,778.8 2,779.2 2,778.4 -0.8

Nondurable goods

1,936.5 1,935.4 1,946.8 1,963.1 1,937.4 1,960.8 1,961.6 1,966.6 5.0

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

831.2 844.5 849.1 853.2 832.7 850.8 852.5 855.7 3.2

Retail trade

14,476.7 14,441.7 14,488.7 14,586.7 14,630.7 14,741.2 14,720.3 14,749.6 29.3

Motor vehicle and parts dealers(1)

1,679.6 1,691.4 1,703.4 1,719.8 1,680.5 1,717.7 1,719.1 1,720.9 1.8

Automobile dealers

1,048.0 1,069.8 1,074.5 1,082.5 1,049.7 1,079.9 1,080.1 1,083.1 3.0

Furniture and home furnishings stores

433.6 443.5 442.7 441.7 440.4 449.3 449.3 448.8 -0.5

Electronics and appliance stores

526.6 509.8 503.9 502.6 532.8 513.4 509.8 510.2 0.4

Building material and garden supply stores

1,191.0 1,099.1 1,150.6 1,206.4 1,153.9 1,150.7 1,156.3 1,160.9 4.6

Food and beverage stores

2,800.3 2,828.4 2,834.3 2,833.9 2,826.7 2,859.9 2,861.8 2,859.1 -2.7

Health and personal care stores

971.4 986.1 987.5 987.5 977.6 992.5 994.6 996.3 1.7

Gasoline stations

820.3 814.3 816.6 823.0 826.4 828.1 828.7 828.9 0.2

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,304.9 1,304.8 1,313.0 1,321.9 1,347.4 1,362.3 1,362.6 1,361.3 -1.3

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

558.9 551.7 547.3 549.9 578.6 563.2 564.7 566.8 2.1

General merchandise stores(1)

3,018.0 3,022.2 3,015.5 3,021.7 3,071.1 3,094.6 3,070.5 3,091.9 21.4

Department stores

1,499.3 1,521.4 1,503.4 1,497.8 1,542.3 1,558.2 1,543.9 1,550.3 6.4

Miscellaneous store retailers

755.0 758.5 748.1 755.4 766.2 770.3 766.4 767.8 1.4

Nonstore retailers

417.1 431.9 425.8 422.9 429.1 439.2 436.5 436.7 0.2

Transportation and warehousing

4,247.8 4,298.0 4,315.9 4,311.8 4,279.5 4,353.2 4,355.0 4,338.4 -16.6

Air transportation

453.0 454.8 456.5 457.1 454.9 456.7 457.7 459.0 1.3

Rail transportation

227.0 230.6 232.5 233.7 227.4 232.3 233.6 233.9 0.3

Water transportation

61.0 65.4 65.6 65.6 62.4 67.0 67.2 66.5 -0.7

Truck transportation

1,277.0 1,299.8 1,307.4 1,316.9 1,295.3 1,334.5 1,332.0 1,333.8 1.8

Transit and ground passenger transportation

452.6 446.8 444.4 433.2 438.0 435.6 430.2 419.2 -11.0

Pipeline transportation

42.8 43.7 43.7 43.6 42.8 43.8 43.8 43.9 0.1

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

23.7 24.0 24.9 27.4 26.6 32.0 31.4 31.2 -0.2

Support activities for transportation

561.5 573.0 578.4 580.6 562.7 577.6 582.3 580.7 -1.6

Couriers and messengers

511.4 517.7 519.2 510.8 525.2 524.5 528.7 521.3 -7.4

Warehousing and storage

637.8 642.2 643.3 642.9 644.2 649.2 648.1 648.9 0.8

Utilities

552.4 558.0 560.2 562.8 554.3 560.7 561.8 563.2 1.4

Information

2,669 2,635 2,625 2,625 2,671 2,636 2,630 2,628 -2

Publishing industries, except Internet

748.6 739.4 738.8 737.9 750.3 741.0 740.8 740.2 -0.6

Motion picture and sound recording industries

361.4 367.4 356.6 364.7 358.8 365.9 360.2 364.2 4.0

Broadcasting, except Internet

281.0 278.5 282.2 281.4 282.6 279.3 282.4 281.6 -0.8

Telecommunications

878.5 844.4 837.9 832.0 882.0 841.6 837.2 833.7 -3.5

Data processing, hosting and related services

245.9 240.4 242.4 243.0 242.9 241.4 241.8 241.3 -0.5

Other information services

154.0 165.3 166.7 165.8 154.2 166.6 167.8 166.6 -1.2

Financial activities

7,648 7,653 7,682 7,691 7,679 7,704 7,718 7,719 1

Finance and insurance

5,736.1 5,748.0 5,764.2 5,755.5 5,749.2 5,757.9 5,766.4 5,766.8 0.4

Monetary authorities - central bank

18.6 18.8 18.8 18.9 18.6 18.9 18.9 19.0 0.1

Credit intermediation and related
activities(1)

2,547.0 2,574.1 2,587.0 2,577.4 2,554.4 2,575.5 2,585.1 2,581.9 -3.2

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,730.3 1,745.3 1,753.2 1,748.0 1,735.6 1,749.3 1,754.8 1,751.7 -3.1

Commercial banking

1,309.2 1,319.4 1,326.6 1,320.6 1,312.2 1,322.2 1,327.2 1,323.7 -3.5

Securities, commodity contracts, investments

805.3 800.4 800.1 798.5 807.7 801.9 800.6 800.1 -0.5

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,279.1 2,270.6 2,273.7 2,276.4 2,282.4 2,277.2 2,277.0 2,280.8 3.8

Funds, trusts, and other financial vehicles

86.1 84.1 84.6 84.3 86.1 84.4 84.8 85.0 0.2

Real estate and rental and leasing

1,911.5 1,904.9 1,917.4 1,935.9 1,929.4 1,946.2 1,951.5 1,951.8 0.3

Real estate

1,392.2 1,388.0 1,394.1 1,408.5 1,402.4 1,413.2 1,416.0 1,416.5 0.5

Rental and leasing services

495.3 493.2 499.8 504.0 503.0 509.2 511.8 511.8 0.0

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

24.0 23.7 23.5 23.4 24.0 23.8 23.7 23.5 -0.2

Professional and business services

17,236 17,483 17,602 17,818 17,242 17,761 17,798 17,860 62

Professional and technical services(1)

7,709.1 7,960.0 7,965.4 7,995.7 7,636.1 7,880.7 7,902.0 7,929.5 27.5

Legal services

1,108.5 1,111.8 1,111.7 1,116.5 1,114.0 1,118.7 1,117.0 1,120.9 3.9

Accounting and bookkeeping services

1,006.0 1,109.9 1,091.8 1,073.7 905.0 971.0 974.2 974.4 0.2

Architectural and engineering services

1,281.7 1,295.3 1,300.1 1,313.9 1,290.4 1,315.2 1,318.8 1,326.2 7.4

Computer systems design and related services

1,514.8 1,568.0 1,569.4 1,584.0 1,516.9 1,571.7 1,577.9 1,585.3 7.4

Management and technical consulting services

1,053.5 1,105.5 1,110.5 1,121.5 1,060.2 1,114.9 1,120.6 1,127.0 6.4

Management of companies and enterprises

1,898.0 1,925.2 1,934.4 1,932.7 1,906.8 1,936.0 1,940.3 1,942.3 2.0

Administrative and waste services

7,629.1 7,598.2 7,702.0 7,889.1 7,699.2 7,944.4 7,955.9 7,988.2 32.3

Administrative and support services(1)

7,270.0 7,234.7 7,338.7 7,520.4 7,335.7 7,572.5 7,584.3 7,616.0 31.7

Employment services(1)

2,874.2 2,998.4 3,030.0 3,085.9 2,931.4 3,148.4 3,137.1 3,164.9 27.8

Temporary help services

2,246.1 2,357.1 2,382.5 2,430.4 2,294.2 2,482.3 2,472.9 2,494.0 21.1

Business support services

808.7 820.3 815.9 811.6 811.7 816.9 813.4 815.2 1.8

Services to buildings and dwellings

1,777.1 1,616.1 1,675.2 1,799.3 1,776.3 1,783.4 1,803.5 1,805.5 2.0

Waste management and remediation services

359.1 363.5 363.3 368.7 363.5 371.9 371.6 372.2 0.6

Education and health services

19,974 20,304 20,375 20,411 19,804 20,181 20,226 20,249 23

Educational services

3,398.4 3,455.8 3,478.7 3,486.5 3,233.2 3,301.4 3,319.1 3,323.4 4.3

Health care and social assistance

16,576.0 16,847.8 16,896.0 16,924.5 16,571.0 16,880.0 16,906.8 16,925.2 18.4

Health care(3)

13,963.9 14,215.8 14,254.5 14,276.7 13,985.4 14,257.4 14,282.7 14,301.7 19.0

Ambulatory health care services(1)

6,099.4 6,255.1 6,268.4 6,289.9 6,104.3 6,273.6 6,283.3 6,298.7 15.4

Offices of physicians

2,332.5 2,395.4 2,401.1 2,403.4 2,338.7 2,400.7 2,405.8 2,411.3 5.5

Outpatient care centers

619.4 646.8 648.2 649.6 618.3 646.2 647.7 648.4 0.7

Home health care services

1,131.5 1,164.3 1,170.6 1,180.4 1,129.1 1,168.8 1,173.3 1,179.6 6.3

Hospitals

4,707.8 4,792.0 4,803.1 4,800.4 4,717.6 4,799.9 4,808.6 4,812.7 4.1

Nursing and residential care facilities(1)

3,156.7 3,168.7 3,183.0 3,186.4 3,163.5 3,183.9 3,190.8 3,190.3 -0.5

Nursing care facilities

1,665.3 1,651.4 1,660.3 1,657.8 1,668.9 1,660.3 1,665.0 1,661.0 -4.0

Social assistance(1)

2,612.1 2,632.0 2,641.5 2,647.8 2,585.6 2,622.6 2,624.1 2,623.5 -0.6

Child day care services

870.4 852.9 855.8 859.2 847.8 839.4 837.0 836.0 -1.0

Leisure and hospitality

13,224 12,943 13,230 13,515 13,295 13,548 13,600 13,612 12

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,877.2 1,721.6 1,794.8 1,874.8 1,916.1 1,929.2 1,942.7 1,927.6 -15.1

Performing arts and spectator sports

403.4 368.5 389.3 408.8 398.4 401.1 411.3 404.5 -6.8

Museums, historical sites, and similar institutions

131.4 122.7 127.5 131.9 132.8 135.0 135.6 135.0 -0.6

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,342.4 1,230.4 1,278.0 1,334.1 1,384.9 1,393.1 1,395.8 1,388.1 -7.7

Accommodation and food services

11,347.1 11,221.2 11,434.8 11,639.9 11,378.9 11,618.8 11,657.7 11,684.4 26.7

Accommodation

1,746.7 1,715.3 1,741.8 1,766.2 1,791.4 1,807.0 1,810.4 1,817.4 7.0

Food services and drinking places

9,600.4 9,505.9 9,693.0 9,873.7 9,587.5 9,811.8 9,847.3 9,867.0 19.7

Other services

5,331 5,306 5,336 5,355 5,335 5,358 5,360 5,358 -2

Repair and maintenance

1,161.2 1,150.2 1,155.5 1,159.4 1,156.2 1,159.9 1,157.9 1,155.7 -2.2

Personal and laundry services

1,283.8 1,275.8 1,287.8 1,297.6 1,281.0 1,291.8 1,294.1 1,293.7 -0.4

Membership associations and organizations

2,885.6 2,880.0 2,892.3 2,897.9 2,898.0 2,906.3 2,907.6 2,908.7 1.1

Government

22,621 22,323 22,404 22,404 22,184 21,996 21,984 21,969 -15

Federal

2,873.0 2,803.0 2,811.0 2,821.0 2,873.0 2,828.0 2,825.0 2,821.0 -4.0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,231.5 2,188.4 2,197.5 2,199.1 2,234.0 2,208.0 2,207.2 2,202.4 -4.8

U.S. Postal Service

641.7 614.9 613.8 622.1 639.1 620.0 618.0 618.8 0.8

State government

5,241.0 5,191.0 5,211.0 5,212.0 5,098.0 5,067.0 5,070.0 5,071.0 1.0

State government education

2,528.1 2,544.1 2,562.4 2,564.3 2,382.5 2,409.6 2,414.4 2,419.9 5.5

State government, excluding education

2,712.8 2,646.9 2,649.0 2,647.4 2,715.9 2,657.3 2,655.8 2,650.7 -5.1

Local government

14,507.0 14,329.0 14,382.0 14,371.0 14,213.0 14,101.0 14,089.0 14,077.0 -12.0

Local government education

8,299.0 8,194.6 8,230.0 8,200.2 7,930.5 7,854.5 7,842.6 7,831.9 -10.7

Local government, excluding education

6,208.2 6,134.2 6,151.6 6,171.1 6,282.8 6,246.4 6,246.4 6,244.7 -1.7

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Apr.
2011
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012(p)
Apr.
2012(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.4 34.6 34.5 34.5

Goods-producing

39.8 40.5 40.2 40.4

Mining and logging

44.4 44.7 44.3 44.6

Construction

37.8 38.9 38.6 38.8

Manufacturing

40.4 40.9 40.7 40.8

Durable goods

40.8 41.4 41.1 41.2

Nondurable goods

39.8 40.2 40.1 40.2

Private service-providing

33.3 33.4 33.4 33.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.7 34.8 34.7 34.7

Wholesale trade

38.6 38.8 38.7 38.7

Retail trade

31.7 32.0 31.9 31.8

Transportation and warehousing

38.8 38.3 38.2 38.3

Utilities

42.0 41.3 41.3 41.7

Information

36.6 36.7 36.7 36.7

Financial activities

37.2 37.3 37.3 37.3

Professional and business services

35.7 35.9 35.9 35.9

Education and health services

32.9 32.9 32.9 32.8

Leisure and hospitality

25.9 26.1 26.1 26.1

Other services

31.9 31.7 31.7 31.7

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.2 3.3 3.3 3.4

Durable goods

3.1 3.3 3.3 3.4

Nondurable goods

3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Apr.
2011
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012(p)
Apr.
2012(p)
Apr.
2011
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012(p)
Apr.
2012(p)

Total private

$22.97 $23.33 $23.37 $23.38 $790.17 $807.22 $806.27 $806.61

Goods-producing

24.35 24.62 24.66 24.69 969.13 997.11 991.33 997.48

Mining and logging

28.40 28.55 28.79 28.65 1,260.96 1,276.19 1,275.40 1,277.79

Construction

25.38 25.55 25.63 25.65 959.36 993.90 989.32 995.22

Manufacturing

23.61 23.91 23.92 23.96 953.84 977.92 973.54 977.57

Durable goods

25.11 25.31 25.31 25.34 1,024.49 1,047.83 1,040.24 1,044.01

Nondurable goods

21.11 21.50 21.54 21.59 840.18 864.30 863.75 867.92

Private service-providing

22.64 23.03 23.07 23.07 753.91 769.20 770.54 768.23

Trade, transportation, and utilities

19.95 20.21 20.29 20.33 692.27 703.31 704.06 705.45

Wholesale trade

26.30 26.52 26.67 26.66 1,015.18 1,028.98 1,032.13 1,031.74

Retail trade

15.79 16.06 16.09 16.12 500.54 513.92 513.27 512.62

Transportation and warehousing

21.49 21.92 21.97 22.07 833.81 839.54 839.25 845.28

Utilities

33.86 33.42 33.68 33.83 1,422.12 1,380.25 1,390.98 1,410.71

Information

31.59 31.60 31.59 31.57 1,156.19 1,159.72 1,159.35 1,158.62

Financial activities

27.72 28.66 28.80 28.79 1,031.18 1,069.02 1,074.24 1,073.87

Professional and business services

27.60 27.89 28.00 27.93 985.32 1,001.25 1,005.20 1,002.69

Education and health services

23.54 24.18 24.10 24.09 774.47 795.52 792.89 790.15

Leisure and hospitality

13.21 13.30 13.34 13.37 342.14 347.13 348.17 348.96

Other services

20.34 20.63 20.55 20.57 648.85 653.97 651.44 652.07

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Apr.
2011
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012(p)
Apr.
2012(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2012 - Apr.
2012(p)
Apr.
2011
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012(p)
Apr.
2012(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2012 - Apr.
2012(p)

Total private

94.0 96.0 95.9 96.0 0.1 102.9 106.8 106.8 107.0 0.2

Goods-producing

81.5 84.4 83.9 84.4 0.6 89.7 93.9 93.6 94.2 0.6

Mining and logging

107.1 117.6 116.5 117.3 0.7 122.2 134.8 134.7 134.9 0.1

Construction

71.6 74.6 74.0 74.3 0.4 79.0 82.8 82.4 82.8 0.5

Manufacturing

85.2 87.5 87.4 87.7 0.3 93.5 97.3 97.2 97.7 0.5

Durable goods

83.2 86.6 86.3 86.7 0.5 92.8 97.3 97.0 97.5 0.5

Nondurable goods

88.9 89.5 89.6 89.8 0.2 95.2 97.7 97.9 98.4 0.5

Private service-providing

97.3 99.2 99.3 99.1 -0.2 106.8 110.6 111.0 110.8 -0.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

94.3 95.6 95.2 95.3 0.1 101.2 103.9 104.0 104.3 0.3

Wholesale trade

92.9 94.6 94.4 94.6 0.2 102.0 104.7 105.1 105.2 0.1

Retail trade

94.2 95.8 95.4 95.3 -0.1 98.3 101.7 101.5 101.5 0.0

Transportation and warehousing

95.0 95.4 95.2 95.1 -0.1 103.6 106.1 106.2 106.5 0.3

Utilities

100.7 100.2 100.4 101.6 1.2 112.7 110.6 111.7 113.6 1.7

Information

89.3 88.4 88.1 88.1 0.0 100.4 99.4 99.1 99.0 -0.1

Financial activities

94.1 94.7 94.9 94.9 0.0 101.8 105.9 106.6 106.6 0.0

Professional and business services

96.8 100.3 100.5 100.8 0.3 108.3 113.3 114.0 114.1 0.1

Education and health services

106.1 108.1 108.3 108.1 -0.2 117.0 122.4 122.3 122.0 -0.2

Leisure and hospitality

98.2 100.9 101.3 101.4 0.1 104.7 108.3 109.0 109.3 0.3

Other services

94.3 94.1 94.1 94.1 0.0 108.8 110.2 109.8 109.9 0.1

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Apr.
2011
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012(p)
Apr.
2012(p)
Apr.
2011
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012(p)
Apr.
2012(p)

Total nonfarm

64,955 65,411 65,471 65,555 49.5 49.3 49.3 49.3

Total private

52,349 52,901 52,966 53,046 48.0 47.8 47.8 47.8

Goods-producing

4,068 4,066 4,078 4,094 22.6 22.2 22.3 22.3

Mining and logging

104 111 112 114 13.5 13.3 13.4 13.6

Construction

709 707 707 708 12.9 12.7 12.7 12.7

Manufacturing

3,255 3,248 3,259 3,272 27.8 27.3 27.3 27.4

Durable goods

1,719 1,724 1,730 1,737 23.7 23.2 23.2 23.2

Nondurable goods

1,536 1,524 1,529 1,535 34.3 34.2 34.2 34.3

Private service-providing

48,281 48,835 48,888 48,952 53.1 52.8 52.8 52.8

Trade, transportation, and utilities

10,058 10,040 10,023 10,024 40.3 39.8 39.7 39.7

Wholesale trade

1,658.8 1,680.5 1,681.7 1,684.6 30.1 30.1 30.1 30.1

Retail trade

7,255.5 7,211.8 7,193.5 7,193.9 49.6 48.9 48.9 48.8

Transportation and warehousing

1,007.8 1,008.8 1,008.6 1,004.9 23.5 23.2 23.2 23.2

Utilities

135.5 139.2 139.3 140.6 24.4 24.8 24.8 25.0

Information

1,085 1,066 1,063 1,064 40.6 40.4 40.4 40.5

Financial activities

4,487 4,479 4,486 4,477 58.4 58.1 58.1 58.0

Professional and business services

7,662 7,861 7,883 7,913 44.4 44.3 44.3 44.3

Education and health services

15,233 15,489 15,511 15,533 76.9 76.8 76.7 76.7

Leisure and hospitality

6,947 7,074 7,099 7,114 52.3 52.2 52.2 52.3

Other services

2,809 2,826 2,823 2,827 52.7 52.7 52.7 52.8

Government

12,606 12,510 12,505 12,509 56.8 56.9 56.9 56.9

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Apr.
2011
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012(p)
Apr.
2012(p)

Total private

89,850 91,504 91,612 91,740

Goods-producing

12,961 13,219 13,254 13,268

Mining and logging

578 638 633 635

Construction

4,158 4,204 4,211 4,206

Manufacturing

8,225 8,377 8,410 8,427

Durable goods

4,966 5,123 5,146 5,166

Nondurable goods

3,259 3,254 3,264 3,261

Private service-providing

76,889 78,285 78,358 78,472

Trade, transportation, and utilities

21,164 21,419 21,411 21,433

Wholesale trade

4,419.2 4,497.6 4,501.4 4,508.8

Retail trade

12,615.2 12,725.9 12,703.1 12,730.3

Transportation and warehousing

3,687.0 3,748.7 3,758.4 3,745.9

Utilities

442.8 447.0 447.6 448.4

Information

2,146 2,123 2,118 2,118

Financial activities

5,889 5,914 5,920 5,919

Professional and business services

14,162 14,660 14,677 14,731

Education and health services

17,351 17,709 17,733 17,756

Leisure and hospitality

11,710 11,972 12,011 12,032

Other services

4,467 4,488 4,488 4,483

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Apr.
2011
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012(p)
Apr.
2012(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.7 33.8 33.8 33.8

Goods-producing

40.8 41.3 41.2 41.3

Mining and logging

46.6 47.6 47.4 48.4

Construction

38.8 39.3 39.3 39.4

Manufacturing

41.4 41.9 41.7 41.8

Durable goods

41.8 42.3 42.1 42.2

Nondurable goods

40.9 41.1 41.0 41.0

Private service-providing

32.5 32.5 32.5 32.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.8 33.9 33.8 33.8

Wholesale trade

38.5 38.9 38.7 38.7

Retail trade

30.6 30.7 30.7 30.7

Transportation and warehousing

38.0 37.8 37.7 37.8

Utilities

42.7 40.7 40.5 40.9

Information

36.5 36.0 36.0 35.9

Financial activities

36.3 36.6 36.7 36.6

Professional and business services

35.3 35.3 35.2 35.3

Education and health services

32.3 32.4 32.4 32.3

Leisure and hospitality

24.8 24.9 25.0 24.9

Other services

30.8 30.6 30.7 30.7

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

4.1 4.2 4.2 4.2

Durable goods

4.2 4.4 4.4 4.4

Nondurable goods

4.0 4.0 4.0 3.9

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Apr.
2011
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012(p)
Apr.
2012(p)
Apr.
2011
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012(p)
Apr.
2012(p)

Total private

$19.39 $19.65 $19.69 $19.72 $653.44 $664.17 $665.52 $666.54

Goods-producing

20.59 20.84 20.90 20.94 840.07 860.69 861.08 864.82

Mining and logging

24.04 25.46 25.61 25.45 1,120.26 1,211.90 1,213.91 1,231.78

Construction

23.57 23.82 23.93 23.91 914.52 936.13 940.45 942.05

Manufacturing

18.90 19.04 19.06 19.15 782.46 797.78 794.80 800.47

Durable goods

20.11 20.16 20.16 20.23 840.60 852.77 848.74 853.71

Nondurable goods

17.02 17.23 17.28 17.39 696.12 708.15 708.48 712.99

Private service-providing

19.14 19.39 19.43 19.46 622.05 630.18 631.48 632.45

Trade, transportation, and utilities

17.10 17.32 17.37 17.39 577.98 587.15 587.11 587.78

Wholesale trade

21.93 22.01 22.11 22.14 844.31 856.19 855.66 856.82

Retail trade

13.46 13.74 13.78 13.75 411.88 421.82 423.05 422.13

Transportation and warehousing

19.39 19.63 19.69 19.75 736.82 742.01 742.31 746.55

Utilities

31.12 31.01 31.09 31.39 1,328.82 1,262.11 1,259.15 1,283.85

Information

26.72 26.71 26.80 26.80 975.28 961.56 964.80 962.12

Financial activities

21.86 22.43 22.47 22.56 793.52 820.94 824.65 825.70

Professional and business services

23.08 23.13 23.24 23.26 814.72 816.49 818.05 821.08

Education and health services

20.59 21.03 21.03 21.05 665.06 681.37 681.37 679.92

Leisure and hospitality

11.42 11.58 11.61 11.66 283.22 288.34 290.25 290.33

Other services

17.27 17.44 17.36 17.37 531.92 533.66 532.95 533.26

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Apr.
2011
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012(p)
Apr.
2012(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2012 - Apr.
2012(p)
Apr.
2011
Feb.
2012
Mar.
2012(p)
Apr.
2012(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2012 - Apr.
2012(p)

Total private

101.2 103.3 103.5 103.6 0.1 131.1 135.7 136.1 136.5 0.3

Goods-producing

80.8 83.4 83.4 83.7 0.4 101.9 106.5 106.8 107.4 0.6

Mining and logging

143.1 161.4 159.4 163.3 2.4 200.1 239.0 237.5 241.7 1.8

Construction

80.8 82.7 82.9 83.0 0.1 102.8 106.4 107.1 107.1 0.0

Manufacturing

78.2 80.6 80.5 80.9 0.5 96.6 100.3 100.3 101.3 1.0

Durable goods

78.0 81.4 81.4 81.9 0.6 97.9 102.5 102.5 103.5 1.0

Nondurable goods

78.5 78.8 78.8 78.8 0.0 94.5 95.9 96.3 96.8 0.5

Private service-providing

106.8 108.8 108.9 109.0 0.1 140.2 144.6 145.1 145.5 0.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

99.7 101.2 100.9 101.0 0.1 121.6 125.1 125.0 125.3 0.2

Wholesale trade

100.2 103.0 102.6 102.8 0.2 129.4 133.6 133.6 134.0 0.3

Retail trade

97.7 98.9 98.7 98.9 0.2 112.7 116.5 116.6 116.6 0.0

Transportation and warehousing

105.5 106.7 106.7 106.6 -0.1 129.7 132.8 133.2 133.5 0.2

Utilities

96.7 93.0 92.7 93.8 1.2 125.6 120.4 120.3 122.9 2.2

Information

89.4 87.2 87.0 86.8 -0.2 118.3 115.3 115.5 115.1 -0.3

Financial activities

102.3 103.6 104.0 103.7 -0.3 138.3 143.6 144.4 144.6 0.1

Professional and business services

112.0 116.0 115.8 116.5 0.6 153.9 159.6 160.1 161.3 0.7

Education and health services

120.9 123.8 123.9 123.7 -0.2 163.6 171.1 171.3 171.2 -0.1

Leisure and hospitality

106.4 109.2 110.0 109.7 -0.3 138.0 143.6 145.0 145.3 0.2

Other services

96.5 96.3 96.6 96.5 -0.1 121.4 122.4 122.2 122.2 0.0

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary


Last Modified Date: May 14, 2012
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