Economic News Release

Employment Situation News Release

Transmission of material in this release is embargoed   	       USDL-11-0622
until 8:30 a.m. (EDT) Friday, May 6, 2011

Technical information:
 Household data:     (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  * www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data: (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  * www.bls.gov/ces
 
Media contact:       (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                 THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- APRIL 2011


Nonfarm payroll employment rose by 244,000 in April, and the unemployment rate
edged up to 9.0 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today.
Job gains occurred in several service-providing industries, manufacturing,
and mining.

Household Survey Data

The number of unemployed persons, at 13.7 million, changed little in
April. The unemployment rate edged up from 8.8 to 9.0 percent over the
month but was 0.8 percentage point lower than in November. The labor
force also was little changed in April. (See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult men
(8.8 percent), adult women (7.9 percent), teenagers (24.9 percent),
whites (8.0 percent), blacks (16.1 percent), and Hispanics (11.8 percent)
showed little change in April. The jobless rate for Asians was 6.4 percent,
not seasonally adjusted. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

The number of persons unemployed for less than 5 weeks increased by
242,000 in April. The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for
27 weeks and over) declined by 283,000 to 5.8 million; their share of 
unemployment declined to 43.4 percent. (See table A-12.)

The civilian labor force participation rate was 64.2 percent for the
fourth consecutive month. The employment-population ratio, at 58.4 percent,
changed little in April. (See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons
(sometimes referred to as involuntary part-time workers) was little
changed over the month, at 8.6 million. These individuals were working
part time because their hours had been cut back or because they were
unable to find a full-time job. (See table A-8.)

In April, 2.5 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force,
about the same as a year earlier. (These data are not seasonally adjusted.)
These individuals were not in the labor force, wanted and were available
for work, and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months. They
were not counted as unemployed because they had not searched for work in
the 4 weeks preceding the survey. (See table A-16.)

Among the marginally attached, there were 989,000 discouraged workers in
April, a decline of 208,000 from a year earlier. (These data are not 
seasonally adjusted.) Discouraged workers are persons not currently 
looking for work because they believe no jobs are available for them.
The remaining 1.5 million persons marginally attached to the labor force
in April had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey
for reasons such as school attendance or family responsibilities.
(See table A-16.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 244,000 in April, and the
private sector added 268,000 jobs. Employment rose in a number of service-
providing industries, manufacturing, and mining. Since a recent low in 
February 2010, total payroll employment has grown by 1.8 million. Private
sector employment has increased by 2.1 million over the same period.
(See table B-1.)

In April, employment in retail trade rose by 57,000. Within the industry,
employment in general merchandise stores increased by 27,000, offsetting
a decline of similar magnitude in the prior month. Elsewhere in retail
trade, April job gains occurred in electronics and appliance stores
(+6,000), building material and garden supply stores (+6,000), and 
automobile dealers (+5,000).

Employment in professional and business services continued to expand in 
April, with an increase of 51,000. Job gains occurred in management and
technical consulting services (+11,000) and in computer systems design
and related services (+8,000). Employment in temporary help services
was little changed over the month, following an increase of 34,000 in March.

Health care continued to add jobs in April (+37,000). Within health care,
job gains continued in ambulatory health care (+22,000) and hospitals
(+10,000).

Employment in leisure and hospitality continued to increase in April
(+46,000). Over the past 3 months, this industry added 151,000 jobs, with
nearly two-thirds of the growth in food services and drinking places.

Employment in both state government and local government continued to trend
down, with April losses concentrated in the non-educational components.
Elsewhere in the service-providing sector, employment in information,
financial activities, and transportation and warehousing changed little
in April.

In the goods-producing sector of the economy, manufacturing employment
rose by 29,000 in April. Since reaching an employment low in December 2009,
manufacturing has added 250,000 jobs, including 141,000 in 2011. Over the
month, employment growth continued in machinery (+5,000), primary metals
(+4,000), and computer and electronic products (+4,000).

Mining added 11,000 jobs in April. More than half of the gain occurred in
support activities for mining. Since a recent low point in October 2009,
employment in mining has increased by 107,000.

Construction employment was about unchanged in April. This industry has shown
little net movement since early 2010, after having fallen sharply during the
prior 3 years.

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls remained
at 34.3 hours in April. The manufacturing workweek for all employees, at 
40.4 hours, also was unchanged over the month, while factory overtime 
increased by 0.1 hour to 3.3 hours. The average workweek for production
and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls was unchanged in
April at 33.6 hours. (See tables B-2 and B-7.)

In April, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm
payrolls increased by 3 cents, or 0.1 percent, to $22.95. Over the past 12
months, average hourly earnings increased by 1.9 percent. In April, average
hourly earnings of private-sector production and nonsupervisory employees
rose by 5 cents, or 0.3 percent, to $19.37. (See tables B-3 and B-8.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for February was revised 
from +194,000 to +235,000, and the change for March was revised from 
+216,000 to +221,000.

_____________
The Employment Situation for May is scheduled to be released on Friday,
June 3, 2011, at 8:30 a.m. (EDT).




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Apr.
2010
Feb.
2011
Mar.
2011
Apr.
2011
Change from:
Mar.
2011-
Apr.
2011

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

237,329 238,851 239,000 239,146 146

Civilian labor force

154,520 153,246 153,406 153,421 15

Participation rate

65.1 64.2 64.2 64.2 0.0

Employed

139,382 139,573 139,864 139,674 -190

Employment-population ratio

58.7 58.4 58.5 58.4 -0.1

Unemployed

15,138 13,673 13,542 13,747 205

Unemployment rate

9.8 8.9 8.8 9.0 0.2

Not in labor force

82,809 85,605 85,594 85,725 131

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

9.8 8.9 8.8 9.0 0.2

Adult men (20 years and over)

10.0 8.7 8.6 8.8 0.2

Adult women (20 years and over)

8.2 8.0 7.7 7.9 0.2

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

25.4 23.9 24.5 24.9 0.4

White

9.0 8.0 7.9 8.0 0.1

Black or African American

16.5 15.3 15.5 16.1 0.6

Asian (not seasonally adjusted)

6.8 6.8 7.1 6.4 -

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

12.4 11.6 11.3 11.8 0.5

Total, 25 years and over

8.3 7.6 7.4 7.6 0.2

Less than a high school diploma

14.7 13.9 13.7 14.6 0.9

High school graduates, no college

10.5 9.5 9.5 9.7 0.2

Some college or associate degree

8.3 7.8 7.4 7.5 0.1

Bachelor's degree and higher

4.8 4.3 4.4 4.5 0.1

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

9,237 8,334 8,209 8,144 -65

Job leavers

933 898 896 942 46

Reentrants

3,749 3,352 3,262 3,375 113

New entrants

1,217 1,337 1,360 1,346 -14

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

2,695 2,390 2,449 2,691 242

5 to 14 weeks

3,000 3,094 2,914 2,907 -7

15 to 26 weeks

2,274 2,179 1,957 2,006 49

27 weeks and over

6,659 5,993 6,122 5,839 -283

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

9,146 8,340 8,433 8,600 167

Slack work or business conditions

6,247 5,630 5,595 5,689 94

Could only find part-time work

2,492 2,415 2,332 2,480 148

Part time for noneconomic reasons

18,035 18,220 18,417 18,282 -135

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)

Marginally attached to the labor force

2,432 2,730 2,434 2,466 -

Discouraged workers

1,197 1,020 921 989 -

- Over-the-month changes are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Apr.
2010
Feb.
2011
Mar.
2011(p)
Apr.
2011(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

277 235 221 244

Total private

229 261 231 268

Goods-producing

61 81 37 44

Mining and logging

7 5 13 10

Construction

16 39 2 5

Manufacturing

38 37 22 29

Durable goods(1)

29 28 21 19

Motor vehicles and parts

5.0 -0.5 2.5 2.9

Nondurable goods

9 9 1 10

Private service-providing(1)

168 180 194 224

Wholesale trade

1.3 15.8 16.1 7.0

Retail trade

15.9 0.1 -3.2 57.1

Transportation and warehousing

4.8 17.0 3.0 4.1

Information

-2 -3 -2 2

Financial activities

5 -1 5 4

Professional and business services(1)

69 38 86 51

Temporary help services

21.1 11.5 34.4 -2.3

Education and health services(1)

27 43 33 49

Health care and social assistance

22.5 27.6 39.0 41.8

Leisure and hospitality

35 54 51 46

Other services

12 14 6 1

Government

48 -26 -10 -24

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES(2)
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES

Total nonfarm women employees

49.9 49.6 49.6 49.5

Total private women employees

48.4 48.1 48.1 48.1

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.4 82.4 82.4 82.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

34.1 34.3 34.3 34.3

Average hourly earnings

$22.52 $22.88 $22.92 $22.95

Average weekly earnings

$767.93 $784.78 $786.16 $787.19

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

91.6 93.1 93.3 93.6

Over-the-month percent change

0.2 0.5 0.2 0.3

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

98.3 101.6 102.0 102.4

Over-the-month percent change

0.4 0.6 0.4 0.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

33.4 33.6 33.6 33.6

Average hourly earnings

$18.98 $19.32 $19.32 $19.37

Average weekly earnings

$633.93 $649.15 $649.15 $650.83

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2002=100)(3)

98.6 100.2 100.5 100.7

Over-the-month percent change

0.5 0.8 0.3 0.2

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2002=100)(4)

125.0 129.4 129.7 130.4

Over-the-month percent change

0.8 0.9 0.2 0.5

DIFFUSION INDEX(5)
(Over 1-month span)

Total private

63.9 70.8 64.4 64.6

Manufacturing

66.7 67.9 63.0 65.4

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary


Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates

Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based estimates
of employment and both have strengths and limitations. The establishment survey
employment series has a smaller margin of error on the measurement of month-to-
month change than the household survey because of its much larger sample size. An
over-the-month employment change of about 100,000 is statistically significant in
the establishment survey, while the threshold for a statistically significant
change in the household survey is about 400,000. However, the household survey has
a more expansive scope than the establishment survey because it includes the self-
employed, unpaid family workers, agricultural workers, and private household workers,
who are excluded by the establishment survey. The household survey also provides
estimates of employment for demographic groups.

Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants. However,
neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to identify the legal
status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to determine how many are counted in
either survey. The establishment survey does not collect data on the legal status of
workers. The household survey does include questions which identify the foreign and
native born, but it does not include questions about the legal status of the foreign
born.

Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data series by
incorporating additional information that was not available at the time of the
initial publication of the estimates. The establishment survey revises its initial
monthly estimates twice, in the immediately succeeding 2 months, to incorporate
additional sample receipts from respondents in the survey and recalculated seasonal
adjustment factors. For more information on the monthly revisions, please visit
www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revision that
re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available from unemployment
insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for sampling and modeling errors
in the estimates. For more information on the annual benchmark revision, please visit
www.bls.gov/web/cesbmart.htm.

Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of business
establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sample is
designed to maximize the reliability of the total nonfarm employment estimate; firms
from all size classes and industries are appropriately sampled to achieve that goal.

Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account for
the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The adjustment
comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net jobs impact of
business births and deaths based on the actual past values of the net impact that
can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The
establishment survey uses modeling rather than sampling for this purpose because the
survey is not immediately able to bring new businesses into the sample. There is an
unavoidable lag between the birth of a new firm and its appearance on the sampling
frame and availability for selection. BLS adds new businesses to the survey twice a
year.

Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving
unemployment insurance benefits?

No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of households.
All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available to work
are included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are included even if
they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or question relating to
unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who have stopped
looking for work?

Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
want a job, including those who have stopped looking because they believe no jobs
are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in The Employment
Situation news release.

How can unusually severe weather affect employment and hours estimates?

In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period that includes
the 12th of the month. Unusually severe weather is more likely to have an impact
on average weekly hours than on employment. Average weekly hours are estimated for
paid time during the pay period, including pay for holidays, sick leave, or other
time off. The impact of severe weather on hours estimates typically, but not always,
results in a reduction in average weekly hours. For example, some employees may be
off work for part of the pay period and not receive pay for the time missed, while
some workers, such as those dealing with cleanup or repair, may work extra hours.

In order for severe weather conditions to reduce the estimate of payroll employment,
employees have to be off work without pay for the entire pay period. About half of
all employees in the payroll survey have a 2-week, semi-monthly, or monthly pay
period. Employees who receive pay for any part of the pay period, even 1 hour, are
counted in the payroll employment figures. It is not possible to quantify the effect
of extreme weather on estimates of employment from the establishment survey.


In the household survey, the reference period is generally the calendar week that
includes the 12th of the month. Persons who miss the entire week’s work for weather-
related events are counted as employed whether or not they are paid for the time off.
The household survey collects data on the number of persons who usually work full
time but had reduced hours, or had a job but were not at work due to bad weather.
Current and historical data are available on the household survey’s most requested
statistics page at http://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?ln.




Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the
Current Population Survey (household survey) and the Current Employment
Statistics survey (establishment survey). The household survey provides
information on the labor force, employment, and unemployment that appears
in the "A" tables, marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a sample survey of about
60,000 households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau
of Labor Statistics (BLS). 

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, 
and earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the 
"B" tables, marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each 
month from the payroll records of a sample of nonagricultural business
establishments. The sample includes about 140,000 businesses and government
agencies representing approximately 440,000 worksites and is drawn from a
sampling frame of roughly 9 million unemployment insurance tax accounts.
The active sample includes approximately one-third of all nonfarm payroll
employees. 

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular week
or pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is generally
the calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. In the establishment
survey, the reference period is the pay period including the 12th, which 
may or may not correspond directly to the calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire
civilian noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series
of questions on work and job search activities, each person 16 years
and over in a sample household is classified as employed, unemployed,
or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as paid
employees during the reference week; worked in their own business, 
profession, or on their own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 
hours in a family business or farm. People are also counted as employed
if they were temporarily absent from their jobs because of illness, bad
weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the following
criteria: they had no employment during the reference week; they were
available for work at that time; and they made specific efforts to find
employment sometime during the 4-week period ending with the reference
week. Persons laid off from a job and expecting recall need not be 
looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The unemployment data
derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the eligibility
for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed persons.
Those not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the labor 
force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of
the labor force. The labor force participation rate is the labor force
as a percent of the population, and the employment-population ratio is
the employed as a percent of the population. Additional information about
the household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from private
nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as well as 
from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees on nonfarm
payrolls are those who received pay for any part of the reference pay 
period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are counted in each job
they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced for the private sector
for all employees and for production and nonsupervisory employees. 
Production and nonsupervisory employees are defined as production and 
related employees in manufacturing and mining and logging, construction
workers in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in private service-
providing industries. 

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment’s principal
activity in accordance with the 2007 version of the North American Industry
Classification System. Additional information about the establishment survey
can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/#technical.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and
methodological differences between the household and establishment
surveys result in important distinctions in the employment estimates
derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, the self-
     employed, unpaid family workers, and private household workers
     among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.
  
   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the
     employed. The establishment survey does not.
  
   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and
     older. The establishment survey is not limited by age.
  
   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than
     one job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted
     separately for each appearance.
  
Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and
the levels of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring
fluctuations. These events may result from seasonal changes in weather, 
major holidays, and the opening and closing of schools. The effect of 
such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern
each year, their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by
adjusting for regular seasonal variation. These adjustments make 
nonseasonal developments, such as declines in employment or increases
in the participation of women in the labor force, easier to spot. For
example, in the household survey, the large number of youth entering
the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes that
have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if
the level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in
the establishment survey, payroll employment in education declines by
about 20 percent at the end of the spring term and later rises with
the start of the fall term, obscuring the underlying employment trends
in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes at the end and
beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The
seasonally adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to
analyze changes in month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both
the household and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series
for many major estimates, such as total payroll employment, employment
in most major sectors, total employment, and unemployment are computed
by aggregating independently adjusted component series. For example,
total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate
that would be obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining
the duration, reasons, or more detailed age categories.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent
seasonal adjustment methodology is used in which new seasonal factors
are calculated each month using all relevant data, up to and including
the data for the current month. In the household survey, new seasonal
factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the 
establishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month 
to adjust the three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months 
are routinely revised to incorporate additional sample reports and 
recalculated seasonal adjustment factors. In both surveys, 5-year revisions
to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are
subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample rather
than the entire population is surveyed, there is a chance that the
sample estimates may differ from the "true" population values they
represent. The exact difference, or sampling error, varies depending
on the particular sample selected, and this variability is measured by
the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, 
or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ 
by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the "true" population value 
because of sampling error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 
90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in
total nonfarm employment from the establishment survey is on the order
of plus or minus 100,0001. Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment
increases by 50,000 from one month to the next. The 90-percent confidence
interval on the monthly change would range from -50,000 to +150,000 
(50,000 +/- 100,0002). These figures do not mean that the sample results
are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is about a 90-percent
chance that the "true" over-the-month change lies within this interval.
Since this range includes values of less than zero, we could not say with
confidence that nonfarm employment had, in fact, increased that month.
If, however, the reported nonfarm employment rise was 250,000, then all
of the values within the 90-percent confidence interval would be greater
than zero. In this case, it is likely (at least a 90-percent chance) that
nonfarm employment had, in fact, risen that month. At an unemployment rate
of around 5.5 percent, the 90-percent confidence interval for the monthly
change in unemployment as measured by the household survey is about 
+/- 280,000, and for the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is
about +/-0.19 percentage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments
have lower standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than
estimates which are based on a small number of observations. The precision
of estimates also is improved when the data are cumulated over time, such
as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by
nonsampling error, which can occur for many reasons, including the failure
to sample a segment of the population, inability to obtain information
for all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of 
respondents to provide correct information on a timely basis, mistakes
made by respondents, and errors made in the collection or processing of
the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most
recent 2 months are based on incomplete returns; for this reason, these
estimates are labeled preliminary in the tables. It is only after two
successive revisions to a monthly estimate, when nearly all sample
reports have been received, that the estimate is considered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment survey
is the inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment generated by
new firms. To correct for this systematic underestimation of employment
growth, an estimation procedure with two components is used to account
for business births. The first component excludes employment losses from
business deaths from sample-based estimation in order to offset the 
missing employment gains from business births. This is incorporated into
the sample-based estimation procedure by simply not reflecting sample
units going out of business, but imputing to them the same employment
trend as the other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for most
of the net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to estimate
the residual net birth/death employment not accounted for by the 
imputation. The historical time series used to create and test the ARIMA
model was derived from the unemployment insurance universe micro-level
database, and reflects the actual residual net of births and deaths over
the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are adjusted
once a year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll employment
obtained from administrative records of the unemployment insurance program.
The difference between the March sample-based employment estimates and
the March universe counts is known as a benchmark revision, and serves as
a rough proxy for total survey error. The new benchmarks also incorporate
changes in the classification of industries. Over the past decade, absolute
benchmark revisions  for total nonfarm employment have averaged 0.3 percent,
with a range from -0.7 to 0.6 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Apr.
2010
Mar.
2011
Apr.
2011
Apr.
2010
Dec.
2010
Jan.
2011
Feb.
2011
Mar.
2011
Apr.
2011

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

237,329 239,000 239,146 237,329 238,889 238,704 238,851 239,000 239,146

Civilian labor force

153,911 153,022 152,898 154,520 153,690 153,186 153,246 153,406 153,421

Participation rate

64.9 64.0 63.9 65.1 64.3 64.2 64.2 64.2 64.2

Employed

139,302 138,962 139,661 139,382 139,206 139,323 139,573 139,864 139,674

Employment-population ratio

58.7 58.1 58.4 58.7 58.3 58.4 58.4 58.5 58.4

Unemployed

14,609 14,060 13,237 15,138 14,485 13,863 13,673 13,542 13,747

Unemployment rate

9.5 9.2 8.7 9.8 9.4 9.0 8.9 8.8 9.0

Not in labor force

83,418 85,977 86,248 82,809 85,199 85,518 85,605 85,594 85,725

Persons who currently want a job

5,865 6,250 6,482 5,928 6,471 6,410 6,410 6,509 6,539

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

114,910 115,988 116,067 114,910 115,731 115,828 115,907 115,988 116,067

Civilian labor force

82,014 81,491 81,354 82,355 81,845 81,544 81,720 81,674 81,684

Participation rate

71.4 70.3 70.1 71.7 70.7 70.4 70.5 70.4 70.4

Employed

73,315 73,187 73,761 73,526 73,600 73,800 74,122 74,108 73,973

Employment-population ratio

63.8 63.1 63.6 64.0 63.6 63.7 63.9 63.9 63.7

Unemployed

8,699 8,304 7,593 8,829 8,245 7,744 7,598 7,566 7,712

Unemployment rate

10.6 10.2 9.3 10.7 10.1 9.5 9.3 9.3 9.4

Not in labor force

32,897 34,497 34,713 32,556 33,886 34,284 34,187 34,313 34,382

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

106,301 107,381 107,469 106,301 107,216 107,203 107,292 107,381 107,469

Civilian labor force

79,122 78,788 78,702 79,279 78,906 78,506 78,795 78,764 78,856

Participation rate

74.4 73.4 73.2 74.6 73.6 73.2 73.4 73.4 73.4

Employed

71,226 71,207 71,822 71,348 71,480 71,589 71,954 71,959 71,939

Employment-population ratio

67.0 66.3 66.8 67.1 66.7 66.8 67.1 67.0 66.9

Unemployed

7,895 7,581 6,880 7,931 7,426 6,917 6,841 6,805 6,917

Unemployment rate

10.0 9.6 8.7 10.0 9.4 8.8 8.7 8.6 8.8

Not in labor force

27,179 28,593 28,767 27,022 28,310 28,698 28,497 28,617 28,612

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

122,419 123,012 123,079 122,419 123,158 122,876 122,944 123,012 123,079

Civilian labor force

71,898 71,532 71,544 72,165 71,845 71,642 71,526 71,732 71,737

Participation rate

58.7 58.1 58.1 58.9 58.3 58.3 58.2 58.3 58.3

Employed

65,988 65,775 65,900 65,856 65,605 65,523 65,451 65,756 65,702

Employment-population ratio

53.9 53.5 53.5 53.8 53.3 53.3 53.2 53.5 53.4

Unemployed

5,910 5,756 5,644 6,309 6,240 6,119 6,075 5,976 6,035

Unemployment rate

8.2 8.0 7.9 8.7 8.7 8.5 8.5 8.3 8.4

Not in labor force

50,521 51,481 51,535 50,253 51,313 51,234 51,418 51,280 51,342

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

114,066 114,792 114,868 114,066 114,894 114,637 114,714 114,792 114,868

Civilian labor force

69,101 68,903 68,863 69,167 69,027 68,839 68,802 68,898 68,896

Participation rate

60.6 60.0 59.9 60.6 60.1 60.0 60.0 60.0 60.0

Employed

63,746 63,681 63,733 63,501 63,428 63,392 63,319 63,566 63,479

Employment-population ratio

55.9 55.5 55.5 55.7 55.2 55.3 55.2 55.4 55.3

Unemployed

5,355 5,223 5,130 5,665 5,599 5,447 5,483 5,332 5,417

Unemployment rate

7.7 7.6 7.4 8.2 8.1 7.9 8.0 7.7 7.9

Not in labor force

44,965 45,888 46,005 44,899 45,867 45,798 45,912 45,894 45,972

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

16,962 16,827 16,809 16,962 16,780 16,863 16,845 16,827 16,809

Civilian labor force

5,689 5,331 5,333 6,074 5,757 5,841 5,649 5,744 5,669

Participation rate

33.5 31.7 31.7 35.8 34.3 34.6 33.5 34.1 33.7

Employed

4,330 4,075 4,106 4,533 4,298 4,341 4,300 4,339 4,255

Employment-population ratio

25.5 24.2 24.4 26.7 25.6 25.7 25.5 25.8 25.3

Unemployed

1,358 1,257 1,227 1,542 1,460 1,500 1,350 1,405 1,413

Unemployment rate

23.9 23.6 23.0 25.4 25.4 25.7 23.9 24.5 24.9

Not in labor force

11,273 11,496 11,476 10,888 11,022 11,022 11,196 11,083 11,140

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Apr.
2010
Mar.
2011
Apr.
2011
Apr.
2010
Dec.
2010
Jan.
2011
Feb.
2011
Mar.
2011
Apr.
2011

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

191,749 192,688 192,771 191,749 192,749 192,516 192,601 192,688 192,771

Civilian labor force

125,062 124,156 124,140 125,739 124,700 124,192 124,237 124,497 124,650

Participation rate

65.2 64.4 64.4 65.6 64.7 64.5 64.5 64.6 64.7

Employed

114,302 113,877 114,597 114,465 114,079 114,197 114,330 114,706 114,652

Employment-population ratio

59.6 59.1 59.4 59.7 59.2 59.3 59.4 59.5 59.5

Unemployed

10,760 10,279 9,542 11,275 10,620 9,995 9,907 9,791 9,998

Unemployment rate

8.6 8.3 7.7 9.0 8.5 8.0 8.0 7.9 8.0

Not in labor force

66,687 68,532 68,632 66,009 68,049 68,325 68,364 68,191 68,122

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

65,392 64,890 64,904 65,600 65,041 64,673 64,919 64,864 65,032

Participation rate

74.9 73.8 73.7 75.1 74.0 73.6 73.9 73.7 73.9

Employed

59,460 59,254 59,869 59,528 59,484 59,586 59,860 59,850 59,903

Employment-population ratio

68.1 67.4 68.0 68.2 67.7 67.8 68.1 68.0 68.1

Unemployed

5,932 5,635 5,035 6,072 5,557 5,086 5,059 5,014 5,129

Unemployment rate

9.1 8.7 7.8 9.3 8.5 7.9 7.8 7.7 7.9

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

54,971 54,900 54,882 55,116 54,914 54,686 54,677 54,950 54,971

Participation rate

60.1 59.8 59.7 60.2 59.7 59.6 59.5 59.8 59.8

Employed

51,174 51,169 51,275 51,091 50,920 50,878 50,816 51,184 51,138

Employment-population ratio

55.9 55.7 55.8 55.8 55.3 55.4 55.3 55.7 55.6

Unemployed

3,797 3,730 3,606 4,025 3,994 3,808 3,860 3,766 3,833

Unemployment rate

6.9 6.8 6.6 7.3 7.3 7.0 7.1 6.9 7.0

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,699 4,367 4,354 5,024 4,746 4,833 4,641 4,683 4,646

Participation rate

36.3 34.0 33.9 38.8 37.1 37.5 36.1 36.4 36.2

Employed

3,668 3,454 3,453 3,846 3,676 3,732 3,654 3,672 3,610

Employment-population ratio

28.3 26.9 26.9 29.7 28.7 29.0 28.4 28.6 28.1

Unemployed

1,031 913 901 1,178 1,070 1,100 987 1,011 1,036

Unemployment rate

21.9 20.9 20.7 23.4 22.5 22.8 21.3 21.6 22.3

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

28,624 29,005 29,035 28,624 28,896 28,947 28,976 29,005 29,035

Civilian labor force

17,868 17,705 17,765 17,967 17,958 17,857 17,865 17,836 17,849

Participation rate

62.4 61.0 61.2 62.8 62.1 61.7 61.7 61.5 61.5

Employed

15,020 14,965 14,966 14,996 15,119 15,048 15,124 15,067 14,966

Employment-population ratio

52.5 51.6 51.5 52.4 52.3 52.0 52.2 51.9 51.5

Unemployed

2,848 2,740 2,799 2,971 2,839 2,809 2,741 2,769 2,882

Unemployment rate

15.9 15.5 15.8 16.5 15.8 15.7 15.3 15.5 16.1

Not in labor force

10,756 11,300 11,270 10,657 10,939 11,090 11,112 11,169 11,186

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

8,081 8,093 8,091 8,112 8,106 8,054 8,053 8,119 8,113

Participation rate

69.8 68.5 68.4 70.1 69.1 68.3 68.2 68.7 68.6

Employed

6,635 6,635 6,688 6,672 6,764 6,723 6,745 6,758 6,731

Employment-population ratio

57.3 56.1 56.5 57.6 57.6 57.1 57.2 57.2 56.9

Unemployed

1,446 1,458 1,403 1,440 1,341 1,331 1,309 1,361 1,382

Unemployment rate

17.9 18.0 17.3 17.7 16.5 16.5 16.2 16.8 17.0

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,151 8,990 9,032 9,175 9,204 9,146 9,185 9,050 9,054

Participation rate

63.7 61.7 61.9 63.8 63.3 62.9 63.1 62.1 62.0

Employed

7,971 7,953 7,877 7,904 7,993 7,966 7,993 7,923 7,836

Employment-population ratio

55.4 54.6 54.0 55.0 55.0 54.8 54.9 54.4 53.7

Unemployed

1,181 1,037 1,155 1,270 1,211 1,179 1,192 1,127 1,217

Unemployment rate

12.9 11.5 12.8 13.8 13.2 12.9 13.0 12.5 13.4

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

635 623 642 681 648 658 627 668 682

Participation rate

23.8 23.8 24.6 25.5 24.6 25.1 23.9 25.6 26.2

Employed

414 378 402 420 361 359 386 387 398

Employment-population ratio

15.5 14.5 15.4 15.7 13.7 13.7 14.7 14.8 15.3

Unemployed

221 245 241 261 287 299 241 281 284

Unemployment rate

34.8 39.3 37.5 38.3 44.2 45.4 38.4 42.1 41.6

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

11,138 11,301 11,378 - - - - - -

Civilian labor force

7,300 7,410 7,295 - - - - - -

Participation rate

65.5 65.6 64.1 - - - - - -

Employed

6,806 6,881 6,832 - - - - - -

Employment-population ratio

61.1 60.9 60.0 - - - - - -

Unemployed

494 529 463 - - - - - -

Unemployment rate

6.8 7.1 6.4 - - - - - -

Not in labor force

3,838 3,892 4,083 - - - - - -

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Apr.
2010
Mar.
2011
Apr.
2011
Apr.
2010
Dec.
2010
Jan.
2011
Feb.
2011
Mar.
2011
Apr.
2011

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

33,498 34,155 34,233 33,498 34,188 34,001 34,079 34,155 34,233

Civilian labor force

22,554 22,585 22,672 22,674 22,868 22,823 22,519 22,676 22,798

Participation rate

67.3 66.1 66.2 67.7 66.9 67.1 66.1 66.4 66.6

Employed

19,872 19,896 20,124 19,854 19,906 20,099 19,912 20,105 20,110

Employment-population ratio

59.3 58.3 58.8 59.3 58.2 59.1 58.4 58.9 58.7

Unemployed

2,682 2,690 2,548 2,820 2,962 2,724 2,606 2,571 2,688

Unemployment rate

11.9 11.9 11.2 12.4 13.0 11.9 11.6 11.3 11.8

Not in labor force

10,944 11,570 11,561 10,824 11,320 11,178 11,561 11,479 11,435

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

12,838 12,889 12,899 - - - - - -

Participation rate

82.4 81.6 81.4 - - - - - -

Employed

11,405 11,452 11,568 - - - - - -

Employment-population ratio

73.2 72.5 73.0 - - - - - -

Unemployed

1,433 1,437 1,331 - - - - - -

Unemployment rate

11.2 11.1 10.3 - - - - - -

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

8,754 8,788 8,896 - - - - - -

Participation rate

59.6 58.7 59.3 - - - - - -

Employed

7,786 7,825 7,884 - - - - - -

Employment-population ratio

53.0 52.3 52.6 - - - - - -

Unemployed

969 963 1,012 - - - - - -

Unemployment rate

11.1 11.0 11.4 - - - - - -

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

961 909 878 - - - - - -

Participation rate

29.7 26.8 25.9 - - - - - -

Employed

681 619 672 - - - - - -

Employment-population ratio

21.0 18.3 19.8 - - - - - -

Unemployed

280 290 206 - - - - - -

Unemployment rate

29.2 31.9 23.4 - - - - - -

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2010
Mar.
2011
Apr.
2011
Apr.
2010
Dec.
2010
Jan.
2011
Feb.
2011
Mar.
2011
Apr.
2011

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

12,225 11,565 11,703 12,079 11,758 11,383 11,317 11,652 11,567

Participation rate

46.8 45.7 46.1 46.2 46.0 45.1 45.5 46.1 45.5

Employed

10,447 9,809 10,000 10,303 9,963 9,770 9,749 10,059 9,876

Employment-population ratio

40.0 38.8 39.4 39.4 39.0 38.7 39.2 39.8 38.9

Unemployed

1,778 1,756 1,703 1,776 1,795 1,613 1,568 1,593 1,691

Unemployment rate

14.5 15.2 14.5 14.7 15.3 14.2 13.9 13.7 14.6

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

38,779 37,541 37,485 38,854 38,203 37,513 37,525 37,171 37,506

Participation rate

62.3 60.6 60.4 62.4 60.9 60.3 60.3 60.0 60.4

Employed

34,723 33,604 33,886 34,763 34,465 33,972 33,965 33,654 33,881

Employment-population ratio

55.8 54.3 54.6 55.8 54.9 54.6 54.6 54.4 54.6

Unemployed

4,056 3,937 3,599 4,091 3,738 3,541 3,560 3,517 3,626

Unemployment rate

10.5 10.5 9.6 10.5 9.8 9.4 9.5 9.5 9.7

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

36,547 36,519 36,463 36,650 36,809 36,841 36,784 36,653 36,637

Participation rate

70.8 69.5 69.3 71.0 70.2 70.2 69.5 69.7 69.7

Employed

33,590 33,708 33,829 33,625 33,821 33,878 33,919 33,938 33,907

Employment-population ratio

65.1 64.1 64.3 65.1 64.5 64.6 64.1 64.6 64.5

Unemployed

2,957 2,811 2,634 3,025 2,988 2,963 2,865 2,715 2,730

Unemployment rate

8.1 7.7 7.2 8.3 8.1 8.0 7.8 7.4 7.5

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

45,794 46,979 46,913 45,839 46,312 46,263 46,591 46,919 46,897

Participation rate

77.2 77.0 77.0 77.2 76.9 76.4 76.9 76.9 77.0

Employed

43,778 44,943 44,976 43,641 44,095 44,322 44,588 44,843 44,789

Employment-population ratio

73.8 73.6 73.8 73.5 73.2 73.2 73.6 73.5 73.5

Unemployed

2,015 2,036 1,937 2,198 2,217 1,941 2,003 2,076 2,109

Unemployment rate

4.4 4.3 4.1 4.8 4.8 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Apr.
2010
Apr.
2011
Apr.
2010
Apr.
2011
Apr.
2010
Apr.
2011

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

22,093 21,697 20,310 19,898 1,783 1,799

Civilian labor force

11,742 11,318 10,632 10,191 1,110 1,128

Participation rate

53.1 52.2 52.4 51.2 62.2 62.7

Employed

10,679 10,445 9,669 9,427 1,010 1,018

Employment-population ratio

48.3 48.1 47.6 47.4 56.6 56.6

Unemployed

1,064 873 964 764 100 110

Unemployment rate

9.1 7.7 9.1 7.5 9.0 9.7

Not in labor force

10,351 10,379 9,678 9,707 673 671

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,101 2,466 1,748 1,996 353 470

Civilian labor force

1,694 1,962 1,441 1,646 254 315

Participation rate

80.6 79.5 82.4 82.5 71.9 67.1

Employed

1,472 1,748 1,249 1,454 223 293

Employment-population ratio

70.0 70.9 71.4 72.9 63.2 62.5

Unemployed

223 214 192 192 31 22

Unemployment rate

13.1 10.9 13.3 11.7 12.0 6.9

Not in labor force

407 505 308 350 99 155

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,989 2,855 2,500 2,417 489 437

Civilian labor force

2,610 2,406 2,226 2,087 383 319

Participation rate

87.3 84.3 89.0 86.3 78.4 72.9

Employed

2,397 2,248 2,047 1,953 350 296

Employment-population ratio

80.2 78.7 81.9 80.8 71.6 67.6

Unemployed

213 158 179 135 33 23

Unemployment rate

8.1 6.6 8.1 6.5 8.7 7.3

Not in labor force

380 449 274 330 106 119

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

11,103 10,529 10,725 10,201 377 327

Civilian labor force

4,019 3,582 3,904 3,444 116 139

Participation rate

36.2 34.0 36.4 33.8 30.7 42.4

Employed

3,726 3,354 3,614 3,235 112 119

Employment-population ratio

33.6 31.9 33.7 31.7 29.6 36.5

Unemployed

293 229 289 209 4 19

Unemployment rate

7.3 6.4 7.4 6.1 3.4 13.9

Not in labor force

7,083 6,946 6,822 6,758 262 189

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,900 5,847 5,336 5,283 564 565

Civilian labor force

3,419 3,368 3,062 3,013 357 355

Participation rate

58.0 57.6 57.4 57.0 63.3 62.9

Employed

3,084 3,095 2,759 2,786 325 309

Employment-population ratio

52.3 52.9 51.7 52.7 57.6 54.8

Unemployed

335 273 303 227 32 45

Unemployment rate

9.8 8.1 9.9 7.6 9.0 12.8

Not in labor force

2,481 2,479 2,274 2,270 207 210

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

206,378 208,727 90,114 91,652 116,264 117,075

Civilian labor force

140,337 139,957 70,471 70,399 69,867 69,558

Participation rate

68.0 67.1 78.2 76.8 60.1 59.4

Employed

127,291 128,072 63,007 63,803 64,284 64,269

Employment-population ratio

61.7 61.4 69.9 69.6 55.3 54.9

Unemployed

13,046 11,885 7,463 6,596 5,583 5,289

Unemployment rate

9.3 8.5 10.6 9.4 8.0 7.6

Not in labor force

66,041 68,771 19,644 21,253 46,397 47,518

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Apr.
2010
Apr.
2011
Apr.
2010
Apr.
2011

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

26,590 27,603 210,739 211,543

Civilian labor force

5,897 5,699 148,015 147,199

Participation rate

22.2 20.6 70.2 69.6

Employed

4,999 4,873 134,303 134,789

Employment-population ratio

18.8 17.7 63.7 63.7

Unemployed

897 827 13,712 12,410

Unemployment rate

15.2 14.5 9.3 8.4

Not in labor force

20,693 21,904 62,725 64,344

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,731 2,591 75,654 74,820

Participation rate

37.8 34.5 83.2 82.0

Employed

2,258 2,172 67,665 67,901

Employment-population ratio

31.2 28.9 74.4 74.4

Unemployed

473 418 7,989 6,920

Unemployment rate

17.3 16.1 10.6 9.2

Not in labor force

4,496 4,929 15,316 16,399

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,393 2,229 66,545 66,156

Participation rate

31.4 28.9 71.6 71.0

Employed

2,035 1,890 61,148 61,012

Employment-population ratio

26.7 24.5 65.8 65.5

Unemployed

358 339 5,397 5,144

Unemployment rate

14.9 15.2 8.1 7.8

Not in labor force

5,227 5,497 26,395 27,047

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

773 879 5,816 6,223

Participation rate

6.6 7.1 21.7 22.9

Employed

707 810 5,490 5,876

Employment-population ratio

6.0 6.6 20.5 21.7

Unemployed

67 69 326 347

Unemployment rate

8.6 7.8 5.6 5.6

Not in labor force

10,970 11,478 21,014 20,898

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Apr.
2010
Apr.
2011
Apr.
2010
Apr.
2011
Apr.
2010
Apr.
2011

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

34,996 35,737 17,581 17,848 17,415 17,889

Civilian labor force

23,916 23,915 14,179 14,174 9,737 9,741

Participation rate

68.3 66.9 80.7 79.4 55.9 54.5

Employed

21,816 21,741 12,940 12,911 8,876 8,830

Employment-population ratio

62.3 60.8 73.6 72.3 51.0 49.4

Unemployed

2,100 2,174 1,239 1,263 861 911

Unemployment rate

8.8 9.1 8.7 8.9 8.8 9.3

Not in labor force

11,080 11,822 3,402 3,674 7,678 8,148

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

202,333 203,409 97,329 98,219 105,003 105,191

Civilian labor force

129,995 128,984 67,834 67,180 62,161 61,804

Participation rate

64.2 63.4 69.7 68.4 59.2 58.8

Employed

117,486 117,920 60,374 60,850 57,112 57,070

Employment-population ratio

58.1 58.0 62.0 62.0 54.4 54.3

Unemployed

12,509 11,063 7,460 6,330 5,049 4,733

Unemployment rate

9.6 8.6 11.0 9.4 8.1 7.7

Not in labor force

72,337 74,425 29,495 31,039 42,843 43,387

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2010
Mar.
2011
Apr.
2011
Apr.
2010
Dec.
2010
Jan.
2011
Feb.
2011
Mar.
2011
Apr.
2011

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,210 2,145 2,061 2,242 2,176 2,256 2,255 2,251 2,087

Wage and salary workers(1)

1,343 1,303 1,198 1,386 1,384 1,390 1,340 1,423 1,245

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

837 824 830 825 775 861 889 835 818

Unpaid family workers

30 17 33 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

137,092 136,818 137,601 137,134 137,001 137,088 137,443 137,738 137,595

Wage and salary workers(1)

128,031 128,060 128,814 128,107 128,043 128,151 128,664 128,800 128,840

Government

21,844 21,082 21,112 21,403 20,759 20,740 20,933 20,858 20,726

Private industries

106,187 106,978 107,702 106,720 107,303 107,409 107,681 107,946 108,186

Private households

711 695 671 - - - - - -

Other industries

105,476 106,283 107,031 105,995 106,665 106,774 106,965 107,251 107,510

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

8,948 8,652 8,693 8,892 8,783 8,864 8,688 8,773 8,650

Unpaid family workers

114 105 94 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(2)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

8,921 8,737 8,425 9,146 8,931 8,407 8,340 8,433 8,600

Slack work or business conditions

6,113 5,812 5,547 6,247 6,011 5,771 5,630 5,595 5,689

Could only find part-time work

2,571 2,529 2,605 2,492 2,568 2,510 2,415 2,332 2,480

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

18,853 18,912 19,163 18,035 18,184 17,929 18,220 18,417 18,282

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(3)

8,830 8,537 8,305 9,048 8,789 8,242 8,248 8,265 8,475

Slack work or business conditions

6,063 5,708 5,448 6,186 5,911 5,661 5,558 5,504 5,581

Could only find part-time work

2,558 2,503 2,595 2,480 2,542 2,513 2,383 2,305 2,457

Part time for noneconomic reasons(4)

18,506 18,565 18,803 17,733 17,829 17,552 17,835 17,984 17,967

Footnotes
(1) Includes self-employed workers whose businesses are incorporated.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(3) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(4) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2010
Mar.
2011
Apr.
2011
Apr.
2010
Dec.
2010
Jan.
2011
Feb.
2011
Mar.
2011
Apr.
2011

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

139,302 138,962 139,661 139,382 139,206 139,323 139,573 139,864 139,674

16 to 19 years

4,330 4,075 4,106 4,533 4,298 4,341 4,300 4,339 4,255

16 to 17 years

1,333 1,172 1,145 1,450 1,434 1,406 1,311 1,326 1,247

18 to 19 years

2,998 2,903 2,961 3,052 2,869 2,939 3,000 2,990 2,989

20 years and over

134,972 134,887 135,555 134,850 134,908 134,982 135,274 135,525 135,419

20 to 24 years

12,434 12,823 12,864 12,562 12,713 12,941 12,954 13,021 12,978

25 years and over

122,539 122,064 122,691 122,279 122,196 122,026 122,245 122,479 122,423

25 to 54 years

94,543 93,442 93,762 94,422 93,962 93,758 93,764 93,949 93,690

25 to 34 years

30,221 30,303 30,318 30,219 30,345 30,438 30,412 30,538 30,354

35 to 44 years

30,912 30,453 30,483 30,872 30,447 30,373 30,409 30,605 30,441

45 to 54 years

33,410 32,686 32,961 33,331 33,170 32,946 32,943 32,806 32,895

55 years and over

27,995 28,622 28,929 27,857 28,234 28,268 28,481 28,530 28,733

Men, 16 years and over

73,315 73,187 73,761 73,526 73,600 73,800 74,122 74,108 73,973

16 to 19 years

2,088 1,980 1,939 2,177 2,121 2,211 2,168 2,149 2,033

16 to 17 years

638 604 531 694 695 717 668 688 582

18 to 19 years

1,450 1,376 1,408 1,491 1,420 1,471 1,495 1,454 1,441

20 years and over

71,226 71,207 71,822 71,348 71,480 71,589 71,954 71,959 71,939

20 to 24 years

6,319 6,579 6,651 6,391 6,568 6,784 6,715 6,731 6,712

25 years and over

64,907 64,628 65,171 64,933 64,904 64,789 65,179 65,207 65,193

25 to 54 years

50,285 49,659 49,988 50,364 50,117 50,005 50,247 50,241 50,107

25 to 34 years

16,299 16,401 16,447 16,374 16,428 16,542 16,627 16,677 16,557

35 to 44 years

16,650 16,319 16,401 16,666 16,522 16,394 16,477 16,481 16,428

45 to 54 years

17,336 16,939 17,140 17,324 17,168 17,070 17,143 17,083 17,123

55 years and over

14,623 14,969 15,183 14,570 14,787 14,784 14,932 14,966 15,087

Women, 16 years and over

65,988 65,775 65,900 65,856 65,605 65,523 65,451 65,756 65,702

16 to 19 years

2,242 2,095 2,167 2,355 2,177 2,130 2,132 2,190 2,222

16 to 17 years

694 568 614 756 739 689 644 638 665

18 to 19 years

1,548 1,527 1,554 1,561 1,449 1,468 1,506 1,537 1,548

20 years and over

63,746 63,681 63,733 63,501 63,428 63,392 63,319 63,566 63,479

20 to 24 years

6,115 6,244 6,213 6,171 6,145 6,157 6,239 6,290 6,266

25 years and over

57,631 57,436 57,520 57,346 57,292 57,237 57,065 57,272 57,230

25 to 54 years

44,259 43,783 43,774 44,058 43,845 43,752 43,517 43,708 43,584

25 to 34 years

13,922 13,902 13,871 13,845 13,917 13,897 13,785 13,862 13,798

35 to 44 years

14,263 14,135 14,082 14,206 13,925 13,979 13,931 14,124 14,014

45 to 54 years

16,074 15,746 15,821 16,007 16,003 15,877 15,800 15,723 15,772

55 years and over

13,373 13,653 13,746 13,288 13,447 13,485 13,549 13,564 13,646

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present

43,256 42,636 42,992 43,248 43,081 42,915 42,957 42,880 42,987

Married women, spouse present

34,812 34,292 34,211 34,592 34,612 34,571 34,496 34,236 34,062

Women who maintain families

8,907 8,744 8,968 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(1)

111,391 111,186 111,844 112,056 111,744 112,356 112,660 112,775 112,484

Part-time workers(2)

27,912 27,776 27,817 27,201 27,394 26,901 26,878 27,087 27,088

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,105 6,809 6,887 7,008 6,950 6,840 6,764 6,746 6,775

Percent of total employed

5.1 4.9 4.9 5.0 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.8 4.9

SELF-EMPLOYMENT

Self-employed workers, incorporated

5,124 5,169 5,030 - - - - - -

Self-employed workers, unincorporated

9,785 9,476 9,523 9,718 9,559 9,724 9,577 9,608 9,468

Footnotes
(1) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(2) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Apr.
2010
Mar.
2011
Apr.
2011
Apr.
2010
Dec.
2010
Jan.
2011
Feb.
2011
Mar.
2011
Apr.
2011

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

15,138 13,542 13,747 9.8 9.4 9.0 8.9 8.8 9.0

16 to 19 years

1,542 1,405 1,413 25.4 25.4 25.7 23.9 24.5 24.9

16 to 17 years

599 542 570 29.2 27.1 27.8 28.8 29.0 31.4

18 to 19 years

967 869 855 24.1 24.5 24.6 21.5 22.5 22.2

20 years and over

13,596 12,137 12,334 9.2 8.8 8.4 8.3 8.2 8.3

20 to 24 years

2,598 2,297 2,279 17.1 15.3 15.2 15.4 15.0 14.9

25 years and over

11,007 9,858 10,109 8.3 8.1 7.6 7.6 7.4 7.6

25 to 54 years

8,911 7,933 8,117 8.6 8.5 7.9 7.9 7.8 8.0

25 to 34 years

3,426 3,068 3,197 10.2 10.1 9.3 9.4 9.1 9.5

35 to 44 years

2,711 2,361 2,407 8.1 7.8 7.4 7.4 7.2 7.3

45 to 54 years

2,774 2,504 2,513 7.7 7.5 7.1 7.0 7.1 7.1

55 years and over

2,091 1,969 1,994 7.0 6.9 6.7 6.4 6.5 6.5

Men, 16 years and over

8,829 7,566 7,712 10.7 10.1 9.5 9.3 9.3 9.4

16 to 19 years

898 761 795 29.2 27.8 27.2 25.9 26.2 28.1

16 to 17 years

332 275 283 32.3 29.0 29.1 28.5 28.5 32.7

18 to 19 years

572 492 517 27.7 27.4 26.6 24.8 25.3 26.4

20 years and over

7,931 6,805 6,917 10.0 9.4 8.8 8.7 8.6 8.8

20 to 24 years

1,577 1,319 1,284 19.8 16.9 15.9 16.4 16.4 16.1

25 years and over

6,330 5,486 5,625 8.9 8.6 8.0 7.9 7.8 7.9

25 to 54 years

5,146 4,396 4,505 9.3 8.9 8.3 8.1 8.0 8.2

25 to 34 years

2,002 1,703 1,812 10.9 10.6 9.8 9.5 9.3 9.9

35 to 44 years

1,547 1,287 1,273 8.5 7.9 7.6 7.5 7.2 7.2

45 to 54 years

1,598 1,406 1,420 8.4 8.3 7.5 7.3 7.6 7.7

55 years and over

1,184 1,090 1,121 7.5 7.2 7.1 7.1 6.8 6.9

Women, 16 years and over

6,309 5,976 6,035 8.7 8.7 8.5 8.5 8.3 8.4

16 to 19 years

643 644 619 21.5 22.8 24.0 21.8 22.7 21.8

16 to 17 years

267 267 287 26.1 25.2 26.4 29.1 29.5 30.1

18 to 19 years

395 377 338 20.2 21.5 22.5 17.8 19.7 17.9

20 years and over

5,665 5,332 5,417 8.2 8.1 7.9 8.0 7.7 7.9

20 to 24 years

1,021 978 995 14.2 13.5 14.4 14.2 13.5 13.7

25 years and over

4,677 4,372 4,483 7.5 7.5 7.1 7.2 7.1 7.3

25 to 54 years

3,765 3,537 3,612 7.9 7.9 7.5 7.7 7.5 7.7

25 to 34 years

1,424 1,365 1,385 9.3 9.5 8.7 9.2 9.0 9.1

35 to 44 years

1,164 1,073 1,135 7.6 7.6 7.1 7.4 7.1 7.5

45 to 54 years

1,176 1,098 1,093 6.8 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.5 6.5

55 years and over(1)

815 846 782 5.7 5.8 6.3 5.7 5.8 5.4

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present

3,089 2,688 2,756 6.7 6.6 5.8 5.8 5.9 6.0

Married women, spouse present

2,286 2,076 2,056 6.2 5.6 5.6 5.4 5.7 5.7

Women who maintain families(1)

1,105 1,224 1,193 11.0 12.0 12.7 13.0 12.3 11.7

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(2)

13,258 11,746 11,938 10.6 10.2 9.7 9.5 9.4 9.6

Part-time workers(3)

1,894 1,835 1,840 6.5 6.0 6.2 6.5 6.3 6.4

Footnotes
(1) Not seasonally adjusted.
(2) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(3) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2010
Mar.
2011
Apr.
2011
Apr.
2010
Dec.
2010
Jan.
2011
Feb.
2011
Mar.
2011
Apr.
2011

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

9,110 8,841 7,958 9,237 8,923 8,519 8,334 8,209 8,144

On temporary layoff

1,296 1,489 1,186 1,356 1,402 1,249 1,270 1,197 1,251

Not on temporary layoff

7,814 7,352 6,772 7,881 7,521 7,270 7,064 7,013 6,894

Permanent job losers

6,521 5,877 5,449 6,494 5,995 5,879 5,671 5,625 5,480

Persons who completed temporary jobs

1,293 1,475 1,323 1,387 1,526 1,391 1,393 1,388 1,414

Job leavers

895 857 911 933 914 910 898 896 942

Reentrants

3,558 3,233 3,217 3,749 3,408 3,357 3,352 3,262 3,375

New entrants

1,047 1,129 1,151 1,217 1,311 1,351 1,337 1,360 1,346

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

62.4 62.9 60.1 61.0 61.3 60.3 59.9 59.8 59.0

On temporary layoff

8.9 10.6 9.0 9.0 9.6 8.8 9.1 8.7 9.1

Not on temporary layoff

53.5 52.3 51.2 52.1 51.7 51.4 50.7 51.1 49.9

Job leavers

6.1 6.1 6.9 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.4 6.5 6.8

Reentrants

24.4 23.0 24.3 24.8 23.4 23.7 24.1 23.8 24.4

New entrants

7.2 8.0 8.7 8.0 9.0 9.6 9.6 9.9 9.8

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

5.9 5.8 5.2 6.0 5.8 5.6 5.4 5.4 5.3

Job leavers

0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6

Reentrants

2.3 2.1 2.1 2.4 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.2

New entrants

0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2010
Mar.
2011
Apr.
2011
Apr.
2010
Dec.
2010
Jan.
2011
Feb.
2011
Mar.
2011
Apr.
2011

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,304 2,161 2,325 2,695 2,725 2,678 2,390 2,449 2,691

5 to 14 weeks

2,594 3,230 2,478 3,000 3,184 3,016 3,094 2,914 2,907

15 weeks and over

9,710 8,669 8,434 8,933 8,647 8,495 8,172 8,078 7,845

15 to 26 weeks

2,691 2,407 2,333 2,274 2,205 2,285 2,179 1,957 2,006

27 weeks and over

7,020 6,263 6,101 6,659 6,441 6,210 5,993 6,122 5,839

Average (mean) duration, in weeks(1)

35.8 39.8 41.4 33.1 34.2 36.9 37.1 39.0 38.3

Median duration, in weeks

25.8 22.7 24.3 21.6 22.4 21.8 21.2 21.7 20.7

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

15.8 15.4 17.6 18.4 18.7 18.9 17.5 18.2 20.0

5 to 14 weeks

17.8 23.0 18.7 20.5 21.9 21.3 22.7 21.7 21.6

15 weeks and over

66.5 61.7 63.7 61.1 59.4 59.9 59.8 60.1 58.4

15 to 26 weeks

18.4 17.1 17.6 15.5 15.2 16.1 16.0 14.6 14.9

27 weeks and over

48.1 44.5 46.1 45.5 44.3 43.8 43.9 45.5 43.4

Footnotes
(1) Beginning in January 2011, this series reflects a change to the collection of data on unemployment duration. For more information, see www.bls.gov/cps/duration.htm.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Apr.
2010
Apr.
2011
Apr.
2010
Apr.
2011
Apr.
2010
Apr.
2011

Total, 16 years and over(1)

139,302 139,661 14,609 13,237 9.5 8.7

Management, professional, and related occupations

52,355 53,216 2,464 2,196 4.5 4.0

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

21,215 21,640 1,139 1,050 5.1 4.6

Professional and related occupations

31,140 31,576 1,325 1,146 4.1 3.5

Service occupations

24,474 24,354 2,733 2,598 10.0 9.6

Sales and office occupations

33,577 32,974 3,173 2,929 8.6 8.2

Sales and related occupations

15,416 15,134 1,554 1,402 9.2 8.5

Office and administrative support occupations

18,160 17,841 1,619 1,528 8.2 7.9

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,013 12,735 2,673 2,110 17.0 14.2

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

960 862 193 206 16.7 19.3

Construction and extraction occupations

7,083 7,042 1,931 1,448 21.4 17.1

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,971 4,831 549 455 10.0 8.6

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

15,884 16,382 2,478 2,208 13.5 11.9

Production occupations

7,836 8,098 1,252 1,074 13.8 11.7

Transportation and material moving occupations

8,048 8,284 1,226 1,134 13.2 12.0

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2011 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2010 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2011 are not strictly comparable with earlier years.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Apr.
2010
Apr.
2011
Apr.
2010
Apr.
2011

Total, 16 years and over(1)

14,609 13,237 9.5 8.7

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

11,967 10,560 10.1 8.9

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

69 28 9.4 3.5

Construction

1,919 1,501 21.8 17.8

Manufacturing

1,688 1,444 11.1 9.4

Durable goods

1,100 951 11.6 9.8

Nondurable goods

588 493 10.2 8.6

Wholesale and retail trade

1,967 1,776 9.5 8.8

Transportation and utilities

530 500 9.1 8.4

Information

302 218 9.4 7.1

Financial activities

708 621 7.6 6.7

Professional and business services

1,586 1,340 11.1 9.1

Education and health services

1,051 1,088 5.0 5.0

Leisure and hospitality

1,633 1,482 12.8 11.7

Other services

515 564 8.4 9.2

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

232 182 15.0 13.7

Government workers

769 778 3.4 3.5

Self-employed workers, unincorporated, and unpaid family workers

594 565 5.6 5.5

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2010
Mar.
2011
Apr.
2011
Apr.
2010
Dec.
2010
Jan.
2011
Feb.
2011
Mar.
2011
Apr.
2011

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

6.3 5.7 5.5 5.8 5.6 5.5 5.3 5.3 5.1

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

5.9 5.8 5.2 6.0 5.8 5.6 5.4 5.4 5.3

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

9.5 9.2 8.7 9.8 9.4 9.0 8.9 8.8 9.0

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

10.2 9.7 9.2 10.5 10.2 9.6 9.5 9.4 9.5

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

10.9 10.6 10.1 11.2 10.9 10.7 10.5 10.3 10.4

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

16.6 16.2 15.5 17.0 16.7 16.1 15.9 15.7 15.9

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Apr.
2010
Apr.
2011
Apr.
2010
Apr.
2011
Apr.
2010
Apr.
2011

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

83,418 86,248 32,897 34,713 50,521 51,535

Persons who currently want a job

5,865 6,482 2,795 3,159 3,070 3,323

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

2,432 2,466 1,294 1,361 1,138 1,105

Discouraged workers(2)

1,197 989 736 566 461 423

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,234 1,477 557 795 677 682

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,105 6,887 3,453 3,302 3,651 3,585

Percent of total employed

5.1 4.9 4.7 4.5 5.5 5.4

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

3,636 3,586 1,971 1,896 1,665 1,691

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

1,888 1,831 600 618 1,288 1,213

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

289 221 183 149 106 72

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,256 1,211 684 626 571 586

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2010
Feb.
2011
Mar.
2011(p)
Apr.
2011(p)
Apr.
2010
Feb.
2011
Mar.
2011(p)
Apr.
2011(p)
Change from:
Mar.2011 - Apr.2011(p)

Total nonfarm

129,698 128,994 129,919 131,088 129,715 130,563 130,784 131,028 244

Total private

106,707 106,515 107,335 108,494 107,145 108,363 108,594 108,862 268

Goods-producing

17,520 17,330 17,506 17,776 17,762 17,916 17,953 17,997 44

Mining and logging

677 726 743 756 687 744 757 767 10

Logging

47.3 47.4 47.4 44.5 51.0 48.4 49.9 47.9 -2.0

Mining

629.6 678.6 695.2 711.9 636.2 695.1 707.5 718.9 11.4

Oil and gas extraction

156.1 163.6 165.7 167.7 157.8 165.0 167.1 169.1 2.0

Mining, except oil and gas(1)

198.5 195.4 199.6 207.8 201.3 206.1 207.4 210.1 2.7

Coal mining

78.9 82.6 83.8 85.1 79.3 83.0 83.9 85.5 1.6

Support activities for mining

275.0 319.6 329.9 336.4 277.1 324.0 333.0 339.7 6.7

Construction

5,420 5,072 5,184 5,385 5,566 5,517 5,519 5,524 5

Construction of buildings

1,214.1 1,146.8 1,167.6 1,187.9 1,249.7 1,221.4 1,224.4 1,221.1 -3.3

Residential building

560.9 527.5 535.8 543.5 582.7 565.7 566.4 564.3 -2.1

Nonresidential building

653.2 619.3 631.8 644.4 667.0 655.7 658.0 656.8 -1.2

Heavy and civil engineering construction

805.2 725.1 757.1 826.8 831.6 839.0 840.2 852.9 12.7

Specialty trade contractors

3,400.8 3,199.7 3,259.2 3,369.8 3,484.7 3,456.5 3,454.4 3,449.6 -4.8

Residential specialty trade contractors

1,442.7 1,339.9 1,358.5 1,414.2 1,479.6 1,456.0 1,451.0 1,447.7 -3.3

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

1,958.1 1,859.8 1,900.7 1,955.6 2,005.1 2,000.5 2,003.4 2,001.9 -1.5

Manufacturing

11,423 11,532 11,579 11,635 11,509 11,655 11,677 11,706 29

Durable goods

7,004 7,150 7,187 7,224 7,039 7,211 7,232 7,251 19

Wood products

340.7 332.8 333.4 337.0 345.1 343.1 342.9 341.0 -1.9

Nonmetallic mineral products

371.0 352.1 358.3 372.0 372.2 371.4 372.0 372.7 0.7

Primary metals

355.7 372.4 375.0 378.5 357.8 374.5 376.0 380.1 4.1

Fabricated metal products

1,260.2 1,318.0 1,331.0 1,334.7 1,271.2 1,329.8 1,338.4 1,343.5 5.1

Machinery

982.0 1,023.4 1,027.3 1,031.9 986.8 1,025.8 1,030.6 1,035.8 5.2

Computer and electronic products(1)

1,090.4 1,114.7 1,118.9 1,121.8 1,094.8 1,117.9 1,120.4 1,124.4 4.0

Computer and peripheral equipment

158.7 169.4 169.9 170.3 159.6 169.7 169.7 170.6 0.9

Communication equipment

115.7 117.3 117.0 120.0 116.1 117.8 118.4 120.8 2.4

Semiconductors and electronic components

366.4 379.0 383.2 382.8 368.0 380.1 382.8 383.3 0.5

Electronic instruments

404.6 404.0 403.5 403.2 405.6 405.2 404.2 404.2 0.0

Electrical equipment and appliances

355.9 367.5 364.8 365.8 358.0 368.5 367.3 367.7 0.4

Transportation equipment(1)

1,324.1 1,349.3 1,359.0 1,361.9 1,326.3 1,354.0 1,360.3 1,364.6 4.3

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

670.3 691.9 697.0 699.2 669.4 693.3 695.8 698.7 2.9

Furniture and related products

358.4 346.0 347.3 348.2 359.5 350.6 350.1 348.5 -1.6

Miscellaneous manufacturing

565.8 574.1 572.3 571.9 567.3 575.5 574.0 572.4 -1.6

Nondurable goods

4,419 4,382 4,392 4,411 4,470 4,444 4,445 4,455 10

Food manufacturing

1,417.2 1,419.3 1,420.8 1,428.0 1,450.8 1,452.6 1,451.7 1,458.9 7.2

Beverages and tobacco products

179.0 173.6 173.6 176.8 183.4 180.2 179.5 180.8 1.3

Textile mills

119.2 119.9 120.2 121.1 119.7 120.8 120.7 121.3 0.6

Textile product mills

118.5 114.9 116.1 115.7 119.5 116.4 116.5 116.2 -0.3

Apparel

157.7 155.5 155.2 155.3 158.3 156.3 155.9 155.8 -0.1

Leather and allied products

26.5 28.8 29.3 29.2 26.7 29.1 29.2 29.2 0.0

Paper and paper products

395.1 395.4 395.0 397.0 397.6 397.4 397.9 398.4 0.5

Printing and related support activities

487.1 470.7 471.5 470.3 490.4 474.5 473.9 473.3 -0.6

Petroleum and coal products

114.0 107.0 109.0 111.6 115.6 112.6 113.0 113.2 0.2

Chemicals

782.9 772.3 774.0 776.1 785.4 774.9 776.3 778.5 2.2

Plastics and rubber products

621.8 624.1 626.8 629.8 622.5 629.5 630.5 629.4 -1.1

Private service-providing

89,187 89,185 89,829 90,718 89,383 90,447 90,641 90,865 224

Trade, transportation, and utilities

24,365 24,385 24,499 24,663 24,581 24,775 24,790 24,861 71

Wholesale trade

5,429.1 5,454.7 5,493.0 5,517.6 5,445.9 5,508.2 5,524.3 5,531.3 7.0

Durable goods

2,699.8 2,736.3 2,751.2 2,759.0 2,710.1 2,755.9 2,765.2 2,769.1 3.9

Nondurable goods

1,929.8 1,913.8 1,932.0 1,943.6 1,934.5 1,941.7 1,945.8 1,946.0 0.2

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

799.5 804.6 809.8 815.0 801.3 810.6 813.3 816.2 2.9

Retail trade

14,256.3 14,199.6 14,256.1 14,379.0 14,424.3 14,477.8 14,474.6 14,531.7 57.1

Motor vehicle and parts dealers(1)

1,618.9 1,629.3 1,644.2 1,665.1 1,621.3 1,656.2 1,661.1 1,668.0 6.9

Automobile dealers

1,001.3 1,016.1 1,023.8 1,032.1 1,003.2 1,026.9 1,029.9 1,034.6 4.7

Furniture and home furnishings stores

430.2 428.3 428.1 428.0 436.6 434.7 434.8 434.8 0.0

Electronics and appliance stores

486.9 493.9 491.5 493.1 492.4 496.4 494.0 499.6 5.6

Building material and garden supply stores

1,175.4 1,066.5 1,113.6 1,171.1 1,146.5 1,115.2 1,128.2 1,133.8 5.6

Food and beverage stores

2,784.0 2,787.9 2,788.8 2,799.8 2,814.2 2,818.1 2,818.8 2,825.6 6.8

Health and personal care stores

974.0 965.8 963.2 966.3 979.6 971.1 970.1 972.2 2.1

Gasoline stations

810.8 800.4 803.2 810.7 816.4 813.2 813.8 815.7 1.9

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,331.4 1,366.2 1,372.1 1,383.6 1,373.9 1,417.0 1,421.0 1,427.1 6.1

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

582.7 588.5 583.2 577.2 602.7 598.3 599.4 596.8 -2.6

General merchandise stores(1)

2,902.2 2,917.8 2,918.1 2,931.5 2,959.2 2,984.7 2,958.1 2,985.5 27.4

Department stores

1,441.1 1,464.0 1,454.9 1,454.0 1,486.1 1,499.5 1,488.4 1,497.8 9.4

Miscellaneous store retailers

752.5 748.9 745.6 751.7 763.9 758.9 762.3 761.0 -1.3

Nonstore retailers

407.3 406.1 404.5 400.9 417.6 414.0 413.0 411.6 -1.4

Transportation and warehousing

4,128.0 4,182.0 4,200.6 4,215.3 4,156.3 4,238.2 4,241.2 4,245.3 4.1

Air transportation

462.9 469.5 472.4 471.1 461.9 470.5 471.6 468.4 -3.2

Rail transportation

212.0 218.9 219.9 221.1 211.8 220.1 220.6 220.6 0.0

Water transportation

60.6 62.8 62.7 62.7 61.9 66.2 64.9 64.2 -0.7

Truck transportation

1,218.5 1,229.8 1,241.1 1,254.2 1,237.5 1,265.2 1,268.4 1,272.9 4.5

Transit and ground passenger transportation

437.9 454.2 455.7 460.5 425.5 445.1 444.9 448.0 3.1

Pipeline transportation

42.4 42.5 42.9 43.1 42.5 42.6 43.1 43.1 0.0

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

24.7 20.4 21.6 23.2 27.6 27.2 27.3 26.3 -1.0

Support activities for transportation

534.6 547.9 547.6 552.8 538.1 550.5 552.4 555.4 3.0

Couriers and messengers

511.5 514.7 514.1 507.4 521.0 522.2 522.0 521.4 -0.6

Warehousing and storage

622.9 621.3 622.6 619.2 628.5 628.6 626.0 625.0 -1.0

Utilities

551.8 548.6 548.9 550.7 554.1 550.6 550.3 552.3 2.0

Information

2,715 2,674 2,678 2,683 2,716 2,684 2,682 2,684 2

Publishing industries, except Internet

760.3 755.2 754.5 756.3 762.4 757.7 756.0 757.9 1.9

Motion picture and sound recording industries

374.8 357.4 366.0 372.7 370.2 365.2 368.4 368.7 0.3

Broadcasting, except Internet

292.8 296.0 295.3 295.0 294.6 297.1 296.1 296.6 0.5

Telecommunications

901.5 878.7 872.8 866.9 906.5 875.9 872.9 871.9 -1.0

Data processing, hosting and related services

246.2 238.4 240.4 242.4 243.2 239.8 239.7 239.3 -0.4

Other information services

139.0 148.2 148.5 149.7 139.5 148.3 149.2 150.0 0.8

Financial activities

7,618 7,560 7,574 7,589 7,648 7,606 7,611 7,615 4

Finance and insurance

5,687.1 5,662.7 5,664.7 5,657.1 5,695.7 5,669.8 5,668.3 5,664.6 -3.7

Monetary authorities - central bank

20.7 20.8 21.1 21.0 20.6 21.0 21.0 21.0 0.0

Credit intermediation and related
activities(1)

2,537.3 2,539.6 2,534.5 2,531.6 2,540.3 2,539.7 2,536.3 2,534.5 -1.8

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,725.9 1,742.0 1,742.0 1,745.3 1,729.9 1,744.2 1,745.8 1,747.4 1.6

Commercial banking

1,302.9 1,315.0 1,315.2 1,317.9 1,305.2 1,316.3 1,317.8 1,320.4 2.6

Securities, commodity contracts, investments

798.8 805.6 807.9 806.1 802.0 806.7 807.8 808.5 0.7

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,243.5 2,209.5 2,214.4 2,211.8 2,245.8 2,215.1 2,216.0 2,213.7 -2.3

Funds, trusts, and other financial vehicles

86.8 87.2 86.8 86.6 87.0 87.3 87.2 86.9 -0.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

1,930.4 1,897.1 1,908.8 1,931.6 1,952.2 1,935.7 1,943.0 1,950.2 7.2

Real estate

1,393.3 1,373.1 1,375.4 1,390.4 1,406.0 1,394.7 1,396.3 1,401.2 4.9

Rental and leasing services

511.9 498.6 507.8 515.5 520.9 515.4 521.0 523.3 2.3

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

25.2 25.4 25.6 25.7 25.3 25.6 25.7 25.7 0.0

Professional and business services

16,597 16,727 16,879 17,126 16,615 16,991 17,077 17,128 51

Professional and technical services(1)

7,490.4 7,584.7 7,616.2 7,665.9 7,416.2 7,507.1 7,548.2 7,581.2 33.0

Legal services

1,108.5 1,106.1 1,108.2 1,110.6 1,113.2 1,113.5 1,113.2 1,114.7 1.5

Accounting and bookkeeping services

994.3 1,019.6 1,020.6 1,014.1 891.3 879.5 901.0 904.4 3.4

Architectural and engineering services

1,268.6 1,269.4 1,274.0 1,289.2 1,278.5 1,289.2 1,292.6 1,298.2 5.6

Computer systems design and related services

1,431.0 1,473.3 1,476.6 1,491.3 1,433.5 1,477.6 1,485.3 1,493.2 7.9

Management and technical consulting services

980.3 1,010.3 1,015.5 1,030.1 987.4 1,020.4 1,024.9 1,036.2 11.3

Management of companies and enterprises

1,851.5 1,859.7 1,868.2 1,866.8 1,859.0 1,870.5 1,873.3 1,874.2 0.9

Administrative and waste services

7,254.7 7,282.8 7,394.3 7,593.1 7,339.6 7,613.6 7,655.2 7,672.7 17.5

Administrative and support services(1)

6,906.7 6,930.6 7,040.9 7,234.4 6,987.8 7,252.3 7,293.7 7,310.4 16.7

Employment services(1)

2,598.9 2,745.6 2,804.1 2,850.9 2,664.8 2,881.2 2,916.9 2,915.4 -1.5

Temporary help services

1,973.4 2,103.6 2,160.0 2,193.9 2,027.3 2,217.6 2,252.0 2,249.7 -2.3

Business support services

801.8 808.3 810.5 804.6 804.3 806.1 806.6 807.4 0.8

Services to buildings and dwellings

1,738.5 1,598.9 1,635.0 1,768.3 1,741.0 1,765.1 1,765.2 1,770.0 4.8

Waste management and remediation services

348.0 352.2 353.4 358.7 351.8 361.3 361.5 362.3 0.8

Education and health services

19,645 19,928 20,002 20,078 19,482 19,832 19,865 19,914 49

Educational services

3,294.6 3,349.2 3,351.4 3,365.3 3,135.2 3,205.6 3,199.4 3,206.7 7.3

Health care and social assistance

16,350.2 16,578.9 16,650.7 16,712.3 16,346.3 16,626.1 16,665.1 16,706.9 41.8

Health care(3)

13,716.2 13,911.9 13,966.0 14,014.2 13,739.5 13,962.8 13,997.2 14,034.5 37.3

Ambulatory health care services(1)

5,938.7 6,052.1 6,075.7 6,107.5 5,942.4 6,073.0 6,089.7 6,111.2 21.5

Offices of physicians

2,304.3 2,329.0 2,338.8 2,344.7 2,309.8 2,334.4 2,343.2 2,349.8 6.6

Outpatient care centers

598.2 613.6 615.8 619.8 597.9 614.7 616.5 619.0 2.5

Home health care services

1,075.2 1,107.6 1,110.4 1,118.0 1,073.5 1,113.4 1,113.0 1,117.1 4.1

Hospitals

4,666.7 4,706.1 4,720.3 4,729.1 4,679.6 4,718.8 4,729.4 4,739.5 10.1

Nursing and residential care facilities(1)

3,110.8 3,153.7 3,170.0 3,177.6 3,117.5 3,171.0 3,178.1 3,183.8 5.7

Nursing care facilities

1,652.6 1,667.9 1,676.6 1,675.2 1,656.4 1,677.5 1,680.5 1,679.3 -1.2

Social assistance(1)

2,634.0 2,667.0 2,684.7 2,698.1 2,606.8 2,663.3 2,667.9 2,672.4 4.5

Child day care services

872.9 870.3 878.9 884.6 851.3 858.3 860.3 862.3 2.0

Leisure and hospitality

12,907 12,529 12,785 13,141 12,998 13,125 13,176 13,222 46

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,864.1 1,691.1 1,747.6 1,878.8 1,908.0 1,897.0 1,906.8 1,921.6 14.8

Performing arts and spectator sports

408.4 380.4 390.3 416.4 404.2 413.8 415.8 413.5 -2.3

Museums, historical sites, zoos, and parks

125.6 117.6 121.4 128.9 127.6 129.5 129.9 130.3 0.4

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,330.1 1,193.1 1,235.9 1,333.5 1,376.2 1,353.7 1,361.1 1,377.8 16.7

Accommodation and food services

11,042.7 10,837.7 11,037.6 11,262.4 11,090.4 11,228.2 11,269.4 11,300.0 30.6

Accommodation

1,706.1 1,689.5 1,719.1 1,745.9 1,750.7 1,773.1 1,783.8 1,787.6 3.8

Food services and drinking places

9,336.6 9,148.2 9,318.5 9,516.5 9,339.7 9,455.1 9,485.6 9,512.4 26.8

Other services

5,340 5,382 5,412 5,438 5,343 5,434 5,440 5,441 1

Repair and maintenance

1,139.8 1,139.3 1,149.0 1,153.6 1,134.7 1,149.8 1,151.0 1,147.9 -3.1

Personal and laundry services

1,269.6 1,261.1 1,273.2 1,283.8 1,265.4 1,276.0 1,279.4 1,279.1 -0.3

Membership associations and organizations

2,930.2 2,981.8 2,989.5 3,000.7 2,943.1 3,007.8 3,009.2 3,014.0 4.8

Government

22,991 22,479 22,584 22,594 22,570 22,200 22,190 22,166 -24

Federal

2,983.0 2,828.0 2,834.0 2,849.0 2,985.0 2,853.0 2,855.0 2,853.0 -2.0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,318.8 2,196.0 2,204.4 2,213.8 2,323.3 2,216.5 2,221.7 2,221.0 -0.7

U.S. Postal Service

663.8 632.3 629.8 634.9 662.0 636.5 633.5 632.2 -1.3

State government

5,283.0 5,235.0 5,255.0 5,253.0 5,138.0 5,121.0 5,119.0 5,111.0 -8.0

State government education

2,511.7 2,517.7 2,542.6 2,546.0 2,364.5 2,393.3 2,398.8 2,400.1 1.3

State government, excluding education

2,770.9 2,716.9 2,712.8 2,706.8 2,773.7 2,728.0 2,720.2 2,711.1 -9.1

Local government

14,725.0 14,416.0 14,495.0 14,492.0 14,447.0 14,226.0 14,216.0 14,202.0 -14.0

Local government education

8,410.2 8,234.8 8,304.3 8,285.2 8,058.1 7,932.2 7,929.1 7,924.4 -4.7

Local government, excluding education

6,314.4 6,181.2 6,190.6 6,206.4 6,388.5 6,293.3 6,287.0 6,277.8 -9.2

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Apr.
2010
Feb.
2011
Mar.
2011(p)
Apr.
2011(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

34.1 34.3 34.3 34.3

Goods-producing

39.7 39.9 39.8 39.9

Mining and logging

43.3 44.1 44.3 43.6

Construction

38.1 38.1 37.9 38.2

Manufacturing

40.2 40.5 40.4 40.4

Durable goods

40.4 40.9 40.8 40.8

Nondurable goods

39.8 40.0 39.8 39.9

Private service-providing

33.0 33.2 33.2 33.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.2 34.5 34.5 34.6

Wholesale trade

38.1 38.5 38.5 38.6

Retail trade

31.3 31.4 31.4 31.6

Transportation and warehousing

38.1 38.7 38.9 38.9

Utilities

40.8 41.5 42.1 42.4

Information

36.5 36.5 36.6 36.5

Financial activities

36.9 37.0 37.0 37.1

Professional and business services

35.3 35.7 35.6 35.6

Education and health services

32.8 32.7 32.7 32.8

Leisure and hospitality

25.8 25.9 25.9 26.0

Other services

31.7 31.6 31.7 31.8

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.0 3.3 3.2 3.3

Durable goods

2.9 3.2 3.2 3.2

Nondurable goods

3.2 3.4 3.3 3.4

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Apr.
2010
Feb.
2011
Mar.
2011(p)
Apr.
2011(p)
Apr.
2010
Feb.
2011
Mar.
2011(p)
Apr.
2011(p)

Total private

$22.52 $22.88 $22.92 $22.95 $767.93 $784.78 $786.16 $787.19

Goods-producing

23.94 24.27 24.30 24.35 950.42 968.37 967.14 971.57

Mining and logging

27.19 28.00 28.02 28.37 1,177.33 1,234.80 1,241.29 1,236.93

Construction

25.12 25.39 25.38 25.42 957.07 967.36 961.90 971.04

Manufacturing

23.18 23.52 23.56 23.60 931.84 952.56 951.82 953.44

Durable goods

24.66 25.01 25.06 25.09 996.26 1,022.91 1,022.45 1,023.67

Nondurable goods

20.82 21.04 21.06 21.11 828.64 841.60 838.19 842.29

Private service-providing

22.18 22.55 22.59 22.62 731.94 748.66 749.99 753.25

Trade, transportation, and utilities

19.66 19.88 19.96 20.05 672.37 685.86 688.62 693.73

Wholesale trade

26.15 26.24 26.06 26.27 996.32 1,010.24 1,003.31 1,014.02

Retail trade

15.62 15.69 15.70 15.76 488.91 492.67 492.98 498.02

Transportation and warehousing

20.88 21.38 21.44 21.54 795.53 827.41 834.02 837.91

Utilities

32.24 33.40 37.15 36.89 1,315.39 1,386.10 1,564.02 1,564.14

Information

30.25 31.44 31.87 31.61 1,104.13 1,147.56 1,166.44 1,153.77

Financial activities

27.20 27.56 27.59 27.57 1,003.68 1,019.72 1,020.83 1,022.85

Professional and business services

27.11 27.50 27.56 27.60 956.98 981.75 981.14 982.56

Education and health services

22.82 23.37 23.38 23.42 748.50 764.20 764.53 768.18

Leisure and hospitality

13.07 13.16 13.18 13.19 337.21 340.84 341.36 342.94

Other services

20.09 20.48 20.37 20.35 636.85 647.17 645.73 647.13

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Apr.
2010
Feb.
2011
Mar.
2011(p)
Apr.
2011(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2011 - Apr.
2011(p)
Apr.
2010
Feb.
2011
Mar.
2011(p)
Apr.
2011(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2011 - Apr.
2011(p)

Total private

91.6 93.1 93.3 93.6 0.3 98.3 101.6 102.0 102.4 0.4

Goods-producing

80.3 81.4 81.4 81.8 0.5 86.9 89.3 89.4 90.0 0.7

Mining and logging

93.5 103.1 105.4 105.1 -0.3 102.0 115.9 118.5 119.7 1.0

Construction

73.1 72.4 72.1 72.7 0.8 79.8 79.9 79.5 80.3 1.0

Manufacturing

83.2 84.9 84.9 85.1 0.2 89.7 92.9 93.0 93.4 0.4

Durable goods

80.1 83.0 83.1 83.3 0.2 87.7 92.2 92.5 92.8 0.3

Nondurable goods

88.8 88.7 88.3 88.7 0.5 93.8 94.7 94.4 95.0 0.6

Private service-providing

94.7 96.4 96.6 97.2 0.6 101.8 105.4 105.8 106.5 0.7

Trade, transportation, and utilities

91.4 92.9 92.9 93.5 0.6 96.7 99.4 99.9 100.9 1.0

Wholesale trade

90.5 92.5 92.8 93.2 0.4 98.8 101.3 100.9 102.1 1.2

Retail trade

91.7 92.3 92.3 93.3 1.1 94.7 95.8 95.8 97.2 1.5

Transportation and warehousing

90.6 93.9 94.4 94.5 0.1 96.0 101.8 102.7 103.3 0.6

Utilities

97.8 98.8 100.2 101.3 1.1 104.2 109.1 123.0 123.5 0.4

Information

90.5 89.5 89.6 89.5 -0.1 97.5 100.2 101.7 100.7 -1.0

Financial activities

93.0 92.7 92.8 93.1 0.3 98.7 99.8 99.9 100.2 0.3

Professional and business services

92.2 95.4 95.6 95.9 0.3 101.3 106.3 106.8 107.2 0.4

Education and health services

104.0 105.5 105.7 106.3 0.6 111.2 115.6 115.8 116.6 0.7

Leisure and hospitality

95.7 97.0 97.4 98.1 0.7 100.9 103.0 103.5 104.4 0.9

Other services

93.8 95.1 95.5 95.9 0.4 107.0 110.6 110.5 110.7 0.2

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Apr.
2010
Feb.
2011
Mar.
2011(p)
Apr.
2011(p)
Apr.
2010
Feb.
2011
Mar.
2011(p)
Apr.
2011(p)

Total nonfarm

64,698 64,736 64,811 64,924 49.9 49.6 49.6 49.5

Total private

51,842 52,121 52,194 52,318 48.4 48.1 48.1 48.1

Goods-producing

4,104 4,068 4,074 4,071 23.1 22.7 22.7 22.6

Mining and logging

98 102 103 104 14.3 13.7 13.6 13.6

Construction

731 714 713 713 13.1 12.9 12.9 12.9

Manufacturing

3,275 3,252 3,258 3,254 28.5 27.9 27.9 27.8

Durable goods

1,730 1,723 1,725 1,719 24.6 23.9 23.9 23.7

Nondurable goods

1,545 1,529 1,533 1,535 34.6 34.4 34.5 34.5

Private service-providing

47,738 48,053 48,120 48,247 53.4 53.1 53.1 53.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

10,025 10,001 9,997 10,026 40.8 40.4 40.3 40.3

Wholesale trade

1,640.1 1,656.5 1,660.5 1,662.5 30.1 30.1 30.1 30.1

Retail trade

7,245.1 7,205.3 7,197.0 7,219.3 50.2 49.8 49.7 49.7

Transportation and warehousing

999.3 1,005.0 1,004.3 1,008.8 24.0 23.7 23.7 23.8

Utilities

140.0 134.5 134.7 135.2 25.3 24.4 24.5 24.5

Information

1,110 1,092 1,093 1,092 40.9 40.7 40.8 40.7

Financial activities

4,506 4,441 4,444 4,446 58.9 58.4 58.4 58.4

Professional and business services

7,411 7,548 7,579 7,606 44.6 44.4 44.4 44.4

Education and health services

15,043 15,250 15,263 15,303 77.2 76.9 76.8 76.8

Leisure and hospitality

6,815 6,850 6,879 6,902 52.4 52.2 52.2 52.2

Other services

2,828 2,871 2,865 2,872 52.9 52.8 52.7 52.8

Government

12,856 12,615 12,617 12,606 57.0 56.8 56.9 56.9

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Apr.
2010
Feb.
2011
Mar.
2011(p)
Apr.
2011(p)

Total private

88,331 89,281 89,504 89,730

Goods-producing

12,791 12,897 12,939 12,975

Mining and logging

509 557 569 579

Construction

4,210 4,178 4,185 4,182

Manufacturing

8,072 8,162 8,185 8,214

Durable goods

4,815 4,929 4,948 4,967

Nondurable goods

3,257 3,233 3,237 3,247

Private service-providing

75,540 76,384 76,565 76,755

Trade, transportation, and utilities

20,851 20,964 20,977 21,041

Wholesale trade

4,383.0 4,409.8 4,423.2 4,429.8

Retail trade

12,413.2 12,470.9 12,467.6 12,517.3

Transportation and warehousing

3,610.0 3,644.9 3,646.9 3,653.5

Utilities

445.1 438.5 438.8 440.7

Information

2,177 2,159 2,154 2,158

Financial activities

5,912 5,831 5,835 5,834

Professional and business services

13,595 13,957 14,032 14,076

Education and health services

17,076 17,374 17,407 17,447

Leisure and hospitality

11,465 11,548 11,605 11,643

Other services

4,464 4,551 4,555 4,556

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Apr.
2010
Feb.
2011
Mar.
2011(p)
Apr.
2011(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.4 33.6 33.6 33.6

Goods-producing

40.5 40.7 40.8 40.9

Mining and logging

44.7 45.9 46.2 47.5

Construction

38.8 38.7 38.6 38.8

Manufacturing

41.2 41.3 41.5 41.4

Durable goods

41.4 41.7 41.9 41.8

Nondurable goods

40.9 40.8 40.8 40.9

Private service-providing

32.2 32.4 32.4 32.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

33.2 33.6 33.7 33.7

Wholesale trade

37.9 38.4 38.4 38.4

Retail trade

30.1 30.3 30.4 30.5

Transportation and warehousing

37.1 38.0 38.1 38.0

Utilities

41.8 42.3 42.8 43.0

Information

36.4 36.4 36.3 36.4

Financial activities

36.2 36.3 36.3 36.3

Professional and business services

35.0 35.2 35.1 35.2

Education and health services

32.2 32.2 32.2 32.3

Leisure and hospitality

24.9 24.8 24.9 24.9

Other services

30.7 30.8 30.8 30.8

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.8 4.2 4.3 4.2

Durable goods

3.8 4.3 4.4 4.2

Nondurable goods

3.9 4.0 4.1 4.2

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Apr.
2010
Feb.
2011
Mar.
2011(p)
Apr.
2011(p)
Apr.
2010
Feb.
2011
Mar.
2011(p)
Apr.
2011(p)

Total private

$18.98 $19.32 $19.32 $19.37 $633.93 $649.15 $649.15 $650.83

Goods-producing

20.18 20.57 20.58 20.60 817.29 837.20 839.66 842.54

Mining and logging

23.79 24.18 24.27 24.06 1,063.41 1,109.86 1,121.27 1,142.85

Construction

23.07 23.51 23.50 23.58 895.12 909.84 907.10 914.90

Manufacturing

18.51 18.89 18.90 18.90 762.61 780.16 784.35 782.46

Durable goods

19.70 20.12 20.11 20.14 815.58 839.00 842.61 841.85

Nondurable goods

16.74 16.98 17.01 16.95 684.67 692.78 694.01 693.26

Private service-providing

18.73 19.05 19.05 19.11 603.11 617.22 617.22 619.16

Trade, transportation, and utilities

16.78 17.05 17.08 17.13 557.10 572.88 575.60 577.28

Wholesale trade

21.45 21.86 21.84 21.91 812.96 839.42 838.66 841.34

Retail trade

13.20 13.39 13.42 13.44 397.32 405.72 407.97 409.92

Transportation and warehousing

19.14 19.36 19.31 19.42 710.09 735.68 735.71 737.96

Utilities

29.83 30.33 31.38 31.65 1,246.89 1,282.96 1,343.06 1,360.95

Information

25.63 26.35 26.27 26.45 932.93 959.14 953.60 962.78

Financial activities

21.43 21.62 21.71 21.77 775.77 784.81 788.07 790.25

Professional and business services

22.69 23.03 23.04 23.10 794.15 810.66 808.70 813.12

Education and health services

19.98 20.49 20.46 20.50 643.36 659.78 658.81 662.15

Leisure and hospitality

11.32 11.36 11.38 11.39 281.87 281.73 283.36 283.61

Other services

17.01 17.24 17.17 17.24 522.21 530.99 528.84 530.99

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Apr.
2010
Feb.
2011
Mar.
2011(p)
Apr.
2011(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2011 - Apr.
2011(p)
Apr.
2010
Feb.
2011
Mar.
2011(p)
Apr.
2011(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2011 - Apr.
2011(p)

Total private

98.6 100.2 100.5 100.7 0.2 125.0 129.4 129.7 130.4 0.5

Goods-producing

79.2 80.2 80.7 81.1 0.5 97.8 101.0 101.7 102.3 0.6

Mining and logging

120.9 135.9 139.7 146.2 4.7 167.3 191.1 197.2 204.5 3.7

Construction

81.8 81.0 80.9 81.2 0.4 101.9 102.8 102.6 103.4 0.8

Manufacturing

76.3 77.4 78.0 78.0 0.0 92.4 95.6 96.4 96.5 0.1

Durable goods

74.9 77.2 77.9 78.0 0.1 92.1 97.0 97.8 98.1 0.3

Nondurable goods

78.5 77.7 77.8 78.2 0.5 92.8 93.3 93.5 93.7 0.2

Private service-providing

104.0 105.8 106.1 106.3 0.2 133.6 138.2 138.5 139.3 0.6

Trade, transportation, and utilities

96.5 98.2 98.6 98.9 0.3 115.5 119.4 120.1 120.8 0.6

Wholesale trade

97.8 99.7 100.0 100.2 0.2 123.6 128.4 128.7 129.3 0.5

Retail trade

94.6 95.6 95.9 96.6 0.7 107.0 109.8 110.4 111.3 0.8

Transportation and warehousing

100.8 104.3 104.6 104.5 -0.1 122.4 128.0 128.1 128.7 0.5

Utilities

95.2 94.9 96.1 96.9 0.8 118.5 120.1 125.8 128.0 1.7

Information

90.5 89.7 89.3 89.7 0.4 114.8 117.0 116.1 117.4 1.1

Financial activities

102.4 101.3 101.4 101.3 -0.1 135.7 135.4 136.1 136.4 0.2

Professional and business services

106.6 110.1 110.4 111.0 0.5 144.0 150.9 151.3 152.6 0.9

Education and health services

118.6 120.7 120.9 121.6 0.6 155.8 162.6 162.6 163.8 0.7

Leisure and hospitality

104.6 105.0 105.9 106.3 0.4 134.5 135.4 136.9 137.4 0.4

Other services

96.1 98.3 98.4 98.4 0.0 119.2 123.5 123.1 123.7 0.5

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary


Last Modified Date: May 06, 2011
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