Economic News Release

Employment Situation News Release


Transmission of material in this release is embargoed            USDL-10-0589
until 8:30 a.m. (EDT) Friday, May 7, 2010

Technical information:
 Household data:       (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:   (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                         THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- APRIL 2010


Nonfarm payroll employment rose by 290,000 in April, the unemployment rate 
edged up to 9.9 percent, and the labor force increased sharply, the U.S. 
Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Job gains occurred in manufactur-
ing, professional and business services, health care, and leisure and hospi-
tality. Federal government employment also rose, reflecting continued hiring 
of temporary workers for Census 2010.

Household Survey Data

In April, the number of unemployed persons was 15.3 million, and the unem-
ployment rate edged up to 9.9 percent. The rate had been 9.7 percent for the 
first 3 months of this year. (See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rate for whites (9.0 percent) 
edged up in April, while the rates for adult men (10.1 percent), adult women 
(8.2 percent), teenagers (25.4 percent), blacks (16.5 percent), and Hispanics 
(12.5 percent) showed little or no change. The jobless rate for Asians was 
6.8 percent, not seasonally adjusted. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks and over) con-
tinued to trend up over the month, reaching 6.7 million. In April, 45.9 percent 
of unemployed persons had been jobless for 27 weeks or more. (See table A-12.)

Among the unemployed, the number of reentrants to the labor force rose by 
195,000 over the month. (See table A-11.)

In April, the civilian labor force participation rate increased by 0.3 percent-
age point to 65.2 percent, as the size of the labor force rose by 805,000. Since 
December, the participation rate has increased by 0.6 percentage point. The em-
ployment-population ratio rose to 58.8 percent over the month and has increased 
by 0.6 percentage point since December. (See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons (sometimes refer-
red to as involuntary part-time workers) was about unchanged at 9.2 million in 
April. These individuals were working part time because their hours had been cut 
back or because they were unable to find a full-time job. (See table A-8.)

About 2.4 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force in April, 
compared with 2.1 million a year earlier. (The data are not seasonally adjusted.) 
These individuals were not in the labor force, wanted and were available for work, 
and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months. They were not counted 
as unemployed because they had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding 
the survey. (See table A-16.)

Among the marginally attached, there were 1.2 million discouraged workers in 
April, up by 457,000 from a year earlier. (The data are not seasonally adjusted.) 
Discouraged workers are persons not currently looking for work because they be-
lieve no jobs are available for them. The remaining 1.2 million persons marginal-
ly attached to the labor force had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding 
the survey for reasons such as school attendance or family responsibilities. (See
table A-16.)


Establishment Survey Data

In April, nonfarm payroll employment rose by 290,000. Sizable employment gains oc-
curred in manufacturing, professional and business services, health care, and in 
leisure and hospitality. Federal government employment increased due to the hiring 
of temporary workers for Census 2010. Since December, nonfarm payroll employment 
has expanded by 573,000, with 483,000 jobs added in the private sector. The vast 
majority of job growth occurred during the last 2 months. (See table B-1.)

Manufacturing added 44,000 jobs in April. Since December, factory employment has 
risen by 101,000. Over the month, gains occurred in several durable goods indus-
tries, including fabricated metals (9,000) and machinery (7,000). Employment also 
grew in nondurable goods manufacturing (14,000).

Mining added 7,000 jobs in April, with most of the increase in support activities 
for mining. Since last October, mining has added 39,000 jobs.

In April, construction employment edged up (14,000), following an increase of 26,000 
in March. Over the month, nonresidential building and heavy construction added 9,000 
jobs each.

Employment in professional and business services rose by 80,000 in April. Temporary 
help services continued to add jobs (26,000); employment in this industry has in-
creased by 330,000 since September 2009. Employment also rose over the month in ser-
vices to buildings and dwellings (23,000) and in computer systems design (7,000).

In April, health care employment grew by 20,000, including a gain of 6,000 in hospi-
tals. Over the past year, health care employment has increased by 244,000.

Employment rose by 45,000 in leisure and hospitality over the month. Much of this 
increase occurred in accommodation and food services, which added 29,000 jobs. Food 
services employment has risen by 84,000 over the past 4 months, while accommodation 
has added 18,000 jobs over the past 3 months.

Federal government employment was up in April, reflecting the hiring of 66,000 tem-
porary workers for the decennial census.

Over the month, employment changed little in wholesale trade, retail trade, informa-
tion, and financial activities.

Employment in transportation and warehousing fell by 20,000 in April, reflecting a 
large decline in courier and messenger services.

In April, the average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls increased 
by 0.1 hour to 34.1 hours. The manufacturing workweek for all employees increased by 
0.2 hour for the second straight month to 40.1 hours, and factory overtime was up by 
0.1 hour over the month. The average workweek for production and nonsupervisory em-
ployees on private nonfarm payrolls increased by 0.1 hour to 33.4 hours in April. 
(See tables B-2 and B-7.)

Average hourly earnings of all employees in the private nonfarm sector increased by 
1 cent to $22.47 in April. Over the past 12 months, average hourly earnings have in-
creased by 1.6 percent. In April, average hourly earnings of private-sector production 
and nonsupervisory employees increased by 5 cents to $18.96. (See tables B-3 and B-8.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for February was revised from -14,000 
to +39,000, and the change for March was revised from 162,000 to 230,000.

____________
The Employment Situation for May is scheduled to be released on Friday, June 4, 2010, 
at 8:30 a.m. (EDT).


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Apr.
2009
Feb.
2010
Mar.
2010
Apr.
2010
Change from:
Mar.
2010-
Apr.
2010

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

235,271 236,998 237,159 237,329 170

Civilian labor force

154,718 153,512 153,910 154,715 805

Participation rate

65.8 64.8 64.9 65.2 0.3

Employed

140,902 138,641 138,905 139,455 550

Employment-population ratio

59.9 58.5 58.6 58.8 0.2

Unemployed

13,816 14,871 15,005 15,260 255

Unemployment rate

8.9 9.7 9.7 9.9 0.2

Not in labor force

80,554 83,487 83,249 82,614 -635

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

8.9 9.7 9.7 9.9 0.2

Adult men (20 years and over)

9.4 10.0 10.0 10.1 0.1

Adult women (20 years and over)

7.2 8.0 8.0 8.2 0.2

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

21.8 25.0 26.1 25.4 -0.7

White

8.1 8.8 8.8 9.0 0.2

Black or African American

15.0 15.8 16.5 16.5 0.0

Asian (not seasonally adjusted)

6.6 8.4 7.5 6.8 -

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

11.4 12.4 12.6 12.5 -0.1

Total, 25 years and over

7.6 8.3 8.3 8.3 0.0

Less than a high school diploma

14.9 15.6 14.5 14.7 0.2

High school graduates, no college

9.4 10.5 10.8 10.6 -0.2

Some college or associate degree

7.5 8.0 8.2 8.3 0.1

Bachelor's degree and higher

4.4 5.0 4.9 4.9 0.0

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

8,867 9,550 9,354 9,246 -108

Job leavers

887 866 894 938 44

Reentrants

3,127 3,451 3,544 3,739 195

New entrants

919 1,238 1,197 1,231 34

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

3,284 2,748 2,646 2,682 36

5 to 14 weeks

3,962 3,412 3,228 2,991 -237

15 to 26 weeks

2,571 2,696 2,436 2,253 -183

27 weeks and over

3,725 6,133 6,547 6,716 169

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

8,888 8,791 9,054 9,152 98

Slack work or business conditions

6,699 6,185 6,177 6,268 91

Could only find part-time work

1,819 2,212 2,388 2,489 101

Part time for noneconomic reasons

18,976 18,360 18,379 18,140 -239

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)

Marginally attached to the labor force

2,089 2,527 2,255 2,432 -

Discouraged workers

740 1,204 994 1,197 -

- Over-the-month changes are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Apr.
2009
Feb.
2010
Mar.
2010(p)
Apr.
2010(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

-528 39 230 290

Total private

-649 62 174 231

Goods-producing

-277 -28 55 65

Mining and logging

-14 7 10 7

Construction

-114 -51 26 14

Manufacturing

-149 16 19 44

Durable goods(1)

-130 9 23 30

Motor vehicles and parts

-23.9 -9.1 3.0 4.4

Nondurable goods

-19 7 -4 14

Private service-providing(1)

-372 90 119 166

Wholesale trade

-30.2 3.2 9.5 4.0

Retail trade

-42.8 7.1 15.1 12.4

Transportation and warehousing

-47.8 -9.0 7.9 -19.5

Information

-24 -6 -12 -3

Financial activities

-47 -7 -20 3

Professional and business services(1)

-138 56 13 80

Temporary help services

-65.9 35.9 32.4 26.2

Education and health services(1)

4 30 54 35

Health care and social assistance

9.1 21.0 42.4 26.4

Leisure and hospitality

-34 23 41 45

Other services

-11 -7 10 9

Government

121 -23 56 59

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES(2)
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES

Total nonfarm women employees

49.8 49.9 49.8 49.8

Total private women employees

48.3 48.4 48.4 48.3

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.4 82.4 82.4 82.5

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

33.9 33.9 34.0 34.1

Average hourly earnings

$22.11 $22.48 $22.46 $22.47

Average weekly earnings

$749.53 $762.07 $763.64 $766.23

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

92.5 91.1 91.5 91.9

Over-the-month percent change

-0.9 -0.2 0.4 0.4

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

97.5 97.6 98.0 98.5

Over-the-month percent change

-0.7 -0.1 0.4 0.5

HOURS AND EARNINGS
PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

33.1 33.2 33.3 33.4

Average hourly earnings

$18.53 $18.92 $18.91 $18.96

Average weekly earnings

$613.34 $628.14 $629.70 $633.26

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2002=100)(3)

99.2 98.0 98.5 99.0

Over-the-month percent change

-0.6 -0.2 0.5 0.5

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2002=100)(4)

122.8 123.9 124.4 125.5

Over-the-month percent change

-0.6 -0.2 0.4 0.9

DIFFUSION INDEX(5)
(Over 1-month span)

Total private

20.6 57.4 57.8 64.3

Manufacturing

16.5 67.1 56.7 65.9

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary



    Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates


Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based
estimates of employment and both have strengths and limitations. The
establishment survey employment series has a smaller margin of error on
the measurement of month-to-month change than the household survey because
of its much larger sample size. An over-the-month employment change of
about 100,000 is statistically significant in the establishment survey,
while the threshold for a statistically significant change in the household
survey is about 400,000. However, the household survey has a more expansive
scope than the establishment survey because it includes the self-employed,
unpaid family workers, agricultural workers, and private household workers,
who are excluded by the establishment survey. The household survey also
provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.

Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants.
However, neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to
identify the legal status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to de-
termine how many are counted in either survey. The establishment survey does
not collect data on the legal status of workers. The household survey does
include questions which identify the foreign and native born, but it does not
include questions about the legal status of the foreign born.

Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data
series by incorporating additional information that was not available at
the time of the initial publication of the estimates. The establishment
survey revises its initial monthly estimates twice, in the immediately suc-
ceeding 2 months, to incorporate additional sample receipts from respondents
in the survey and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors. For more informa-
tion on the monthly revisions, please visit www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revi-
sion that re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available
from unemployment insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for
sampling and modeling errors in the estimates. For more information on the
annual benchmark revision, please visit www.bls.gov/web/cesbmart.htm.

Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of busi-
ness establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sam-
ple is designed to maximize the reliability of the total nonfarm employment
estimate; firms from all size classes and industries are appropriately sampled
to achieve that goal.
  
Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account 
for the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The
adjustment comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net 
jobs impact of business births and deaths based on the actual past values of
the net impact that can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of
Employment and Wages. The establishment survey uses modeling rather than sam-
pling for this purpose because the survey is not immediately able to bring new
businesses into the sample. There is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a
new firm and its appearance on the sampling frame and availability for selection.
BLS adds new businesses to the survey twice a year.

Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving
unemployment insurance benefits?

No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of house-
holds. All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available
to work are included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are in-
cluded even if they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or ques-
tion relating to unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who have stopped looking for
work?

Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
want a job, including those who have stopped looking because they believe no jobs
are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
underutilization (discouraged workers and other groups not officially counted as
unemployed) are published each month in the Employment Situation news release.





Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the
Current Population Survey (household survey) and the Current Employ-
ment Statistics survey (establishment survey). The household survey 
provides information on the labor force, employment, and unemploy-
ment that appears in the "A" tables, marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a 
sample survey of about 60,000 households conducted by the U.S. Cen-
sus Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). 

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, 
and earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the 
"B" tables, marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each 
month from the payroll records of a sample of nonagricultural busi-
ness establishments. The sample includes about 140,000 businesses and 
government agencies representing approximately 410,000 worksites and is 
drawn from a sampling frame of roughly 8.9 million unemployment  in-
surance tax accounts. The active sample includes approximately one-
third of all nonfarm payroll employees. 

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular 
week or pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is 
generally the calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. 
In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period 
including the 12th, which may or may not correspond directly to the 
calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire
civilian noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series
of questions on work and job search activities, each person 16 years
and over in a sample household is classified as employed, unemployed,
or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as
paid employees during the reference week; worked in their own business, 
profession, or on their own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 
hours in a family business or farm. People are also counted as employ-
ed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs because of illness, 
bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the follow-
ing criteria: they had no employment during the reference week; they 
were available for work at that time; and they made specific efforts 
to find employment sometime during the 4-week period ending with the 
reference week. Persons laid off from a job and expecting recall need 
not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The unemployment 
data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the eli-
gibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed per-
sons. Those not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the
labor force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a per-
cent of the labor force. The labor force participation rate is the
labor force as a percent of the population, and the employment-popula-
tion ratio is the employed as a percent of the population. Additional 
information about the household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/
cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from pri-
vate nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as
well as from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees
on nonfarm payrolls are those who received pay for any part of the
reference pay period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are
counted in each job they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced
for the private sector for all employees and for production and nonsu-
pervisory employees. Production and nonsupervisory employees are defin-
ed as production and related employees in manufacturing and mining and 
logging, construction workers in construction, and nonsupervisory em-
ployees in private service-providing industries. 

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment’s princi-
pal activity in accordance with the 2007 version of the North American 
Industry Classification System. Additional information about the estab-
lishment survey can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/#technical.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and
methodological differences between the household and establishment
surveys result in important distinctions in the employment estimates
derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, the self-
     employed, unpaid family workers, and private household workers
     among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.
  
   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the
     employed. The establishment survey does not.
  
   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and
     older. The establishment survey is not limited by age.
  
   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than
     one job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted
     separately for each appearance.
  
Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and
the levels of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring
fluctuations. These events may result from seasonal changes in weather, 
major holidays, and the opening and closing of schools. The effect of 
such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern
each year, their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by
adjusting for regular seasonal variation. These adjustments make non-
seasonal developments, such as declines in employment or increases
in the participation of women in the labor force, easier to spot. For
example, in the household survey, the large number of youth entering
the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes that
have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if
the level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in
the establishment survey, payroll employment in education declines by
about 20 percent at the end of the spring term and later rises with
the start of the fall term, obscuring the underlying employment trends
in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes at the end and
beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The
seasonally adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to
analyze changes in month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both
the household and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series
for many major estimates, such as total payroll employment, employment
in most major sectors, total employment, and unemployment are computed
by aggregating independently adjusted component series. For example,
total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate
that would be obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining
the duration, reasons, or more detailed age categories.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent
seasonal adjustment methodology is used in which new seasonal factors
are calculated each month using all relevant data, up to and including
the data for the current month. In the household survey, new seasonal
factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the es-
tablishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month 
to adjust the three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months 
are routinely revised to incorporate additional sample reports and re-
calculated seasonal adjustment factors. In both surveys, 5-year revi-
sions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are
subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample rather
than the entire population is surveyed, there is a chance that the
sample estimates may differ from the "true" population values they
represent. The exact difference, or sampling error, varies depending
on the particular sample selected, and this variability is measured by
the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, 
or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ 
by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the "true" population value 
because of sampling error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 
90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in
total nonfarm employment from the establishment survey is on the order
of plus or minus 100,0001. Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment
increases by 50,000 from one month to the next. The 90-percent confi-
dence interval on the monthly change would range from -50,000 to 
+150,000 (50,000 +/- 100,0002). These figures do not mean that the
sample results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is
about a 90-percent chance that the "true" over-the-month change lies
within this interval. Since this range includes values of less than
zero, we could not say with confidence that nonfarm employment had, in
fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported nonfarm employ-
ment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90-percent 
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is 
likely (at least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in 
fact, risen that month. At an unemployment rate of around 5.5 percent, 
the 90-percent confidence interval for the monthly change in unemploy-
ment as measured by the household survey is about +/- 280,000, and for 
the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about +/-0.19 per-
centage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments
have lower standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than
estimates which are based on a small number of observations. The pre-
cision of estimates also is improved when the data are cumulated over 
time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by
nonsampling error, which can occur for many reasons, including the
failure to sample a segment of the population, inability to obtain
information for all respondents in the sample, inability or unwill-
ingness of respondents to provide correct information on a timely 
basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collec-
tion or processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most
recent 2 months are based on incomplete returns; for this reason,
these estimates are labeled preliminary in the tables. It is only
after two successive revisions to a monthly estimate, when nearly 
all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is consi-
dered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment
survey is the inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment
generated by new firms. To correct for this systematic underestima-
tion of employment growth, an estimation procedure with two compo-
nents is used to account for business births. The first component 
excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based 
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from 
business births. This is incorporated into the sample-based esti-
mation procedure by simply not reflecting sample units going out 
of business, but imputing to them the same employment trend as the 
other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for most of the 
net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to
estimate the residual net birth/death employment not accounted for 
by the imputation. The historical time series used to create and 
test the ARIMA model was derived from the unemployment insurance 
universe micro-level database, and reflects the actual residual net 
of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are ad-
justed once a year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll
employment obtained from administrative records of the unemployment
insurance program. The difference between the March sample-based em-
ployment estimates and the March universe counts is known as a bench-
mark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey error. 
The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of 
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions  for 
total nonfarm employment have averaged 0.3 percent, with a range from 
-0.7 to 0.6 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory im-
paired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal 
Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Apr.
2009
Mar.
2010
Apr.
2010
Apr.
2009
Dec.
2009
Jan.
2010
Feb.
2010
Mar.
2010
Apr.
2010

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

235,271 237,159 237,329 235,271 236,924 236,832 236,998 237,159 237,329

Civilian labor force

153,834 153,660 153,911 154,718 153,059 153,170 153,512 153,910 154,715

Participation rate

65.4 64.8 64.9 65.8 64.6 64.7 64.8 64.9 65.2

Employed

140,586 137,983 139,302 140,902 137,792 138,333 138,641 138,905 139,455

Employment-population ratio

59.8 58.2 58.7 59.9 58.2 58.4 58.5 58.6 58.8

Unemployed

13,248 15,678 14,609 13,816 15,267 14,837 14,871 15,005 15,260

Unemployment rate

8.6 10.2 9.5 8.9 10.0 9.7 9.7 9.7 9.9

Not in labor force

81,437 83,499 83,418 80,554 83,865 83,663 83,487 83,249 82,614

Persons who currently want a job

5,868 5,719 5,865 5,928 6,306 5,965 6,170 6,044 5,951

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

113,857 114,821 114,910 113,857 114,728 114,648 114,735 114,821 114,910

Civilian labor force

81,878 81,949 82,014 82,403 81,454 81,290 81,496 81,895 82,453

Participation rate

71.9 71.4 71.4 72.4 71.0 70.9 71.0 71.3 71.8

Employed

73,771 72,253 73,315 74,107 72,499 72,516 72,813 73,092 73,548

Employment-population ratio

64.8 62.9 63.8 65.1 63.2 63.3 63.5 63.7 64.0

Unemployed

8,107 9,696 8,699 8,295 8,955 8,774 8,683 8,803 8,905

Unemployment rate

9.9 11.8 10.6 10.1 11.0 10.8 10.7 10.7 10.8

Not in labor force

31,979 32,872 32,897 31,454 33,274 33,358 33,239 32,926 32,457

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

105,196 106,198 106,301 105,196 106,125 105,998 106,100 106,198 106,301

Civilian labor force

78,811 79,059 79,122 79,106 78,402 78,225 78,471 78,796 79,356

Participation rate

74.9 74.4 74.4 75.2 73.9 73.8 74.0 74.2 74.7

Employed

71,468 70,238 71,226 71,665 70,391 70,390 70,623 70,913 71,358

Employment-population ratio

67.9 66.1 67.0 68.1 66.3 66.4 66.6 66.8 67.1

Unemployed

7,343 8,821 7,895 7,441 8,011 7,835 7,848 7,882 7,998

Unemployment rate

9.3 11.2 10.0 9.4 10.2 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.1

Not in labor force

26,386 27,139 27,179 26,091 27,723 27,774 27,628 27,403 26,945

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

121,415 122,339 122,419 121,415 122,197 122,185 122,263 122,339 122,419

Civilian labor force

71,956 71,712 71,898 72,315 71,605 71,880 72,015 72,015 72,262

Participation rate

59.3 58.6 58.7 59.6 58.6 58.8 58.9 58.9 59.0

Employed

66,815 65,730 65,988 66,794 65,293 65,817 65,828 65,813 65,907

Employment-population ratio

55.0 53.7 53.9 55.0 53.4 53.9 53.8 53.8 53.8

Unemployed

5,141 5,982 5,910 5,521 6,312 6,064 6,187 6,203 6,355

Unemployment rate

7.1 8.3 8.2 7.6 8.8 8.4 8.6 8.6 8.8

Not in labor force

49,458 50,627 50,521 49,100 50,591 50,305 50,247 50,323 50,157

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

112,999 113,974 114,066 112,999 113,832 113,796 113,886 113,974 114,066

Civilian labor force

68,957 68,967 69,101 69,105 68,620 68,949 69,069 69,027 69,265

Participation rate

61.0 60.5 60.6 61.2 60.3 60.6 60.6 60.6 60.7

Employed

64,318 63,537 63,746 64,147 62,998 63,527 63,538 63,495 63,552

Employment-population ratio

56.9 55.7 55.9 56.8 55.3 55.8 55.8 55.7 55.7

Unemployed

4,639 5,430 5,355 4,957 5,622 5,422 5,531 5,532 5,712

Unemployment rate

6.7 7.9 7.7 7.2 8.2 7.9 8.0 8.0 8.2

Not in labor force

44,041 45,007 44,965 43,894 45,212 44,848 44,818 44,947 44,801

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

17,076 16,987 16,962 17,076 16,967 17,038 17,012 16,987 16,962

Civilian labor force

6,066 5,635 5,689 6,507 6,037 5,996 5,972 6,087 6,094

Participation rate

35.5 33.2 33.5 38.1 35.6 35.2 35.1 35.8 35.9

Employed

4,799 4,207 4,330 5,089 4,403 4,416 4,480 4,496 4,544

Employment-population ratio

28.1 24.8 25.5 29.8 25.9 25.9 26.3 26.5 26.8

Unemployed

1,267 1,427 1,358 1,418 1,634 1,580 1,491 1,591 1,550

Unemployment rate

20.9 25.3 23.9 21.8 27.1 26.4 25.0 26.1 25.4

Not in labor force

11,010 11,352 11,273 10,569 10,930 11,041 11,041 10,899 10,867

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Apr.
2009
Mar.
2010
Apr.
2010
Apr.
2009
Dec.
2009
Jan.
2010
Feb.
2010
Mar.
2010
Apr.
2010

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

190,552 191,648 191,749 190,552 191,628 191,454 191,552 191,648 191,749

Civilian labor force

125,316 124,950 125,062 126,108 124,605 124,579 124,847 125,054 125,779

Participation rate

65.8 65.2 65.2 66.2 65.0 65.1 65.2 65.3 65.6

Employed

115,587 113,339 114,302 115,896 113,339 113,797 113,865 114,108 114,484

Employment-population ratio

60.7 59.1 59.6 60.8 59.1 59.4 59.4 59.5 59.7

Unemployed

9,729 11,611 10,760 10,213 11,266 10,782 10,982 10,945 11,295

Unemployment rate

7.8 9.3 8.6 8.1 9.0 8.7 8.8 8.8 9.0

Not in labor force

65,235 66,698 66,687 64,443 67,024 66,875 66,705 66,594 65,970

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

65,298 65,277 65,392 65,531 64,804 64,682 64,889 64,973 65,556

Participation rate

75.4 74.8 74.9 75.7 74.3 74.3 74.4 74.5 75.1

Employed

59,847 58,701 59,460 59,948 58,782 58,813 59,021 59,208 59,504

Employment-population ratio

69.1 67.3 68.1 69.2 67.4 67.5 67.7 67.9 68.2

Unemployed

5,451 6,576 5,932 5,582 6,022 5,869 5,868 5,765 6,052

Unemployment rate

8.3 10.1 9.1 8.5 9.3 9.1 9.0 8.9 9.2

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

55,033 55,033 54,971 55,203 54,822 55,017 55,061 55,104 55,184

Participation rate

60.5 60.2 60.1 60.7 60.0 60.2 60.2 60.3 60.3

Employed

51,692 51,079 51,174 51,648 50,753 51,248 51,048 51,103 51,123

Employment-population ratio

56.9 55.9 55.9 56.8 55.5 56.1 55.8 55.9 55.9

Unemployed

3,341 3,954 3,797 3,556 4,069 3,769 4,014 4,000 4,061

Unemployment rate

6.1 7.2 6.9 6.4 7.4 6.8 7.3 7.3 7.4

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,986 4,640 4,699 5,374 4,978 4,880 4,897 4,977 5,040

Participation rate

38.2 35.8 36.3 41.1 38.4 37.5 37.7 38.4 38.9

Employed

4,049 3,559 3,668 4,300 3,804 3,736 3,797 3,797 3,857

Employment-population ratio

31.0 27.5 28.3 32.9 29.3 28.7 29.2 29.3 29.8

Unemployed

937 1,081 1,031 1,075 1,174 1,145 1,100 1,180 1,183

Unemployment rate

18.8 23.3 21.9 20.0 23.6 23.5 22.5 23.7 23.5

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

28,153 28,591 28,624 28,153 28,437 28,526 28,559 28,591 28,624

Civilian labor force

17,670 17,795 17,868 17,795 17,600 17,749 17,748 17,871 17,951

Participation rate

62.8 62.2 62.4 63.2 61.9 62.2 62.1 62.5 62.7

Employed

15,119 14,837 15,020 15,119 14,758 14,820 14,936 14,920 14,985

Employment-population ratio

53.7 51.9 52.5 53.7 51.9 52.0 52.3 52.2 52.4

Unemployed

2,551 2,957 2,848 2,676 2,843 2,929 2,812 2,951 2,966

Unemployment rate

14.4 16.6 15.9 15.0 16.2 16.5 15.8 16.5 16.5

Not in labor force

10,483 10,796 10,756 10,358 10,837 10,777 10,811 10,720 10,673

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

7,932 8,124 8,081 7,989 7,907 7,970 7,985 8,134 8,130

Participation rate

70.0 70.3 69.8 70.5 68.8 69.2 69.2 70.4 70.2

Employed

6,567 6,479 6,635 6,613 6,591 6,566 6,561 6,592 6,668

Employment-population ratio

58.0 56.1 57.3 58.4 57.4 57.0 56.9 57.0 57.6

Unemployed

1,365 1,645 1,446 1,376 1,316 1,405 1,424 1,542 1,462

Unemployment rate

17.2 20.2 17.9 17.2 16.6 17.6 17.8 19.0 18.0

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

9,023 9,004 9,151 9,042 8,959 9,034 9,074 9,021 9,146

Participation rate

63.9 62.7 63.7 64.0 62.7 63.1 63.3 62.8 63.6

Employed

8,076 7,954 7,971 8,010 7,788 7,836 7,975 7,907 7,894

Employment-population ratio

57.2 55.4 55.4 56.7 54.5 54.7 55.6 55.1 54.9

Unemployed

947 1,050 1,181 1,031 1,171 1,198 1,099 1,115 1,252

Unemployment rate

10.5 11.7 12.9 11.4 13.1 13.3 12.1 12.4 13.7

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

714 666 635 765 734 745 689 716 675

Participation rate

26.5 24.9 23.8 28.4 27.5 27.7 25.7 26.7 25.3

Employed

475 404 414 496 379 418 399 421 423

Employment-population ratio

17.7 15.1 15.5 18.4 14.2 15.6 14.9 15.7 15.8

Unemployed

239 262 221 268 356 326 290 294 252

Unemployment rate

33.5 39.3 34.8 35.1 48.4 43.8 42.0 41.1 37.3

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

10,788 11,089 11,138 - - - - - -

Civilian labor force

7,128 7,174 7,300 - - - - - -

Participation rate

66.1 64.7 65.5 - - - - - -

Employed

6,659 6,633 6,806 - - - - - -

Employment-population ratio

61.7 59.8 61.1 - - - - - -

Unemployed

469 541 494 - - - - - -

Unemployment rate

6.6 7.5 6.8 - - - - - -

Not in labor force

3,660 3,915 3,838 - - - - - -

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Apr.
2009
Mar.
2010
Apr.
2010
Apr.
2009
Dec.
2009
Jan.
2010
Feb.
2010
Mar.
2010
Apr.
2010

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

32,671 33,414 33,498 32,671 33,379 33,251 33,335 33,414 33,498

Civilian labor force

22,317 22,656 22,554 22,403 22,404 22,578 22,648 22,707 22,684

Participation rate

68.3 67.8 67.3 68.6 67.1 67.9 67.9 68.0 67.7

Employed

19,895 19,650 19,872 19,855 19,513 19,730 19,848 19,848 19,850

Employment-population ratio

60.9 58.8 59.3 60.8 58.5 59.3 59.5 59.4 59.3

Unemployed

2,422 3,006 2,682 2,548 2,891 2,848 2,800 2,859 2,834

Unemployment rate

10.9 13.3 11.9 11.4 12.9 12.6 12.4 12.6 12.5

Not in labor force

10,354 10,758 10,944 10,268 10,976 10,674 10,687 10,706 10,814

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

12,698 12,857 12,838 - - - - - -

Participation rate

83.6 82.7 82.4 - - - - - -

Employed

11,407 11,211 11,405 - - - - - -

Employment-population ratio

75.1 72.1 73.2 - - - - - -

Unemployed

1,291 1,647 1,433 - - - - - -

Unemployment rate

10.2 12.8 11.2 - - - - - -

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

8,601 8,763 8,754 - - - - - -

Participation rate

59.9 59.9 59.6 - - - - - -

Employed

7,740 7,716 7,786 - - - - - -

Employment-population ratio

53.9 52.7 53.0 - - - - - -

Unemployed

860 1,047 969 - - - - - -

Unemployment rate

10.0 12.0 11.1 - - - - - -

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

1,018 1,035 961 - - - - - -

Participation rate

32.8 32.0 29.7 - - - - - -

Employed

748 724 681 - - - - - -

Employment-population ratio

24.1 22.4 21.0 - - - - - -

Unemployed

270 311 280 - - - - - -

Unemployment rate

26.5 30.1 29.2 - - - - - -

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2009
Mar.
2010
Apr.
2010
Apr.
2009
Dec.
2009
Jan.
2010
Feb.
2010
Mar.
2010
Apr.
2010

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

12,180 11,803 12,225 12,078 11,977 11,835 11,518 11,775 12,122

Participation rate

46.2 46.2 46.8 45.9 45.6 45.4 46.2 46.1 46.4

Employed

10,399 9,889 10,447 10,282 10,144 10,033 9,722 10,067 10,335

Employment-population ratio

39.5 38.7 40.0 39.0 38.6 38.5 39.0 39.4 39.5

Unemployed

1,781 1,914 1,778 1,796 1,833 1,802 1,795 1,708 1,787

Unemployment rate

14.6 16.2 14.5 14.9 15.3 15.2 15.6 14.5 14.7

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

38,300 39,202 38,779 38,528 37,607 37,738 38,801 38,855 38,849

Participation rate

62.4 62.6 62.3 62.7 61.4 61.1 61.9 62.0 62.4

Employed

34,733 34,527 34,723 34,913 33,649 33,920 34,737 34,654 34,728

Employment-population ratio

56.6 55.1 55.8 56.8 55.0 54.9 55.4 55.3 55.8

Unemployed

3,568 4,674 4,056 3,614 3,958 3,818 4,064 4,201 4,120

Unemployment rate

9.3 11.9 10.5 9.4 10.5 10.1 10.5 10.8 10.6

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

36,917 36,579 36,547 36,927 36,892 36,761 36,575 36,582 36,552

Participation rate

71.6 70.8 70.8 71.7 70.6 71.5 70.2 70.8 70.8

Employed

34,169 33,410 33,590 34,153 33,560 33,629 33,660 33,586 33,535

Employment-population ratio

66.3 64.7 65.1 66.3 64.2 65.4 64.6 65.0 65.0

Unemployed

2,748 3,170 2,957 2,774 3,332 3,132 2,915 2,996 3,017

Unemployment rate

7.4 8.7 8.1 7.5 9.0 8.5 8.0 8.2 8.3

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

45,377 45,742 45,794 45,396 45,994 45,939 45,694 45,800 45,879

Participation rate

77.6 77.1 77.2 77.7 77.3 77.0 77.0 77.2 77.3

Employed

43,547 43,570 43,778 43,387 43,707 43,704 43,418 43,549 43,642

Employment-population ratio

74.5 73.4 73.8 74.2 73.4 73.3 73.1 73.4 73.5

Unemployed

1,831 2,172 2,015 2,010 2,288 2,235 2,276 2,251 2,237

Unemployment rate

4.0 4.7 4.4 4.4 5.0 4.9 5.0 4.9 4.9

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Apr.
2009
Apr.
2010
Apr.
2009
Apr.
2010
Apr.
2009
Apr.
2010

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

22,261 22,093 20,509 20,310 1,752 1,783

Civilian labor force

12,073 11,742 10,960 10,632 1,113 1,110

Participation rate

54.2 53.1 53.4 52.4 63.5 62.2

Employed

11,050 10,679 10,037 9,669 1,013 1,010

Employment-population ratio

49.6 48.3 48.9 47.6 57.8 56.6

Unemployed

1,023 1,064 923 964 100 100

Unemployment rate

8.5 9.1 8.4 9.1 9.0 9.0

Not in labor force

10,188 10,351 9,549 9,678 639 673

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

1,902 2,101 1,588 1,748 314 353

Civilian labor force

1,552 1,694 1,333 1,441 220 254

Participation rate

81.6 80.6 83.9 82.4 69.9 71.9

Employed

1,392 1,472 1,196 1,249 197 223

Employment-population ratio

73.2 70.0 75.3 71.4 62.6 63.2

Unemployed

160 223 137 192 23 31

Unemployment rate

10.3 13.1 10.3 13.3 10.4 12.0

Not in labor force

350 407 255 308 95 99

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,863 2,989 2,435 2,500 428 489

Civilian labor force

2,508 2,610 2,162 2,226 346 383

Participation rate

87.6 87.3 88.8 89.0 80.8 78.4

Employed

2,265 2,397 1,952 2,047 313 350

Employment-population ratio

79.1 80.2 80.1 81.9 73.2 71.6

Unemployed

243 213 210 179 33 33

Unemployment rate

9.7 8.1 9.7 8.1 9.5 8.7

Not in labor force

355 380 273 274 82 106

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

11,499 11,103 11,114 10,725 385 377

Civilian labor force

4,418 4,019 4,287 3,904 131 116

Participation rate

38.4 36.2 38.6 36.4 34.0 30.7

Employed

4,108 3,726 3,980 3,614 127 112

Employment-population ratio

35.7 33.6 35.8 33.7 33.0 29.6

Unemployed

310 293 306 289 4 4

Unemployment rate

7.0 7.3 7.1 7.4 2.9 3.4

Not in labor force

7,082 7,083 6,827 6,822 254 262

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,997 5,900 5,372 5,336 625 564

Civilian labor force

3,595 3,419 3,178 3,062 417 357

Participation rate

60.0 58.0 59.2 57.4 66.7 63.3

Employed

3,286 3,084 2,909 2,759 376 325

Employment-population ratio

54.8 52.3 54.2 51.7 60.2 57.6

Unemployed

309 335 269 303 41 32

Unemployment rate

8.6 9.8 8.5 9.9 9.7 9.0

Not in labor force

2,401 2,481 2,194 2,274 208 207

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

203,975 206,378 88,789 90,114 115,186 116,264

Civilian labor force

139,733 140,337 69,930 70,471 69,803 69,867

Participation rate

68.5 68.0 78.8 78.2 60.6 60.1

Employed

127,950 127,291 62,987 63,007 64,964 64,284

Employment-population ratio

62.7 61.7 70.9 69.9 56.4 55.3

Unemployed

11,783 13,046 6,944 7,463 4,839 5,583

Unemployment rate

8.4 9.3 9.9 10.6 6.9 8.0

Not in labor force

64,242 66,041 18,858 19,644 45,383 46,397

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Apr.
2009
Apr.
2010
Apr.
2009
Apr.
2010

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

27,093 26,590 208,179 210,739

Civilian labor force

6,179 5,897 147,654 148,015

Participation rate

22.8 22.2 70.9 70.2

Employed

5,381 4,999 135,204 134,303

Employment-population ratio

19.9 18.8 64.9 63.7

Unemployed

798 897 12,450 13,712

Unemployment rate

12.9 15.2 8.4 9.3

Not in labor force

20,913 20,693 60,524 62,725

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,757 2,731 75,625 75,654

Participation rate

38.0 37.8 83.8 83.2

Employed

2,362 2,258 68,140 67,665

Employment-population ratio

32.6 31.2 75.5 74.4

Unemployed

396 473 7,485 7,989

Unemployment rate

14.3 17.3 9.9 10.6

Not in labor force

4,492 4,496 14,633 15,316

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,592 2,393 66,454 66,545

Participation rate

33.8 31.4 72.1 71.6

Employed

2,233 2,035 61,817 61,148

Employment-population ratio

29.1 26.7 67.0 65.8

Unemployed

359 358 4,637 5,397

Unemployment rate

13.9 14.9 7.0 8.1

Not in labor force

5,084 5,227 25,772 26,395

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

830 773 5,575 5,816

Participation rate

6.8 6.6 21.7 21.7

Employed

786 707 5,248 5,490

Employment-population ratio

6.5 6.0 20.4 20.5

Unemployed

44 67 328 326

Unemployment rate

5.2 8.6 5.9 5.6

Not in labor force

11,337 10,970 20,119 21,014

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Apr.
2009
Apr.
2010
Apr.
2009
Apr.
2010
Apr.
2009
Apr.
2010

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

35,039 34,996 17,485 17,581 17,554 17,415

Civilian labor force

23,782 23,916 14,206 14,179 9,576 9,737

Participation rate

67.9 68.3 81.2 80.7 54.6 55.9

Employed

21,750 21,816 12,975 12,940 8,775 8,876

Employment-population ratio

62.1 62.3 74.2 73.6 50.0 51.0

Unemployed

2,032 2,100 1,231 1,239 801 861

Unemployment rate

8.5 8.8 8.7 8.7 8.4 8.8

Not in labor force

11,257 11,080 3,280 3,402 7,978 7,678

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

200,232 202,333 96,371 97,329 103,861 105,003

Civilian labor force

130,052 129,995 67,672 67,834 62,380 62,161

Participation rate

65.0 64.2 70.2 69.7 60.1 59.2

Employed

118,835 117,486 60,796 60,374 58,039 57,112

Employment-population ratio

59.3 58.1 63.1 62.0 55.9 54.4

Unemployed

11,216 12,509 6,876 7,460 4,340 5,049

Unemployment rate

8.6 9.6 10.2 11.0 7.0 8.1

Not in labor force

70,180 72,337 28,699 29,495 41,481 42,843

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2009
Mar.
2010
Apr.
2010
Apr.
2009
Dec.
2009
Jan.
2010
Feb.
2010
Mar.
2010
Apr.
2010

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,087 2,103 2,210 2,143 2,056 2,115 2,313 2,217 2,254

Wage and salary workers

1,164 1,242 1,343 1,217 1,308 1,342 1,362 1,374 1,397

Self-employed workers

894 835 837 883 755 781 908 851 823

Unpaid family workers

29 26 30 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

138,498 135,880 137,092 138,762 135,717 136,276 136,398 136,715 137,199

Wage and salary workers

129,381 127,009 128,031 129,672 126,539 127,269 127,261 127,712 128,183

Government

21,548 21,472 21,844 21,196 21,110 21,227 21,292 21,281 21,440

Private industries

107,832 105,537 106,187 108,469 105,428 106,031 105,942 106,447 106,706

Private households

716 733 711 - - - - - -

Other industries

107,116 104,804 105,476 107,742 104,666 105,329 105,243 105,682 105,977

Self-employed workers

9,063 8,797 8,948 9,034 9,135 9,007 9,029 8,949 8,910

Unpaid family workers

54 74 114 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(1)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(2)

8,648 9,343 8,921 8,888 9,165 8,316 8,791 9,054 9,152

Slack work or business conditions

6,533 6,443 6,113 6,699 6,453 5,873 6,185 6,177 6,268

Could only find part-time work

1,852 2,611 2,571 1,819 2,346 2,295 2,212 2,388 2,489

Part time for noneconomic reasons(3)

19,644 18,739 18,853 18,976 18,364 18,563 18,360 18,379 18,140

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(2)

8,556 9,210 8,830 8,795 9,055 8,193 8,651 8,946 9,049

Slack work or business conditions

6,462 6,343 6,063 6,634 6,378 5,792 6,079 6,099 6,213

Could only find part-time work

1,842 2,606 2,558 1,826 2,349 2,288 2,199 2,406 2,486

Part time for noneconomic reasons(3)

19,282 18,430 18,506 18,595 18,056 18,218 18,043 18,066 17,798

Footnotes
(1) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(3) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2009
Mar.
2010
Apr.
2010
Apr.
2009
Dec.
2009
Jan.
2010
Feb.
2010
Mar.
2010
Apr.
2010

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

140,586 137,983 139,302 140,902 137,792 138,333 138,641 138,905 139,455

16 to 19 years

4,799 4,207 4,330 5,089 4,403 4,416 4,480 4,496 4,544

16 to 17 years

1,585 1,243 1,333 1,735 1,425 1,484 1,456 1,402 1,453

18 to 19 years

3,214 2,964 2,998 3,340 2,987 2,938 3,043 3,093 3,073

20 years and over

135,786 133,775 134,972 135,813 133,389 133,916 134,161 134,409 134,911

20 to 24 years

12,939 12,380 12,434 13,043 12,389 12,435 12,539 12,601 12,509

25 years and over

122,847 121,396 122,539 122,761 121,012 121,404 121,471 121,731 122,352

25 to 54 years

95,761 93,620 94,543 95,756 93,791 94,004 94,001 94,053 94,487

25 to 34 years

30,092 29,860 30,221 30,111 29,794 30,022 30,123 30,080 30,208

35 to 44 years

31,811 30,623 30,912 31,793 30,744 30,683 30,560 30,730 30,874

45 to 54 years

33,859 33,137 33,410 33,851 33,254 33,299 33,318 33,244 33,405

55 years and over

27,086 27,776 27,995 27,006 27,221 27,399 27,470 27,678 27,865

Men, 16 years and over

73,771 72,253 73,315 74,107 72,499 72,516 72,813 73,092 73,548

16 to 19 years

2,303 2,014 2,088 2,442 2,108 2,126 2,190 2,179 2,189

16 to 17 years

747 602 638 820 672 706 686 689 698

18 to 19 years

1,555 1,412 1,450 1,633 1,434 1,415 1,496 1,492 1,500

20 years and over

71,468 70,238 71,226 71,665 70,391 70,390 70,623 70,913 71,358

20 to 24 years

6,612 6,248 6,319 6,683 6,234 6,211 6,282 6,410 6,357

25 years and over

64,856 63,990 64,907 64,947 64,166 64,091 64,267 64,503 64,945

25 to 54 years

50,700 49,510 50,285 50,801 49,921 49,807 49,868 50,003 50,363

25 to 34 years

16,122 15,999 16,299 16,201 16,118 16,148 16,281 16,261 16,370

35 to 44 years

17,024 16,475 16,650 17,042 16,629 16,479 16,404 16,593 16,661

45 to 54 years

17,555 17,036 17,336 17,559 17,174 17,180 17,183 17,149 17,332

55 years and over

14,156 14,481 14,623 14,146 14,245 14,284 14,399 14,500 14,582

Women, 16 years and over

66,815 65,730 65,988 66,794 65,293 65,817 65,828 65,813 65,907

16 to 19 years

2,497 2,193 2,242 2,647 2,294 2,290 2,290 2,317 2,355

16 to 17 years

838 640 694 914 753 777 770 713 755

18 to 19 years

1,659 1,552 1,548 1,706 1,553 1,523 1,546 1,601 1,573

20 years and over

64,318 63,537 63,746 64,147 62,998 63,527 63,538 63,495 63,552

20 to 24 years

6,327 6,132 6,115 6,361 6,155 6,224 6,258 6,191 6,152

25 years and over

57,991 57,405 57,631 57,814 56,846 57,313 57,204 57,229 57,407

25 to 54 years

45,061 44,110 44,259 44,955 43,870 44,197 44,134 44,050 44,124

25 to 34 years

13,970 13,861 13,922 13,911 13,676 13,874 13,843 13,819 13,837

35 to 44 years

14,787 14,148 14,263 14,751 14,115 14,203 14,156 14,137 14,213

45 to 54 years

16,304 16,101 16,074 16,292 16,080 16,119 16,135 16,094 16,073

55 years and over

12,930 13,295 13,373 12,860 12,976 13,116 13,071 13,179 13,283

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present

44,470 42,954 43,256 44,424 43,312 43,126 43,168 43,083 43,205

Married women, spouse present

35,668 34,900 34,812 35,438 35,004 35,073 35,248 34,887 34,643

Women who maintain families

8,951 8,688 8,907 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(1)

112,746 109,877 111,391 113,630 110,254 110,497 110,840 111,256 112,091

Part-time workers(2)

27,840 28,106 27,912 27,115 27,466 27,718 27,596 27,549 27,167

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,781 7,063 7,105 7,731 6,910 6,961 7,060 6,959 7,029

Percent of total employed

5.5 5.1 5.1 5.5 5.0 5.0 5.1 5.0 5.0

Footnotes
(1) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(2) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Apr.
2009
Mar.
2010
Apr.
2010
Apr.
2009
Dec.
2009
Jan.
2010
Feb.
2010
Mar.
2010
Apr.
2010

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

13,816 15,005 15,260 8.9 10.0 9.7 9.7 9.7 9.9

16 to 19 years

1,418 1,591 1,550 21.8 27.1 26.4 25.0 26.1 25.4

16 to 17 years

529 589 599 23.4 29.9 27.9 28.2 29.6 29.2

18 to 19 years

926 1,000 975 21.7 25.8 25.4 23.7 24.4 24.1

20 years and over

12,398 13,414 13,710 8.4 9.3 9.0 9.1 9.1 9.2

20 to 24 years

2,225 2,367 2,605 14.6 15.6 15.8 16.0 15.8 17.2

25 years and over

10,116 11,043 11,048 7.6 8.5 8.2 8.3 8.3 8.3

25 to 54 years

8,251 9,029 8,950 7.9 8.9 8.6 8.6 8.8 8.7

25 to 34 years

3,257 3,338 3,436 9.8 10.2 9.9 9.8 10.0 10.2

35 to 44 years

2,606 2,886 2,730 7.6 8.8 8.5 8.8 8.6 8.1

45 to 54 years

2,387 2,805 2,784 6.6 7.9 7.6 7.4 7.8 7.7

55 years and over

1,861 2,039 2,091 6.4 7.2 6.8 7.1 6.9 7.0

Men, 16 years and over

8,295 8,803 8,905 10.1 11.0 10.8 10.7 10.7 10.8

16 to 19 years

854 920 908 25.9 30.9 30.6 27.6 29.7 29.3

16 to 17 years

295 308 332 26.4 33.1 30.8 30.4 30.9 32.2

18 to 19 years

564 612 578 25.7 30.2 30.3 27.3 29.1 27.8

20 years and over

7,441 7,882 7,998 9.4 10.2 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.1

20 to 24 years

1,371 1,442 1,580 17.0 18.4 19.2 18.7 18.4 19.9

25 years and over

6,006 6,413 6,343 8.5 9.2 9.0 9.1 9.0 8.9

25 to 54 years

4,973 5,252 5,162 8.9 9.6 9.4 9.5 9.5 9.3

25 to 34 years

2,036 2,045 2,007 11.2 11.0 10.8 10.8 11.2 10.9

35 to 44 years

1,537 1,593 1,554 8.3 8.9 9.0 9.4 8.8 8.5

45 to 54 years

1,399 1,614 1,601 7.4 9.0 8.5 8.2 8.6 8.5

55 years and over

1,034 1,160 1,182 6.8 7.9 7.5 7.8 7.4 7.5

Women, 16 years and over

5,521 6,203 6,355 7.6 8.8 8.4 8.6 8.6 8.8

16 to 19 years

563 671 642 17.6 23.1 21.9 22.3 22.4 21.4

16 to 17 years

234 281 268 20.4 26.8 25.0 26.2 28.3 26.2

18 to 19 years

362 388 398 17.5 21.3 20.1 19.9 19.5 20.2

20 years and over

4,957 5,532 5,712 7.2 8.2 7.9 8.0 8.0 8.2

20 to 24 years

854 925 1,025 11.8 12.5 12.2 13.1 13.0 14.3

25 years and over

4,110 4,631 4,705 6.6 7.6 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6

25 to 54 years

3,278 3,777 3,788 6.8 8.1 7.7 7.7 7.9 7.9

25 to 34 years

1,221 1,293 1,429 8.1 9.2 8.8 8.6 8.6 9.4

35 to 44 years

1,069 1,293 1,176 6.8 8.6 7.9 8.0 8.4 7.6

45 to 54 years

988 1,192 1,183 5.7 6.6 6.7 6.5 6.9 6.9

55 years and over(1)

745 841 815 5.4 5.8 6.1 6.5 6.0 5.7

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present

3,005 3,097 3,060 6.3 7.3 6.6 6.8 6.7 6.6

Married women, spouse present

2,063 2,242 2,322 5.5 5.8 5.8 6.1 6.0 6.3

Women who maintain families(1)

999 1,102 1,105 10.0 13.0 12.3 11.6 11.3 11.0

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(2)

12,088 13,079 13,354 9.6 10.9 10.4 10.5 10.5 10.6

Part-time workers(3)

1,739 1,977 1,894 6.0 6.0 6.4 6.2 6.7 6.5

Footnotes
(1) Not seasonally adjusted.
(2) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(3) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2009
Mar.
2010
Apr.
2010
Apr.
2009
Dec.
2009
Jan.
2010
Feb.
2010
Mar.
2010
Apr.
2010

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

8,687 10,311 9,110 8,867 9,701 9,323 9,550 9,354 9,246

On temporary layoff

1,586 2,015 1,296 1,638 1,558 1,454 1,558 1,595 1,359

Not on temporary layoff

7,101 8,296 7,814 7,229 8,143 7,869 7,992 7,758 7,887

Permanent job losers

5,853 6,837 6,521 5,823 6,773 6,424 6,666 6,393 6,494

Persons who completed temporary jobs

1,248 1,459 1,293 1,344 1,448 1,445 1,326 1,366 1,393

Job leavers

842 856 895 887 932 914 866 894 938

Reentrants

2,932 3,521 3,558 3,127 3,334 3,585 3,451 3,544 3,739

New entrants

788 991 1,047 919 1,270 1,235 1,238 1,197 1,231

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

65.6 65.8 62.4 64.3 63.7 61.9 63.2 62.4 61.0

On temporary layoff

12.0 12.9 8.9 11.9 10.2 9.7 10.3 10.6 9.0

Not on temporary layoff

53.6 52.9 53.5 52.4 53.4 52.3 52.9 51.8 52.0

Job leavers

6.4 5.5 6.1 6.4 6.1 6.1 5.7 6.0 6.2

Reentrants

22.1 22.5 24.4 22.7 21.9 23.8 22.8 23.6 24.7

New entrants

5.9 6.3 7.2 6.7 8.3 8.2 8.2 8.0 8.1

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

5.6 6.7 5.9 5.7 6.3 6.1 6.2 6.1 6.0

Job leavers

0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6

Reentrants

1.9 2.3 2.3 2.0 2.2 2.3 2.2 2.3 2.4

New entrants

0.5 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2009
Mar.
2010
Apr.
2010
Apr.
2009
Dec.
2009
Jan.
2010
Feb.
2010
Mar.
2010
Apr.
2010

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,855 2,402 2,304 3,284 2,929 3,008 2,748 2,646 2,682

5 to 14 weeks

3,526 3,599 2,594 3,962 3,486 3,362 3,412 3,228 2,991

15 weeks and over

6,867 9,676 9,710 6,296 8,969 8,945 8,829 8,983 8,969

15 to 26 weeks

2,966 2,966 2,691 2,571 2,840 2,632 2,696 2,436 2,253

27 weeks and over

3,901 6,711 7,020 3,725 6,130 6,313 6,133 6,547 6,716

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

23.4 32.1 35.8 21.8 29.1 30.2 29.7 31.2 33.0

Median duration, in weeks

15.4 21.6 25.8 13.1 20.5 19.9 19.4 20.0 21.6

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

21.5 15.3 15.8 24.3 19.0 19.6 18.3 17.8 18.3

5 to 14 weeks

26.6 23.0 17.8 29.3 22.7 22.0 22.8 21.7 20.4

15 weeks and over

51.8 61.7 66.5 46.5 58.3 58.4 58.9 60.5 61.3

15 to 26 weeks

22.4 18.9 18.4 19.0 18.5 17.2 18.0 16.4 15.4

27 weeks and over

29.4 42.8 48.1 27.5 39.8 41.2 40.9 44.1 45.9

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Apr.
2009
Apr.
2010
Apr.
2009
Apr.
2010
Apr.
2009
Apr.
2010

Total, 16 years and over(1)

140,586 139,302 13,248 14,609 8.6 9.5

Management, professional, and related occupations

52,597 52,355 2,164 2,464 4.0 4.5

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

21,455 21,215 995 1,139 4.4 5.1

Professional and related occupations

31,142 31,140 1,170 1,325 3.6 4.1

Service occupations

24,548 24,474 2,354 2,733 8.7 10.0

Sales and office occupations

34,053 33,577 2,966 3,173 8.0 8.6

Sales and related occupations

15,555 15,416 1,463 1,554 8.6 9.2

Office and administrative support occupations

18,498 18,160 1,503 1,619 7.5 8.2

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,453 13,013 2,438 2,673 15.3 17.0

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

924 960 166 193 15.2 16.7

Construction and extraction occupations

7,423 7,083 1,816 1,931 19.7 21.4

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

5,107 4,971 456 549 8.2 10.0

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

15,934 15,884 2,501 2,478 13.6 13.5

Production occupations

7,563 7,836 1,306 1,252 14.7 13.8

Transportation and material moving occupations

8,371 8,048 1,196 1,226 12.5 13.2

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Apr.
2009
Apr.
2010
Apr.
2009
Apr.
2010

Total, 16 years and over(1)

13,248 14,609 8.6 9.5

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

11,222 11,967 9.4 10.1

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

125 69 16.1 9.4

Construction

1,737 1,919 18.7 21.8

Manufacturing

1,968 1,688 12.4 11.1

Durable goods

1,278 1,100 12.8 11.6

Nondurable goods

690 588 11.8 10.2

Wholesale and retail trade

1,833 1,967 9.0 9.5

Transportation and utilities

541 530 9.0 9.1

Information

320 302 10.1 9.4

Financial activities

561 708 6.0 7.6

Professional and business services

1,448 1,586 10.4 11.1

Education and health services

964 1,051 4.6 5.0

Leisure and hospitality

1,322 1,633 10.2 12.8

Other services

403 515 6.4 8.4

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

176 232 13.5 15.0

Government workers

575 769 2.6 3.4

Self-employed and unpaid family workers

488 594 4.6 5.6

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2009
Mar.
2010
Apr.
2010
Apr.
2009
Dec.
2009
Jan.
2010
Feb.
2010
Mar.
2010
Apr.
2010

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

4.5 6.3 6.3 4.1 5.9 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

5.6 6.7 5.9 5.7 6.3 6.1 6.2 6.1 6.0

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

8.6 10.2 9.5 8.9 10.0 9.7 9.7 9.7 9.9

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

9.0 10.8 10.2 9.4 10.5 10.3 10.4 10.3 10.6

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

9.8 11.5 10.9 10.1 11.4 11.2 11.1 11.1 11.3

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

15.4 17.5 16.6 15.8 17.3 16.5 16.8 16.9 17.1

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Apr.
2009
Apr.
2010
Apr.
2009
Apr.
2010
Apr.
2009
Apr.
2010

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

81,437 83,418 31,979 32,897 49,458 50,521

Persons who currently want a job

5,868 5,865 2,805 2,795 3,063 3,070

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

2,089 2,432 1,105 1,294 984 1,138

Discouraged workers(2)

740 1,197 470 736 270 461

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,350 1,234 635 557 714 677

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,781 7,105 3,775 3,453 4,006 3,651

Percent of total employed

5.5 5.1 5.1 4.7 6.0 5.5

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

4,119 3,636 2,226 1,971 1,894 1,665

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

2,025 1,888 659 600 1,366 1,288

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

231 289 137 183 94 106

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,347 1,256 715 684 633 571

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Apr.
2009
Feb.
2010
Mar.
2010(p)
Apr.
2010(p)
Apr.
2009
Feb.
2010
Mar.
2010(p)
Apr.
2010(p)
Change from:
Mar.2010 - Apr.2010(p)

Total nonfarm

131,389 128,085 128,961 130,119 131,542 129,641 129,871 130,161 290

Total private

108,293 105,335 106,059 107,143 108,861 107,185 107,359 107,590 231

Goods-producing

18,681 17,274 17,453 17,736 18,956 17,848 17,903 17,968 65

Mining and logging

702 676 688 699 714 691 701 708 7

Logging

45.9 46.2 45.5 44.7 50.1 47.2 47.9 48.5 0.6

Mining

656.0 630.2 642.8 654.4 664.0 644.1 652.6 659.4 6.8

Oil and gas extraction

159.8 160.6 161.4 162.0 162.2 161.5 162.8 163.9 1.1

Mining, except oil and gas(1)

211.3 199.7 204.9 211.0 214.8 211.2 213.1 213.4 0.3

Coal mining

83.8 80.6 81.5 81.4 84.2 80.7 81.2 81.4 0.2

Support activities for mining

284.9 269.9 276.5 281.4 287.0 271.4 276.7 282.1 5.4

Construction

6,014 5,150 5,279 5,488 6,179 5,585 5,611 5,625 14

Construction of buildings

1,359.1 1,187.7 1,213.3 1,239.7 1,400.4 1,255.4 1,267.8 1,273.0 5.2

Residential building

634.4 549.8 557.0 562.7 659.0 586.7 586.8 582.8 -4.0

Nonresidential building

724.7 637.9 656.3 677.0 741.4 668.7 681.0 690.2 9.2

Heavy and civil engineering construction

841.7 686.3 721.0 789.7 866.7 793.4 802.1 811.3 9.2

Specialty trade contractors

3,813.4 3,275.5 3,344.6 3,458.4 3,911.9 3,535.7 3,541.0 3,540.3 -0.7

Residential specialty trade contractors

1,607.4 1,437.6 1,448.2 1,501.2 1,646.4 1,552.9 1,542.7 1,535.8 -6.9

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,206.0 1,837.9 1,896.4 1,957.2 2,265.5 1,982.8 1,998.3 2,004.5 6.2

Manufacturing

11,965 11,448 11,486 11,549 12,063 11,572 11,591 11,635 44

Durable goods

7,407 7,007 7,042 7,086 7,450 7,071 7,094 7,124 30

Wood products

364.8 336.9 339.3 348.3 370.5 348.9 350.6 353.6 3.0

Nonmetallic mineral products

402.9 364.0 368.8 381.6 405.1 383.1 381.7 382.2 0.5

Primary metals

368.4 357.1 362.4 364.7 371.7 358.9 363.2 367.2 4.0

Fabricated metal products

1,330.9 1,263.6 1,272.7 1,278.0 1,339.9 1,273.3 1,282.3 1,290.9 8.6

Machinery

1,046.7 975.9 979.9 984.3 1,057.5 979.8 985.7 993.1 7.4

Computer and electronic products(1)

1,156.6 1,089.3 1,091.4 1,090.2 1,160.2 1,091.9 1,092.7 1,092.8 0.1

Computer and peripheral equipment

168.7 157.4 157.9 158.0 169.1 158.2 158.0 158.3 0.3

Communication equipment

122.2 119.5 119.1 119.1 122.5 118.7 119.4 119.3 -0.1

Semiconductors and electronic components

385.8 360.6 362.1 362.7 387.5 361.6 362.6 364.2 1.6

Electronic instruments

428.3 405.5 405.2 403.9 428.9 406.9 405.6 404.3 -1.3

Electrical equipment and appliances

376.8 363.0 364.0 366.6 379.3 364.5 366.3 368.8 2.5

Transportation equipment(1)

1,373.9 1,328.9 1,335.7 1,337.7 1,376.3 1,333.6 1,335.9 1,339.6 3.7

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

679.2 667.8 673.4 677.1 678.9 669.7 672.7 677.1 4.4

Furniture and related products

394.5 356.4 355.9 359.1 395.7 361.2 359.7 359.8 0.1

Miscellaneous manufacturing

591.7 572.2 572.3 575.5 593.6 575.5 575.5 575.9 0.4

Nondurable goods

4,558 4,441 4,444 4,463 4,613 4,501 4,497 4,511 14

Food manufacturing

1,427.0 1,421.9 1,426.9 1,429.6 1,462.6 1,455.0 1,456.8 1,462.2 5.4

Beverages and tobacco products

184.1 177.9 179.0 180.8 188.6 184.1 184.9 185.2 0.3

Textile mills

126.5 122.5 122.7 123.6 127.7 123.5 123.0 123.8 0.8

Textile product mills

125.5 120.9 121.0 121.2 126.4 122.0 121.7 121.8 0.1

Apparel

170.6 166.7 164.6 164.6 171.8 167.9 165.6 165.7 0.1

Leather and allied products

30.4 28.4 28.5 27.5 30.2 28.6 28.4 27.4 -1.0

Paper and paper products

409.0 396.8 394.0 397.3 412.1 398.8 397.3 399.5 2.2

Printing and related support activities

530.6 496.2 494.2 494.1 534.6 499.9 496.6 497.7 1.1

Petroleum and coal products

114.8 108.5 109.8 114.5 115.9 113.6 113.5 115.3 1.8

Chemicals

806.9 783.5 781.6 780.0 809.3 785.0 783.3 782.0 -1.3

Plastics and rubber products

632.8 617.7 621.9 630.2 633.9 622.4 626.3 630.2 3.9

Private service-providing

89,612 88,061 88,606 89,407 89,905 89,337 89,456 89,622 166

Trade, transportation, and utilities

24,811 24,277 24,413 24,486 25,052 24,667 24,700 24,697 -3

Wholesale trade

5,621.6 5,504.8 5,534.4 5,556.2 5,641.7 5,559.5 5,569.0 5,573.0 4.0

Durable goods

2,835.0 2,743.8 2,749.0 2,755.2 2,845.6 2,764.3 2,763.3 2,765.6 2.3

Nondurable goods

1,973.3 1,943.1 1,962.5 1,973.6 1,981.0 1,971.8 1,979.2 1,979.1 -0.1

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

813.3 817.9 822.9 827.4 815.1 823.4 826.5 828.3 1.8

Retail trade

14,395.6 14,133.6 14,215.8 14,273.9 14,592.4 14,416.2 14,431.3 14,443.7 12.4

Motor vehicle and parts dealers(1)

1,642.8 1,593.8 1,607.6 1,625.1 1,647.2 1,622.7 1,625.0 1,628.7 3.7

Automobile dealers

1,022.7 1,001.6 1,008.8 1,014.1 1,027.0 1,014.0 1,016.3 1,018.0 1.7

Furniture and home furnishings stores

447.1 434.6 433.5 430.9 455.0 440.6 441.3 438.6 -2.7

Electronics and appliance stores

481.4 478.3 478.3 472.3 488.0 481.5 480.7 477.4 -3.3

Building material and garden supply stores

1,189.5 1,112.9 1,153.6 1,200.2 1,171.2 1,162.2 1,174.7 1,176.4 1.7

Food and beverage stores

2,807.5 2,776.2 2,775.7 2,778.0 2,839.0 2,804.7 2,803.6 2,807.5 3.9

Health and personal care stores

980.2 971.6 968.7 972.3 985.8 977.1 974.7 977.4 2.7

Gasoline stations

821.3 807.3 809.2 815.2 827.6 819.7 819.6 820.8 1.2

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,323.8 1,322.8 1,331.7 1,345.5 1,377.9 1,375.4 1,381.9 1,390.5 8.6

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

599.6 603.0 592.2 591.5 622.3 612.4 610.9 612.5 1.6

General merchandise stores(1)

2,917.7 2,861.8 2,902.6 2,872.2 2,968.8 2,930.3 2,927.6 2,921.7 -5.9

Department stores

1,427.0 1,439.2 1,447.6 1,435.8 1,471.0 1,477.4 1,476.8 1,477.1 0.3

Miscellaneous store retailers

773.1 762.3 753.0 761.2 786.7 772.7 772.5 772.5 0.0

Nonstore retailers

411.6 409.0 409.7 409.5 422.9 416.9 418.8 419.7 0.9

Transportation and warehousing

4,234.5 4,082.6 4,106.1 4,099.4 4,255.8 4,133.5 4,141.4 4,121.9 -19.5

Air transportation

459.3 452.4 451.9 452.2 458.0 454.5 452.4 451.7 -0.7

Rail transportation

223.1 213.1 214.7 215.6 222.6 213.6 215.0 214.5 -0.5

Water transportation

63.4 58.9 61.1 62.3 64.3 62.3 63.4 63.2 -0.2

Truck transportation

1,256.4 1,193.2 1,199.6 1,209.2 1,274.2 1,227.9 1,225.5 1,226.5 1.0

Transit and ground passenger transportation

433.2 422.9 428.5 429.5 416.6 410.7 414.9 413.7 -1.2

Pipeline transportation

41.9 40.7 39.4 39.4 42.0 40.8 39.8 39.7 -0.1

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

24.7 20.9 21.5 27.0 27.7 28.4 28.4 29.9 1.5

Support activities for transportation

553.6 532.7 533.9 537.1 556.8 535.2 538.3 540.0 1.7

Couriers and messengers

541.1 517.6 516.6 490.1 548.1 521.7 520.9 499.9 -21.0

Warehousing and storage

637.8 630.2 638.9 637.0 645.5 638.4 642.8 642.8 0.0

Utilities

559.3 555.9 556.5 556.0 562.1 558.2 558.1 558.6 0.5

Information

2,833 2,734 2,726 2,722 2,837 2,739 2,727 2,724 -3

Publishing industries, except Internet

809.6 761.7 760.7 760.5 812.9 763.9 761.9 762.5 0.6

Motion picture and sound recording industries

356.7 345.2 344.0 348.4 355.3 347.4 344.3 345.7 1.4

Broadcasting, except Internet

302.8 294.7 295.1 294.6 304.8 296.0 295.9 296.3 0.4

Telecommunications

977.6 947.9 942.7 931.0 979.9 945.4 941.2 934.5 -6.7

Data processing, hosting and related services

253.4 248.2 247.9 250.4 251.0 249.8 247.5 247.8 0.3

Other information services

132.9 136.0 135.9 137.1 133.1 136.2 136.6 137.5 0.9

Financial activities

7,768 7,584 7,569 7,578 7,805 7,628 7,608 7,611 3

Finance and insurance

5,784.5 5,665.2 5,652.1 5,648.4 5,796.1 5,670.6 5,656.6 5,657.1 0.5

Monetary authorities - central bank

21.2 21.1 21.2 21.2 21.2 21.2 21.2 21.2 0.0

Credit intermediation and related
activities(1)

2,602.7 2,568.6 2,563.0 2,560.6 2,608.8 2,567.9 2,564.9 2,564.5 -0.4

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,760.1 1,748.3 1,747.1 1,749.8 1,764.3 1,750.0 1,751.2 1,752.9 1.7

Commercial banking

1,319.3 1,310.4 1,308.9 1,311.5 1,321.9 1,311.4 1,311.6 1,313.6 2.0

Securities, commodity contracts, investments

812.7 791.8 789.6 794.4 816.3 793.0 790.3 797.4 7.1

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,259.8 2,198.6 2,193.7 2,188.0 2,261.5 2,203.5 2,195.6 2,189.7 -5.9

Funds, trusts, and other financial vehicles

88.1 85.1 84.6 84.2 88.3 85.0 84.6 84.3 -0.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

1,983.8 1,918.5 1,916.4 1,930.0 2,008.7 1,956.9 1,951.4 1,953.9 2.5

Real estate

1,407.7 1,375.4 1,369.0 1,377.3 1,422.0 1,397.9 1,390.2 1,392.7 2.5

Rental and leasing services

549.4 518.5 522.8 528.4 560.0 534.1 536.3 536.8 0.5

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

26.7 24.6 24.6 24.3 26.7 24.9 24.9 24.4 -0.5

Professional and business services

16,594 16,288 16,352 16,631 16,636 16,567 16,580 16,660 80

Professional and technical services(1)

7,624.1 7,499.5 7,467.2 7,487.7 7,557.8 7,416.7 7,407.0 7,419.2 12.2

Legal services

1,126.5 1,098.7 1,100.0 1,099.0 1,131.1 1,105.2 1,104.2 1,103.1 -1.1

Accounting and bookkeeping services

1,022.8 1,060.1 1,021.8 1,010.7 925.0 917.4 911.1 912.2 1.1

Architectural and engineering services

1,332.5 1,260.8 1,260.8 1,264.5 1,344.6 1,279.9 1,278.4 1,274.9 -3.5

Computer systems design and related services

1,421.6 1,435.8 1,430.1 1,442.2 1,425.8 1,439.4 1,438.4 1,445.7 7.3

Management and technical consulting services

985.8 972.3 974.4 977.0 991.6 983.3 984.4 985.4 1.0

Management of companies and enterprises

1,864.0 1,811.3 1,816.4 1,825.4 1,873.9 1,822.6 1,825.4 1,832.0 6.6

Administrative and waste services

7,105.9 6,977.6 7,068.3 7,317.9 7,204.0 7,327.2 7,347.7 7,408.7 61.0

Administrative and support services(1)

6,759.5 6,639.3 6,727.5 6,972.8 6,854.7 6,980.2 7,000.0 7,060.7 60.7

Employment services(1)

2,398.6 2,512.7 2,573.6 2,661.8 2,477.8 2,666.1 2,704.5 2,734.4 29.9

Temporary help services

1,737.4 1,870.7 1,922.1 1,991.1 1,805.3 1,996.1 2,028.5 2,054.7 26.2

Business support services

820.3 800.1 799.9 796.0 820.2 798.3 795.0 797.4 2.4

Services to buildings and dwellings

1,749.4 1,559.9 1,577.9 1,731.4 1,755.6 1,725.8 1,710.8 1,734.2 23.4

Waste management and remediation services

346.4 338.3 340.8 345.1 349.3 347.0 347.7 348.0 0.3

Education and health services

19,255 19,491 19,589 19,651 19,099 19,400 19,454 19,489 35

Educational services

3,232.6 3,252.6 3,282.0 3,302.3 3,079.0 3,121.2 3,132.5 3,141.4 8.9

Health care and social assistance

16,022.2 16,238.5 16,307.1 16,348.3 16,019.5 16,279.2 16,321.6 16,348.0 26.4

Health care(3)

13,452.6 13,622.4 13,669.4 13,694.5 13,476.7 13,668.0 13,700.9 13,721.0 20.1

Ambulatory health care services(1)

5,737.0 5,844.4 5,871.5 5,888.7 5,741.2 5,864.1 5,885.1 5,894.5 9.4

Offices of physicians

2,261.0 2,305.8 2,307.2 2,304.9 2,266.4 2,310.8 2,312.2 2,311.9 -0.3

Outpatient care centers

540.2 544.7 548.3 550.3 540.3 545.9 549.1 550.8 1.7

Home health care services

1,014.2 1,044.4 1,055.0 1,066.6 1,012.9 1,051.9 1,058.7 1,065.2 6.5

Hospitals

4,654.5 4,694.3 4,695.8 4,697.9 4,669.0 4,704.3 4,706.2 4,712.3 6.1

Nursing and residential care facilities(1)

3,061.1 3,083.7 3,102.1 3,107.9 3,066.5 3,099.6 3,109.6 3,114.2 4.6

Nursing care facilities

1,636.2 1,637.7 1,646.5 1,649.9 1,639.7 1,646.7 1,651.1 1,653.4 2.3

Social assistance(1)

2,569.6 2,616.1 2,637.7 2,653.8 2,542.8 2,611.2 2,620.7 2,627.0 6.3

Child day care services

874.3 873.7 882.5 887.5 854.9 861.7 864.9 867.1 2.2

Leisure and hospitality

12,983 12,431 12,664 13,012 13,103 13,026 13,067 13,112 45

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,865.4 1,692.5 1,738.6 1,869.7 1,908.8 1,893.1 1,897.4 1,912.3 14.9

Performing arts and spectator sports

397.2 367.1 371.6 397.8 394.2 396.0 394.6 395.1 0.5

Museums, historical sites, zoos, and parks

127.1 116.2 120.9 127.6 129.4 128.9 130.0 129.6 -0.4

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,341.1 1,209.2 1,246.1 1,344.3 1,385.2 1,368.2 1,372.8 1,387.6 14.8

Accommodation and food services

11,117.6 10,738.8 10,925.6 11,142.3 11,194.2 11,133.3 11,169.9 11,199.3 29.4

Accommodation

1,715.7 1,650.6 1,669.8 1,702.0 1,762.1 1,728.4 1,735.4 1,743.8 8.4

Food services and drinking places

9,401.9 9,088.2 9,255.8 9,440.3 9,432.1 9,404.9 9,434.5 9,455.5 21.0

Other services

5,368 5,256 5,293 5,327 5,373 5,310 5,320 5,329 9

Repair and maintenance

1,162.6 1,124.2 1,138.4 1,149.2 1,158.7 1,136.1 1,140.9 1,143.3 2.4

Personal and laundry services

1,286.0 1,255.5 1,263.2 1,274.5 1,283.2 1,271.5 1,271.7 1,271.6 -0.1

Membership associations and organizations

2,919.6 2,876.1 2,891.2 2,903.1 2,931.1 2,902.1 2,907.1 2,914.0 6.9

Government

23,096 22,750 22,902 22,976 22,681 22,456 22,512 22,571 59

Federal

2,922.0 2,837.0 2,898.0 2,979.0 2,919.0 2,860.0 2,914.0 2,979.0 65.0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,198.7 2,174.6 2,237.2 2,316.0 2,201.9 2,192.9 2,251.3 2,320.4 69.1

U.S. Postal Service

723.0 662.0 660.5 663.1 716.6 666.6 662.9 658.9 -4.0

State government

5,328.0 5,292.0 5,315.0 5,315.0 5,184.0 5,175.0 5,176.0 5,171.0 -5.0

State government education

2,514.6 2,521.8 2,540.2 2,539.7 2,367.9 2,392.5 2,392.9 2,392.2 -0.7

State government, excluding education

2,813.0 2,770.2 2,775.2 2,775.3 2,816.2 2,782.7 2,783.2 2,778.8 -4.4

Local government

14,846.0 14,621.0 14,689.0 14,682.0 14,578.0 14,421.0 14,422.0 14,421.0 -1.0

Local government education

8,441.7 8,321.0 8,378.8 8,352.4 8,093.9 8,000.7 8,006.1 8,004.7 -1.4

Local government, excluding education

6,404.7 6,299.8 6,310.2 6,329.8 6,484.4 6,419.8 6,415.4 6,415.9 0.5

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Apr.
2009
Feb.
2010
Mar.
2010(p)
Apr.
2010(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.9 33.9 34.0 34.1

Goods-producing

38.4 38.9 39.2 39.4

Mining and logging

42.2 42.7 43.1 43.0

Construction

37.4 37.0 37.1 37.4

Manufacturing

38.7 39.7 39.9 40.1

Durable goods

38.9 39.9 40.2 40.4

Nondurable goods

38.5 39.3 39.5 39.6

Private service-providing

33.0 32.9 33.0 33.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.2 34.0 34.1 34.2

Wholesale trade

37.9 37.9 37.9 38.0

Retail trade

31.3 31.1 31.2 31.3

Transportation and warehousing

38.1 37.8 38.1 38.2

Utilities

40.8 40.7 40.7 41.0

Information

36.4 36.6 36.7 36.7

Financial activities

36.5 36.8 36.9 36.8

Professional and business services

35.0 35.2 35.2 35.3

Education and health services

33.1 32.8 32.8 32.9

Leisure and hospitality

25.6 25.7 25.8 25.8

Other services

31.7 31.5 31.7 31.9

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

2.1 2.7 2.9 3.0

Durable goods

1.9 2.6 2.8 2.9

Nondurable goods

2.5 2.9 3.1 3.1

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Apr.
2009
Feb.
2010
Mar.
2010(p)
Apr.
2010(p)
Apr.
2009
Feb.
2010
Mar.
2010(p)
Apr.
2010(p)

Total private

$22.11 $22.48 $22.46 $22.47 $749.53 $762.07 $763.64 $766.23

Goods-producing

23.72 23.95 23.92 23.90 910.85 931.66 937.66 941.66

Mining and logging

27.38 27.10 27.10 27.16 1,155.44 1,157.17 1,168.01 1,167.88

Construction

24.78 25.24 25.23 25.17 926.77 933.88 936.03 941.36

Manufacturing

22.96 23.17 23.12 23.12 888.55 919.85 922.49 927.11

Durable goods

24.39 24.69 24.60 24.57 948.77 985.13 988.92 992.63

Nondurable goods

20.62 20.75 20.74 20.78 793.87 815.48 819.23 822.89

Private service-providing

21.72 22.13 22.12 22.12 716.76 728.08 729.96 729.96

Trade, transportation, and utilities

19.24 19.65 19.68 19.74 658.01 668.10 671.09 675.11

Wholesale trade

25.13 26.15 26.16 26.24 952.43 991.09 991.46 997.12

Retail trade

15.36 15.53 15.56 15.62 480.77 482.98 485.47 488.91

Transportation and warehousing

20.46 20.88 20.90 20.94 779.53 789.26 796.29 799.91

Utilities

32.79 32.39 32.58 32.56 1,337.83 1,318.27 1,326.01 1,334.96

Information

28.95 30.27 30.38 30.26 1,053.78 1,107.88 1,114.95 1,110.54

Financial activities

26.32 26.96 27.02 27.11 960.68 992.13 997.04 997.65

Professional and business services

26.99 27.21 27.13 27.05 944.65 957.79 954.98 954.87

Education and health services

22.31 22.67 22.65 22.71 738.46 743.58 742.92 747.16

Leisure and hospitality

12.88 13.07 13.07 13.04 329.73 335.90 337.21 336.43

Other services

19.31 20.00 19.92 19.80 612.13 630.00 631.46 631.62

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Apr.
2009
Feb.
2010
Mar.
2010(p)
Apr.
2010(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2010 - Apr.
2010(p)
Apr.
2009
Feb.
2010
Mar.
2010(p)
Apr.
2010(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2010 - Apr.
2010(p)

Total private

92.5 91.1 91.5 91.9 0.4 97.5 97.6 98.0 98.5 0.5

Goods-producing

82.9 79.1 80.0 80.7 0.9 88.9 85.6 86.4 87.1 0.8

Mining and logging

94.7 92.7 94.9 95.7 0.8 104.1 100.9 103.3 104.3 1.0

Construction

79.6 71.2 71.7 72.5 1.1 85.7 78.1 78.6 79.3 0.9

Manufacturing

84.0 82.6 83.2 83.9 0.8 89.7 89.1 89.5 90.2 0.8

Durable goods

81.6 79.4 80.3 81.0 0.9 88.4 87.1 87.7 88.4 0.8

Nondurable goods

88.6 88.3 88.7 89.2 0.6 92.7 93.0 93.3 94.0 0.8

Private service-providing

95.3 94.4 94.8 95.0 0.2 100.3 101.2 101.6 101.8 0.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

93.1 91.1 91.5 91.8 0.3 96.4 96.4 97.0 97.5 0.5

Wholesale trade

93.3 91.9 92.1 92.4 0.3 97.8 100.3 100.5 101.2 0.7

Retail trade

92.8 91.0 91.4 91.8 0.4 94.2 93.5 94.1 94.8 0.7

Transportation and warehousing

92.8 89.4 90.3 90.1 -0.2 96.4 94.8 95.8 95.8 0.0

Utilities

99.2 98.3 98.3 99.1 0.8 107.5 105.2 105.8 106.6 0.8

Information

94.3 91.6 91.4 91.3 -0.1 97.2 98.7 98.9 98.4 -0.5

Financial activities

93.9 92.5 92.5 92.3 -0.2 96.4 97.3 97.6 97.7 0.1

Professional and business services

91.6 91.7 91.8 92.5 0.8 100.1 101.1 100.9 101.4 0.5

Education and health services

102.9 103.6 103.9 104.4 0.5 107.5 110.0 110.2 111.0 0.7

Leisure and hospitality

95.7 95.5 96.2 96.5 0.3 99.5 100.7 101.4 101.5 0.1

Other services

94.4 92.7 93.4 94.2 0.9 103.4 105.2 105.6 105.8 0.2

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Apr.
2009
Feb.
2010
Mar.
2010(p)
Apr.
2010(p)
Apr.
2009
Feb.
2010
Mar.
2010(p)
Apr.
2010(p)

Total nonfarm

65,521 64,674 64,738 64,824 49.8 49.9 49.8 49.8

Total private

52,534 51,870 51,917 51,985 48.3 48.4 48.4 48.3

Goods-producing

4,373 4,147 4,149 4,156 23.1 23.2 23.2 23.1

Mining and logging

99 98 99 101 13.9 14.2 14.1 14.3

Construction

821 747 744 744 13.3 13.4 13.3 13.2

Manufacturing

3,453 3,302 3,306 3,311 28.6 28.5 28.5 28.5

Durable goods

1,850 1,744 1,744 1,746 24.8 24.7 24.6 24.5

Nondurable goods

1,603 1,558 1,562 1,565 34.7 34.6 34.7 34.7

Private service-providing

48,161 47,723 47,768 47,829 53.6 53.4 53.4 53.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

10,326 10,065 10,074 10,063 41.2 40.8 40.8 40.7

Wholesale trade

1,732.0 1,683.4 1,688.8 1,682.4 30.7 30.3 30.3 30.2

Retail trade

7,417.9 7,254.7 7,255.9 7,253.5 50.8 50.3 50.3 50.2

Transportation and warehousing

1,032.3 989.3 992.9 991.0 24.3 23.9 24.0 24.0

Utilities

144.0 137.5 136.8 136.3 25.6 24.6 24.5 24.4

Information

1,192 1,122 1,118 1,114 42.0 41.0 41.0 40.9

Financial activities

4,628 4,507 4,491 4,484 59.3 59.1 59.0 58.9

Professional and business services

7,516 7,415 7,409 7,431 45.2 44.8 44.7 44.6

Education and health services

14,789 14,984 15,027 15,054 77.4 77.2 77.2 77.2

Leisure and hospitality

6,891 6,826 6,845 6,878 52.6 52.4 52.4 52.5

Other services

2,819 2,804 2,804 2,805 52.5 52.8 52.7 52.6

Government

12,987 12,804 12,821 12,839 57.3 57.0 57.0 56.9

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Apr.
2009
Feb.
2010
Mar.
2010(p)
Apr.
2010(p)

Total private

89,676 88,336 88,516 88,737

Goods-producing

13,710 12,867 12,907 12,950

Mining and logging

529 506 516 522

Construction

4,703 4,243 4,262 4,271

Manufacturing

8,478 8,118 8,129 8,157

Durable goods

5,108 4,830 4,847 4,866

Nondurable goods

3,370 3,288 3,282 3,291

Private service-providing

75,966 75,469 75,609 75,787

Trade, transportation, and utilities

21,270 20,897 20,950 20,967

Wholesale trade

4,556.8 4,478.0 4,484.7 4,491.2

Retail trade

12,542.7 12,384.6 12,421.2 12,447.1

Transportation and warehousing

3,718.1 3,589.1 3,599.3 3,585.2

Utilities

452.1 445.0 444.5 443.7

Information

2,273 2,192 2,178 2,185

Financial activities

6,029 5,901 5,880 5,878

Professional and business services

13,574 13,554 13,580 13,655

Education and health services

16,750 17,006 17,048 17,079

Leisure and hospitality

11,577 11,481 11,523 11,565

Other services

4,493 4,438 4,450 4,458

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Apr.
2009
Feb.
2010
Mar.
2010(p)
Apr.
2010(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.1 33.2 33.3 33.4

Goods-producing

39.0 39.4 40.1 40.6

Mining and logging

43.1 43.6 44.2 44.8

Construction

37.5 37.0 37.8 38.8

Manufacturing

39.6 40.5 41.0 41.2

Durable goods

39.6 40.6 41.2 41.4

Nondurable goods

39.6 40.2 40.7 40.9

Private service-providing

32.0 32.1 32.2 32.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

32.8 33.0 33.1 33.3

Wholesale trade

37.7 37.7 37.8 37.9

Retail trade

29.8 30.0 30.1 30.2

Transportation and warehousing

35.9 36.2 36.8 37.1

Utilities

42.3 41.6 41.7 41.9

Information

36.5 36.5 36.5 36.5

Financial activities

36.0 36.0 36.1 36.2

Professional and business services

34.7 34.8 34.9 34.9

Education and health services

32.3 32.2 32.1 32.2

Leisure and hospitality

24.8 24.8 25.0 24.8

Other services

30.5 30.6 30.7 30.8

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

2.8 3.5 3.7 3.9

Durable goods

2.5 3.4 3.7 3.9

Nondurable goods

3.2 3.6 3.7 3.9

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Apr.
2009
Feb.
2010
Mar.
2010(p)
Apr.
2010(p)
Apr.
2009
Feb.
2010
Mar.
2010(p)
Apr.
2010(p)

Total private

$18.53 $18.92 $18.91 $18.96 $613.34 $628.14 $629.70 $633.26

Goods-producing

19.83 20.14 20.18 20.20 773.37 793.52 809.22 820.12

Mining and logging

23.34 23.71 23.91 23.94 1,005.95 1,033.76 1,056.82 1,072.51

Construction

22.58 23.13 23.14 23.10 846.75 855.81 874.69 896.28

Manufacturing

18.15 18.47 18.49 18.51 718.74 748.04 758.09 762.61

Durable goods

19.24 19.69 19.67 19.68 761.90 799.41 810.40 814.75

Nondurable goods

16.49 16.66 16.72 16.75 653.00 669.73 680.50 685.08

Private service-providing

18.25 18.66 18.64 18.69 584.00 598.99 600.21 601.82

Trade, transportation, and utilities

16.42 16.78 16.76 16.82 538.58 553.74 554.76 560.11

Wholesale trade

20.70 21.42 21.38 21.52 780.39 807.53 808.16 815.61

Retail trade

12.95 13.20 13.18 13.20 385.91 396.00 396.72 398.64

Transportation and warehousing

18.77 19.10 19.13 19.19 673.84 691.42 703.98 711.95

Utilities

29.31 29.88 29.88 29.93 1,239.81 1,243.01 1,246.00 1,254.07

Information

25.30 25.63 25.64 25.67 923.45 935.50 935.86 936.96

Financial activities

20.66 21.27 21.36 21.45 743.76 765.72 771.10 776.49

Professional and business services

22.24 22.66 22.65 22.69 771.73 788.57 790.49 791.88

Education and health services

19.39 19.83 19.79 19.85 626.30 638.53 635.26 639.17

Leisure and hospitality

11.01 11.30 11.31 11.31 273.05 280.24 282.75 280.49

Other services

16.45 16.87 16.80 16.80 501.73 516.22 515.76 517.44

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Apr.
2009
Feb.
2010
Mar.
2010(p)
Apr.
2010(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2010 - Apr.
2010(p)
Apr.
2009
Feb.
2010
Mar.
2010(p)
Apr.
2010(p)
Percent change from:
Mar.
2010 - Apr.
2010(p)

Total private

99.2 98.0 98.5 99.0 0.5 122.8 123.9 124.4 125.5 0.9

Goods-producing

81.7 77.5 79.1 80.3 1.5 99.2 95.5 97.7 99.4 1.7

Mining and logging

121.2 117.2 121.2 124.3 2.6 164.5 161.7 168.5 173.0 2.7

Construction

88.3 78.6 80.7 83.0 2.9 107.7 98.2 100.8 103.5 2.7

Manufacturing

77.1 75.5 76.5 77.1 0.8 91.5 91.1 92.5 93.4 1.0

Durable goods

76.0 73.7 75.0 75.7 0.9 91.3 90.6 92.1 93.0 1.0

Nondurable goods

78.6 77.9 78.7 79.3 0.8 91.6 91.7 93.0 93.9 1.0

Private service-providing

103.9 103.6 104.1 104.3 0.2 130.1 132.5 133.0 133.7 0.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities

97.3 96.1 96.7 97.3 0.6 113.9 115.1 115.6 116.8 1.0

Wholesale trade

101.2 99.4 99.8 100.2 0.4 123.4 125.4 125.7 127.1 1.1

Retail trade

94.6 94.0 94.6 95.2 0.6 105.0 106.4 106.9 107.7 0.7

Transportation and warehousing

100.5 97.8 99.7 100.1 0.4 119.6 118.5 121.0 121.9 0.7

Utilities

97.8 94.7 94.8 95.1 0.3 119.7 118.1 118.2 118.8 0.5

Information

94.7 91.3 90.8 91.0 0.2 118.6 115.9 115.2 115.7 0.4

Financial activities

103.9 101.7 101.6 101.8 0.2 132.7 133.7 134.2 135.0 0.6

Professional and business services

105.6 105.7 106.2 106.8 0.6 139.7 142.5 143.2 144.2 0.7

Education and health services

116.7 118.1 118.1 118.6 0.4 148.8 154.0 153.6 154.8 0.8

Leisure and hospitality

105.2 104.4 105.6 105.1 -0.5 131.6 133.9 135.6 135.0 -0.4

Other services

96.1 95.3 95.8 96.3 0.5 115.2 117.1 117.3 117.9 0.5

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary


Last Modified Date: May 07, 2010
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