Economic News Release

Employment Situation News Release


Transmission of material in this release is embargoed                   USDL-10-1519
until 8:30 a.m. (EDT) Friday, November 5, 2010

Technical information:
 Household data:       (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
 Establishment data:   (202) 691-6555  *  cesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/ces

Media contact:         (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                       THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION -- OCTOBER 2010


Nonfarm payroll employment increased by 151,000 in October, and the
unemployment rate was unchanged at 9.6 percent, the U.S. Bureau of
Labor Statistics reported today. Since December 2009, nonfarm payroll
employment has risen by 874,000.

Household Survey Data

The number of unemployed persons, at 14.8 million, was little changed
in October. The unemployment rate remained at 9.6 percent and has
been essentially unchanged since May. (See table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rate for adult men
(9.7 percent), adult women (8.1 percent), teenagers (27.1 percent),
whites (8.8 percent), blacks (15.7 percent), and Hispanics (12.6 per-
cent) showed little change in October. The jobless rate for Asians was 
7.1 percent, not seasonally adjusted. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.)

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks and
over) was about unchanged over the month at 6.2 million. In October,
41.8 percent of unemployed persons had been jobless for 27 weeks or
more. (See table A-12.)

Both the civilian labor force participation rate, at 64.5 percent, and
the employment-population ratio, at 58.3 percent, edged down over the
month. (See table A-1.)

The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons (some-
times referred to as involuntary part-time workers) fell by 318,000 
over the month to 9.2 million, partially offsetting large increases in 
the prior 2 months. These individuals were working part time because 
their hours had been cut back or because they were unable to find a 
full-time job. (See table A-8.)

About 2.6 million persons were marginally attached to the labor force
in October, up from 2.4 million a year earlier. (The data are not sea-
sonally adjusted.) These individuals were not in the labor force, want-
ed and were available for work, and had looked for a job sometime in 
the prior 12 months. They were not counted as unemployed because they 
had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. 
(See table A-16.)

Among the marginally attached, there were 1.2 million discouraged
workers in October, an increase of 411,000 from a year earlier. (The
data are not seasonally adjusted.) Discouraged workers are persons not
currently looking for work because they believe no jobs are available
for them. The remaining 1.4 million persons marginally attached to
the labor force had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the
survey for reasons such as school attendance or family responsibilities. 
(See table A-16.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 151,000 in October, re-
flecting job gains in mining and a number of service-providing indus-
tries. Private-sector payroll employment rose by 159,000 over the 
month; since December 2009, employment in the private sector has risen 
by 1.1 million. (See table B-1.)

Within professional and business services, employment in temporary
help services continued to increase in October, with a gain of 35,000.
Temporary help services has added 451,000 jobs since a recent low in
September 2009. Employment in computer systems design and related ser-
vices increased by 8,000 in October and has risen by 53,000 since a 
recent low in June 2009.

Health care continued to add jobs in October (+24,000). The gain was
in line with the average increase over the prior 12 months (+20,000).

Retail trade employment rose by 28,000 in October, including increases
in automobile dealers (+6,000) and in electronics and appliance stores
(+5,000). After reaching a trough in December 2009, employment in re-
tail trade has expanded by 128,000.

Within leisure and hospitality, a job loss in arts, entertainment, and
recreation (-26,000) in October offset a gain in food services and 
drinking places employment (+24,000). The food services industry has 
added 143,000 jobs since a recent low in December 2009.

Mining employment continued to trend up (+8,000) over the month. Since
a recent low in October 2009, mining has added 88,000 jobs.

Employment in manufacturing changed little in October (-7,000) and, on
net, has essentially been flat since May. The industry had added
134,000 jobs during the first 5 months of this year.

Elsewhere in the private sector, employment in construction, wholesale
trade, transportation, information, and financial activities showed
little change in October.

Government employment overall was little changed in October. Employ-
ment in local government, excluding education, decreased by 14,000 
over the month and has fallen by 123,000 over the past 12 months. The 
number of temporary decennial census workers fell by 5,000 in October.  
After peaking at 564,000 in May, there were only about 1,000 temporary 
decennial census workers remaining on Federal payrolls in October.

The average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls
increased by 0.1 hour in October to 34.3 hours. The manufacturing
workweek for all employees also increased by 0.1 hour, to 40.3 hours,
while factory overtime was unchanged at 3.0 hours. The average work-
week for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm 
payrolls increased by 0.1 hour to 33.6 hours in October. 
(See tables B-2 and B-7.)

In October, average hourly earnings of all employees on private non-
farm payrolls increased by 5 cents to $22.73. Over the past 12 months,
average hourly earnings have increased by 1.7 percent. Average hourly 
earnings of private-sector production and nonsupervisory employees 
rose by 7 cents to $19.17. (See tables B-3 and B-8.)

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for August was revised
from -57,000 to -1,000, and the change for September was revised from
-95,000 to -41,000.

___________
The Employment Situation for November is scheduled to be released on
Friday, December 3, 2010, at 8:30 a.m. (EST).



   ----------------------------------------------------------------- 
  |                                                                 |
  |           Upcoming Changes to Household Survey Data             |
  |                                                                 |
  |Effective with the release of January 2011 data on February 4,   |
  |2011, two additional data series--"Self-employed workers, un-    |
  |incorporated" and "Self-employed workers, incorporated"--will    |
  |be added to table A-9. As a result, the format of table A-9      |
  |will change. Data on the incorporated self-employed have not     |
  |previously been published on a regular basis.                    |
  |                                                                 |
  |Also, in table A-8, the data series currently labeled "Self-     |
  |employed workers" (one for Agriculture and related industries    |
  |and one for Nonagricultural industries) will be renamed "Self-   |
  |employed workers, unincorporated." This is strictly a change     |
  |in title and not in definition; the data shown will not be af-   |
  |fected. This change is being made to clarify that these data     |
  |only include persons operating unincorporated businesses.        |
  |                                                                 |
  |In addition, a change affecting data collected on unemployment   |
  |duration will be introduced in the household survey in January   |
  |2011. Presently, the Current Population Survey can record unem-  |
  |ployment durations of up to 2 years. Starting with data col-     |
  |lected for January 2011, respondents will be able to report      |
  |unemployment durations for up to 5 years. This change will       |
  |likely affect one data series in this news release: the aver-    |
  |age (mean) duration of unemployment, which is found in table     |
  |A-12. The change does not affect the estimate of total unem-     |
  |ployment or other data series on duration of unemployment. Addi- |
  |tional information is available at www.bls.gov/cps/duration.htm. |
  |                                                                 |
  |Beginning with data for January 2011, occupation estimates in    |
  |table A-13 will reflect the introduction of the 2010 Census oc-  |
  |cupation classification system into the household survey. This   |
  |occupation classification system is derived from the 2010 Stan-  |
  |dard Occupational Classification system. Historical data will    |
  |not be revised.                                                  |
  |                                                                 |
   ----------------------------------------------------------------- 



   -----------------------------------------------------------------
  |                                                                 |
  |         Upcoming Changes to Establishment Survey Data           |
  |                                                                 |
  |Effective with the release of January 2011 data on February 4,   |
  |2011, the establishment survey will begin estimating net busi-   |
  |ness birth/death adjustment factors on a quarterly basis, re-    |
  |placing the current practice of estimating the factors annually. |
  |This will allow the establishment survey to incorporate infor-   |
  |mation from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages into    |
  |the birth/death adjustment factors as soon as it becomes avail-  |
  |able and thereby improve the factors. Additional information on  |
  |this change is available at                                      |
  |www.bls.gov/ces/ces_quarterly_birthdeath.pdf.                    |
  |                                                                 |
  |                                                                 |
   -----------------------------------------------------------------




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Summary table A. Household data, seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Oct.
2009
Aug.
2010
Sept.
2010
Oct.
2010
Change from:
Sept.
2010-
Oct.
2010

Employment status

Civilian noninstitutional population

236,550 238,099 238,322 238,530 208

Civilian labor force

153,854 154,110 154,158 153,904 -254

Participation rate

65.0 64.7 64.7 64.5 -0.2

Employed

138,242 139,250 139,391 139,061 -330

Employment-population ratio

58.4 58.5 58.5 58.3 -0.2

Unemployed

15,612 14,860 14,767 14,843 76

Unemployment rate

10.1 9.6 9.6 9.6 0.0

Not in labor force

82,696 83,989 84,164 84,626 462

Unemployment rates

Total, 16 years and over

10.1 9.6 9.6 9.6 0.0

Adult men (20 years and over)

10.6 9.8 9.8 9.7 -0.1

Adult women (20 years and over)

8.1 8.0 8.0 8.1 0.1

Teenagers (16 to 19 years)

27.6 26.3 26.0 27.1 1.1

White

9.4 8.7 8.7 8.8 0.1

Black or African American

15.7 16.3 16.1 15.7 -0.4

Asian (not seasonally adjusted)

7.5 7.2 6.4 7.1 -

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

13.1 12.0 12.4 12.6 0.2

Total, 25 years and over

8.7 8.3 8.3 8.2 -0.1

Less than a high school diploma

15.5 14.0 15.4 15.3 -0.1

High school graduates, no college

11.2 10.3 10.0 10.1 0.1

Some college or associate degree

9.0 8.7 9.1 8.5 -0.6

Bachelor's degree and higher

4.7 4.6 4.4 4.7 0.3

Reason for unemployment

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

10,261 9,305 9,401 9,108 -293

Job leavers

909 874 807 854 47

Reentrants

3,461 3,411 3,436 3,512 76

New entrants

1,114 1,259 1,187 1,273 86

Duration of unemployment

Less than 5 weeks

3,131 2,760 2,891 2,657 -234

5 to 14 weeks

3,671 3,635 3,350 3,458 108

15 to 26 weeks

3,184 2,235 2,336 2,519 183

27 weeks and over

5,620 6,249 6,123 6,206 83

Employed persons at work part time

Part time for economic reasons

9,240 8,860 9,472 9,154 -318

Slack work or business conditions

6,882 6,380 6,733 6,232 -501

Could only find part-time work

2,084 2,347 2,456 2,572 116

Part time for noneconomic reasons

18,632 18,558 18,234 18,211 -23

Persons not in the labor force (not seasonally adjusted)

Marginally attached to the labor force

2,373 2,370 2,548 2,602 -

Discouraged workers

808 1,110 1,209 1,219 -

- Over-the-month changes are not displayed for not seasonally adjusted data.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Summary table B. Establishment data, seasonally adjusted
Category Oct.
2009
Aug.
2010
Sept.
2010(p)
Oct.
2010(p)

EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED INDUSTRY
(Over-the-month change, in thousands)

Total nonfarm

-224 -1 -41 151

Total private

-262 143 107 159

Goods-producing

-131 17 -4 5

Mining and logging

-7 9 6 7

Construction

-67 34 -8 5

Manufacturing

-57 -26 -2 -7

Durable goods(1)

-42 -21 6 -3

Motor vehicles and parts

4.0 -20.7 -0.3 3.3

Nondurable goods

-15 -5 -8 -4

Private service-providing(1)

-131 126 111 154

Wholesale trade

-5.4 2.3 3.7 7.3

Retail trade

-63.0 6.4 11.6 27.9

Transportation and warehousing

-15.8 -1.1 13.5 -0.1

Information

-3 7 -8 -1

Financial activities

-19 -3 -2 -1

Professional and business services(1)

11 38 19 46

Temporary help services

42.2 22.5 23.8 34.9

Education and health services(1)

35 41 22 53

Health care and social assistance

28.3 31.3 33.7 34.0

Leisure and hospitality

-54 24 39 -5

Other services

-17 11 14 25

Government

38 -144 -148 -8

WOMEN AND PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES(2)
AS A PERCENT OF ALL EMPLOYEES

Total nonfarm women employees

50.0 49.6 49.6 49.6

Total private women employees

48.5 48.1 48.1 48.1

Total private production and nonsupervisory employees

82.3 82.4 82.4 82.4

HOURS AND EARNINGS
ALL EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

33.7 34.3 34.2 34.3

Average hourly earnings

$22.35 $22.65 $22.68 $22.73

Average weekly earnings

$753.20 $776.90 $775.66 $779.64

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2007=100)(3)

90.5 92.8 92.6 93.0

Over-the-month percent change

-0.4 0.4 -0.2 0.4

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2007=100)(4)

96.4 100.2 100.2 100.8

Over-the-month percent change

-0.3 0.7 0.0 0.6

HOURS AND EARNINGS
PRODUCTION AND NONSUPERVISORY EMPLOYEES

Total private

Average weekly hours

33.0 33.5 33.5 33.6

Average hourly earnings

$18.78 $19.09 $19.10 $19.17

Average weekly earnings

$619.74 $639.52 $639.85 $644.11

Index of aggregate weekly hours (2002=100)(3)

97.2 99.6 99.7 100.1

Over-the-month percent change

-0.6 0.4 0.1 0.4

Index of aggregate weekly payrolls (2002=100)(4)

122.0 127.0 127.2 128.3

Over-the-month percent change

-0.2 0.7 0.2 0.9

DIFFUSION INDEX(5)
(Over 1-month span)

Total private

31.0 58.7 55.6 55.0

Manufacturing

18.9 46.3 54.3 42.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding annual average aggregate hours.
(4) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding annual average aggregate weekly payrolls.
(5) Figures are the percent of industries with employment increasing plus one-half of the industries with unchanged employment, where 50 percent indicates an equal balance between industries with increasing and decreasing employment.
(p) Preliminary



    Frequently Asked Questions about Employment and Unemployment Estimates


Why are there two monthly measures of employment?

The household survey and establishment survey both produce sample-based
estimates of employment and both have strengths and limitations. The
establishment survey employment series has a smaller margin of error on
the measurement of month-to-month change than the household survey because
of its much larger sample size. An over-the-month employment change of
about 100,000 is statistically significant in the establishment survey,
while the threshold for a statistically significant change in the household
survey is about 400,000. However, the household survey has a more expansive
scope than the establishment survey because it includes the self-employed,
unpaid family workers, agricultural workers, and private household workers,
who are excluded by the establishment survey. The household survey also
provides estimates of employment for demographic groups.

Are undocumented immigrants counted in the surveys?

It is likely that both surveys include at least some undocumented immigrants.
However, neither the establishment nor the household survey is designed to
identify the legal status of workers. Therefore, it is not possible to de-
termine how many are counted in either survey. The establishment survey does
not collect data on the legal status of workers. The household survey does
include questions which identify the foreign and native born, but it does not
include questions about the legal status of the foreign born.

Why does the establishment survey have revisions?

The establishment survey revises published estimates to improve its data
series by incorporating additional information that was not available at
the time of the initial publication of the estimates. The establishment
survey revises its initial monthly estimates twice, in the immediately suc-
ceeding 2 months, to incorporate additional sample receipts from respondents
in the survey and recalculated seasonal adjustment factors. For more informa-
tion on the monthly revisions, please visit www.bls.gov/ces/cesrevinfo.htm.

On an annual basis, the establishment survey incorporates a benchmark revi-
sion that re-anchors estimates to nearly complete employment counts available
from unemployment insurance tax records. The benchmark helps to control for
sampling and modeling errors in the estimates. For more information on the
annual benchmark revision, please visit www.bls.gov/web/cesbmart.htm.

Does the establishment survey sample include small firms?

Yes; about 40 percent of the establishment survey sample is comprised of busi-
ness establishments with fewer than 20 employees. The establishment survey sam-
ple is designed to maximize the reliability of the total nonfarm employment
estimate; firms from all size classes and industries are appropriately sampled
to achieve that goal.
  
Does the establishment survey account for employment from new businesses?

Yes; monthly establishment survey estimates include an adjustment to account 
for the net employment change generated by business births and deaths. The
adjustment comes from an econometric model that forecasts the monthly net 
jobs impact of business births and deaths based on the actual past values of
the net impact that can be observed with a lag from the Quarterly Census of
Employment and Wages. The establishment survey uses modeling rather than sam-
pling for this purpose because the survey is not immediately able to bring new
businesses into the sample. There is an unavoidable lag between the birth of a
new firm and its appearance on the sampling frame and availability for selection.
BLS adds new businesses to the survey twice a year.

Is the count of unemployed persons limited to just those people receiving
unemployment insurance benefits?

No; the estimate of unemployment is based on a monthly sample survey of house-
holds. All persons who are without jobs and are actively seeking and available
to work are included among the unemployed. (People on temporary layoff are in-
cluded even if they do not actively seek work.) There is no requirement or ques-
tion relating to unemployment insurance benefits in the monthly survey.

Does the official unemployment rate exclude people who have stopped looking for
work?

Yes; however, there are separate estimates of persons outside the labor force who
want a job, including those who have stopped looking because they believe no jobs
are available (discouraged workers). In addition, alternative measures of labor
underutilization (some of which include discouraged workers and other groups not
officially counted as unemployed) are published each month in The Employment
Situation news release.





Technical Note


   This news release presents statistics from two major surveys, the
Current Population Survey (household survey) and the Current Employ-
ment Statistics survey (establishment survey). The household survey 
provides information on the labor force, employment, and unemploy-
ment that appears in the "A" tables, marked HOUSEHOLD DATA. It is a 
sample survey of about 60,000 households conducted by the U.S. Cen-
sus Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). 

   The establishment survey provides information on employment, hours, 
and earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls; the data appear in the 
"B" tables, marked ESTABLISHMENT DATA. BLS collects these data each 
month from the payroll records of a sample of nonagricultural busi-
ness establishments. The sample includes about 140,000 businesses and 
government agencies representing approximately 410,000 worksites and is 
drawn from a sampling frame of roughly 8.9 million unemployment  in-
surance tax accounts. The active sample includes approximately one-
third of all nonfarm payroll employees. 

   For both surveys, the data for a given month relate to a particular 
week or pay period. In the household survey, the reference period is 
generally the calendar week that contains the 12th day of the month. 
In the establishment survey, the reference period is the pay period 
including the 12th, which may or may not correspond directly to the 
calendar week.

Coverage, definitions, and differences between surveys

   Household survey. The sample is selected to reflect the entire
civilian noninstitutional population. Based on responses to a series
of questions on work and job search activities, each person 16 years
and over in a sample household is classified as employed, unemployed,
or not in the labor force.

   People are classified as employed if they did any work at all as
paid employees during the reference week; worked in their own business, 
profession, or on their own farm; or worked without pay at least 15 
hours in a family business or farm. People are also counted as employ-
ed if they were temporarily absent from their jobs because of illness, 
bad weather, vacation, labor-management disputes, or personal reasons.

   People are classified as unemployed if they meet all of the follow-
ing criteria: they had no employment during the reference week; they 
were available for work at that time; and they made specific efforts 
to find employment sometime during the 4-week period ending with the 
reference week. Persons laid off from a job and expecting recall need 
not be looking for work to be counted as unemployed. The unemployment 
data derived from the household survey in no way depend upon the eli-
gibility for or receipt of unemployment insurance benefits.

   The civilian labor force is the sum of employed and unemployed per-
sons. Those not classified as employed or unemployed are not in the
labor force. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a per-
cent of the labor force. The labor force participation rate is the
labor force as a percent of the population, and the employment-popula-
tion ratio is the employed as a percent of the population. Additional 
information about the household survey can be found at www.bls.gov/
cps/documentation.htm.

   Establishment survey. The sample establishments are drawn from pri-
vate nonfarm businesses such as factories, offices, and stores, as
well as from federal, state, and local government entities. Employees
on nonfarm payrolls are those who received pay for any part of the
reference pay period, including persons on paid leave. Persons are
counted in each job they hold. Hours and earnings data are produced
for the private sector for all employees and for production and nonsu-
pervisory employees. Production and nonsupervisory employees are defin-
ed as production and related employees in manufacturing and mining and 
logging, construction workers in construction, and nonsupervisory em-
ployees in private service-providing industries. 

   Industries are classified on the basis of an establishment’s princi-
pal activity in accordance with the 2007 version of the North American 
Industry Classification System. Additional information about the estab-
lishment survey can be found at www.bls.gov/ces/#technical.

   Differences in employment estimates. The numerous conceptual and
methodological differences between the household and establishment
surveys result in important distinctions in the employment estimates
derived from the surveys. Among these are:

   --The household survey includes agricultural workers, the self-
     employed, unpaid family workers, and private household workers
     among the employed. These groups are excluded from the
     establishment survey.
  
   --The household survey includes people on unpaid leave among the
     employed. The establishment survey does not.
  
   --The household survey is limited to workers 16 years of age and
     older. The establishment survey is not limited by age.
  
   --The household survey has no duplication of individuals, because
     individuals are counted only once, even if they hold more than one
     job. In the establishment survey, employees working at more than
     one job and thus appearing on more than one payroll are counted
     separately for each appearance.
  
Seasonal adjustment

   Over the course of a year, the size of the nation's labor force and
the levels of employment and unemployment undergo regularly occurring
fluctuations. These events may result from seasonal changes in weather, 
major holidays, and the opening and closing of schools. The effect of 
such seasonal variation can be very large.

   Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern
each year, their influence on the level of a series can be tempered by
adjusting for regular seasonal variation. These adjustments make non-
seasonal developments, such as declines in employment or increases
in the participation of women in the labor force, easier to spot. For
example, in the household survey, the large number of youth entering
the labor force each June is likely to obscure any other changes that
have taken place relative to May, making it difficult to determine if
the level of economic activity has risen or declined. Similarly, in
the establishment survey, payroll employment in education declines by
about 20 percent at the end of the spring term and later rises with
the start of the fall term, obscuring the underlying employment trends
in the industry. Because seasonal employment changes at the end and
beginning of the school year can be estimated, the statistics can be
adjusted to make underlying employment patterns more discernable.  The
seasonally adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to
analyze changes in month-to-month economic activity.

   Many seasonally adjusted series are independently adjusted in both
the household and establishment surveys. However, the adjusted series
for many major estimates, such as total payroll employment, employment
in most major sectors, total employment, and unemployment are computed
by aggregating independently adjusted component series. For example,
total unemployment is derived by summing the adjusted series for four
major age-sex components; this differs from the unemployment estimate
that would be obtained by directly adjusting the total or by combining
the duration, reasons, or more detailed age categories.

   For both the household and establishment surveys, a concurrent
seasonal adjustment methodology is used in which new seasonal factors
are calculated each month using all relevant data, up to and including
the data for the current month. In the household survey, new seasonal
factors are used to adjust only the current month's data. In the es-
tablishment survey, however, new seasonal factors are used each month 
to adjust the three most recent monthly estimates. The prior 2 months 
are routinely revised to incorporate additional sample reports and re-
calculated seasonal adjustment factors. In both surveys, 5-year revi-
sions to historical data are made once a year.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the household and establishment surveys are
subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. When a sample rather
than the entire population is surveyed, there is a chance that the
sample estimates may differ from the "true" population values they
represent. The exact difference, or sampling error, varies depending
on the particular sample selected, and this variability is measured by
the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance, 
or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ 
by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the "true" population value 
because of sampling error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 
90-percent level of confidence.

   For example, the confidence interval for the monthly change in
total nonfarm employment from the establishment survey is on the order
of plus or minus 100,0001. Suppose the estimate of nonfarm employment
increases by 50,000 from one month to the next. The 90-percent confi-
dence interval on the monthly change would range from -50,000 to 
+150,000 (50,000 +/- 100,0002). These figures do not mean that the
sample results are off by these magnitudes, but rather that there is
about a 90-percent chance that the "true" over-the-month change lies
within this interval. Since this range includes values of less than
zero, we could not say with confidence that nonfarm employment had, in
fact, increased that month. If, however, the reported nonfarm employ-
ment rise was 250,000, then all of the values within the 90-percent 
confidence interval would be greater than zero. In this case, it is 
likely (at least a 90-percent chance) that nonfarm employment had, in 
fact, risen that month. At an unemployment rate of around 5.5 percent, 
the 90-percent confidence interval for the monthly change in unemploy-
ment as measured by the household survey is about +/- 280,000, and for 
the monthly change in the unemployment rate it is about +/-0.19 per-
centage point.

   In general, estimates involving many individuals or establishments
have lower standard errors (relative to the size of the estimate) than
estimates which are based on a small number of observations. The pre-
cision of estimates also is improved when the data are cumulated over 
time, such as for quarterly and annual averages.

   The household and establishment surveys are also affected by
nonsampling error, which can occur for many reasons, including the
failure to sample a segment of the population, inability to obtain
information for all respondents in the sample, inability or unwill-
ingness of respondents to provide correct information on a timely 
basis, mistakes made by respondents, and errors made in the collec-
tion or processing of the data.

   For example, in the establishment survey, estimates for the most
recent 2 months are based on incomplete returns; for this reason,
these estimates are labeled preliminary in the tables. It is only
after two successive revisions to a monthly estimate, when nearly 
all sample reports have been received, that the estimate is consi-
dered final.

   Another major source of nonsampling error in the establishment
survey is the inability to capture, on a timely basis, employment
generated by new firms. To correct for this systematic underestima-
tion of employment growth, an estimation procedure with two compo-
nents is used to account for business births. The first component 
excludes employment losses from business deaths from sample-based 
estimation in order to offset the missing employment gains from 
business births. This is incorporated into the sample-based esti-
mation procedure by simply not reflecting sample units going out 
of business, but imputing to them the same employment trend as the 
other firms in the sample. This procedure accounts for most of the 
net birth/death employment.

   The second component is an ARIMA time series model designed to
estimate the residual net birth/death employment not accounted for 
by the imputation. The historical time series used to create and 
test the ARIMA model was derived from the unemployment insurance 
universe micro-level database, and reflects the actual residual net 
of births and deaths over the past 5 years.

   The sample-based estimates from the establishment survey are ad-
justed once a year (on a lagged basis) to universe counts of payroll
employment obtained from administrative records of the unemployment
insurance program. The difference between the March sample-based em-
ployment estimates and the March universe counts is known as a bench-
mark revision, and serves as a rough proxy for total survey error. 
The new benchmarks also incorporate changes in the classification of 
industries. Over the past decade, absolute benchmark revisions  for 
total nonfarm employment have averaged 0.3 percent, with a range from 
-0.7 to 0.6 percent.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory im-
paired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal 
Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.




HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Oct.
2009
Sept.
2010
Oct.
2010
Oct.
2009
June
2010
July
2010
Aug.
2010
Sept.
2010
Oct.
2010

TOTAL

Civilian noninstitutional population

236,550 238,322 238,530 236,550 237,690 237,890 238,099 238,322 238,530

Civilian labor force

153,635 153,854 153,652 153,854 153,741 153,560 154,110 154,158 153,904

Participation rate

64.9 64.6 64.4 65.0 64.7 64.6 64.7 64.7 64.5

Employed

139,088 139,715 139,749 138,242 139,119 138,960 139,250 139,391 139,061

Employment-population ratio

58.8 58.6 58.6 58.4 58.5 58.4 58.5 58.5 58.3

Unemployed

14,547 14,140 13,903 15,612 14,623 14,599 14,860 14,767 14,843

Unemployment rate

9.5 9.2 9.0 10.1 9.5 9.5 9.6 9.6 9.6

Not in labor force

82,915 84,468 84,878 82,696 83,949 84,330 83,989 84,164 84,626

Persons who currently want a job

5,621 5,949 5,867 6,031 5,895 5,886 5,972 6,202 6,255

Men, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

114,530 115,433 115,542 114,530 115,102 115,207 115,317 115,433 115,542

Civilian labor force

81,823 81,845 81,675 82,184 82,017 81,962 82,299 82,187 81,969

Participation rate

71.4 70.9 70.7 71.8 71.3 71.1 71.4 71.2 70.9

Employed

73,361 73,959 73,970 72,844 73,375 73,454 73,608 73,581 73,454

Employment-population ratio

64.1 64.1 64.0 63.6 63.7 63.8 63.8 63.7 63.6

Unemployed

8,462 7,886 7,705 9,340 8,642 8,507 8,691 8,606 8,514

Unemployment rate

10.3 9.6 9.4 11.4 10.5 10.4 10.6 10.5 10.4

Not in labor force

32,707 33,588 33,867 32,346 33,084 33,245 33,017 33,247 33,574

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

105,906 106,887 107,007 105,906 106,522 106,641 106,761 106,887 107,007

Civilian labor force

78,857 79,081 78,859 79,024 79,110 78,971 79,332 79,307 78,989

Participation rate

74.5 74.0 73.7 74.6 74.3 74.1 74.3 74.2 73.8

Employed

71,260 71,978 71,960 70,662 71,316 71,332 71,521 71,545 71,363

Employment-population ratio

67.3 67.3 67.2 66.7 66.9 66.9 67.0 66.9 66.7

Unemployed

7,596 7,103 6,899 8,362 7,793 7,638 7,811 7,762 7,626

Unemployment rate

9.6 9.0 8.7 10.6 9.9 9.7 9.8 9.8 9.7

Not in labor force

27,050 27,806 28,147 26,882 27,412 27,671 27,429 27,581 28,018

Women, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

122,020 122,889 122,988 122,020 122,589 122,683 122,783 122,889 122,988

Civilian labor force

71,812 72,009 71,977 71,669 71,724 71,598 71,811 71,971 71,935

Participation rate

58.9 58.6 58.5 58.7 58.5 58.4 58.5 58.6 58.5

Employed

65,727 65,755 65,779 65,398 65,743 65,506 65,642 65,811 65,607

Employment-population ratio

53.9 53.5 53.5 53.6 53.6 53.4 53.5 53.6 53.3

Unemployed

6,085 6,254 6,198 6,271 5,981 6,092 6,169 6,161 6,329

Unemployment rate

8.5 8.7 8.6 8.8 8.3 8.5 8.6 8.6 8.8

Not in labor force

50,207 50,880 51,011 50,350 50,865 51,085 50,972 50,918 51,053

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

113,636 114,596 114,704 113,636 114,264 114,372 114,481 114,596 114,704

Civilian labor force

68,946 69,269 69,131 68,687 68,859 68,747 68,844 69,091 69,003

Participation rate

60.7 60.4 60.3 60.4 60.3 60.1 60.1 60.3 60.2

Employed

63,541 63,653 63,645 63,133 63,516 63,314 63,356 63,586 63,386

Employment-population ratio

55.9 55.5 55.5 55.6 55.6 55.4 55.3 55.5 55.3

Unemployed

5,404 5,616 5,487 5,554 5,343 5,433 5,488 5,505 5,617

Unemployment rate

7.8 8.1 7.9 8.1 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.0 8.1

Not in labor force

44,690 45,327 45,573 44,949 45,405 45,625 45,637 45,505 45,701

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian noninstitutional population

17,008 16,839 16,819 17,008 16,904 16,877 16,857 16,839 16,819

Civilian labor force

5,833 5,504 5,661 6,143 5,772 5,843 5,934 5,760 5,912

Participation rate

34.3 32.7 33.7 36.1 34.1 34.6 35.2 34.2 35.2

Employed

4,287 4,084 4,144 4,448 4,286 4,315 4,373 4,261 4,312

Employment-population ratio

25.2 24.3 24.6 26.1 25.4 25.6 25.9 25.3 25.6

Unemployed

1,546 1,421 1,517 1,696 1,486 1,528 1,561 1,500 1,600

Unemployment rate

26.5 25.8 26.8 27.6 25.7 26.1 26.3 26.0 27.1

Not in labor force

11,175 11,334 11,158 10,865 11,132 11,034 10,923 11,079 10,907

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, race, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Oct.
2009
Sept.
2010
Oct.
2010
Oct.
2009
June
2010
July
2010
Aug.
2010
Sept.
2010
Oct.
2010

WHITE

Civilian noninstitutional population

191,394 192,391 192,527 191,394 191,979 192,109 192,245 192,391 192,527

Civilian labor force

125,339 125,273 124,749 125,567 124,959 125,060 125,362 125,404 124,907

Participation rate

65.5 65.1 64.8 65.6 65.1 65.1 65.2 65.2 64.9

Employed

114,469 114,900 114,588 113,754 114,163 114,300 114,470 114,500 113,974

Employment-population ratio

59.8 59.7 59.5 59.4 59.5 59.5 59.5 59.5 59.2

Unemployed

10,870 10,373 10,161 11,813 10,797 10,760 10,893 10,904 10,933

Unemployment rate

8.7 8.3 8.1 9.4 8.6 8.6 8.7 8.7 8.8

Not in labor force

66,056 67,118 67,778 65,827 67,019 67,049 66,883 66,987 67,620

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

65,313 65,424 65,066 65,540 65,349 65,412 65,590 65,583 65,203

Participation rate

75.0 74.6 74.1 75.3 74.7 74.7 74.9 74.8 74.3

Employed

59,555 60,102 59,872 59,077 59,561 59,662 59,738 59,755 59,431

Employment-population ratio

68.4 68.5 68.2 67.8 68.1 68.2 68.2 68.1 67.7

Unemployed

5,758 5,321 5,194 6,463 5,788 5,750 5,852 5,829 5,771

Unemployment rate

8.8 8.1 8.0 9.9 8.9 8.8 8.9 8.9 8.9

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

55,217 55,212 55,076 54,932 54,883 54,818 54,848 55,011 54,829

Participation rate

60.5 60.1 59.9 60.2 59.9 59.8 59.8 59.9 59.6

Employed

51,288 51,231 51,185 50,861 50,971 50,943 50,979 51,062 50,819

Employment-population ratio

56.2 55.8 55.7 55.7 55.6 55.5 55.5 55.6 55.3

Unemployed

3,928 3,981 3,891 4,071 3,911 3,875 3,869 3,949 4,010

Unemployment rate

7.1 7.2 7.1 7.4 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.2 7.3

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

4,809 4,637 4,607 5,095 4,728 4,830 4,924 4,810 4,875

Participation rate

37.0 36.1 35.9 39.2 36.7 37.5 38.3 37.5 38.0

Employed

3,626 3,566 3,531 3,816 3,630 3,695 3,752 3,683 3,723

Employment-population ratio

27.9 27.8 27.5 29.3 28.2 28.7 29.2 28.7 29.0

Unemployed

1,183 1,071 1,076 1,279 1,097 1,135 1,172 1,127 1,152

Unemployment rate

24.6 23.1 23.4 25.1 23.2 23.5 23.8 23.4 23.6

BLACK OR AFRICAN AMERICAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

28,369 28,794 28,831 28,369 28,685 28,718 28,755 28,794 28,831

Civilian labor force

17,491 17,716 17,913 17,516 17,768 17,651 17,879 17,754 17,936

Participation rate

61.7 61.5 62.1 61.7 61.9 61.5 62.2 61.7 62.2

Employed

14,816 14,891 15,199 14,763 15,036 14,896 14,967 14,895 15,122

Employment-population ratio

52.2 51.7 52.7 52.0 52.4 51.9 52.0 51.7 52.4

Unemployed

2,675 2,826 2,715 2,754 2,732 2,755 2,911 2,860 2,814

Unemployment rate

15.3 15.9 15.2 15.7 15.4 15.6 16.3 16.1 15.7

Not in labor force

10,879 11,078 10,918 10,853 10,917 11,067 10,877 11,040 10,895

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

7,909 8,017 8,076 7,899 8,062 8,004 8,082 8,064 8,073

Participation rate

69.1 68.7 69.0 69.0 69.4 68.8 69.4 69.1 69.0

Employed

6,603 6,699 6,837 6,553 6,656 6,667 6,687 6,645 6,760

Employment-population ratio

57.7 57.4 58.5 57.2 57.3 57.3 57.4 56.9 57.8

Unemployed

1,306 1,318 1,239 1,346 1,406 1,337 1,395 1,419 1,313

Unemployment rate

16.5 16.4 15.3 17.0 17.4 16.7 17.3 17.6 16.3

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

8,904 9,154 9,158 8,911 9,070 9,005 9,103 9,082 9,168

Participation rate

62.5 63.2 63.2 62.5 62.9 62.4 63.0 62.7 63.3

Employed

7,803 7,914 7,996 7,800 7,998 7,847 7,902 7,940 8,000

Employment-population ratio

54.8 54.7 55.2 54.8 55.5 54.4 54.7 54.9 55.2

Unemployed

1,100 1,239 1,162 1,110 1,072 1,157 1,202 1,143 1,168

Unemployment rate

12.4 13.5 12.7 12.5 11.8 12.9 13.2 12.6 12.7

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

678 545 680 707 636 643 693 608 695

Participation rate

25.3 20.6 25.7 26.4 23.9 24.2 26.2 23.0 26.3

Employed

409 277 365 409 382 382 379 310 361

Employment-population ratio

15.3 10.5 13.8 15.3 14.4 14.4 14.3 11.7 13.7

Unemployed

269 268 314 298 254 261 314 298 334

Unemployment rate

39.7 49.1 46.2 42.1 39.9 40.6 45.4 49.0 48.0

ASIAN

Civilian noninstitutional population

10,841 11,283 11,306 - - - - - -

Civilian labor force

7,051 7,197 7,317 - - - - - -

Participation rate

65.0 63.8 64.7 - - - - - -

Employed

6,520 6,734 6,798 - - - - - -

Employment-population ratio

60.1 59.7 60.1 - - - - - -

Unemployed

531 463 519 - - - - - -

Unemployment rate

7.5 6.4 7.1 - - - - - -

Not in labor force

3,790 4,087 3,988 - - - - - -

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups will not sum to totals shown in table A-1 because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-3. Employment status of the Hispanic or Latino population by sex and age
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted(1)
Oct.
2009
Sept.
2010
Oct.
2010
Oct.
2009
June
2010
July
2010
Aug.
2010
Sept.
2010
Oct.
2010

HISPANIC OR LATINO ETHNICITY

Civilian noninstitutional population

33,202 33,927 34,014 33,202 33,662 33,747 33,836 33,927 34,014

Civilian labor force

22,481 22,918 22,784 22,492 22,674 22,738 22,729 22,910 22,803

Participation rate

67.7 67.6 67.0 67.7 67.4 67.4 67.2 67.5 67.0

Employed

19,688 20,191 20,051 19,553 19,854 19,987 20,002 20,070 19,939

Employment-population ratio

59.3 59.5 58.9 58.9 59.0 59.2 59.1 59.2 58.6

Unemployed

2,792 2,728 2,733 2,939 2,820 2,751 2,726 2,840 2,865

Unemployment rate

12.4 11.9 12.0 13.1 12.4 12.1 12.0 12.4 12.6

Not in labor force

10,721 11,009 11,230 10,710 10,989 11,009 11,107 11,017 11,211

Men, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

12,863 13,121 12,964 - - - - - -

Participation rate

83.2 83.0 81.8 - - - - - -

Employed

11,333 11,664 11,566 - - - - - -

Employment-population ratio

73.3 73.8 73.0 - - - - - -

Unemployed

1,531 1,457 1,398 - - - - - -

Unemployment rate

11.9 11.1 10.8 - - - - - -

Women, 20 years and over

Civilian labor force

8,628 8,865 8,867 - - - - - -

Participation rate

59.1 59.6 59.5 - - - - - -

Employed

7,718 7,883 7,833 - - - - - -

Employment-population ratio

52.9 53.0 52.5 - - - - - -

Unemployed

909 982 1,034 - - - - - -

Unemployment rate

10.5 11.1 11.7 - - - - - -

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years

Civilian labor force

990 933 953 - - - - - -

Participation rate

31.4 28.7 29.3 - - - - - -

Employed

637 643 651 - - - - - -

Employment-population ratio

20.2 19.8 20.0 - - - - - -

Unemployed

353 289 301 - - - - - -

Unemployment rate

35.6 31.0 31.6 - - - - - -

Footnotes
(1) The population figures are not adjusted for seasonal variation; therefore, identical numbers appear in the unadjusted and seasonally adjusted columns.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment
[Numbers in thousands]
Educational attainment Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2009
Sept.
2010
Oct.
2010
Oct.
2009
June
2010
July
2010
Aug.
2010
Sept.
2010
Oct.
2010

Less than a high school diploma

Civilian labor force

11,849 11,834 11,519 12,155 12,095 12,048 11,819 11,821 11,800

Participation rate

46.0 46.7 45.9 47.2 45.4 47.3 46.4 46.7 47.0

Employed

10,194 10,143 9,908 10,272 10,391 10,390 10,165 10,001 9,993

Employment-population ratio

39.6 40.0 39.4 39.9 39.0 40.8 39.9 39.5 39.8

Unemployed

1,655 1,691 1,611 1,883 1,704 1,658 1,654 1,820 1,806

Unemployment rate

14.0 14.3 14.0 15.5 14.1 13.8 14.0 15.4 15.3

High school graduates, no college(1)

Civilian labor force

37,729 37,982 37,638 37,917 38,107 37,941 38,314 38,116 37,968

Participation rate

61.5 61.6 60.9 61.8 62.0 61.6 61.9 61.9 61.4

Employed

33,884 34,460 34,186 33,674 33,993 34,113 34,373 34,289 34,130

Employment-population ratio

55.3 55.9 55.3 54.9 55.3 55.4 55.6 55.6 55.2

Unemployed

3,846 3,521 3,452 4,243 4,114 3,829 3,940 3,827 3,838

Unemployment rate

10.2 9.3 9.2 11.2 10.8 10.1 10.3 10.0 10.1

Some college or associate degree

Civilian labor force

37,047 36,988 37,445 36,899 36,586 36,713 37,068 37,037 37,228

Participation rate

71.1 70.3 70.6 70.9 70.7 70.0 70.5 70.4 70.2

Employed

33,909 33,750 34,417 33,596 33,579 33,652 33,850 33,684 34,067

Employment-population ratio

65.1 64.1 64.9 64.5 64.9 64.1 64.4 64.0 64.2

Unemployed

3,138 3,239 3,028 3,303 3,007 3,061 3,218 3,352 3,161

Unemployment rate

8.5 8.8 8.1 9.0 8.2 8.3 8.7 9.1 8.5

Bachelor's degree and higher(2)

Civilian labor force

46,550 46,573 46,451 46,316 46,246 46,015 45,676 46,472 46,140

Participation rate

77.8 76.6 76.6 77.4 77.3 76.2 75.8 76.4 76.1

Employed

44,431 44,488 44,370 44,116 44,200 43,924 43,582 44,420 43,992

Employment-population ratio

74.3 73.2 73.2 73.7 73.8 72.7 72.3 73.1 72.6

Unemployed

2,120 2,084 2,081 2,200 2,046 2,091 2,094 2,052 2,149

Unemployment rate

4.6 4.5 4.5 4.7 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.4 4.7

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-5. Employment status of the civilian population 18 years and over by veteran status, period of service, and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, veteran status, and period of service Total Men Women
Oct.
2009
Oct.
2010
Oct.
2009
Oct.
2010
Oct.
2009
Oct.
2010

VETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

22,072 21,896 20,309 20,105 1,763 1,791

Civilian labor force

11,886 11,609 10,733 10,517 1,153 1,092

Participation rate

53.9 53.0 52.8 52.3 65.4 61.0

Employed

10,928 10,646 9,879 9,640 1,049 1,007

Employment-population ratio

49.5 48.6 48.6 47.9 59.5 56.2

Unemployed

958 962 855 877 103 85

Unemployment rate

8.1 8.3 8.0 8.3 8.9 7.8

Not in labor force

10,186 10,287 9,576 9,588 610 699

Gulf War-era II veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

1,991 2,321 1,651 1,902 340 419

Civilian labor force

1,665 1,900 1,402 1,612 263 289

Participation rate

83.6 81.9 84.9 84.8 77.3 68.8

Employed

1,472 1,699 1,240 1,445 231 254

Employment-population ratio

73.9 73.2 75.1 76.0 68.1 60.7

Unemployed

193 201 162 167 31 34

Unemployment rate

11.6 10.6 11.5 10.4 11.9 11.9

Not in labor force

326 420 249 290 77 131

Gulf War-era I veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,016 2,816 2,525 2,401 491 415

Civilian labor force

2,633 2,448 2,228 2,127 405 321

Participation rate

87.3 86.9 88.2 88.6 82.5 77.3

Employed

2,473 2,265 2,100 1,973 373 292

Employment-population ratio

82.0 80.4 83.2 82.2 76.0 70.3

Unemployed

160 183 128 154 32 29

Unemployment rate

6.1 7.5 5.7 7.3 7.9 9.0

Not in labor force

383 368 297 274 86 94

World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam-era veterans

Civilian noninstitutional population

11,247 10,900 10,870 10,544 377 356

Civilian labor force

4,108 3,947 3,973 3,835 136 112

Participation rate

36.5 36.2 36.5 36.4 36.0 31.3

Employed

3,795 3,608 3,671 3,503 124 105

Employment-population ratio

33.7 33.1 33.8 33.2 32.8 29.4

Unemployed

313 339 301 332 12 7

Unemployment rate

7.6 8.6 7.6 8.7 8.7 6.1

Not in labor force

7,139 6,953 6,897 6,708 242 244

Veterans of other service periods

Civilian noninstitutional population

5,819 5,860 5,264 5,259 555 601

Civilian labor force

3,480 3,314 3,131 2,943 349 371

Participation rate

59.8 56.6 59.5 56.0 62.9 61.7

Employed

3,188 3,075 2,867 2,719 321 355

Employment-population ratio

54.8 52.5 54.5 51.7 57.9 59.2

Unemployed

292 239 264 223 28 15

Unemployment rate

8.4 7.2 8.4 7.6 8.1 4.2

Not in labor force

2,339 2,546 2,133 2,316 206 230

NONVETERANS, 18 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

205,537 207,459 89,684 90,791 115,853 116,669

Civilian labor force

139,792 140,044 70,112 70,220 69,681 69,823

Participation rate

68.0 67.5 78.2 77.3 60.1 59.8

Employed

126,760 127,693 62,812 63,707 63,949 63,986

Employment-population ratio

61.7 61.6 70.0 70.2 55.2 54.8

Unemployed

13,032 12,350 7,300 6,513 5,732 5,837

Unemployment rate

9.3 8.8 10.4 9.3 8.2 8.4

Not in labor force

65,745 67,416 19,573 20,570 46,172 46,846

NOTE: Veterans served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces and were not on active duty at the time of the survey. Nonveterans never served on active duty in the U.S. Armed Forces. Veterans could have served anywhere in the world during these periods of service: Gulf War era II (September 2001-present), Gulf War era I (August 1990-August 2001), Vietnam era (August 1964-April 1975), Korean War (July 1950-January 1955), World War II (December 1941-December 1946), and other service periods (all other time periods). Veterans who served in more than one wartime period are classified only in the most recent one. Veterans who served during one of the selected wartime periods and another period are classified only in the wartime period. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-6. Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status, sex, and age Persons with a disability Persons with no disability
Oct.
2009
Oct.
2010
Oct.
2009
Oct.
2010

TOTAL, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

26,863 26,545 209,687 211,986

Civilian labor force

5,839 5,682 147,796 147,970

Participation rate

21.7 21.4 70.5 69.8

Employed

4,875 4,842 134,214 134,907

Employment-population ratio

18.1 18.2 64.0 63.6

Unemployed

965 840 13,582 13,063

Unemployment rate

16.5 14.8 9.2 8.8

Not in labor force

21,024 20,863 61,891 64,015

Men, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,642 2,643 75,469 75,282

Participation rate

36.2 36.1 83.2 82.4

Employed

2,146 2,204 67,735 68,269

Employment-population ratio

29.4 30.1 74.7 74.7

Unemployed

497 439 7,734 7,012

Unemployment rate

18.8 16.6 10.2 9.3

Not in labor force

4,652 4,668 15,238 16,080

Women, 16 to 64 years

Civilian labor force

2,361 2,262 66,461 66,634

Participation rate

31.9 30.8 71.5 71.2

Employed

1,979 1,924 60,946 60,931

Employment-population ratio

26.7 26.2 65.6 65.1

Unemployed

382 337 5,515 5,703

Unemployment rate

16.2 14.9 8.3 8.6

Not in labor force

5,040 5,090 26,453 26,966

Both sexes, 65 years and over

Civilian labor force

836 777 5,866 6,054

Participation rate

6.9 6.5 22.5 22.4

Employed

750 714 5,533 5,706

Employment-population ratio

6.2 6.0 21.2 21.1

Unemployed

86 64 333 348

Unemployment rate

10.3 8.2 5.7 5.8

Not in labor force

11,332 11,105 20,199 20,969

NOTE: A person with a disability has at least one of the following conditions: is deaf or has serious difficulty hearing; is blind or has serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses; has serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition; has serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; has difficulty dressing or bathing; or has difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor's office or shopping because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-7. Employment status of the civilian population by nativity and sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Employment status and nativity Total Men Women
Oct.
2009
Oct.
2010
Oct.
2009
Oct.
2010
Oct.
2009
Oct.
2010

Foreign born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

35,552 36,341 17,862 18,122 17,690 18,219

Civilian labor force

24,200 24,530 14,347 14,387 9,854 10,143

Participation rate

68.1 67.5 80.3 79.4 55.7 55.7

Employed

21,856 22,281 12,915 13,083 8,940 9,198

Employment-population ratio

61.5 61.3 72.3 72.2 50.5 50.5

Unemployed

2,345 2,249 1,432 1,304 913 945

Unemployment rate

9.7 9.2 10.0 9.1 9.3 9.3

Not in labor force

11,351 11,811 3,515 3,734 7,836 8,077

Native born, 16 years and over

Civilian noninstitutional population

200,998 202,189 96,668 97,421 104,330 104,769

Civilian labor force

129,435 129,122 67,476 67,288 61,959 61,834

Participation rate

64.4 63.9 69.8 69.1 59.4 59.0

Employed

117,233 117,468 60,446 60,887 56,787 56,581

Employment-population ratio

58.3 58.1 62.5 62.5 54.4 54.0

Unemployed

12,202 11,654 7,030 6,401 5,172 5,253

Unemployment rate

9.4 9.0 10.4 9.5 8.3 8.5

Not in labor force

71,563 73,067 29,192 30,133 42,372 42,935

NOTE: The foreign born are those residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The native born are persons who were born in the United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-8. Employed persons by class of worker and part-time status
[In thousands]
Category Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2009
Sept.
2010
Oct.
2010
Oct.
2009
June
2010
July
2010
Aug.
2010
Sept.
2010
Oct.
2010

CLASS OF WORKER

Agriculture and related industries

2,049 2,203 2,360 2,041 2,120 2,192 2,188 2,154 2,359

Wage and salary workers

1,281 1,370 1,475 1,263 1,289 1,329 1,300 1,291 1,447

Self-employed workers

748 802 840 736 808 825 855 799 833

Unpaid family workers

19 31 45 - - - - - -

Nonagricultural industries

137,039 137,512 137,389 136,311 136,857 136,599 136,974 137,243 136,782

Wage and salary workers

128,093 128,565 128,487 127,312 127,900 127,881 128,314 128,429 127,814

Government

21,375 20,828 20,900 21,161 21,242 20,978 20,575 20,928 20,763

Private industries

106,719 107,737 107,587 106,173 106,740 106,869 107,760 107,481 107,053

Private households

702 597 562 - - - - - -

Other industries

106,016 107,139 107,025 105,401 106,065 106,270 107,118 106,900 106,433

Self-employed workers

8,879 8,878 8,817 8,960 8,889 8,779 8,678 8,743 8,896

Unpaid family workers

67 69 85 - - - - - -

PERSONS AT WORK PART TIME(1)

All industries

Part time for economic reasons(2)

8,474 8,628 8,408 9,240 8,627 8,529 8,860 9,472 9,154

Slack work or business conditions

6,309 6,072 5,695 6,882 6,165 6,119 6,380 6,733 6,232

Could only find part-time work

1,955 2,306 2,442 2,084 2,101 2,246 2,347 2,456 2,572

Part time for noneconomic reasons(3)

19,135 18,579 18,717 18,632 17,870 18,157 18,558 18,234 18,211

Nonagricultural industries

Part time for economic reasons(2)

8,350 8,540 8,279 9,158 8,472 8,386 8,730 9,336 9,047

Slack work or business conditions

6,203 6,020 5,619 6,797 6,074 6,018 6,304 6,640 6,161

Could only find part-time work

1,947 2,286 2,421 2,033 2,086 2,192 2,320 2,431 2,523

Part time for noneconomic reasons(3)

18,819 18,259 18,302 18,317 17,580 17,774 18,161 17,891 17,784

Footnotes
(1) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the survey reference week and excludes employed persons who were absent from their jobs for the entire week.
(2) Refers to those who worked 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for an economic reason such as slack work or unfavorable business conditions, inability to find full-time work, or seasonal declines in demand.
(3) Refers to persons who usually work part time for noneconomic reasons such as childcare problems, family or personal obligations, school or training, retirement or Social Security limits on earnings, and other reasons. This excludes persons who usually work full time but worked only 1 to 34 hours during the reference week for reasons such as vacations, holidays, illness, and bad weather.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-9. Selected employment indicators
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2009
Sept.
2010
Oct.
2010
Oct.
2009
June
2010
July
2010
Aug.
2010
Sept.
2010
Oct.
2010

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

139,088 139,715 139,749 138,242 139,119 138,960 139,250 139,391 139,061

16 to 19 years

4,287 4,084 4,144 4,448 4,286 4,315 4,373 4,261 4,312

16 to 17 years

1,400 1,417 1,409 1,417 1,380 1,345 1,402 1,398 1,422

18 to 19 years

2,887 2,667 2,735 3,041 2,899 2,984 2,975 2,867 2,897

20 years and over

134,802 135,631 135,605 133,795 134,833 134,646 134,877 135,131 134,749

20 to 24 years

12,385 12,790 12,723 12,414 12,698 12,670 12,838 12,841 12,781

25 years and over

122,417 122,841 122,881 121,440 122,263 122,109 122,074 122,267 121,894

25 to 54 years

95,001 94,535 94,791 94,272 94,270 94,062 94,005 94,067 94,017

25 to 34 years

30,072 30,474 30,589 29,811 30,157 30,278 30,318 30,315 30,325

35 to 44 years

31,144 30,713 30,886 30,966 30,772 30,604 30,584 30,514 30,648

45 to 54 years

33,784 33,348 33,315 33,495 33,341 33,180 33,104 33,238 33,044

55 years and over

27,416 28,305 28,091 27,168 27,993 28,047 28,069 28,200 27,878

Men, 16 years and over

73,361 73,959 73,970 72,844 73,375 73,454 73,608 73,581 73,454

16 to 19 years

2,101 1,981 2,010 2,182 2,059 2,122 2,087 2,036 2,091

16 to 17 years

671 673 623 688 631 667 667 660 650

18 to 19 years

1,430 1,308 1,387 1,485 1,434 1,472 1,428 1,372 1,441

20 years and over

71,260 71,978 71,960 70,662 71,316 71,332 71,521 71,545 71,363

20 to 24 years

6,224 6,536 6,481 6,257 6,473 6,434 6,571 6,536 6,540

25 years and over

65,037 65,442 65,479 64,449 64,862 64,937 64,952 65,015 64,838

25 to 54 years

50,689 50,641 50,805 50,222 50,264 50,340 50,321 50,303 50,255

25 to 34 years

16,405 16,590 16,668 16,203 16,274 16,403 16,478 16,433 16,438

35 to 44 years

16,763 16,659 16,737 16,642 16,649 16,644 16,601 16,534 16,574

45 to 54 years

17,520 17,392 17,400 17,376 17,341 17,293 17,242 17,336 17,243

55 years and over

14,348 14,802 14,675 14,227 14,598 14,597 14,631 14,712 14,583

Women, 16 years and over

65,727 65,755 65,779 65,398 65,743 65,506 65,642 65,811 65,607

16 to 19 years

2,186 2,103 2,134 2,266 2,227 2,192 2,286 2,225 2,221

16 to 17 years

729 743 786 728 749 678 735 738 772

18 to 19 years

1,457 1,359 1,348 1,555 1,466 1,512 1,547 1,494 1,456

20 years and over

63,541 63,653 63,645 63,133 63,516 63,314 63,356 63,586 63,386

20 to 24 years

6,161 6,255 6,242 6,158 6,225 6,236 6,267 6,305 6,241

25 years and over

57,380 57,398 57,402 56,992 57,401 57,172 57,122 57,252 57,056

25 to 54 years

44,312 43,895 43,986 44,050 44,006 43,722 43,684 43,765 43,762

25 to 34 years

13,667 13,884 13,921 13,608 13,882 13,875 13,840 13,883 13,887

35 to 44 years

14,381 14,054 14,150 14,324 14,123 13,960 13,983 13,980 14,074

45 to 54 years

16,264 15,957 15,915 16,118 16,000 15,887 15,862 15,902 15,801

55 years and over

13,069 13,503 13,416 12,942 13,396 13,450 13,438 13,488 13,294

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present

43,510 43,895 43,492 43,401 43,333 43,369 43,433 43,723 43,349

Married women, spouse present

34,822 34,499 34,642 34,736 34,332 34,304 34,213 34,449 34,555

Women who maintain families

8,786 8,906 8,959 - - - - - -

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(1)

111,599 112,385 112,342 110,817 112,646 112,076 111,822 111,716 111,592

Part-time workers(2)

27,489 27,330 27,407 27,511 26,755 27,082 27,705 27,636 27,446

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders

7,224 6,681 6,817 7,017 7,002 6,546 6,814 6,684 6,665

Percent of total employed

5.2 4.8 4.9 5.1 5.0 4.7 4.9 4.8 4.8

Footnotes
(1) Employed full-time workers are persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
(2) Employed part-time workers are persons who usually work less than 35 hours per week.

- Data not available.
NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-10. Selected unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
Characteristic Number of
unemployed persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment rates
Oct.
2009
Sept.
2010
Oct.
2010
Oct.
2009
June
2010
July
2010
Aug.
2010
Sept.
2010
Oct.
2010

AGE AND SEX

Total, 16 years and over

15,612 14,767 14,843 10.1 9.5 9.5 9.6 9.6 9.6

16 to 19 years

1,696 1,500 1,600 27.6 25.7 26.1 26.3 26.0 27.1

16 to 17 years

614 607 631 30.2 29.2 30.4 31.4 30.3 30.7

18 to 19 years

1,053 863 950 25.7 24.0 23.6 23.9 23.1 24.7

20 years and over

13,916 13,267 13,243 9.4 8.9 8.8 9.0 8.9 8.9

20 to 24 years

2,301 2,225 2,297 15.6 15.3 15.6 14.9 14.8 15.2

25 years and over

11,563 11,061 10,937 8.7 8.2 8.1 8.3 8.3 8.2

25 to 54 years

9,511 8,928 8,739 9.2 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.7 8.5

25 to 34 years

3,590 3,372 3,325 10.7 10.3 9.9 9.8 10.0 9.9

35 to 44 years

3,069 2,788 2,623 9.0 7.8 8.0 7.7 8.4 7.9

45 to 54 years

2,851 2,768 2,791 7.8 7.5 7.5 8.1 7.7 7.8

55 years and over

2,057 2,186 2,179 7.0 6.9 6.9 7.3 7.2 7.3

Men, 16 years and over

9,340 8,606 8,514 11.4 10.5 10.4 10.6 10.5 10.4

16 to 19 years

978 844 888 31.0 29.2 29.0 29.7 29.3 29.8

16 to 17 years

347 332 340 33.5 32.8 32.5 33.0 33.5 34.3

18 to 19 years

604 488 530 28.9 27.4 26.7 28.1 26.2 26.9

20 years and over

8,362 7,762 7,626 10.6 9.9 9.7 9.8 9.8 9.7

20 to 24 years

1,427 1,344 1,299 18.6 17.8 18.3 17.3 17.1 16.6

25 years and over

6,904 6,473 6,332 9.7 9.0 8.8 9.1 9.1 8.9

25 to 54 years

5,704 5,203 5,005 10.2 9.4 9.1 9.2 9.4 9.1

25 to 34 years

2,087 2,007 1,912 11.4 11.5 10.7 10.4 10.9 10.4

35 to 44 years

1,863 1,563 1,485 10.1 8.3 8.3 8.3 8.6 8.2

45 to 54 years

1,755 1,633 1,608 9.2 8.6 8.4 9.0 8.6 8.5

55 years and over

1,200 1,270 1,327 7.8 7.5 7.7 8.4 7.9 8.3

Women, 16 years and over

6,271 6,161 6,329 8.8 8.3 8.5 8.6 8.6 8.8

16 to 19 years

717 656 712 24.0 22.3 23.1 22.9 22.8 24.3

16 to 17 years

266 275 291 26.8 25.8 28.2 30.0 27.1 27.4

18 to 19 years

449 376 421 22.4 20.3 20.5 19.5 20.1 22.4

20 years and over

5,554 5,505 5,617 8.1 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.0 8.1

20 to 24 years

874 881 998 12.4 12.6 12.7 12.2 12.3 13.8

25 years and over

4,659 4,588 4,605 7.6 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.4 7.5

25 to 54 years

3,806 3,726 3,734 8.0 7.5 7.7 7.7 7.8 7.9

25 to 34 years

1,503 1,365 1,413 9.9 8.9 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.2

35 to 44 years

1,207 1,226 1,138 7.8 7.4 7.6 7.1 8.1 7.5

45 to 54 years

1,096 1,135 1,182 6.4 6.4 6.5 7.1 6.7 7.0

55 years and over(1)

853 922 846 6.1 6.5 6.9 6.9 6.4 5.9

MARITAL STATUS

Married men, spouse present

3,521 3,206 3,282 7.5 6.8 6.6 6.8 6.8 7.0

Married women, spouse present

2,183 2,075 2,085 5.9 5.9 5.8 6.0 5.7 5.7

Women who maintain families(1)

1,299 1,321 1,267 12.9 12.1 13.4 13.4 12.9 12.4

FULL- OR PART-TIME STATUS

Full-time workers(2)

13,824 13,012 13,012 11.1 10.2 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.4

Part-time workers(3)

1,790 1,789 1,854 6.1 6.4 6.4 6.7 6.1 6.3

Footnotes
(1) Not seasonally adjusted.
(2) Full-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work full time (35 hours or more per week) or are on layoff from full-time jobs.
(3) Part-time workers are unemployed persons who have expressed a desire to work part time (less than 35 hours per week) or are on layoff from part-time jobs.

NOTE: Detail for the seasonally adjusted data shown in this table will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-11. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Reason Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2009
Sept.
2010
Oct.
2010
Oct.
2009
June
2010
July
2010
Aug.
2010
Sept.
2010
Oct.
2010

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

9,176 8,651 8,331 10,261 9,114 9,125 9,305 9,401 9,108

On temporary layoff

1,177 910 890 1,671 1,424 1,268 1,480 1,349 1,278

Not on temporary layoff

7,999 7,741 7,441 8,590 7,690 7,857 7,825 8,051 7,829

Permanent job losers

6,564 6,271 6,009 6,922 6,404 6,518 6,480 6,589 6,319

Persons who completed temporary jobs

1,435 1,471 1,432 1,569 1,287 1,339 1,345 1,463 1,510

Job leavers

938 880 876 909 900 900 874 807 854

Reentrants

3,376 3,428 3,466 3,461 3,308 3,393 3,411 3,436 3,512

New entrants

1,058 1,180 1,230 1,114 1,140 1,188 1,259 1,187 1,273

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

63.1 61.2 59.9 65.2 63.0 62.5 62.7 63.4 61.8

On temporary layoff

8.1 6.4 6.4 10.6 9.8 8.7 10.0 9.1 8.7

Not on temporary layoff

55.0 54.7 53.5 54.6 53.2 53.8 52.7 54.3 53.1

Job leavers

6.4 6.2 6.3 5.8 6.2 6.2 5.9 5.4 5.8

Reentrants

23.2 24.2 24.9 22.0 22.9 23.2 23.0 23.2 23.8

New entrants

7.3 8.3 8.8 7.1 7.9 8.1 8.5 8.0 8.6

UNEMPLOYED AS A PERCENT OF THE
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs

6.0 5.6 5.4 6.7 5.9 5.9 6.0 6.1 5.9

Job leavers

0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.6

Reentrants

2.2 2.2 2.3 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.3

New entrants

0.7 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-12. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment
[Numbers in thousands]
Duration Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2009
Sept.
2010
Oct.
2010
Oct.
2009
June
2010
July
2010
Aug.
2010
Sept.
2010
Oct.
2010

NUMBER OF UNEMPLOYED

Less than 5 weeks

2,956 2,830 2,432 3,131 2,769 2,839 2,760 2,891 2,657

5 to 14 weeks

3,183 3,127 3,037 3,671 3,121 3,060 3,635 3,350 3,458

15 weeks and over

8,408 8,183 8,434 8,804 8,959 8,722 8,484 8,458 8,725

15 to 26 weeks

2,883 2,075 2,335 3,184 2,208 2,151 2,235 2,336 2,519

27 weeks and over

5,526 6,108 6,099 5,620 6,751 6,572 6,249 6,123 6,206

Average (mean) duration, in weeks

28.1 34.1 34.9 27.2 35.2 34.2 33.6 33.3 33.9

Median duration, in weeks

19.3 20.5 21.9 19.0 25.5 22.2 19.9 20.4 21.2

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Less than 5 weeks

20.3 20.0 17.5 20.1 18.6 19.4 18.5 19.7 17.9

5 to 14 weeks

21.9 22.1 21.8 23.5 21.0 20.9 24.4 22.8 23.3

15 weeks and over

57.8 57.9 60.7 56.4 60.3 59.7 57.0 57.5 58.8

15 to 26 weeks

19.8 14.7 16.8 20.4 14.9 14.7 15.0 15.9 17.0

27 weeks and over

38.0 43.2 43.9 36.0 45.5 44.9 42.0 41.7 41.8

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-13. Employed and unemployed persons by occupation, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Employed Unemployed Unemployment
rates
Oct.
2009
Oct.
2010
Oct.
2009
Oct.
2010
Oct.
2009
Oct.
2010

Total, 16 years and over(1)

139,088 139,749 14,547 13,903 9.5 9.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

52,981 51,818 2,593 2,417 4.7 4.5

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

21,398 20,699 1,219 1,089 5.4 5.0

Professional and related occupations

31,583 31,119 1,374 1,328 4.2 4.1

Service occupations

24,323 24,540 2,705 2,758 10.0 10.1

Sales and office occupations

33,043 33,394 3,415 3,300 9.4 9.0

Sales and related occupations

15,294 15,439 1,608 1,548 9.5 9.1

Office and administrative support occupations

17,748 17,955 1,806 1,752 9.2 8.9

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,133 13,091 2,400 2,060 15.5 13.6

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

936 1,085 144 155 13.3 12.5

Construction and extraction occupations

7,604 7,026 1,797 1,456 19.1 17.2

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,593 4,980 459 449 9.1 8.3

Production, transportation, and material moving
occupations

15,610 16,906 2,337 2,091 13.0 11.0

Production occupations

7,486 8,255 1,269 1,134 14.5 12.1

Transportation and material moving occupations

8,124 8,651 1,068 958 11.6 10.0

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-14. Unemployed persons by industry and class of worker, not seasonally adjusted
Industry and class of worker Number of
unemployed
persons
(in thousands)
Unemployment
rates
Oct.
2009
Oct.
2010
Oct.
2009
Oct.
2010

Total, 16 years and over(1)

14,547 13,903 9.5 9.0

Nonagricultural private wage and salary workers

11,929 10,990 10.1 9.3

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

84 89 10.8 10.4

Construction

1,744 1,445 18.7 17.3

Manufacturing

1,884 1,474 12.2 9.5

Durable goods

1,265 937 12.9 9.8

Nondurable goods

618 537 10.9 9.0

Wholesale and retail trade

1,919 1,888 9.6 9.2

Transportation and utilities

480 404 8.6 6.9

Information

261 300 8.2 9.8

Financial activities

646 590 7.0 6.7

Professional and business services

1,488 1,525 10.3 10.6

Education and health services

1,280 1,263 6.0 5.8

Leisure and hospitality

1,604 1,458 12.4 11.1

Other services

541 554 8.5 8.8

Agriculture and related private wage and salary workers

166 176 11.8 11.0

Government workers

785 950 3.5 4.3

Self-employed and unpaid family workers

610 557 5.9 5.4

Footnotes
(1) Persons with no previous work experience and persons whose last job was in the U.S. Armed Forces are included in the unemployed total.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-15. Alternative measures of labor underutilization
[Percent]
Measure Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2009
Sept.
2010
Oct.
2010
Oct.
2009
June
2010
July
2010
Aug.
2010
Sept.
2010
Oct.
2010

U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force

5.5 5.3 5.5 5.7 5.8 5.7 5.5 5.5 5.7

U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force

6.0 5.6 5.4 6.7 5.9 5.9 6.0 6.1 5.9

U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)

9.5 9.2 9.0 10.1 9.5 9.5 9.6 9.6 9.6

U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers

9.9 9.9 9.8 10.6 10.2 10.2 10.3 10.3 10.4

U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

10.8 10.7 10.6 11.5 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.1

U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

16.3 16.2 15.9 17.4 16.5 16.5 16.7 17.1 17.0

NOTE: Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


HOUSEHOLD DATA
Table A-16. Persons not in the labor force and multiple jobholders by sex, not seasonally adjusted
[Numbers in thousands]
Category Total Men Women
Oct.
2009
Oct.
2010
Oct.
2009
Oct.
2010
Oct.
2009
Oct.
2010

NOT IN THE LABOR FORCE

Total not in the labor force

82,915 84,878 32,707 33,867 50,207 51,011

Persons who currently want a job

5,621 5,867 2,711 2,806 2,910 3,061

Marginally attached to the labor force(1)

2,373 2,602 1,287 1,345 1,086 1,258

Discouraged workers(2)

808 1,219 500 712 309 507

Other persons marginally attached to the labor force(3)

1,565 1,383 787 633 778 751

MULTIPLE JOBHOLDERS

Total multiple jobholders(4)

7,224 6,817 3,579 3,177 3,645 3,640

Percent of total employed

5.2 4.9 4.9 4.3 5.5 5.5

Primary job full time, secondary job part time

3,931 3,653 2,147 1,834 1,784 1,819

Primary and secondary jobs both part time

1,804 1,850 624 647 1,180 1,203

Primary and secondary jobs both full time

240 197 155 118 85 80

Hours vary on primary or secondary job

1,217 1,103 640 573 577 531

Footnotes
(1) Data refer to persons who want a job, have searched for work during the prior 12 months, and were available to take a job during the reference week, but had not looked for work in the past 4 weeks.
(2) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for reasons such as thinks no work available, could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
(3) Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a number for whom reason for nonparticipation was not determined.
(4) Includes a small number of persons who work part time on their primary job and full time on their secondary job(s), not shown separately.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail
[In thousands]
Industry Not seasonally adjusted Seasonally adjusted
Oct.
2009
Aug.
2010
Sept.
2010(p)
Oct.
2010(p)
Oct.
2009
Aug.
2010
Sept.
2010(p)
Oct.
2010(p)
Change from:
Sept. 2010- Oct. 2010(p)

Total nonfarm

130,889 130,135 130,596 131,515 129,633 130,352 130,311 130,462 151

Total private

107,996 108,917 108,534 108,943 107,115 107,956 108,063 108,222 159

Goods-producing

18,353 18,458 18,364 18,362 17,993 18,048 18,044 18,049 5

Mining and logging

681 754 758 765 669 742 748 755 7

Logging

51.2 50.3 49.2 48.9 48.5 48.2 47.2 46.8 -0.4

Mining

629.5 703.3 708.8 716.3 620.8 694.1 700.8 708.4 7.6

Oil and gas extraction

160.8 168.2 167.4 169.9 160.4 167.2 168.5 170.6 2.1

Mining, except oil and gas(1)

210.5 223.5 222.8 221.6 204.3 216.0 216.7 216.9 0.2

Coal mining

79.6 83.9 84.4 84.0 79.3 83.5 84.1 84.1 0.0

Support activities for mining

258.2 311.6 318.6 324.8 256.1 310.9 315.6 320.9 5.3

Construction

5,998 5,929 5,848 5,854 5,747 5,628 5,620 5,625 5

Construction of buildings

1,345.3 1,312.0 1,298.5 1,297.4 1,300.0 1,260.7 1,263.3 1,259.3 -4.0

Residential building

628.9 601.4 594.8 594.9 602.4 575.9 576.1 573.9 -2.2

Nonresidential building

716.4 710.6 703.7 702.5 697.6 684.8 687.2 685.4 -1.8

Heavy and civil engineering construction

866.0 892.2 891.1 894.4 804.6 824.3 828.3 833.1 4.8

Specialty trade contractors

3,786.3 3,724.6 3,658.2 3,661.9 3,642.8 3,543.1 3,528.5 3,532.2 3.7

Residential specialty trade contractors

1,637.0 1,603.2 1,588.0 1,581.6 1,569.6 1,523.2 1,521.3 1,517.7 -3.6

Nonresidential specialty trade contractors

2,149.3 2,121.4 2,070.2 2,080.3 2,073.2 2,019.9 2,007.2 2,014.5 7.3

Manufacturing

11,674 11,775 11,758 11,743 11,577 11,678 11,676 11,669 -7

Durable goods

7,118 7,222 7,223 7,222 7,070 7,180 7,186 7,183 -3

Wood products

354.6 356.7 350.7 345.6 348.4 346.5 344.4 342.9 -1.5

Nonmetallic mineral products

391.9 393.4 394.1 391.9 382.2 382.6 384.6 384.2 -0.4

Primary metals

353.8 374.4 376.4 374.7 350.1 373.9 374.5 373.0 -1.5

Fabricated metal products

1,280.8 1,326.6 1,331.1 1,335.2 1,272.1 1,317.1 1,320.9 1,321.8 0.9

Machinery

989.3 1,001.8 1,000.1 1,006.9 983.8 1,000.0 1,000.7 1,002.1 1.4

Computer and electronic products(1)

1,100.6 1,105.0 1,101.3 1,103.6 1,101.5 1,102.6 1,102.9 1,103.3 0.4

Computer and peripheral equipment

159.7 161.2 161.4 162.2 159.6 161.2 161.1 161.8 0.7

Communication equipment

119.6 122.5 122.1 123.3 119.3 122.4 122.7 123.4 0.7

Semiconductors and electronic components

360.4 370.9 368.4 368.9 361.1 369.8 368.6 368.6 0.0

Electronic instruments

412.2 405.4 405.0 404.5 413.5 404.1 405.8 405.0 -0.8

Electrical equipment and appliances

367.3 374.4 374.9 373.5 365.6 372.4 373.6 373.1 -0.5

Transportation equipment(1)

1,332.1 1,352.0 1,358.3 1,354.3 1,326.3 1,351.1 1,350.1 1,351.2 1.1

Motor vehicles and parts(2)

662.4 684.4 690.7 689.4 657.9 683.9 683.6 686.9 3.3

Furniture and related products

366.0 362.9 359.2 356.4 364.6 358.4 357.1 355.6 -1.5

Miscellaneous manufacturing

582.0 574.9 576.7 579.7 575.6 575.0 576.8 576.2 -0.6

Nondurable goods

4,556 4,553 4,535 4,521 4,507 4,498 4,490 4,486 -4

Food manufacturing

1,487.9 1,496.3 1,487.7 1,475.8 1,462.0 1,458.7 1,455.7 1,453.0 -2.7

Beverages and tobacco products

192.6 185.8 188.0 189.6 187.8 182.0 183.6 185.5 1.9

Textile mills

122.6 123.1 122.9 123.6 119.9 122.7 122.5 122.7 0.2

Textile product mills

124.7 121.7 122.6 121.7 123.6 122.0 122.1 120.4 -1.7

Apparel

165.7 165.9 165.5 165.4 163.5 163.9 163.5 165.6 2.1

Leather and allied products

28.2 29.6 29.5 30.1 28.1 29.3 29.2 29.6 0.4

Paper and paper products

400.5 399.2 399.0 398.6 399.3 398.0 398.6 398.4 -0.2

Printing and related support activities

510.4 493.6 490.4 489.9 506.7 492.6 489.1 487.8 -1.3

Petroleum and coal products

116.7 117.0 115.7 117.7 115.3 113.6 113.4 115.3 1.9

Chemicals

789.8 779.7 776.2 773.9 790.5 778.4 778.0 776.0 -2.0

Plastics and rubber products

617.2 640.8 637.2 634.9 610.7 636.3 634.0 632.1 -1.9

Private service-providing

89,643 90,459 90,170 90,581 89,122 89,908 90,019 90,173 154

Trade, transportation, and utilities

24,795 24,786 24,745 24,927 24,670 24,779 24,806 24,843 37

Wholesale trade

5,594.4 5,614.3 5,605.0 5,622.9 5,574.5 5,589.4 5,593.1 5,600.4 7.3

Durable goods

2,792.4 2,790.8 2,786.2 2,792.3 2,787.0 2,776.6 2,779.9 2,781.1 1.2

Nondurable goods

1,982.5 1,982.5 1,976.6 1,984.1 1,968.7 1,974.5 1,973.6 1,976.1 2.5

Electronic markets and agents and brokers

819.5 841.0 842.2 846.5 818.8 838.3 839.6 843.2 3.6

Retail trade

14,417.5 14,459.0 14,348.1 14,499.0 14,365.7 14,448.8 14,460.4 14,488.3 27.9

Motor vehicle and parts dealers(1)

1,632.6 1,654.8 1,654.6 1,656.6 1,618.6 1,636.1 1,640.8 1,648.6 7.8

Automobile dealers

1,014.7 1,027.0 1,028.9 1,032.4 1,005.7 1,019.4 1,022.3 1,028.5 6.2

Furniture and home furnishings stores

445.5 432.3 435.0 445.9 437.3 437.8 440.7 441.7 1.0

Electronics and appliance stores

480.3 476.4 479.6 494.3 475.3 483.7 487.0 491.7 4.7

Building material and garden supply stores

1,136.5 1,154.1 1,132.0 1,125.7 1,138.9 1,143.7 1,141.3 1,137.8 -3.5

Food and beverage stores

2,816.5 2,821.4 2,801.1 2,814.0 2,823.5 2,808.1 2,809.9 2,809.5 -0.4

Health and personal care stores

979.6 970.3 964.2 969.9 978.8 971.4 971.2 972.4 1.2

Gasoline stations

827.1 834.9 826.4 820.9 827.5 820.9 820.8 818.6 -2.2

Clothing and clothing accessories stores

1,364.7 1,398.0 1,363.9 1,399.2 1,351.8 1,392.1 1,394.8 1,402.5 7.7

Sporting goods, hobby, book, and music stores

607.0 604.4 604.4 612.8 596.3 609.4 607.3 607.0 -0.3

General merchandise stores(1)

2,912.2 2,929.4 2,901.2 2,944.4 2,930.4 2,954.6 2,957.0 2,961.4 4.4

Department stores

1,452.3 1,471.1 1,453.0 1,480.7 1,457.0 1,494.0 1,492.8 1,494.2 1.4

Miscellaneous store retailers

785.1 771.9 765.0 779.5 770.6 768.6 766.9 771.9 5.0

Nonstore retailers

430.4 411.1 420.7 435.8 416.7 422.4 422.7 425.2 2.5

Transportation and warehousing

4,221.5 4,157.4 4,242.6 4,252.4 4,168.6 4,187.8 4,201.3 4,201.2 -0.1

Air transportation

454.8 457.2 455.8 454.8 457.1 453.5 454.2 453.8 -0.4

Rail transportation

215.5 220.7 222.4 222.7 214.1 220.8 221.5 222.3 0.8

Water transportation

64.5 66.5 65.0 65.0 62.8 63.7 63.7 64.5 0.8

Truck transportation

1,261.9 1,266.2 1,266.6 1,264.0 1,240.8 1,242.3 1,242.8 1,243.1 0.3

Transit and ground passenger transportation

430.6 359.6 441.7 451.7 416.7 426.1 432.3 435.0 2.7

Pipeline transportation

42.1 39.5 38.9 39.2 42.3 39.3 38.8 38.9 0.1

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

28.2 36.5 34.0 29.5 27.3 28.5 28.7 28.9 0.2

Support activities for transportation

545.4 549.2 547.0 550.3 537.8 547.2 546.8 547.2 0.4

Couriers and messengers

537.2 517.4 522.9 521.5 538.6 522.1 526.6 521.2 -5.4

Warehousing and storage

641.3 644.6 648.3 653.7 631.1 644.3 645.9 646.3 0.4

Utilities

561.1 555.1 549.4 552.5 561.0 553.1 550.9 552.9 2.0

Information

2,769 2,730 2,706 2,714 2,774 2,724 2,716 2,715 -1

Publishing industries, except Internet

774.6 763.5 759.4 760.7 772.5 761.7 760.6 760.5 -0.1

Motion picture and sound recording industries

348.1 365.5 351.9 351.1 353.8 358.6 355.7 353.0 -2.7

Broadcasting, except Internet

297.0 296.7 297.2 298.8 296.0 297.3 297.7 298.1 0.4

Telecommunications

964.9 920.0 913.2 916.8 967.0 920.5 915.9 916.8 0.9

Data processing, hosting and related services

248.6 242.6 243.2 245.2 248.8 244.7 245.1 245.6 0.5

Other information services

135.4 141.8 141.2 140.9 135.7 141.1 141.4 141.1 -0.3

Financial activities

7,673 7,624 7,580 7,577 7,664 7,578 7,576 7,575 -1

Finance and insurance

5,694.9 5,651.2 5,632.4 5,643.3 5,694.8 5,643.7 5,642.7 5,645.3 2.6

Monetary authorities - central bank

21.0 21.4 21.4 21.3 21.2 21.2 21.3 21.4 0.1

Credit intermediation and related
activities(1)

2,564.9 2,567.7 2,563.2 2,571.5 2,565.6 2,564.8 2,570.4 2,574.4 4.0

Depository credit intermediation(1)

1,747.5 1,762.8 1,756.5 1,763.9 1,747.4 1,757.6 1,761.4 1,766.9 5.5

Commercial banking

1,308.2 1,321.1 1,317.1 1,322.9 1,308.4 1,317.8 1,320.6 1,324.9 4.3

Securities, commodity contracts, investments

796.6 796.9 793.7 792.9 795.5 795.7 795.2 792.2 -3.0

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,225.1 2,179.9 2,169.4 2,172.2 2,225.4 2,176.9 2,170.9 2,172.3 1.4

Funds, trusts, and other financial vehicles

87.3 85.3 84.7 85.4 87.1 85.1 84.9 85.0 0.1

Real estate and rental and leasing

1,977.9 1,972.9 1,948.0 1,934.0 1,969.1 1,934.1 1,933.2 1,930.1 -3.1

Real estate

1,410.5 1,398.1 1,388.4 1,384.2 1,403.8 1,378.0 1,380.5 1,379.6 -0.9

Rental and leasing services

541.6 550.6 535.7 525.4 539.4 532.2 528.8 526.0 -2.8

Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

25.8 24.2 23.9 24.4 25.9 23.9 23.9 24.5 0.6

Professional and business services

16,617 16,874 16,846 16,991 16,360 16,730 16,749 16,795 46

Professional and technical services(1)

7,418.5 7,395.4 7,339.9 7,403.0 7,434.1 7,433.8 7,421.9 7,428.6 6.7

Legal services

1,107.4 1,109.2 1,104.5 1,107.8 1,107.4 1,105.5 1,107.7 1,107.4 -0.3

Accounting and bookkeeping services

857.8 823.5 806.4 814.3 919.4 896.5 883.3 878.6 -4.7

Architectural and engineering services

1,304.9 1,295.1 1,281.1 1,288.0 1,292.3 1,279.0 1,278.0 1,278.0 0.0

Computer systems design and related services

1,438.4 1,465.9 1,460.9 1,477.8 1,429.9 1,460.7 1,463.4 1,470.9 7.5

Management and technical consulting services

1,002.1 991.8 991.1 1,004.6 995.1 989.3 992.6 995.2 2.6

Management of companies and enterprises

1,830.3 1,839.9 1,836.8 1,834.3 1,830.0 1,830.3 1,837.3 1,836.1 -1.2

Administrative and waste services

7,368.0 7,638.9 7,669.5 7,753.6 7,096.2 7,465.9 7,490.1 7,530.5 40.4

Administrative and support services(1)

7,012.8 7,273.1 7,308.5 7,394.9 6,744.0 7,108.1 7,133.2 7,174.6 41.4

Employment services(1)

2,602.0 2,836.2 2,905.6 2,983.2 2,408.6 2,776.4 2,807.4 2,836.8 29.4

Temporary help services

1,921.7 2,152.6 2,212.2 2,298.4 1,766.6 2,116.5 2,140.3 2,175.2 34.9

Business support services

817.2 787.9 788.3 809.3 811.2 799.7 798.2 800.6 2.4

Services to buildings and dwellings

1,778.2 1,839.2 1,802.6 1,783.4 1,727.1 1,734.1 1,733.0 1,733.8 0.8

Waste management and remediation services

355.2 365.8 361.0 358.7 352.2 357.8 356.9 355.9 -1.0

Education and health services

19,460 19,269 19,540 19,838 19,282 19,599 19,621 19,674 53

Educational services

3,239.8 2,846.4 3,090.1 3,307.4 3,087.7 3,154.5 3,142.7 3,161.9 19.2

Health care and social assistance

16,220.4 16,422.3 16,450.2 16,530.4 16,194.6 16,444.3 16,478.0 16,512.0 34.0

Health care(3)

13,621.6 13,826.9 13,802.4 13,853.4 13,605.6 13,796.9 13,820.8 13,844.9 24.1

Ambulatory health care services(1)

5,825.9 5,951.9 5,949.6 5,980.7 5,813.8 5,945.1 5,962.1 5,975.1 13.0

Offices of physicians

2,295.0 2,324.5 2,320.5 2,331.6 2,287.6 2,322.6 2,326.8 2,329.5 2.7

Outpatient care centers

548.7 557.8 556.3 560.1 548.4 556.7 557.2 559.7 2.5

Home health care services

1,042.9 1,072.5 1,078.0 1,084.8 1,040.7 1,073.2 1,079.6 1,083.2 3.6

Hospitals

4,692.8 4,729.3 4,717.5 4,728.1 4,688.6 4,717.4 4,720.9 4,726.0 5.1

Nursing and residential care facilities(1)

3,102.9 3,145.7 3,135.3 3,144.6 3,103.2 3,134.4 3,137.8 3,143.8 6.0

Nursing care facilities

1,653.5 1,665.3 1,661.8 1,664.2 1,652.9 1,659.1 1,660.9 1,663.4 2.5

Social assistance(1)

2,598.8 2,595.4 2,647.8 2,677.0 2,589.0 2,647.4 2,657.2 2,667.1 9.9

Child day care services

866.2 816.4 866.7 879.3 855.0 865.3 867.4 869.2 1.8

Leisure and hospitality

13,003 13,768 13,390 13,134 13,045 13,135 13,174 13,169 -5

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,863.3 2,170.7 2,006.3 1,854.8 1,904.7 1,904.6 1,920.3 1,894.3 -26.0

Performing arts and spectator sports

396.7 448.3 449.0 413.3 400.0 415.3 421.5 408.0 -13.5

Museums, historical sites, zoos, and parks

131.0 140.4 131.0 125.8 130.5 128.3 128.0 125.6 -2.4

Amusements, gambling, and recreation

1,335.6 1,582.0 1,426.3 1,315.7 1,374.2 1,361.0 1,370.8 1,360.7 -10.1

Accommodation and food services

11,139.3 11,597.4 11,383.2 11,279.5 11,140.3 11,230.2 11,254.1 11,275.1 21.0

Accommodation

1,737.3 1,909.3 1,799.4 1,751.0 1,741.3 1,774.3 1,763.9 1,760.5 -3.4

Food services and drinking places

9,402.0 9,688.1 9,583.8 9,528.5 9,399.0 9,455.9 9,490.2 9,514.6 24.4

Other services

5,326 5,408 5,363 5,400 5,327 5,363 5,377 5,402 25

Repair and maintenance

1,143.5 1,158.7 1,156.0 1,159.8 1,138.2 1,151.8 1,154.5 1,159.3 4.8

Personal and laundry services

1,270.0 1,273.4 1,268.8 1,279.7 1,269.7 1,267.8 1,272.0 1,283.1 11.1

Membership associations and organizations

2,912.4 2,975.8 2,938.3 2,960.9 2,918.8 2,943.0 2,950.9 2,959.9 9.0

Government

22,893 21,218 22,062 22,572 22,518 22,396 22,248 22,240 -8

Federal

2,846.0 2,939.0 2,853.0 2,849.0 2,836.0 2,919.0 2,844.0 2,843.0 -1.0

Federal, except U.S. Postal Service

2,150.3 2,290.4 2,206.8 2,199.0 2,147.4 2,268.6 2,195.8 2,198.1 2.3

U.S. Postal Service

695.5 648.2 646.5 650.4 688.6 650.6 648.3 644.7 -3.6

State government

5,331.0 4,884.0 5,178.0 5,309.0 5,182.0 5,158.0 5,164.0 5,164.0 0.0

State government education

2,539.2 2,106.9 2,427.1 2,564.5 2,378.5 2,403.2 2,411.0 2,412.9 1.9

State government, excluding education

2,791.4 2,777.2 2,751.2 2,744.6 2,803.4 2,754.8 2,752.7 2,751.2 -1.5

Local government

14,716.0 13,395.0 14,031.0 14,414.0 14,500.0 14,319.0 14,240.0 14,233.0 -7.0

Local government education

8,300.4 6,846.1 7,684.4 8,122.6 8,041.0 7,945.8 7,889.3 7,897.1 7.8

Local government, excluding education

6,415.5 6,549.3 6,346.2 6,291.8 6,459.0 6,373.2 6,350.4 6,336.2 -14.2

Footnotes
(1) Includes other industries, not shown separately.
(2) Includes motor vehicles, motor vehicle bodies and trailers, and motor vehicle parts.
(3) Includes ambulatory health care services, hospitals, and nursing and residential care facilities.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-2. Average weekly hours and overtime of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Oct.
2009
Aug.
2010
Sept.
2010(p)
Oct.
2010(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.7 34.3 34.2 34.3

Goods-producing

38.4 39.6 39.6 39.7

Mining and logging

41.6 43.7 43.7 43.7

Construction

36.7 37.7 37.8 37.9

Manufacturing

39.1 40.2 40.2 40.3

Durable goods

39.2 40.4 40.4 40.6

Nondurable goods

39.0 39.8 39.8 40.0

Private service-providing

32.8 33.2 33.1 33.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

34.1 34.3 34.2 34.5

Wholesale trade

37.7 38.4 38.5 38.6

Retail trade

31.3 31.2 31.1 31.3

Transportation and warehousing

38.1 38.5 38.4 38.8

Utilities

40.9 41.5 41.2 42.0

Information

36.6 36.7 36.8 36.8

Financial activities

36.6 37.0 37.1 37.0

Professional and business services

34.9 35.6 35.6 35.8

Education and health services

32.7 33.0 32.9 33.0

Leisure and hospitality

25.4 25.9 25.8 25.9

Other services

31.3 32.0 32.0 31.9

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

2.5 3.0 3.0 3.0

Durable goods

2.3 2.9 2.9 2.9

Nondurable goods

2.8 3.1 3.2 3.2

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-3. Average hourly and weekly earnings of all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Oct.
2009
Aug.
2010
Sept.
2010(p)
Oct.
2010(p)
Oct.
2009
Aug.
2010
Sept.
2010(p)
Oct.
2010(p)

Total private

$22.35 $22.65 $22.68 $22.73 $753.20 $776.90 $775.66 $779.64

Goods-producing

23.91 24.13 24.14 24.20 918.14 955.55 955.94 960.74

Mining and logging

27.38 27.67 27.98 27.99 1,139.01 1,209.18 1,222.73 1,223.16

Construction

25.08 25.22 25.21 25.26 920.44 950.79 952.94 957.35

Manufacturing

23.15 23.39 23.39 23.45 905.17 940.28 940.28 945.04

Durable goods

24.70 24.85 24.85 24.89 968.24 1,003.94 1,003.94 1,010.53

Nondurable goods

20.71 21.02 21.02 21.11 807.69 836.60 836.60 844.40

Private service-providing

21.99 22.30 22.33 22.38 721.27 740.36 739.12 745.25

Trade, transportation, and utilities

19.50 19.81 19.84 19.85 664.95 679.48 678.53 684.83

Wholesale trade

25.84 26.27 26.30 26.34 974.17 1,008.77 1,012.55 1,016.72

Retail trade

15.46 15.62 15.63 15.65 483.90 487.34 486.09 489.85

Transportation and warehousing

20.58 21.02 21.11 21.05 784.10 809.27 810.62 816.74

Utilities

33.07 33.07 33.03 33.18 1,352.56 1,372.41 1,360.84 1,393.56

Information

29.70 30.76 30.98 31.14 1,087.02 1,128.89 1,140.06 1,145.95

Financial activities

26.69 27.21 27.21 27.29 976.85 1,006.77 1,009.49 1,009.73

Professional and business services

27.13 27.35 27.37 27.40 946.84 973.66 974.37 980.92

Education and health services

22.52 22.98 22.97 23.06 736.40 758.34 755.71 760.98

Leisure and hospitality

13.10 13.09 13.09 13.14 332.74 339.03 337.72 340.33

Other services

19.95 19.83 19.91 20.03 624.44 634.56 637.12 638.96

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-4. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
[2007=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(1) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(2)
Oct.
2009
Aug.
2010
Sept.
2010(p)
Oct.
2010(p)
Percent change from:
Sept. 2010- Oct. 2010(p)
Oct.
2009
Aug.
2010
Sept.
2010(p)
Oct.
2010(p)
Percent change from:
Sept. 2010 - Oct. 2010(p)

Total private

90.5 92.8 92.6 93.0 0.4 96.4 100.2 100.2 100.8 0.6

Goods-producing

78.7 81.4 81.4 81.6 0.2 85.1 88.8 88.8 89.3 0.6

Mining and logging

87.4 101.9 102.7 103.7 1.0 96.1 113.2 115.4 116.5 1.0

Construction

72.7 73.1 73.2 73.5 0.4 79.2 80.1 80.2 80.6 0.5

Manufacturing

81.4 84.5 84.4 84.6 0.2 87.7 91.9 91.8 92.3 0.5

Durable goods

78.0 81.7 81.7 82.1 0.5 85.6 90.1 90.2 90.8 0.7

Nondurable goods

87.7 89.4 89.2 89.6 0.4 92.2 95.3 95.1 95.9 0.8

Private service-providing

93.9 95.9 95.7 96.4 0.7 100.0 103.6 103.5 104.6 1.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities

91.4 92.4 92.2 93.1 1.0 96.0 98.5 98.5 99.5 1.0

Wholesale trade

91.7 93.6 94.0 94.3 0.3 98.9 102.7 103.1 103.7 0.6

Retail trade

91.3 91.5 91.3 92.1 0.9 93.3 94.5 94.4 95.3 1.0

Transportation and warehousing

90.9 92.3 92.3 93.3 1.1 94.9 98.4 98.9 99.7 0.8

Utilities

99.3 99.3 98.2 100.4 2.2 108.4 108.5 107.1 110.1 2.8

Information

92.7 91.3 91.3 91.2 -0.1 98.1 100.0 100.7 101.2 0.5

Financial activities

92.4 92.4 92.6 92.4 -0.2 96.3 98.1 98.4 98.4 0.0

Professional and business services

89.8 93.7 93.8 94.6 0.9 98.7 103.8 104.0 105.0 1.0

Education and health services

102.6 105.3 105.1 105.7 0.6 108.3 113.3 113.1 114.2 1.0

Leisure and hospitality

94.5 97.1 97.0 97.3 0.3 99.9 102.5 102.4 103.2 0.8

Other services

92.4 95.1 95.3 95.5 0.2 104.6 107.0 107.7 108.5 0.7

Footnotes
(1) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2007 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-5. Employment of women on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted
Industry Women employees (in thousands) Percent of all employees
Oct.
2009
Aug.
2010
Sept.
2010(p)
Oct.
2010(p)
Oct.
2009
Aug.
2010
Sept.
2010(p)
Oct.
2010(p)

Total nonfarm

64,760 64,714 64,642 64,688 50.0 49.6 49.6 49.6

Total private

51,909 51,965 52,005 52,076 48.5 48.1 48.1 48.1

Goods-producing

4,186 4,140 4,128 4,112 23.3 22.9 22.9 22.8

Mining and logging

98 103 104 103 14.6 13.9 13.9 13.6

Construction

775 732 728 726 13.5 13.0 13.0 12.9

Manufacturing

3,313 3,305 3,296 3,283 28.6 28.3 28.2 28.1

Durable goods

1,756 1,748 1,742 1,730 24.8 24.3 24.2 24.1

Nondurable goods

1,557 1,557 1,554 1,553 34.5 34.6 34.6 34.6

Private service-providing

47,723 47,825 47,877 47,964 53.5 53.2 53.2 53.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities

10,092 10,031 10,034 10,052 40.9 40.5 40.4 40.5

Wholesale trade

1,689.8 1,680.2 1,682.4 1,686.0 30.3 30.1 30.1 30.1

Retail trade

7,263.5 7,216.0 7,217.2 7,232.7 50.6 49.9 49.9 49.9

Transportation and warehousing

997.1 1,001.8 1,001.7 1,001.0 23.9 23.9 23.8 23.8

Utilities

141.2 133.2 132.3 132.0 25.2 24.1 24.0 23.9

Information

1,147 1,110 1,104 1,104 41.3 40.7 40.6 40.7

Financial activities

4,551 4,459 4,452 4,444 59.4 58.8 58.8 58.7

Professional and business services

7,368 7,419 7,445 7,465 45.0 44.3 44.5 44.4

Education and health services

14,922 15,116 15,134 15,176 77.4 77.1 77.1 77.1

Leisure and hospitality

6,840 6,868 6,878 6,880 52.4 52.3 52.2 52.2

Other services

2,803 2,822 2,830 2,843 52.6 52.6 52.6 52.6

Government

12,851 12,749 12,637 12,612 57.1 56.9 56.8 56.7

Footnotes
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-6. Employment of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[In thousands]
Industry Oct.
2009
Aug.
2010
Sept.
2010(p)
Oct.
2010(p)

Total private

88,194 88,955 89,057 89,193

Goods-producing

12,948 12,980 12,986 13,002

Mining and logging

486 555 557 564

Construction

4,338 4,238 4,250 4,265

Manufacturing

8,124 8,187 8,179 8,173

Durable goods

4,833 4,916 4,918 4,915

Nondurable goods

3,291 3,271 3,261 3,258

Private service-providing

75,246 75,975 76,071 76,191

Trade, transportation, and utilities

20,869 20,974 20,989 21,025

Wholesale trade

4,484.3 4,481.3 4,481.3 4,486.1

Retail trade

12,313.9 12,432.1 12,446.7 12,482.7

Transportation and warehousing

3,622.3 3,622.0 3,625.3 3,618.6

Utilities

448.5 438.4 436.1 437.3

Information

2,213 2,188 2,185 2,189

Financial activities

5,926 5,839 5,835 5,812

Professional and business services

13,336 13,716 13,735 13,765

Education and health services

16,924 17,183 17,199 17,251

Leisure and hospitality

11,521 11,583 11,626 11,620

Other services

4,457 4,492 4,502 4,529

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-7. Average weekly hours and overtime of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Oct.
2009
Aug.
2010
Sept.
2010(p)
Oct.
2010(p)

AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS

Total private

33.0 33.5 33.5 33.6

Goods-producing

39.1 40.5 40.6 40.6

Mining and logging

42.8 45.5 44.5 44.3

Construction

36.9 38.6 39.0 38.8

Manufacturing

40.0 41.1 41.2 41.3

Durable goods

40.1 41.3 41.4 41.4

Nondurable goods

40.0 40.9 41.0 41.0

Private service-providing

32.0 32.3 32.3 32.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

32.9 33.5 33.4 33.5

Wholesale trade

37.4 38.1 38.2 38.2

Retail trade

29.9 30.3 30.1 30.2

Transportation and warehousing

36.3 37.5 37.6 37.7

Utilities

41.7 42.3 41.8 42.9

Information

36.4 36.4 36.2 36.3

Financial activities

36.0 36.4 36.2 36.2

Professional and business services

34.6 35.1 35.2 35.3

Education and health services

32.2 32.2 32.2 32.3

Leisure and hospitality

24.6 24.8 24.8 24.9

Other services

30.5 30.9 30.9 30.9

AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS

Manufacturing

3.2 3.8 3.9 3.9

Durable goods

3.0 3.8 3.9 3.9

Nondurable goods

3.4 3.9 3.9 4.0

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-8. Average hourly and weekly earnings of production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
Industry Average hourly earnings Average weekly earnings
Oct.
2009
Aug.
2010
Sept.
2010(p)
Oct.
2010(p)
Oct.
2009
Aug.
2010
Sept.
2010(p)
Oct.
2010(p)

Total private

$18.78 $19.09 $19.10 $19.17 $619.74 $639.52 $639.85 $644.11

Goods-producing

20.04 20.31 20.34 20.39 783.56 822.56 825.80 827.83

Mining and logging

23.45 23.86 24.14 23.92 1,003.66 1,085.63 1,074.23 1,059.66

Construction

22.91 23.28 23.22 23.35 845.38 898.61 905.58 905.98

Manufacturing

18.41 18.59 18.64 18.68 736.40 764.05 767.97 771.48

Durable goods

19.55 19.73 19.81 19.84 783.96 814.85 820.13 821.38

Nondurable goods

16.72 16.87 16.87 16.91 668.80 689.98 691.67 693.31

Private service-providing

18.51 18.83 18.83 18.91 592.32 608.21 608.21 612.68

Trade, transportation, and utilities

16.59 16.88 16.94 17.02 545.81 565.48 565.80 570.17

Wholesale trade

21.08 21.56 21.68 21.84 788.39 821.44 828.18 834.29

Retail trade

13.05 13.26 13.30 13.35 390.20 401.78 400.33 403.17

Transportation and warehousing

18.91 19.20 19.20 19.21 686.43 720.00 721.92 724.22

Utilities

29.69 30.50 30.51 30.66 1,238.07 1,290.15 1,275.32 1,315.31

Information

25.69 25.89 25.96 26.02 935.12 942.40 939.75 944.53

Financial activities

21.03 21.48 21.36 21.51 757.08 781.87 773.23 778.66

Professional and business services

22.52 22.92 22.93 22.99 779.19 804.49 807.14 811.55

Education and health services

19.70 20.08 20.10 20.18 634.34 646.58 647.22 651.81

Leisure and hospitality

11.23 11.34 11.26 11.31 276.26 281.23 279.25 281.62

Other services

16.78 16.82 16.86 16.91 511.79 519.74 520.97 522.52

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(p) Preliminary


ESTABLISHMENT DATA
Table B-9. Indexes of aggregate weekly hours and payrolls for production and nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls by industry sector, seasonally adjusted(1)
[2002=100]
Industry Index of aggregate weekly hours(2) Index of aggregate weekly payrolls(3)
Oct.
2009
Aug.
2010
Sept.
2010(p)
Oct.
2010(p)
Percent change from:
Sept.
2010 - Oct.
2010(p)
Oct.
2009
Aug.
2010
Sept.
2010(p)
Oct.
2010(p)
Percent change from:
Sept.
2010 - Oct.
2010(p)

Total private

97.2 99.6 99.7 100.1 0.4 122.0 127.0 127.2 128.3 0.9

Goods-producing

77.4 80.3 80.6 80.7 0.1 94.9 99.9 100.4 100.7 0.3

Mining and logging

110.5 134.2 131.7 132.8 0.8 150.8 186.2 184.9 184.7 -0.1

Construction

80.1 81.9 83.0 82.9 -0.1 99.1 103.0 104.1 104.5 0.4

Manufacturing

74.6 77.2 77.3 77.5 0.3 89.8 93.9 94.3 94.6 0.3

Durable goods

72.8 76.3 76.5 76.4 -0.1 88.9 94.0 94.6 94.7 0.1

Nondurable goods

77.6 78.8 78.8 78.7 -0.1 91.6 94.0 93.9 94.0 0.1

Private service-providing

103.0 104.9 105.1 105.6 0.5 130.7 135.5 135.6 136.9 1.0

Trade, transportation, and utilities

95.7 98.0 97.7 98.2 0.5 113.3 117.9 118.1 119.2 0.9

Wholesale trade

98.8 100.5 100.8 100.9 0.1 122.6 127.7 128.7 129.8 0.9

Retail trade

93.2 95.4 94.8 95.4 0.6 104.2 108.4 108.1 109.2 1.0

Transportation and warehousing

99.0 102.2 102.6 102.7 0.1 118.7 124.5 125.0 125.1 0.1

Utilities

95.7 94.9 93.2 96.0 3.0 118.5 120.8 118.7 122.8 3.5

Information

92.0 90.9 90.3 90.7 0.4 117.0 116.5 116.0 116.9 0.8

Financial activities

102.1 101.7 101.1 100.7 -0.4 132.7 135.1 133.5 133.9 0.3

Professional and business services

103.4 107.9 108.4 108.9 0.5 138.6 147.1 147.8 149.0 0.8

Education and health services

117.6 119.4 119.5 120.2 0.6 152.2 157.6 157.9 159.5 1.0

Leisure and hospitality

103.9 105.3 105.7 106.1 0.4 132.5 135.6 135.1 136.2 0.8

Other services

95.4 97.4 97.6 98.2 0.6 116.6 119.3 119.9 121.0 0.9

Footnotes
(1) Data relate to production employees in mining and logging and manufacturing, construction employees in construction, and nonsupervisory employees in the service-providing industries. These groups account for approximately four-fifths of the total employment on private nonfarm payrolls.
(2) The indexes of aggregate weekly hours are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate hours by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate hours. Aggregate hours estimates are the product of estimates of average weekly hours and employment.
(3) The indexes of aggregate weekly payrolls are calculated by dividing the current month's estimates of aggregate weekly payrolls by the corresponding 2002 annual average aggregate weekly payrolls. Aggregate payrolls estimates are the product of estimates of average hourly earnings, average weekly hours, and employment.
(p) Preliminary


Last Modified Date: November 05, 2010
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