Economic News Release

Employment Characteristics of Families News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Thursday, March 24, 2011                  USDL-11-0396

Technical information:  (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


                 EMPLOYMENT CHARACTERISTICS OF FAMILIES--2010


In 2010, 12.4 percent of families included an unemployed person, up from 12.0 
percent in 2009, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. The proportion 
of families with an unemployed member in 2010 was at its highest level since the 
data series began in 1994. Of the nation's 78.2 million families, 80.0 percent had 
at least one employed member in 2010, down from 80.4 percent in 2009.

These data on employment, unemployment, and family relationships are collected as 
part of the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly sample survey of approximately
60,000 households. Families are classified either as married-couple families or as
families maintained by women or men without spouses. For further information about
the CPS, see the Technical Note.

Families and Unemployment

The number of families with at least one unemployed member edged up to 9.7 million
in 2010. The proportion of families with an unemployed member was 12.4 percent 
in 2010, up from 12.0 percent in 2009 and nearly double the 6.3 percent in 2007.
(The most recent recession began in December 2007 and ended in June 2009 according
to the National Bureau of Economic Research.) In 2010, black and Hispanic families
remained more likely to have an unemployed member (19.2 and 17.4 percent, respectively)
than white and Asian families (11.3 percent each). (See table 1.)

Most families with an unemployed member also have at least one family member who is
employed. Among families with an unemployed member in 2010, 67.7 percent also had an
employed member, down from 68.6 percent in 2009 and 71.2 percent in 2007.
(See table 1.)

Among married-couple families with an unemployed member in 2010, 79.4 percent 
contained at least one employed member. Among families maintained by men (no spouse
present) with an unemployed member, 53.3 percent had an employed member in 2010; for
families maintained by women (no spouse present), the proportion was 44.7 percent. 
These proportions were little changed from 2009 for the three family types. (See 
table 3.)

Families and Employment

The share of families with an employed member fell from 80.4 percent in 2009 to 
80.0 percent in 2010. In 2007, 82.6 percent of families had an employed member.
The likelihood of having an employed family member declined from 2009 to 2010 for
white and Asian families to 80.3 and 87.3 percent, respectively, and edged lower
for black families to 74.8 percent. There was little change in the likelihood of
employment among Hispanic families (84.2 percent). (See table 1.)

In 2010, families maintained by women with no spouse present remained less likely
to have an employed member (71.9 percent) than married-couple families (82.1 percent)
or families maintained by men with no spouse present (79.3 percent). For all three
family types, the likelihood of having an employed member has fallen since 2007. 
(See table 2.)

Both the husband and wife were employed in 47.8 percent of married-couple families
in 2010, compared with 48.5 percent in 2009. The husband was the only worker in
19.7 percent of married-couple families in 2010, and the wife was the only worker
in 8.6 percent. Both measures were little changed over the year. (See table 2.)

Families with Children

Forty-four percent of all families included children (sons, daughters, stepchildren,
and adopted children) under age 18. Among the 34.5 million families with children,
87.4 percent had an employed parent in 2010, down from 87.8 percent in 2009. The
2010 proportion is the lowest since the data series began in 1994. The mother was
employed in 67.0 percent of families maintained by women with no spouse present in
2010, down from 67.8 percent in 2009. The father was employed in 75.8 percent of
families maintained by men with no spouse present in 2010, little changed over the
year. Among married-couple families with children, 95.7 percent had an employed
parent in 2010, unchanged from the prior year. The share of married-couple families
where both parents worked fell to 58.1 percent in 2010 from 58.9 percent in 2009.
(See table 4.)

Mothers

The labor force participation rate--the percent of the population working or looking
for work--for all mothers with children under 18 was 70.8 percent in 2010, down from
71.4 percent in 2009. In 2010, the participation rate for married mothers with a 
spouse present (68.9 percent) remained lower than the rate for mothers with other
marital statuses (75.0 percent). Married mothers were about as likely to be employed
as mothers with other marital statuses in 2010, but their unemployment rate was
substantially lower--6.3 percent, compared with 14.6 percent for mothers with other
marital statuses. Unemployment rates increased from 2009 to 2010 for mothers of all
marital statuses. (See table 5.)

Mothers with younger children are less likely to be in the labor force than mothers 
with older children. In 2010, the labor force participation rate of mothers with 
children under 6 years old (63.9 percent) was lower than the rate of those whose 
youngest child was 6 to 17 years old (76.5 percent). The participation rate of mothers
with infants under a year old was 56.5 percent. Among mothers with infants, there was
little difference in the participation rate of married mothers (56.3 percent) and 
those with other marital statuses (57.0 percent). However, the unemployment rate for
married mothers of infants, at 7.1 percent, was significantly lower than the rate for
mothers with other marital statuses (22.5 percent). (See tables 5 and 6.)




Technical Note


   The estimates in this release are based on annual average data from the
Current Population Survey (CPS), a national sample survey of about 60,000
households conducted monthly for the Bureau of Labor Statistics by the U.S.
Census Bureau. The information relates to the labor force status of persons
16 years old and over in the civilian noninstitutional population during an
"average" week of the year.

   The data for 2010 presented in this release are not strictly comparable with
data for 2009 and earlier years because of the introduction in January 2010 of
revised population controls used in the CPS. The effect of the revised popula-
tion controls on the family estimates is unknown. However, the effect of the
new controls on the monthly CPS estimates was to decrease the December 2009 em-
ployment level by 243,000 and the unemployment level by 5,000. The updated
controls had little or no effect on unemployment rates and other ratios. Addi-
tional information is available on the BLS Web site at
www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#pop.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request:  Voice phone:  (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay
Service: (800) 877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling
error. When a sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there
is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the "true" population
values they represent. The exact difference, or sampling error, varies de-
pending on the particular sample selected, and this variability is measured
by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-percent chance,
or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the "true" population value because
of sampling error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent
level of confidence.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error
can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of
the population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the
sample, inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct 
information, and errors made in the collection or processing of the data.

   A full discussion of the reliability of data from the CPS and information
on estimating standard errors is available on the BLS Web site at 
wwww.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability.
Definitions

   Definitions of the principal terms used in this release are presented below.

   Family. A family is a group of two or more persons residing together who
are related by birth, marriage, or adoption. The count of families is for 
"primary" families only, that is, the householder and all other persons re-
lated to and residing with the householder. Families are classified either
as married-couple families or as families maintained by women or men without
spouses.

   Householder. The householder is the family reference person. This is
the person (or one of the persons) in whose name the housing unit is owned
or rented. The relationship of other individuals in the household is defined
in terms of relationship to the householder. The race or ethnicity of the
family is determined by that of the householder.

   Married, spouse present; other marital status. These terms denote the
marital status of individuals at the time of interview. Married, spouse
present, refers to husbands and wives living together in the same house-
hold, even though one may be temporarily absent on business, on vacation,
on a visit, in a hospital, or for other reasons. Other marital status
includes persons who are never-married; married, spouse absent; separated;
widowed; or divorced. Separated includes persons with legal separations, 
those living apart with intentions of obtaining a divorce, and other people 
living apart because either the husband or wife was employed and living at 
a considerable distance from home, was serving away from home in the Armed
Forces, had moved to another area, or had a different place of residence
for any other reason except separation as defined above.

   Children. Data on children refer to own children and include sons,
daughters, step-children, and adopted children, of the husband, wife, or
person maintaining the family. Not included are nieces, nephews, grand-
children, other related children, and all unrelated children living in
the household.

   Employed. Employed persons are (a) all those who, during the survey
reference week, did any work at all as paid employees, worked in their own
business, profession, or on their own farm, or who worked 15 hours or more
as unpaid workers in a family-operated enterprise; and (b) all those who
did not work but had jobs or businesses from which they were temporarily
absent due to illness, bad weather, vacation, child-care problems, labor
disputes, or personal reasons, whether or not they were paid for the time
off and whether or not they were seeking other jobs.

   Unemployed. The unemployed are persons who had no employment during the
reference week, were available for work at that time, and had made specific
efforts to find employment sometime during the 4-week period ending with
the reference week. Persons who were waiting to be recalled to a job from
which they had been laid off need not be looking for work to be classified
as unemployed.

   Civilian labor force. The civilian labor force comprises all persons
classified as employed or unemployed.

   Unemployment rate. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a
percent of the civilian labor force.

   Labor force participation rate. The labor force participation rate is
the labor force as a percent of the population.






Table 1.  Employment and unemployment in families by race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2009-10
annual averages

(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                        
                                                                                                        
                            Characteristic                                    2009             2010     
                                                                                                        
                                                                                                        
                                TOTAL                                                                   
                                                                                                        
  Total families......................................................       78,361           78,246    
                                                                                                        
    With employed member(s) ..........................................       63,010           62,560    
          As percent of total families................................         80.4             80.0    
             Some usually work full time (1) .........................       57,037           56,471    
    With no employed member ..........................................       15,351           15,686    
          As percent of total families................................         19.6             20.0    
                                                                                                        
    With unemployed member(s) ........................................        9,381            9,695    
          As percent of total families................................         12.0             12.4    
      Some member(s) employed ........................................        6,438            6,566    
             As percent of families with unemployed member(s) ........         68.6             67.7    
        Some usually work full time (1) ..............................        5,460            5,572    
                As percent of families with unemployed member(s) .....         58.2             57.5    
                                                                                                        
                                White                                                                   
                                                                                                        
  Total families......................................................       63,774           63,551    
                                                                                                        
    With employed member(s) ..........................................       51,494           51,048    
          As percent of total families................................         80.7             80.3    
             Some usually work full time (1) .........................       46,629           46,150    
    With no employed member ..........................................       12,280           12,502    
          As percent of total families................................         19.3             19.7    
                                                                                                        
    With unemployed member(s) ........................................        7,089            7,202    
          As percent of total families................................         11.1             11.3    
      Some member(s) employed ........................................        5,072            5,069    
             As percent of families with unemployed member(s) ........         71.5             70.4    
        Some usually work full time (1) ..............................        4,294            4,289    
                As percent of families with unemployed member(s) .....         60.6             59.6    
                                                                                                        
                      Black or African American                                                         
                                                                                                        
  Total families......................................................        9,318            9,404    
                                                                                                        
    With employed member(s) ..........................................        7,022            7,030    
          As percent of total families................................         75.4             74.8    
             Some usually work full time (1) .........................        6,265            6,222    
    With no employed member ..........................................        2,296            2,374    
          As percent of total families................................         24.6             25.2    
                                                                                                        
    With unemployed member(s) ........................................        1,624            1,807    
          As percent of total families................................         17.4             19.2    
      Some member(s) employed ........................................          886            1,009    
             As percent of families with unemployed member(s) ........         54.5             55.8    
        Some usually work full time (1) ..............................          748              862    
                As percent of families with unemployed member(s) .....         46.0             47.7    
                                                                                                        
                                Asian                                                                   
                                                                                                        
  Total families......................................................        3,471            3,531    
                                                                                                        
    With employed member(s) ..........................................        3,057            3,081    
          As percent of total families................................         88.1             87.3    
             Some usually work full time (1) .........................        2,857            2,863    
    With no employed member ..........................................          414              450    
          As percent of total families................................         11.9             12.7    
                                                                                                        
    With unemployed member(s) ........................................          394              400    
          As percent of total families................................         11.4             11.3    
      Some member(s) employed ........................................          306              308    
             As percent of families with unemployed member(s) ........         77.8             76.8    
        Some usually work full time (1) ..............................          272              267    
                As percent of families with unemployed member(s) .....         69.0             66.7    
                                                                                                        
                    Hispanic or Latino ethnicity                                                        
                                                                                                        
  Total families......................................................       10,489           10,561    
                                                                                                        
    With employed member(s)...........................................        8,852            8,897    
          As percent of total families................................         84.4             84.2    
             Some usually work full time (1) .........................        7,923            7,934    
    With no employed member ..........................................        1,637            1,664    
          As percent of total families................................         15.6             15.8    
                                                                                                        
    With unemployed member(s) ........................................        1,770            1,841    
          As percent of total families................................         16.9             17.4    
      Some member(s) employed ........................................        1,228            1,262    
             As percent of families with unemployed member(s) ........         69.3             68.6    
        Some usually work full time (1) ..............................        1,021            1,060    
                As percent of families with unemployed member(s) .....         57.7             57.6    

   1 Usually work 35 hours or more a week at all jobs.
   NOTE: The race or ethnicity of the family is determined by that of the householder. Estimates for
the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data
are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of
any race. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.




Table 2. Families by presence and relationship of employed members and family type, 2009-10 annual averages

(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                   
                                                                    Number                Percent distribution     
                    Characteristic                                                                                 
                                                                                                                   
                                                              2009           2010         2009           2010      
                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                   
               MARRIED-COUPLE FAMILIES                                                                             
                                                                                                                   
            Total......................................      58,124         57,524        100.0          100.0     
                                                                                                                   
      Member(s) employed, total........................      47,876         47,238         82.4           82.1     
          Husband only.................................      11,371         11,311         19.6           19.7     
          Wife only....................................       4,909          4,937          8.4            8.6     
          Husband and wife.............................      28,211         27,501         48.5           47.8     
          Other employment combinations................       3,384          3,489          5.8            6.1     
      No member(s) employed............................      10,248         10,286         17.6           17.9     
                                                                                                                   
           FAMILIES MAINTAINED BY WOMEN (1)                                                                        
                                                                                                                   
            Total......................................      14,610         14,913        100.0          100.0     
                                                                                                                   
      Member(s) employed, total........................      10,642         10,715         72.8           71.9     
          Householder only.............................       6,135          6,189         42.0           41.5     
          Householder and other member(s)..............       2,642          2,603         18.1           17.5     
          Other member(s), not householder.............       1,866          1,923         12.8           12.9     
      No member(s) employed............................       3,968          4,198         27.2           28.1     
                                                                                                                   
            FAMILIES MAINTAINED BY MEN (1)                                                                         
                                                                                                                   
            Total......................................       5,627          5,809        100.0          100.0     
                                                                                                                   
      Member(s) employed, total........................       4,492          4,607         79.8           79.3     
          Householder only.............................       2,104          2,215         37.4           38.1     
          Householder and other member(s)..............       1,557          1,525         27.7           26.2     
          Other member(s), not householder.............         831            867         14.8           14.9     
      No member(s) employed............................       1,135          1,202         20.2           20.7     

   1 No spouse present.
   NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding. Updated population controls are introduced annually with
the release of January data.




Table 3.  Unemployment in families by presence and relationship of employed members and family type, 2009-10
annual averages

(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                              
                                                                                                              
                                                               Number                Percent distribution     
                  Characteristic                                                                              
                                                                                                              
                                                         2009           2010         2009           2010      
                                                                                                              
                                                                                                              
             MARRIED-COUPLE FAMILIES                                                                          
                                                                                                              
  With unemployed member(s), total................       6,056          6,147        100.0          100.0     
    No member employed............................       1,218          1,263         20.1           20.6     
    Some member(s) employed.......................       4,838          4,884         79.9           79.4     
                                                                                                              
    Husband unemployed............................       2,808          2,813         46.4           45.8     
     Wife employed................................       1,799          1,783         29.7           29.0     
    Wife unemployed...............................       1,630          1,697         26.9           27.6     
     Husband employed.............................       1,397          1,455         23.1           23.7     
    Other family member unemployed................       1,618          1,637         26.7           26.6     
                                                                                                              
         FAMILIES MAINTAINED BY WOMEN (1)                                                                     
                                                                                                              
  With unemployed member(s), total................       2,309          2,446        100.0          100.0     
    No member employed............................       1,244          1,351         53.9           55.3     
    Some member(s) employed.......................       1,065          1,094         46.1           44.7     
                                                                                                              
    Householder unemployed........................       1,141          1,227         49.4           50.2     
     Other member(s) employed.....................         225            254          9.7           10.4     
    Other member(s) unemployed....................       1,168          1,218         50.6           49.8     
                                                                                                              
          FAMILIES MAINTAINED BY MEN (1)                                                                      
                                                                                                              
  With unemployed member(s), total................       1,016          1,102        100.0          100.0     
    No member employed............................         482            515         47.4           46.7     
    Some member(s) employed.......................         535            587         52.6           53.3     
                                                                                                              
    Householder unemployed........................         626            680         61.6           61.7     
     Other member(s) employed.....................         239            259         23.5           23.5     
    Other member(s) unemployed....................         391            422         38.4           38.3     

   1 No spouse present.
   NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding. Updated population controls are introduced annually
with the release of January data.




Table 4.  Families with own children: Employment status of parents by age of youngest child and family type, 2009-10 annual
averages

(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                           
                                                                       Number                    Percent distribution      
                    Characteristic                                                                                         
                                                                                                                           
                                                               2009             2010            2009             2010      
                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                           
           WITH OWN CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS                                                                                
                                                                                                                           
     Total.............................................       34,762           34,513          100.0            100.0      
  Parent(s) employed...................................       30,521           30,153           87.8             87.4      
  No parent employed...................................        4,241            4,359           12.2             12.6      
                                                                                                                           
  Married-couple families..............................       24,223           23,804          100.0            100.0      
     Parent(s) employed................................       23,179           22,776           95.7             95.7      
      Mother employed..................................       16,055           15,577           66.3             65.4      
       Both parents employed...........................       14,269           13,822           58.9             58.1      
       Mother employed, not father.....................        1,786            1,755            7.4              7.4      
      Father employed, not mother......................        7,124            7,199           29.4             30.2      
     Neither parent employed...........................        1,044            1,028            4.3              4.3      
                                                                                                                           
  Families maintained by women (1) ....................        8,308            8,401          100.0            100.0      
     Mother employed...................................        5,632            5,627           67.8             67.0      
     Mother not employed...............................        2,677            2,774           32.2             33.0      
                                                                                                                           
  Families maintained by men (1) ......................        2,231            2,308          100.0            100.0      
     Father employed...................................        1,710            1,750           76.6             75.8      
     Father not employed...............................          521              557           23.4             24.2      
                                                                                                                           
     WITH OWN CHILDREN 6 TO 17 YEARS, NONE YOUNGER                                                                         
                                                                                                                           
     Total.............................................       19,699           19,480          100.0            100.0      
  Parent(s) employed...................................       17,465           17,224           88.7             88.4      
  No parent employed...................................        2,234            2,257           11.3             11.6      
                                                                                                                           
  Married-couple families..............................       13,449           13,203          100.0            100.0      
     Parent(s) employed................................       12,867           12,650           95.7             95.8      
      Mother employed..................................        9,691            9,333           72.1             70.7      
       Both parents employed...........................        8,582            8,256           63.8             62.5      
       Mother employed, not father.....................        1,109            1,076            8.2              8.2      
      Father employed, not mother......................        3,176            3,318           23.6             25.1      
     Neither parent employed...........................          582              553            4.3              4.2      
                                                                                                                           
  Families maintained by women (1) ....................        4,928            4,987          100.0            100.0      
     Mother employed...................................        3,578            3,594           72.6             72.1      
     Mother not employed...............................        1,350            1,393           27.4             27.9      
                                                                                                                           
  Families maintained by men (1) ......................        1,321            1,290          100.0            100.0      
     Father employed...................................        1,019              979           77.1             75.9      
     Father not employed...............................          302              311           22.9             24.1      
                                                                                                                           
            WITH OWN CHILDREN UNDER 6 YEARS                                                                                
                                                                                                                           
     Total.............................................       15,063           15,032          100.0            100.0      
  Parent(s) employed...................................       13,056           12,930           86.7             86.0      
  No parent employed...................................        2,007            2,103           13.3             14.0      
                                                                                                                           
  Married-couple families..............................       10,774           10,601          100.0            100.0      
     Parent(s) employed................................       10,312           10,125           95.7             95.5      
      Mother employed..................................        6,364            6,244           59.1             58.9      
       Both parents employed...........................        5,688            5,566           52.8             52.5      
       Mother employed, not father.....................          676              678            6.3              6.4      
      Father employed, not mother......................        3,948            3,881           36.6             36.6      
     Neither parent employed...........................          462              475            4.3              4.5      
                                                                                                                           
  Families maintained by women (1) ....................        3,380            3,414          100.0            100.0      
     Mother employed...................................        2,053            2,033           60.8             59.6      
     Mother not employed...............................        1,327            1,381           39.2             40.4      
                                                                                                                           
  Families maintained by men (1) ......................          910            1,018          100.0            100.0      
     Father employed...................................          691              771           75.9             75.8      
     Father not employed...............................          219              247           24.1             24.2      

   1 No spouse present.
   NOTE: Own children include sons, daughters, step-children, and adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews,
grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding. Updated population
controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.




Table 5. Employment status of the population by sex, marital status, and presence and age of own children under 18,
2009-10 annual averages

(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                         
                                                                      2009                             2010              
                    Characteristic                                                                                       
                                                                                                                         
                                                           Total       Men       Women      Total       Men       Women  
                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                         
           WITH OWN CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS                                                                              
                                                                                                                         
  Civilian noninstitutional population.................   64,854     28,778     36,076     64,488     28,463     36,025  
   Civilian labor force................................   52,748     26,985     25,763     52,159     26,661     25,499  
     Participation rate................................     81.3       93.8       71.4       80.9       93.7       70.8  
    Employed...........................................   48,621     24,989     23,632     47,863     24,653     23,210  
     Employment-population ratio.......................     75.0       86.8       65.5       74.2       86.6       64.4  
        Full-time workers (1) .........................   41,003     23,583     17,419     40,282     23,176     17,106  
        Part-time workers (2) .........................    7,618      1,406      6,212      7,581      1,477      6,104  
    Unemployed.........................................    4,128      1,996      2,132      4,296      2,008      2,289  
     Unemployment rate.................................      7.8        7.4        8.3        8.2        7.5        9.0  
                                                                                                                         
                Married, spouse present                                                                                  
                                                                                                                         
  Civilian noninstitutional population.................   51,634     26,249     25,385     50,868     25,820     25,049  
   Civilian labor force................................   42,424     24,763     17,661     41,600     24,332     17,268  
     Participation rate................................     82.2       94.3       69.6       81.8       94.2       68.9  
    Employed...........................................   39,732     23,100     16,632     38,870     22,689     16,181  
     Employment-population ratio.......................     76.9       88.0       65.5       76.4       87.9       64.6  
        Full-time workers (1) .........................   33,846     21,871     11,975     33,142     21,444     11,698  
        Part-time workers (2) .........................    5,886      1,229      4,657      5,728      1,245      4,482  
    Unemployed.........................................    2,692      1,663      1,029      2,730      1,643      1,087  
     Unemployment rate.................................      6.3        6.7        5.8        6.6        6.8        6.3  
                                                                                                                         
               Other marital status (3)                                                                                  
                                                                                                                         
  Civilian noninstitutional population.................   13,221      2,529     10,691     13,620      2,643     10,977  
   Civilian labor force................................   10,325      2,223      8,102     10,559      2,329      8,230  
     Participation rate................................     78.1       87.9       75.8       77.5       88.1       75.0  
    Employed...........................................    8,889      1,889      7,000      8,994      1,964      7,029  
     Employment-population ratio.......................     67.2       74.7       65.5       66.0       74.3       64.0  
        Full-time workers (1) .........................    7,157      1,712      5,445      7,140      1,732      5,408  
        Part-time workers (2) .........................    1,732        177      1,555      1,853        232      1,621  
    Unemployed.........................................    1,436        334      1,103      1,566        365      1,201  
     Unemployment rate.................................     13.9       15.0       13.6       14.8       15.7       14.6  
                                                                                                                         
     WITH OWN CHILDREN 6 TO 17 YEARS, NONE YOUNGER                                                                       
                                                                                                                         
  Civilian noninstitutional population.................   35,885     15,982     19,903     35,402     15,639     19,763  
   Civilian labor force................................   30,200     14,821     15,379     29,625     14,515     15,110  
     Participation rate................................     84.2       92.7       77.3       83.7       92.8       76.5  
    Employed...........................................   28,059     13,775     14,284     27,421     13,482     13,939  
     Employment-population ratio.......................     78.2       86.2       71.8       77.5       86.2       70.5  
        Full-time workers (1) .........................   23,864     13,067     10,798     23,239     12,725     10,514  
        Part-time workers (2) .........................    4,194        708      3,486      4,182        757      3,425  
    Unemployed.........................................    2,141      1,046      1,095      2,204      1,032      1,172  
     Unemployment rate.................................      7.1        7.1        7.1        7.4        7.1        7.8  
                                                                                                                         
            WITH OWN CHILDREN UNDER 6 YEARS                                                                              
                                                                                                                         
  Civilian noninstitutional population.................   28,969     12,796     16,173     29,086     12,824     16,262  
   Civilian labor force................................   22,549     12,164     10,384     22,534     12,146     10,388  
     Participation rate................................     77.8       95.1       64.2       77.5       94.7       63.9  
    Employed...........................................   20,562     11,214      9,348     20,442     11,171      9,271  
     Employment-population ratio.......................     71.0       87.6       57.8       70.3       87.1       57.0  
        Full-time workers (1) .........................   17,138     10,517      6,622     17,043     10,451      6,592  
        Part-time workers (2) .........................    3,424        697      2,726      3,399        720      2,679  
    Unemployed.........................................    1,987        950      1,036      2,092        975      1,117  
     Unemployment rate.................................      8.8        7.8       10.0        9.3        8.0       10.8  
                                                                                                                         
          WITH NO OWN CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS                                                                            
                                                                                                                         
  Civilian noninstitutional population.................  170,947     85,358     85,589    173,342     86,711     86,631  
   Civilian labor force................................  101,394     55,138     46,256    101,729     55,324     46,405  
     Participation rate................................     59.3       64.6       54.0       58.7       63.8       53.6  
    Employed...........................................   91,257     48,681     42,576     91,201     48,706     42,495  
     Employment-population ratio.......................     53.4       57.0       49.7       52.6       56.2       49.1  
        Full-time workers (1) .........................   71,631     40,368     31,263     71,432     40,325     31,108  
        Part-time workers (2) .........................   19,626      8,313     11,313     19,769      8,381     11,387  
    Unemployed.........................................   10,137      6,457      3,680     10,528      6,618      3,910  
     Unemployment rate.................................     10.0       11.7        8.0       10.3       12.0        8.4  

  1 Usually work 35 hours or more a week at all jobs.
  2 Usually work less than 35 hours a week at all jobs.
  3 Includes never married; married, spouse absent; divorced; separated; and widowed persons.
  NOTE: Own children include sons, daughters, step-children, and adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews,
grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding. Updated
population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.




Table 6. Employment status of mothers with own children under 3 years old by single year of age of youngest child and marital
status, 2009-10 annual averages

(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                              
                                                                                Civilian labor force                          
                                                                                                                              
                                             Civilian                                                                         
                                            noninsti-                                 Employed                   Unemployed   
              Characteristic                 tutional           Percent                                                       
                                             popula-              of                                                          
                                              tion     Total    popula-            Percent    Full-    Part-            Percent
                                                                 tion     Total      of       time     time    Number  of labor
                                                                                   popula-    work-    work-            force  
                                                                                    tion     ers (1)  ers (2)                  
                                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                              
                   2009                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                              
              TOTAL MOTHERS                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                              
    With own children under 3 years old...    9,476    5,787     61.1     5,191     54.8     3,626    1,565      595    10.3  
        2 years...........................    2,848    1,855     65.1     1,693     59.4     1,195      498      162     8.7  
        1 year............................    3,398    2,104     61.9     1,880     55.3     1,314      566      224    10.6  
        Under 1 year......................    3,231    1,828     56.6     1,619     50.1     1,117      502      209    11.4  
                                                                                                                              
         Married, spouse present                                                                                              
                                                                                                                              
    With own children under 3 years old...    6,784    4,047     59.7     3,780     55.7     2,657    1,123      267     6.6  
        2 years...........................    2,053    1,288     62.7     1,208     58.8       858      350       80     6.2  
        1 year............................    2,425    1,465     60.4     1,369     56.4       963      406       96     6.6  
        Under 1 year......................    2,306    1,293     56.1     1,204     52.2       836      368       90     7.0  
                                                                                                                              
         Other marital status (3)                                                                                             
                                                                                                                              
    With own children under 3 years old...    2,693    1,740     64.6     1,411     52.4       969      442      328    18.9  
        2 years...........................      795      567     71.3       485     61.0       337      148       82    14.4  
        1 year............................      973      639     65.6       511     52.5       351      160      127    20.0  
        Under 1 year......................      925      534     57.8       415     44.9       281      134      119    22.3  
                                                                                                                              
                   2010                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                              
              TOTAL MOTHERS                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                              
    With own children under 3 years old...    9,503    5,770     60.7     5,114     53.8     3,570    1,543      656    11.4  
        2 years...........................    2,968    1,908     64.3     1,708     57.6     1,200      509      199    10.5  
        1 year............................    3,351    2,062     61.5     1,815     54.2     1,243      572      246    12.0  
        Under 1 year......................    3,184    1,800     56.5     1,590     49.9     1,128      462      210    11.7  
                                                                                                                              
         Married, spouse present                                                                                              
                                                                                                                              
    With own children under 3 years old...    6,642    3,941     59.3     3,670     55.3     2,596    1,074      271     6.9  
        2 years...........................    2,055    1,275     62.1     1,195     58.2       841      354       80     6.3  
        1 year............................    2,344    1,403     59.8     1,301     55.5       896      405      101     7.2  
        Under 1 year......................    2,243    1,263     56.3     1,174     52.3       859      315       89     7.1  
                                                                                                                              
         Other marital status (3)                                                                                             
                                                                                                                              
    With own children under 3 years old...    2,862    1,828     63.9     1,444     50.4       974      470      385    21.0  
        2 years...........................      914      633     69.2       514     56.2       359      155      119    18.8  
        1 year............................    1,007      659     65.5       514     51.1       346      168      145    22.0  
        Under 1 year......................      941      537     57.0       416     44.2       269      147      121    22.5  

   1 Usually work 35 hours or more a week at all jobs.
   2 Usually work less than 35 hours a week at all jobs.
   3 Includes never married; married, spouse absent; divorced; separated; and widowed persons.
   NOTE: Own children include sons, daughters, step-children, and adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews,
grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding. Updated population
controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.




Last Modified Date: March 24, 2011
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