Economic News Release

Employment Characteristics of Families News Release


Technical information:  (202) 691-6378     USDL 09-0568
               http://www.bls.gov/cps/
                                           For release:  10:00 A.M. (EDT)
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902     Wednesday, May 27, 2009


            EMPLOYMENT CHARACTERISTICS OF FAMILIES IN 2008


   The share of families with an unemployed member rose from 6.3 percent
in 2007 to 7.8 percent in 2008, the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U.S.
Department of Labor reported today.  The proportion of families with an
unemployed member in 2008 neared the recent peak of 8.1 percent in 2003.
Of the nation's 77.9 million families, 82.2 percent had at least one em-
ployed member in 2008, down by 0.4 percentage point from 2007.

   These data on employment, unemployment, and family relationships are
collected as part of the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly sam-
ple survey of approximately 60,000 households.  Families include married-
couple families, as well as families maintained by a man or woman with no
spouse present.  For further information about the CPS, see the Technical
Note.

Families and Unemployment

   There were 6.1 million families with at least one unemployed member in
2008, up from 4.9 million in 2007.  The proportion of families with an
unemployed member rose from 6.3 percent in 2007 to 7.8 percent in 2008.
Black and Hispanic families were more likely to have an unemployed member
(12.8 and 11.0 percent, respectively) than were white (7.1 percent) and
Asian (6.3 percent) families.  Unemployment rose over the year among fami-
lies of all types.  (See table 1.)

   Most families with an unemployed member also have at least one family
member who is employed.  Among families with an unemployed member in 2008,
70.8 percent also had an employed member, compared with 71.2 percent in
2007.  Among married-couple families with an unemployed member in 2008,
82.5 percent had an employed member, little changed over the year.  For
families maintained by women (no spouse present) with an unemployed mem-
ber, the proportion that also contained an employed member edged lower
from 50.5 percent in 2007 to 49.1 percent in 2008.  For families main-
tained by men (no spouse present), the proportion fell from 60.7 percent
in 2007 to 57.3 percent in 2008.  (See tables 1 and 3.)

Families and Employment

   The share of families with an employed member was lower in 2008 (82.2
percent) than in 2007 (82.6 percent).  The likelihood of having an em-
ployed family member declined over the year for white, black, and His-
panic families and was little changed for Asian families.  Asian families
remained the most likely to have an employed member (89.7 percent) in 2008,
followed by Hispanic families (87.0 percent), white families (82.3 percent),
and black families (78.4 percent).  (See table 1.)

   In 2008, families maintained by women with no spouse present were less
likely to have an employed member (76.0 percent) than were  married-couple
families (83.5 percent) or families maintained by men (84.4 percent).  The
share of families with an employed member was lower in 2008 than in 2007 for
all family types.  (See table 2.)


                                    - 2 -


   Both the husband and wife were employed in 51.4 percent of married-couple
families in 2008, compared with 51.7 percent in 2007.  Married-couple fami-
lies in which only the wife worked accounted for 6.9 percent of all married-
couple families in 2008, compared with 6.6 percent in 2007.  The husband was
the sole employed member in 19.5 percent of families in 2008, compared with
19.8 percent in 2007.

Families with Children

   Just under half of all families include children (sons, daughters, step-
children, and adopted children) under age 18.  Among the 35.2 million fami-
lies with children, 90.0 percent had an employed parent in 2008, down from
90.7 percent in 2007.  The mother was employed in 71.4 percent of families
maintained by women in 2008, and the father was employed in 82.8 percent
of those maintained by men.  Among married-couple families with children,
97.0 percent had an employed parent in 2008.  Both the mother and father
were employed in 62.1 percent of married-couple families with children.
(See table 4.)

Mothers

   The labor force participation rate--the percent of the population working
or looking for work--for all mothers with children under 18 was 71.4 percent
in 2008, little changed from 71.0 percent in 2007.  In 2008, the participa-
tion rate for married mothers with spouse present (69.5 percent) was lower
than the rate for mothers in other marital statuses (76.0 percent).  Married
mothers were about as likely to be employed as mothers in other marital stat-
uses, but their unemployment rates were lower--3.8 percent of married mothers
were unemployed in 2008, compared with 9.5 percent of mothers with other mari-
tal statuses.  Unemployment rates rose over the year for mothers of all marital
statuses.  (See table 5.)

   Mothers with younger children are less likely to be in the labor force than
mothers with older children.  In 2008, the labor force participation rate of
mothers with children under 6 years old (64.0 percent) was lower than the rate
of those whose youngest child was between 6 and 17 years old (77.3 percent).
The participation rate of mothers with infants under a year old was 56.4 per-
cent.  There was little difference between the participation rates of married
mothers of infants and those with other marital statuses.  However, the unem-
ployment rate for married mothers of infants, at 5.0 percent, was lower than the
rate for mothers with other marital statuses (16.5 percent).  Jobless rates for
all mothers increased in 2008.  (See tables 5 and 6.)







                                   - 3 -


Technical Note

   The estimates in this release are based on annual average data from the
Current Population Survey (CPS), a national sample survey of about 60,000
households conducted monthly for the Bureau of Labor Statistics by the U.S.
Census Bureau.  The information relates to the labor force status of persons
16 years old and over in the civilian noninstitutional population during an
"average" week of the year.

   The data for 2008 presented in this release are not strictly comparable with
data for 2007 and earlier years because of the introduction in January 2008 of
revised population controls used in the CPS.  The effect of the revised popula-
tion controls on the family estimates is unknown.  However, the effect of the
new controls on the monthly CPS estimates was to decrease the December 2007 em-
ployment level by 598,000 and the unemployment level by 40,000.  The updated
controls had little or no effect on unemployment rates and other ratios.  For
additional information, see "Adjustments to Household Survey Population Esti-
mates in January 2008," available on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/cps/
cps08adj.pdf.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request:  Voice phone:  (202) 691-5200; TDD message referral
phone number: 1-800-877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling
error.  When a sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there
is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the "true" population
values they represent.  The exact difference, or sampling error, varies de-
pending on the particular sample selected, and this variability is measured
by the standard error of the estimate.  There is about a 90-percent chance,
or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the "true" population value because
of sampling error.  BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent
level of confidence.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error.  Nonsampling error
can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of
the population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the
sample, inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct 
information, and errors made in the collection or processing of the data.

   For a full discussion of the reliability of data from the CPS and in-
formation on estimating standard errors, see the Household Data Section of
"Explanatory Notes and Estimates of Error" at http://www.bls.gov/cps/eetech_
methods.pdf.


                                  - 4 -


Definitions

   Definitions of the principal terms used in this release are presented below.

   Family.  A family is a group of two or more persons residing together who
are related by birth, marriage, or adoption.  The count of families is for 
"primary" families only, that is, the householder and all other persons re-
lated to and residing with the householder.  Families are classified either
as married-couple families or as families maintained by women or men without
spouses.

   Householder.  The householder is the family reference person.  This is
the person (or one of the persons) in whose name the housing unit is owned
or rented.  The relationship of other individuals in the household is defined
in terms of relationship to the householder.  The race or ethnicity of the
family is determined by that of the householder.

   Married, spouse present; other marital status.  These terms denote the 
marital status of individuals at the time of interview.  Married, spouse
present, refers to husbands and wives living together in the same household,
even though one may be temporarily absent on business, on vacation, on a
visit, in a hospital, or for other reasons.  Other marital status includes 
persons who are never married; married, spouse absent; separated; widowed;
or divorced.  Separated includes persons with legal separations, those living
apart with intentions of obtaining a divorce, and other people permanently or
temporarily separated because of marital discord.  Married, spouse absent,
includes married people living apart because either the husband or wife was
employed and living at a considerable distance from home, was serving away
from home in the Armed Forces, had moved to another area, or had a different
place of residence for any other reason except separation as defined above.


   Children.  Data on children refer to own children and include sons,
daughters, step-children, and adopted children, of the husband, wife, or
person maintaining the family.  Not included are nieces, nephews, grand-
children, other related children, and all unrelated children living in
the household.

   Employed.  Employed persons are (a) all those who, during the survey
reference week, did any work at all as paid employees, worked in their own
business, profession, or on their own farm, or who worked 15 hours or more
as unpaid workers in a family-operated enterprise; and (b) all those who
did not work but had jobs or businesses from which they were temporarily
absent due to illness, bad weather, vacation, child-care problems, labor
disputes, or personal reasons, whether or not they were paid for the time
off and whether or not they were seeking other jobs.

   Unemployed.  The unemployed are persons who had no employment during the
reference week, were available for work at that time, and had made specific
efforts to find employment sometime during the 4-week period ending with
the reference week.  Persons who were waiting to be recalled to a job from
which they had been laid off need not be looking for work to be classified
as unemployed.

   Civilian labor force.  The civilian labor force comprises all persons
classified as employed or unemployed.

   Unemployment rate.  The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a
percent of the civilian labor force.

   Labor force participation rate.  The labor force participation rate is
the labor force as a percent of the population.





Table 1.  Employment and unemployment in families by race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2007-08
annual averages

(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                        
                                                                                                        
                            Characteristic                                   2007             2008      
                                                                                                        
                                                                                                        
                                TOTAL                                                                   
                                                                                                        
  Total families......................................................       77,894           77,943    
                                                                                                        
    With employed member(s)...........................................       64,330           64,058    
          As percent of total families................................         82.6             82.2    
             Some usually work full time (1)..........................       59,616           59,116    
    With no employed member ..........................................       13,564           13,884    
          As percent of total families................................         17.4             17.8    
                                                                                                        
    With unemployed member(s) ........................................        4,914            6,104    
          As percent of total families................................          6.3              7.8    
      Some member(s) employed ........................................        3,497            4,319    
             As percent of families with unemployed member(s).........         71.2             70.8    
        Some usually work full time (1)...............................        3,096            3,830    
                As percent of families with unemployed member(s)......         63.0             62.7    
                                                                                                        
                                White                                                                   
                                                                                                        
  Total families......................................................       63,667           63,490    
                                                                                                        
    With employed member(s)...........................................       52,669           52,273    
          As percent of total families................................         82.7             82.3    
             Some usually work full time (1)..........................       48,879           48,271    
    With no employed member ..........................................       10,997           11,217    
          As percent of total families................................         17.3             17.7    
                                                                                                        
    With unemployed member(s) ........................................        3,587            4,506    
          As percent of total families................................          5.6              7.1    
      Some member(s) employed ........................................        2,653            3,332    
             As percent of families with unemployed member(s).........         73.9             74.0    
        Some usually work full time (1)...............................        2,350            2,955    
                As percent of families with unemployed member(s)......         65.5             65.6    
                                                                                                        
                      Black or African American                                                         
                                                                                                        
  Total families......................................................        9,184            9,297    
                                                                                                        
    With employed member(s)...........................................        7,249            7,290    
          As percent of total families................................         78.9             78.4    
             Some usually work full time (1)..........................        6,608            6,622    
    With no employed member ..........................................        1,935            2,006    
          As percent of total families................................         21.1             21.6    
                                                                                                        
    With unemployed member(s) ........................................          990            1,188    
          As percent of total families................................         10.8             12.8    
      Some member(s) employed ........................................          591              686    
             As percent of families with unemployed member(s).........         59.7             57.8    
        Some usually work full time (1)...............................          519              605    
                As percent of families with unemployed member(s)......         52.4             50.9    
                                                                                                        
                                Asian                                                                   
                                                                                                        
  Total families......................................................        3,320            3,403    
                                                                                                        
    With employed member(s)...........................................        2,974            3,052    
          As percent of total families................................         89.6             89.7    
             Some usually work full time (1)..........................        2,818            2,900    
    With no employed member ..........................................          347              351    
          As percent of total families................................         10.4             10.3    
                                                                                                        
    With unemployed member(s) ........................................          179              215    
          As percent of total families................................          5.4              6.3    
      Some member(s) employed ........................................          144              172    
             As percent of families with unemployed member(s).........         80.5             79.9    
        Some usually work full time (1)...............................          133              158    
                As percent of families with unemployed member(s)......         74.4             73.4    
                                                                                                        
                    Hispanic or Latino ethnicity                                                        
                                                                                                        
  Total families......................................................       10,332           10,500    
                                                                                                        
    With employed member(s)...........................................        9,048            9,135    
          As percent of total families................................         87.6             87.0    
             Some usually work full time (1)..........................        8,492            8,466    
    With no employed member ..........................................        1,285            1,365    
          As percent of total families................................         12.4             13.0    
                                                                                                        
    With unemployed member(s) ........................................          876            1,159    
          As percent of total families................................          8.5             11.0    
      Some member(s) employed ........................................          619              846    
             As percent of families with unemployed member(s).........         70.6             73.0    
        Some usually work full time (1)...............................          554              743    
                As percent of families with unemployed member(s)......         63.2             64.1    

   1 Usually work 35 hours or more a week at all jobs.
   NOTE:  The race or ethnicity of the family is determined by that of the householder.  Estimates for
the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data
are not presented for all races.  Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of
any race.  Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.







Table 2.  Families by presence and relationship of employed members and family type, 2007-08 annual averages

(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                   
                                                                    Number                 Percent distribution    
                    Characteristic                                                                                 
                                                                                                                   
                                                             2007           2008          2007           2008      
                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                   
               MARRIED-COUPLE FAMILIES                                                                             
                                                                                                                   
            Total......................................      58,145         58,125        100.0          100.0     
                                                                                                                   
      Member(s) employed, total........................      48,676         48,541         83.7           83.5     
          Husband only.................................      11,509         11,351         19.8           19.5     
          Wife only....................................       3,858          4,036          6.6            6.9     
          Husband and wife.............................      30,055         29,854         51.7           51.4     
          Other employment combinations................       3,254          3,300          5.6            5.7     
      No member(s) employed  ..........................       9,469          9,585         16.3           16.5     
                                                                                                                   
           FAMILIES MAINTAINED BY WOMEN (1)                                                                        
                                                                                                                   
            Total......................................      14,423         14,383        100.0          100.0     
                                                                                                                   
      Member(s) employed, total........................      11,087         10,929         76.9           76.0     
          Householder only.............................       6,307          6,250         43.7           43.5     
          Householder and other member(s)..............       2,994          2,870         20.8           20.0     
          Other member(s), not householder.............       1,785          1,809         12.4           12.6     
      No member(s) employed  ..........................       3,336          3,454         23.1           24.0     
                                                                                                                   
            FAMILIES MAINTAINED BY MEN (1)                                                                         
                                                                                                                   
            Total......................................       5,327          5,435        100.0          100.0     
                                                                                                                   
      Member(s) employed, total........................       4,568          4,589         85.7           84.4     
          Householder only.............................       2,170          2,178         40.7           40.1     
          Householder and other member(s)..............       1,696          1,659         31.8           30.5     
          Other member(s), not householder.............         701            752         13.2           13.8     
      No member(s) employed  ..........................         759            845         14.3           15.6     

   1 No spouse present.
   NOTE:  Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding.  Updated population controls are introduced annually with
the release of January data.







Table 3.  Unemployment in families by presence and relationship of employed members and family type, 2007-08
annual averages

(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                              
                                                                                                              
                                                               Number                 Percent distribution    
                  Characteristic                                                                              
                                                                                                              
                                                        2007           2008           2007           2008     
                                                                                                              
                                                                                                              
             MARRIED-COUPLE FAMILIES                                                                          
                                                                                                              
  With unemployed member(s), total................       2,978          3,796        100.0          100.0     
      No member employed..........................         512            663         17.2           17.5     
      Some member(s) employed.....................       2,467          3,133         82.8           82.5     
                                                                                                              
      Husband unemployed..........................       1,110          1,439         37.3           37.9     
        Wife employed.............................         725            927         24.3           24.4     
      Wife unemployed.............................         902          1,114         30.3           29.3     
        Husband employed..........................         783            975         26.3           25.7     
      Other family member unemployed..............         966          1,243         32.4           32.7     
                                                                                                              
         FAMILIES MAINTAINED BY WOMEN (1)                                                                     
                                                                                                              
  With unemployed member(s), total................       1,416          1,666        100.0          100.0     
    No member employed............................         701            849         49.5           50.9     
    Some member(s) employed.......................         714            817         50.5           49.1     
                                                                                                              
    Householder unemployed........................         650            796         45.9           47.8     
     Other member(s) employed.....................         144            181         10.2           10.9     
    Other member(s) unemployed....................         766            870         54.1           52.2     
                                                                                                              
          FAMILIES MAINTAINED BY MEN (1)                                                                      
                                                                                                              
  With unemployed member(s), total................         520            642        100.0          100.0     
    No member employed............................         205            274         39.3           42.7     
    Some member(s) employed.......................         316            368         60.7           57.3     
                                                                                                              
    Householder unemployed........................         294            385         56.6           60.0     
     Other member(s) employed.....................         137            164         26.3           25.6     
    Other member(s) unemployed....................         226            257         43.4           40.0     

   1 No spouse present.
   NOTE:  Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding.  Updated population controls are introduced annually
with the release of January data.







Table 4.  Families with own children: Employment status of parents by age of youngest child and family type, 2007-08 annual
averages

(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                           
                                                                      Number                     Percent distribution      
                    Characteristic                                                                                         
                                                                                                                           
                                                              2007             2008             2007             2008      
                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                           
           WITH OWN CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS                                                                                
                                                                                                                           
     Total.............................................       35,856           35,154          100.0            100.0      
  Parent(s) employed...................................       32,538           31,651           90.7             90.0      
  No parent employed...................................        3,318            3,504            9.3             10.0      
                                                                                                                           
  Married-couple families..............................       25,125           24,634          100.0            100.0      
     Parent(s) employed................................       24,459           23,890           97.3             97.0      
      Mother employed..................................       16,855           16,615           67.1             67.4      
       Both parents employed...........................       15,627           15,295           62.2             62.1      
       Mother employed, not father.....................        1,228            1,319            4.9              5.4      
      Father employed, not mother......................        7,604            7,275           30.3             29.5      
     Neither parent employed...........................          666              744            2.7              3.0      
                                                                                                                           
  Families maintained by women (1).....................        8,554            8,338          100.0            100.0      
     Mother employed...................................        6,224            5,954           72.8             71.4      
     Mother not employed...............................        2,330            2,384           27.2             28.6      
                                                                                                                           
  Families maintained by men (1).......................        2,177            2,182          100.0            100.0      
     Father employed...................................        1,855            1,806           85.2             82.8      
     Father not employed...............................          322              376           14.8             17.2      
                                                                                                                           
     WITH OWN CHILDREN 6 TO 17 YEARS, NONE YOUNGER                                                                         
                                                                                                                           
     Total.............................................       20,361           20,062          100.0            100.0      
  Parent(s) employed...................................       18,619           18,212           91.4             90.8      
  No parent employed...................................        1,742            1,851            8.6              9.2      
                                                                                                                           
  Married-couple families..............................       13,823           13,771          100.0            100.0      
     Parent(s) employed................................       13,435           13,351           97.2             96.9      
      Mother employed..................................       10,126           10,139           73.3             73.6      
       Both parents employed...........................        9,341            9,298           67.6             67.5      
       Mother employed, not father.....................          785              841            5.7              6.1      
      Father employed, not mother......................        3,309            3,212           23.9             23.3      
     Neither parent employed...........................          388              420            2.8              3.1      
                                                                                                                           
  Families maintained by women (1).....................        5,224            5,031          100.0            100.0      
     Mother employed...................................        4,070            3,823           77.9             76.0      
     Mother not employed...............................        1,155            1,207           22.1             24.0      
                                                                                                                           
  Families maintained by men (1).......................        1,314            1,260          100.0            100.0      
     Father employed...................................        1,115            1,037           84.9             82.3      
     Father not employed...............................          199              223           15.1             17.7      
                                                                                                                           
            WITH OWN CHILDREN UNDER 6 YEARS                                                                                
                                                                                                                           
     Total.............................................       15,495           15,092          100.0            100.0      
  Parent(s) employed...................................       13,918           13,439           89.8             89.0      
  No parent employed...................................        1,576            1,653           10.2             11.0      
                                                                                                                           
  Married-couple families..............................       11,302           10,863          100.0            100.0      
     Parent(s) employed................................       11,024           10,539           97.5             97.0      
      Mother employed..................................        6,729            6,476           59.5             59.6      
       Both parents employed...........................        6,287            5,998           55.6             55.2      
       Mother employed, not father.....................          442              478            3.9              4.4      
      Father employed, not mother......................        4,295            4,063           38.0             37.4      
     Neither parent employed...........................          278              324            2.5              3.0      
                                                                                                                           
  Families maintained by women (1).....................        3,329            3,307          100.0            100.0      
     Mother employed...................................        2,154            2,131           64.7             64.4      
     Mother not employed...............................        1,175            1,176           35.3             35.6      
                                                                                                                           
  Families maintained by men (1).......................          863              922          100.0            100.0      
     Father employed...................................          740              769           85.7             83.4      
     Father not employed...............................          123              153           14.3             16.6      

   1 No spouse present.
   NOTE:  Own children include sons, daughters, step-children, and adopted children.  Not included are nieces, nephews,
grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children.  Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding.  Updated population
controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.







Table 5.  Employment status of the population by sex, marital status, and presence and age of own children under 18,
2007-08 annual averages

(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                         
                                                                      2007                             2008              
                    Characteristic                                                                                       
                                                                                                                         
                                                          Total       Men       Women      Total       Men       Women   
                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                         
           WITH OWN CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS                                                                              
                                                                                                                         
  Civilian noninstitutional population.................   66,801     29,684     37,117     65,655     29,142     36,513  
   Civilian labor force................................   54,370     28,002     26,368     53,506     27,422     26,085  
     Participation rate................................     81.4       94.3       71.0       81.5       94.1       71.4  
    Employed...........................................   52,373     27,216     25,157     51,017     26,380     24,637  
     Employment-population ratio.......................     78.4       91.7       67.8       77.7       90.5       67.5  
        Full-time workers (1)..........................   45,336     26,282     19,053     43,967     25,338     18,629  
        Part-time workers (2)..........................    7,037        933      6,104      7,050      1,042      6,008  
    Unemployed.........................................    1,998        786      1,211      2,490      1,041      1,448  
     Unemployment rate.................................      3.7        2.8        4.6        4.7        3.8        5.6  
                                                                                                                         
                Married, spouse present                                                                                  
                                                                                                                         
  Civilian noninstitutional population.................   53,432     27,205     26,227     52,433     26,647     25,786  
   Civilian labor force................................   43,824     25,784     18,041     43,137     25,205     17,933  
     Participation rate................................     82.0       94.8       68.8       82.3       94.6       69.5  
    Employed...........................................   42,625     25,134     17,492     41,611     24,353     17,258  
     Employment-population ratio.......................     79.8       92.4       66.7       79.4       91.4       66.9  
        Full-time workers (1)..........................   37,120     24,332     12,788     36,128     23,444     12,685  
        Part-time workers (2)..........................    5,505        802      4,704      5,482        909      4,573  
    Unemployed.........................................    1,199        650        549      1,527        852        675  
     Unemployment rate.................................      2.7        2.5        3.0        3.5        3.4        3.8  
                                                                                                                         
               Other marital status (3)                                                                                  
                                                                                                                         
  Civilian noninstitutional population.................   13,369      2,479     10,890     13,222      2,495     10,727  
   Civilian labor force................................   10,546      2,219      8,328     10,369      2,217      8,152  
     Participation rate................................     78.9       89.5       76.5       78.4       88.9       76.0  
    Employed...........................................    9,747      2,082      7,665      9,406      2,027      7,379  
     Employment-population ratio.......................     72.9       84.0       70.4       71.1       81.3       68.8  
        Full-time workers (1)..........................    8,216      1,950      6,266      7,838      1,894      5,944  
        Part-time workers (2)..........................    1,531        132      1,400      1,568        133      1,435  
    Unemployed.........................................      799        137        662        963        190        773  
     Unemployment rate.................................      7.6        6.2        8.0        9.3        8.6        9.5  
                                                                                                                         
     WITH OWN CHILDREN 6 TO 17 YEARS, NONE YOUNGER                                                                       
                                                                                                                         
  Civilian noninstitutional population.................   36,983     16,384     20,599     36,581     16,256     20,325  
   Civilian labor force................................   31,179     15,269     15,910     30,846     15,128     15,718  
     Participation rate................................     84.3       93.2       77.2       84.3       93.1       77.3  
    Employed...........................................   30,176     14,866     15,310     29,590     14,588     15,003  
     Employment-population ratio.......................     81.6       90.7       74.3       80.9       89.7       73.8  
        Full-time workers (1)..........................   26,288     14,378     11,910     25,733     14,054     11,679  
        Part-time workers (2)..........................    3,888        488      3,400      3,858        534      3,324  
    Unemployed.........................................    1,003        403        600      1,255        541        715  
     Unemployment rate.................................      3.2        2.6        3.8        4.1        3.6        4.5  
                                                                                                                         
            WITH OWN CHILDREN UNDER 6 YEARS                                                                              
                                                                                                                         
  Civilian noninstitutional population.................   29,818     13,299     16,518     29,074     12,886     16,188  
   Civilian labor force................................   23,192     12,733     10,458     22,661     12,293     10,367  
     Participation rate................................     77.8       95.7       63.3       77.9       95.4       64.0  
    Employed...........................................   22,197     12,350      9,847     21,426     11,792      9,634  
     Employment-population ratio.......................     74.4       92.9       59.6       73.7       91.5       59.5  
        Full-time workers (1)..........................   19,048     11,904      7,143     18,234     11,284      6,950  
        Part-time workers (2)..........................    3,149        446      2,704      3,193        508      2,684  
    Unemployed.........................................      995        383        611      1,234        501        733  
     Unemployment rate.................................      4.3        3.0        5.8        5.4        4.1        7.1  
                                                                                                                         
          WITH NO OWN CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS                                                                            
                                                                                                                         
  Civilian noninstitutional population.................  165,066     82,489     82,577    168,133     83,971     84,162  
   Civilian labor force................................   98,754     54,134     44,620    100,780     55,098     45,682  
     Participation rate................................     59.8       65.6       54.0       59.9       65.6       54.3  
    Employed...........................................   93,674     51,039     42,635     94,346     51,106     43,239  
     Employment-population ratio.......................     56.7       61.9       51.6       56.1       60.9       51.4  
        Full-time workers (1)..........................   75,755     43,752     32,003     76,064     43,515     32,549  
        Part-time workers (2)..........................   17,919      7,286     10,632     18,282      7,592     10,690  
    Unemployed.........................................    5,080      3,095      1,984      6,435      3,992      2,443  
     Unemployment rate.................................      5.1        5.7        4.4        6.4        7.2        5.3  

   1 Usually work 35 hours or more a week at all jobs.
   2 Usually work less than 35 hours a week at all jobs.
   3 Includes never married; married, spouse absent; divorced; separated; and widowed persons.
   NOTE:  Own children include sons, daughters, step-children, and adopted children.  Not included are nieces, nephews,
grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children.  Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding.  Updated popula-
tion controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.







Table 6.  Employment status of mothers with own children under 3 years old by single year of age of youngest child and marital
status, 2007-08 annual averages

(Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                              
                                                                                Civilian labor force                          
                                                                                                                              
                                            Civilian                                                                          
                                           noninsti-                                  Employed                   Unemployed   
              Characteristic                tutional           Percent                                                        
                                             popula-              of                                                          
                                              tion      Total  popula-           Percent    Full-    Part-             Percent
                                                                tion     Total     of       time     time      Number     of  
                                                                                 popula-   workers  workers             labor 
                                                                                  tion       (1)      (2)               force 
                                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                              
                   2007                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                              
              TOTAL MOTHERS                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                              
    With own children under 3 years old...    9,659    5,721     59.2     5,354     55.4     3,783    1,571      367     6.4  
        2 years ..........................    2,812    1,808     64.3     1,694     60.2     1,225      469      114     6.3  
        1 year ...........................    3,501    2,068     59.1     1,938     55.4     1,350      589      130     6.3  
        Under 1 year......................    3,346    1,845     55.1     1,721     51.4     1,208      513      123     6.7  
                                                                                                                              
         Married, spouse present                                                                                              
                                                                                                                              
    With own children under 3 years old...    7,018    4,027     57.4     3,888     55.4     2,730    1,157      140     3.5  
        2 years ..........................    2,076    1,281     61.7     1,230     59.2       881      349       51     4.0  
        1 year ...........................    2,536    1,433     56.5     1,388     54.7       954      434       46     3.2  
        Under 1 year......................    2,406    1,313     54.6     1,270     52.8       896      374       43     3.3  
                                                                                                                              
         Other marital status (3)                                                                                             
                                                                                                                              
    With own children under 3 years old...    2,641    1,694     64.1     1,466     55.5     1,052      414      227    13.4  
        2 years ..........................      736      528     71.6       464     63.1       344      120       63    12.0  
        1 year ...........................      965      635     65.8       551     57.1       396      155       84    13.2  
        Under 1 year......................      940      531     56.5       451     48.0       312      139       80    15.1  
                                                                                                                              
                   2008                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                              
              TOTAL MOTHERS                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                              
    With own children under 3 years old...    9,595    5,792     60.4     5,354     55.8     3,782    1,573      438     7.6  
        2 years ..........................    2,934    1,852     63.1     1,734     59.1     1,264      470      118     6.4  
        1 year ...........................    3,342    2,069     61.9     1,905     57.0     1,337      568      164     7.9  
        Under 1 year......................    3,319    1,871     56.4     1,715     51.7     1,180      535      156     8.4  
                                                                                                                              
         Married, spouse present                                                                                              
                                                                                                                              
    With own children under 3 years old...    6,868    4,035     58.7     3,848     56.0     2,717    1,132      186     4.6  
        2 years ..........................    2,088    1,255     60.1     1,206     57.8       871      335       49     3.9  
        1 year ...........................    2,414    1,450     60.1     1,380     57.2       970      410       70     4.8  
        Under 1 year......................    2,366    1,330     56.2     1,263     53.4       875      388       67     5.0  
                                                                                                                              
         Other marital status (3)                                                                                             
                                                                                                                              
    With own children under 3 years old...    2,727    1,758     64.4     1,506     55.2     1,065      441      252    14.3  
        2 years ..........................      847      597     70.5       528     62.4       393      135       69    11.5  
        1 year ...........................      928      619     66.7       525     56.6       367      159       94    15.1  
        Under 1 year......................      953      542     56.8       452     47.5       305      147       89    16.5  

   1 Usually work 35 hours or more a week at all jobs.
   2 Usually work less than 35 hours a week at all jobs.
   3 Includes never married; married, spouse absent; divorced; separated; and widowed persons.
   NOTE:  Own children include sons, daughters, step-children, and adopted children.  Not included are nieces, nephews,
grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children.  Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding.  Updated population
controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.






Last Modified Date: May 27, 2009
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