Economic News Release

Employment Characteristics of Families News Release


Technical information:  (202) 691-6378    USDL 08-0731
               http://www.bls.gov/cps/
                                          For release:  10:00 A.M. (EDT)
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902    Friday, May 30, 2008


            EMPLOYMENT CHARACTERISTICS OF FAMILIES IN 2007

   In 2007, the share of families with an unemployed member was 6.3 per-
cent, little changed from the prior year, the Bureau of Labor Statistics
of the U.S. Department of Labor reported today.  The proportion of fam-
ilies with an unemployed member remained lower than the recent peak of
8.1 percent in 2003.  Of the nation’s 77.9 million families, the propor-
tion that had at least one employed member was little changed in 2007 at
82.6 percent.

   These data on employment, unemployment, and family relationships are
collected as part of the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly sam-
ple survey of approximately 60,000 households.  Families include married-
couple families, as well as families maintained by a man or woman with no
spouse present.  For further information about the CPS, see the Technical
Note.

Families and Unemployment

   In 2007, 4.9 million families had at least one member who was unemployed,
unchanged from 2006.  The proportion of black families with an unemployed
member was 10.8 percent in 2007, about twice the proportion among white
(5.6 percent) and Asian (5.4 percent) families.  Among Hispanic families,
8.5 percent had an unemployed member.  The proportions of white and Asian
families with an unemployed member showed little or no change from 2006.  The
proportion of black families with an unemployed member edged down in 2007,
while the percentage of Hispanic families with an unemployed member in 2007
edged up over the year.  (See table 1.)

   Among families with an unemployed member in 2007, 71.2 percent also had at
least one employed member, up from 69.6 percent in 2006.  Among married-cou-
ple families with unemployment in 2007, 82.8 percent had an employed member,
little changed over the year.  For families maintained by women (no spouse 
present) with an unemployed member, the proportion that also contained an em-
ployed member rose from 47.3 percent in 2006 to 50.5 percent in 2007.  For
families maintained by men (no spouse present), the proportion was 60.7 per-
cent in 2007, little changed from the prior year.  (See tables 1 and 3.)

Families and Employment

   In 2007, the proportion of families with at least one employed member
(82.6 percent) was little changed from the prior year.  There was little or
no change in the proportion of families with employed members among white
(82.7 percent), Asian (89.6 percent), and Hispanic (87.6 percent) families.
Among black families, the proportion with employed members edged up in 2007
to 78.9 percent.  (See table 1.)



                                   - 2 -



   Among married-couple families, 83.7 percent had an employed member in 2007,
about the same as in 2006.  For families maintained by women, the proportion
with an employed member increased from 76.0 percent in 2006 to 76.9 percent
in 2007.  In families maintained by men, the proportion was up slightly to
85.7 percent.  (See table 2.)


   In 2007, the proportion of married-couple families in which only the hus-
band worked was unchanged at 19.8 percent.  The proportion of married-couple
families in which only the wife worked was little changed in 2007 (6.6 per-
cent), as was the proportion of married-couple families that were dual-worker
families (51.7 percent).  (See table 2.)

Families with Children

   Nearly half of all families include children (sons, daughters, step-children,
and adopted children) under age 18.  In 2007, 90.7 percent of the 35.9 million
families with children under 18 had at least one employed parent; this proportion
was little changed from 2006.  In 2007, the mother was employed in 72.8 percent of
families maintained by women, slightly higher than in the prior year.  For fami-
lies maintained by men, the father was employed in 85.2 percent of those families,
up from 83.5 percent in 2006.  Among married-couple families, the proportion that
had an employed parent was unchanged in 2007 at 97.3 percent.  The proportion of
married-couple families in which both parents were employed was little changed at
62.2 percent.  (See table 4.)

Mothers

   The labor force participation rate--the percent of the population that was
working or looking for work--for all mothers with children under 18 was 71.0 per-
cent in 2007, essentially unchanged from the prior year.  The participation rate
remained below the recent peak of 72.3 percent in 2000.  The participation rate of
married mothers in 2007, at 68.8 percent, was little changed from 2006.  The pro-
portion of unmarried mothers--those who were widowed, divorced, separated, or never
married--who were in the labor force in 2007 was 76.5 percent, essentially
unchanged from the prior year.  (See table 5.)

   In 2007, the unemployment rate for all mothers with children under 18 was
4.6 percent.  The jobless rate for married mothers was 3.0 percent, and the rate
for unmarried mothers was 8.0 percent.  These rates were little changed from the
prior year.  (See table 5.)

   Of the 3.3 million mothers with children under a year old, 55.1 percent were in
the labor force in 2007, little changed from 2006.  The labor force participation
rate for unmarried mothers with children under a year old in 2007 was 56.5 percent,
little changed from 2006.  The participation rate for married mothers with chil-
dren under a year old, at 54.6 percent in 2007, also was little changed from a year
earlier.  The unemployment rate for all mothers of children under age 1 continued
to trend down to 6.7 percent in 2007.  (See table 6.)



                                   - 3 -



    ___________________________________________________________________________
   |                                                                           |
   |                                                                           |
   |                 Changes to Weighting Procedure in Table 5                 |
   |                                                                           |
   |   The estimates for married men in table 5 of this news release were      |
   |computed using a different weighting procedure than was used in past ver-  |
   |sions of this annual release.  The new procedure results in estimates of   |
   |married men that are higher than those based on the previous procedure.    |
   |The weighting procedure change was implemented to a) introduce a consist-  |
   |ent methodology for all person-based estimates in this release; b) provide |
   |consistency with estimates of married men presented in other BLS publica-  |
   |tions; and c) enable users of the public-use microdata files to replicate  |
   |all estimates in this news release.                                        |
   |                                                                           |
   |   The change also affected all totals in table 5 that include married men,|
   |such as total men and total married persons.  Data for women and men of    |
   |other marital statuses were not affected.  The change also was applied to  |
   |data for 2006 in table 5; therefore, 2006 estimates presented in table 5 of|
   |this release do not match those published in the "Employment Characteris-  |
   |tics of Families in 2006" news release (USDL 07-0673).                     |
   |                                                                           |
   |   For further information, contact the Division of Labor Force Statistics |
   |at cpsinfo@bls.gov or (202) 691-6378.                                      |
   |                                                                           |
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------





  


                                   - 4 -



Technical Note


   The estimates in this release are based on annual average data from the
Current Population Survey (CPS), a national sample survey of about 60,000
households conducted monthly for the Bureau of Labor Statistics by the U.S.
Census Bureau.  The information relates to the labor force status of persons
16 years old and over in the civilian noninstitutional population during an
"average" week of the year.

   The data for 2007 presented in this release are not strictly comparable with
data for 2006 and earlier years because of the introduction in January 2007 of
revised population controls used in the CPS.  The effect of the revised popula-
tion controls on the family estimates is unknown.  However, the effect of the
new controls on the monthly CPS estimates was to increase the December 2006 em-
ployment level by 153,000 and the unemployment level by 10,000.  The updated
controls had little or no effect on unemployment rates and other ratios.  For
additional information, see "Adjustments to Household Survey Population Esti-
mates in January 2007," available on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/cps/
cps07adj.pdf.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request:  Voice phone:  (202) 691-5200; TDD message referral
phone number: 1-800-877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling
error.  When a sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there
is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the "true" population
values they represent.  The exact difference, or sampling error, varies de-
pending on the particular sample selected, and this variability is measured
by the standard error of the estimate.  There is about a 90-percent chance,
or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by
no more than 1.6 standard errors from the "true" population value because
of sampling error.  BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent
level of confidence.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error.  Nonsampling error
can occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of
the population, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the
sample, inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct 
information, and errors made in the collection or processing of the data.

   For a full discussion of the reliability of data from the CPS and in-
formation on estimating standard errors, see the Household Data Section of
"Explanatory Notes and Estimates of Error" at http://www.bls.gov/cps/eetech_
methods.pdf.


                                  - 5 -


Definitions

   Definitions of the principal terms used in this release are presented below.

   Family.  A family is a group of two or more persons residing together who
are related by birth, marriage, or adoption.  The count of families is for 
"primary" families only, that is, the householder and all other persons re-
lated to and residing with the householder.  Families are classified either
as married-couple families or as families maintained by women or men without
spouses.

   Householder.  The householder is the family reference person.  This is
the person (or one of the persons) in whose name the housing unit is owned
or rented.  The relationship of other individuals in the household is defined
in terms of relationship to the householder.  The race or ethnicity of the
family is determined by that of the householder.

   Married, spouse present; other marital status.  These terms denote the
marital status of individuals at the time of interview.  Married, spouse
present, refers to husbands and wives living together in the same house-
hold, even though one may be temporarily absent on business, on vacation,
on a visit, in a hospital, or for other reasons.  Other marital status
includes persons who are never-married; married, spouse absent; widowed; or
divorced.  Married, spouse absent relates to persons who are separated due
to marital problems, as well as husbands and wives who are living apart be-
cause one or the other was employed elsewhere, on duty with the Armed Forces,
or any other reasons.

   Children.  Data on children refer to own children and include sons,
daughters, step-children, and adopted children, of the husband, wife, or
person maintaining the family.  Not included are nieces, nephews, grand-
children, other related children, and all unrelated children living in
the household.

   Employed.  Employed persons are (a) all those who, during the survey
reference week, did any work at all as paid employees, worked in their own
business, profession, or on their own farm, or who worked 15 hours or more
as unpaid workers in a family-operated enterprise; and (b) all those who
did not work but had jobs or businesses from which they were temporarily
absent due to illness, bad weather, vacation, child-care problems, labor
disputes, or personal reasons, whether or not they were paid for the time
off and whether or not they were seeking other jobs.

   Unemployed.  The unemployed are persons who had no employment during the
reference week, were available for work at that time, and had made specific
efforts to find employment sometime during the 4-week period ending with
the reference week.  Persons who were waiting to be recalled to a job from
which they had been laid off need not be looking for work to be classified
as unemployed.

   Civilian labor force.  The civilian labor force comprises all persons
classified as employed or unemployed.

   Unemployment rate.  The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a
percent of the civilian labor force.

   Labor force participation rate.  The labor force participation rate is
the labor force as a percent of the population.





  Table 1.  Employment and unemployment in families by race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity,
  2006-07 annual averages
  
  (Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                              
                                                                                              
                              Characteristic                                2006       2007   
                                                                                              
                                                                                              
                                  TOTAL                                                       
                                                                                              
    Total families......................................................    77,017     77,894 
                                                                                              
      With employed member(s)...........................................    63,492     64,330 
            As percent of total families................................      82.4       82.6 
               Some usually work full time (1)..........................    58,918     59,616 
      With no employed member ..........................................    13,525     13,564 
            As percent of total families................................      17.6       17.4 
                                                                                              
      With unemployed member(s) ........................................     4,913      4,914 
            As percent of total families................................       6.4        6.3 
        Some member(s) employed ........................................     3,419      3,497 
               As percent of families with unemployed member(s).........      69.6       71.2 
          Some usually work full time (1)...............................     3,049      3,096 
                  As percent of families with unemployed member(s)......      62.1       63.0 
                                                                                              
                                  White                                                       
                                                                                              
    Total families......................................................    62,977     63,667 
                                                                                              
      With employed member(s)...........................................    52,054     52,669 
            As percent of total families................................      82.7       82.7 
               Some usually work full time (1)..........................    48,395     48,879 
      With no employed member ..........................................    10,923     10,997 
            As percent of total families................................      17.3       17.3 
                                                                                              
      With unemployed member(s) ........................................     3,556      3,587 
            As percent of total families................................       5.6        5.6 
        Some member(s) employed ........................................     2,582      2,653 
               As percent of families with unemployed member(s).........      72.6       73.9 
          Some usually work full time (1)...............................     2,306      2,350 
                  As percent of families with unemployed member(s)......      64.8       65.5 
                                                                                              
                        Black or African American                                             
                                                                                              
    Total families......................................................     9,058      9,184 
                                                                                              
      With employed member(s)...........................................     7,078      7,249 
            As percent of total families................................      78.1       78.9 
               Some usually work full time (1)..........................     6,437      6,608 
      With no employed member ..........................................     1,980      1,935 
            As percent of total families................................      21.9       21.1 
                                                                                              
      With unemployed member(s) ........................................     1,036        990 
            As percent of total families................................      11.4       10.8 
        Some member(s) employed ........................................       596        591 
               As percent of families with unemployed member(s).........      57.6       59.7 
          Some usually work full time (1)...............................       526        519 
                  As percent of families with unemployed member(s)......      50.8       52.4 
                                                                                              
                                  Asian                                                       
                                                                                              
    Total families......................................................     3,251      3,320 
                                                                                              
      With employed member(s)...........................................     2,924      2,974 
            As percent of total families................................      89.9       89.6 
               Some usually work full time (1)..........................     2,772      2,818 
      With no employed member ..........................................       327        347 
            As percent of total families................................      10.1       10.4 
                                                                                              
      With unemployed member(s) ........................................       171        179 
            As percent of total families................................       5.2        5.4 
        Some member(s) employed ........................................       137        144 
               As percent of families with unemployed member(s).........      80.4       80.5 
          Some usually work full time (1)...............................       123        133 
                  As percent of families with unemployed member(s)......      72.2       74.4 
                                                                                              
                      Hispanic or Latino ethnicity                                            
                                                                                              
    Total families......................................................     9,905     10,332 
                                                                                              
      With employed member(s)...........................................     8,641      9,048 
            As percent of total families................................      87.2       87.6 
               Some usually work full time (1)..........................     8,129      8,492 
      With no employed member ..........................................     1,264      1,285 
            As percent of total families................................      12.8       12.4 
                                                                                              
      With unemployed member(s) ........................................       793        876 
            As percent of total families................................       8.0        8.5 
        Some member(s) employed ........................................       544        619 
               As percent of families with unemployed member(s).........      68.6       70.6 
          Some usually work full time (1)...............................       491        554 
                  As percent of families with unemployed member(s)......      61.9       63.2 
  
     1 Usually work 35 hours or more a week at all jobs.
     NOTE:  The race or ethnicity of the family is determined by that of the householder.
  Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not
  sum to totals because data are not presented for all races.  Persons whose ethnicity is
  identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.  Updated population controls are
  introduced annually with the release of January data.
  
  
  
  
  
  


  Table 2.  Families by presence and relationship of employed members and family
  type, 2006-07 annual averages
  
  (Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                 
                                                                                 
                                              Number         Percent distribution
            Characteristic                                                       
                                                                                 
                                         2006       2007       2006       2007   
                                                                                 
                                                                                 
       MARRIED-COUPLE FAMILIES                                                   
                                                                                 
              Total..................    57,509     58,145    100.0      100.0   
                                                                                 
        Member(s) employed, total....    48,196     48,676     83.8       83.7   
            Husband only.............    11,399     11,509     19.8       19.8   
            Wife only................     3,754      3,858      6.5        6.6   
            Husband and wife.........    29,799     30,055     51.8       51.7   
            Other employment                                                     
             combinations............     3,244      3,254      5.6        5.6   
        No member(s) employed  ......     9,313      9,469     16.2       16.3   
                                                                                 
   FAMILIES MAINTAINED BY WOMEN (1)                                              
                                                                                 
              Total..................    14,208     14,423    100.0      100.0   
                                                                                 
        Member(s) employed, total....    10,796     11,087     76.0       76.9   
            Householder only.........     6,103      6,307     43.0       43.7   
            Householder and other                                                
             member(s)...............     2,955      2,994     20.8       20.8   
            Other member(s), not                                                 
             householder.............     1,738      1,785     12.2       12.4   
        No member(s) employed  ......     3,412      3,336     24.0       23.1   
                                                                                 
    FAMILIES MAINTAINED BY MEN (1)                                               
                                                                                 
              Total..................     5,300      5,327    100.0      100.0   
                                                                                 
        Member(s) employed, total....     4,500      4,568     84.9       85.7   
            Householder only.........     2,089      2,170     39.4       40.7   
            Householder and other                                                
             member(s)...............     1,715      1,696     32.4       31.8   
            Other member(s), not                                                 
             householder.............       696        701     13.1       13.2   
        No member(s) employed  ......       800        759     15.1       14.3   
  
     1 No spouse present.
     NOTE:  Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding.  Updated population
  controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.
  
  
  
  
  
  


  Table 3.  Unemployment in families by presence and relationship of employed
  members and family type, 2006-07 annual averages
  
  (Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                 
                                                                                 
                                              Number         Percent distribution
            Characteristic                                                       
                                                                                 
                                         2006       2007       2006       2007   
                                                                                 
                                                                                 
        MARRIED-COUPLE FAMILIES                                                  
                                                                                 
      With unemployed member(s), total.   2,968      2,978    100.0      100.0   
        No member employed.............     526        512     17.7       17.2   
        Some member(s) employed........   2,442      2,467     82.3       82.8   
           Husband unemployed..........   1,061      1,110     35.7       37.3   
             Wife employed.............     679        725     22.9       24.3   
           Wife unemployed.............     898        902     30.3       30.3   
             Husband employed..........     772        783     26.0       26.3   
           Other family member                                                   
            unemployed.................   1,010        966     34.0       32.4   
                                                                                 
    FAMILIES MAINTAINED BY WOMEN (1)                                             
                                                                                 
      With unemployed member(s), total.   1,429      1,416    100.0      100.0   
        No member employed.............     753        701     52.7       49.5   
        Some member(s) employed........     675        714     47.3       50.5   
           Householder unemployed......     688        650     48.2       45.9   
           Other member(s) employed....     132        144      9.3       10.2   
           Other member(s) unemployed..     740        766     51.8       54.1   
                                                                                 
    FAMILIES MAINTAINED BY MEN (1)                                               
                                                                                 
      With unemployed member(s), total.     516        520    100.0      100.0   
        No member employed.............     215        205     41.7       39.3   
        Some member(s) employed........     301        316     58.3       60.7   
           Householder unemployed......     284        294     55.0       56.6   
           Other member(s) employed....     118        137     22.8       26.3   
           Other member(s) unemployed..     232        226     45.0       43.4   
  
     1 No spouse present.
     NOTE:  Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding.  Updated population
  controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.
  
  
  
  
  
  


  Table 4.  Families with own children:  Employment status of parents by age of
  youngest child and family type, 2006-07 annual averages
  
  (Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                 
                                                                                 
                                              Number         Percent distribution
            Characteristic                                                       
                                                                                 
                                         2006       2007       2006       2007   
                                                                                 
                                                                                 
                                                                                 
   WITH OWN CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS                                              
                                                                                 
      Total..........................    35,605     35,856    100.0      100.0   
    Parent(s) employed...............    32,216     32,538     90.5       90.7   
    No parent employed...............     3,388      3,318      9.5        9.3   
                                                                                 
    Married-couple families..........    25,022     25,125    100.0      100.0   
     Parent(s) employed..............    24,344     24,459     97.3       97.3   
      Mother employed................    16,721     16,855     66.8       67.1   
       Both parents employed.........    15,516     15,627     62.0       62.2   
        Mother employed, not father..     1,205      1,228      4.8        4.9   
        Father employed, not mother..     7,623      7,604     30.5       30.3   
     Neither parent employed.........       678        666      2.7        2.7   
                                                                                 
    Families maintained by women (1)      8,407      8,554    100.0      100.0   
      Mother employed................     6,054      6,224     72.0       72.8   
      Mother not employed............     2,352      2,330     28.0       27.2   
                                                                                 
    Families maintained by men (1)...     2,176      2,177    100.0      100.0   
      Father employed................     1,818      1,855     83.5       85.2   
      Father not employed............       359        322     16.5       14.8   
                                                                                 
   WITH OWN CHILDREN 6 TO 17 YEARS,                                              
             NONE YOUNGER                                                        
                                                                                 
      Total..........................    20,283     20,361    100.0      100.0   
    Parent(s) employed...............    18,446     18,619     90.9       91.4   
    No parent employed...............     1,837      1,742      9.1        8.6   
                                                                                 
    Married-couple families..........    13,752     13,823    100.0      100.0   
     Parent(s) employed..............    13,356     13,435     97.1       97.2   
      Mother employed................    10,016     10,126     72.8       73.3   
       Both parents employed.........     9,245      9,341     67.2       67.6   
        Mother employed, not father..       771        785      5.6        5.7   
        Father employed, not mother..     3,339      3,309     24.3       23.9   
     Neither parent employed.........       396        388      2.9        2.8   
                                                                                 
    Families maintained by women (1)      5,195      5,224    100.0      100.0   
      Mother employed................     3,976      4,070     76.5       77.9   
      Mother not employed............     1,219      1,155     23.5       22.1   
                                                                                 
    Families maintained by men (1)...     1,336      1,314    100.0      100.0   
      Father employed................     1,114      1,115     83.4       84.9   
      Father not employed............       222        199     16.6       15.1   
                                                                                 
   WITH OWN CHILDREN UNDER 6 YEARS                                               
                                                                                 
      Total..........................    15,322     15,495    100.0      100.0   
    Parent(s) employed...............    13,770     13,918     89.9       89.8   
    No parent employed...............     1,551      1,576     10.1       10.2   
                                                                                 
    Married-couple families..........    11,270     11,302    100.0      100.0   
     Parent(s) employed..............    10,989     11,024     97.5       97.5   
      Mother employed................     6,705      6,729     59.5       59.5   
       Both parents employed.........     6,271      6,287     55.6       55.6   
        Mother employed, not father..       434        442      3.8        3.9   
        Father employed, not mother..     4,284      4,295     38.0       38.0   
     Neither parent employed.........       281        278      2.5        2.5   
                                                                                 
    Families maintained by women (1)      3,212      3,329    100.0      100.0   
      Mother employed................     2,078      2,154     64.7       64.7   
      Mother not employed............     1,133      1,175     35.3       35.3   
                                                                                 
    Families maintained by men (1)...       840        863    100.0      100.0   
      Father employed................       704        740     83.8       85.7   
      Father employed................       136        123     16.2       14.3   
  
     1 No spouse present.
     NOTE:  Own children include sons, daughters, step-children, and adopted
  children.  Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related
  and unrelated children.  Data may not sum to totals due to rounding.  Updated
  population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.
  
  
  
  
  
  


  Table 5.  Employment status of the population by sex, marital status, and presence and age of own children under 18,
  2006-07 annual averages
  
  (Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                      
                                                                   2006                             2007              
                    Characteristic                                                                                    
                                                                                                                      
                                                        Total       Men       Women      Total       Men       Women  
                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                      
           WITH OWN CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS                                                                           
                                                                                                                      
    Civilian noninstitutional population............   65,941     29,449     36,492     66,801     29,684     37,117  
     Civilian labor force...........................   53,590     27,730     25,861     54,370     28,002     26,368  
           Participation rate.......................     81.3       94.2       70.9       81.4       94.3       71.0  
       Employed.....................................   51,561     26,948     24,614     52,373     27,216     25,157  
           Employment-population ratio..............     78.2       91.5       67.4       78.4       91.7       67.8  
          Full-time workers (1).....................   44,634     26,033     18,601     45,336     26,282     19,053  
          Part-time workers (2).....................    6,927        914      6,013      7,037        933      6,104  
       Unemployed...................................    2,029        782      1,247      1,998        786      1,211  
           Unemployment rate........................      3.8        2.8        4.8        3.7        2.8        4.6  
                                                                                                                      
               Married, spouse present                                                                                
                                                                                                                      
    Civilian noninstitutional population............   52,930     26,908     26,022     53,432     27,205     26,227  
     Civilian labor force...........................   43,336     25,494     17,842     43,824     25,784     18,041  
           Participation rate.......................     81.9       94.7       68.6       82.0       94.8       68.8  
       Employed.....................................   42,134     24,854     17,280     42,625     25,134     17,492  
           Employment-population ratio..............     79.6       92.4       66.4       79.8       92.4       66.7  
          Full-time workers (1).....................   36,649     24,074     12,575     37,120     24,332     12,788  
          Part-time workers (2).....................    5,485        780      4,705      5,505        802      4,704  
       Unemployed...................................    1,202        640        562      1,199        650        549  
           Unemployment rate........................      2.8        2.5        3.1        2.7        2.5        3.0  
                                                                                                                      
               Other marital status (3)                                                                               
                                                                                                                      
    Civilian noninstitutional population............   13,010      2,541     10,470     13,369      2,479     10,890  
     Civilian labor force...........................   10,255      2,236      8,019     10,546      2,219      8,328  
           Participation rate.......................     78.8       88.0       76.6       78.9       89.5       76.5  
       Employed.....................................    9,427      2,094      7,333      9,747      2,082      7,665  
           Employment-population ratio..............     72.5       82.4       70.0       72.9       84.0       70.4  
          Full-time workers (1).....................    7,985      1,960      6,026      8,216      1,950      6,266  
          Part-time workers (2).....................    1,442        134      1,308      1,531        132      1,400  
       Unemployed...................................      827        142        686        799        137        662  
           Unemployment rate........................      8.1        6.3        8.5        7.6        6.2        8.0  
                                                                                                                      
    WITH OWN CHILDREN 6 TO 17 YEARS, NONE YOUNGER                                                                     
                                                                                                                      
    Civilian noninstitutional population............   36,530     16,212     20,318     36,983     16,384     20,599  
     Civilian labor force...........................   30,675     15,091     15,585     31,179     15,269     15,910  
           Participation rate.......................     84.0       93.1       76.7       84.3       93.2       77.2  
       Employed.....................................   29,643     14,690     14,952     30,176     14,866     15,310  
           Employment-population ratio..............     81.1       90.6       73.6       81.6       90.7       74.3  
          Full-time workers (1).....................   25,835     14,206     11,629     26,288     14,378     11,910  
          Part-time workers (2).....................    3,808        485      3,323      3,888        488      3,400  
       Unemployed...................................    1,032        400        632      1,003        403        600  
           Unemployment rate........................      3.4        2.7        4.1        3.2        2.6        3.8  
                                                                                                                      
           WITH OWN CHILDREN UNDER 6 YEARS                                                                            
                                                                                                                      
    Civilian noninstitutional population............   29,411     13,237     16,174     29,818     13,299     16,518  
     Civilian labor force...........................   22,915     12,639     10,276     23,192     12,733     10,458  
           Participation rate.......................     77.9       95.5       63.5       77.8       95.7       63.3  
       Employed.....................................   21,919     12,257      9,661     22,197     12,350      9,847  
           Employment-population ratio..............     74.5       92.6       59.7       74.4       92.9       59.6  
          Full-time workers (1).....................   18,800     11,828      6,972     19,048     11,904      7,143  
          Part-time workers (2).....................    3,119        430      2,689      3,149        446      2,704  
       Unemployed...................................      997        382        615        995        383        611  
           Unemployment rate........................      4.3        3.0        6.0        4.3        3.0        5.8  
                                                                                                                      
         WITH NO OWN CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS                                                                          
                                                                                                                      
    Civilian noninstitutional population............  162,874     81,156     81,718    165,066     82,489     82,577  
     Civilian labor force...........................   97,837     53,525     44,312     98,754     54,134     44,620  
           Participation rate.......................     60.1       66.0       54.2       59.8       65.6       54.0  
       Employed.....................................   92,866     50,554     42,312     93,674     51,039     42,635  
           Employment-population ratio..............     57.0       62.3       51.8       56.7       61.9       51.6  
          Full-time workers (1).....................   75,054     43,274     31,780     75,755     43,752     32,003  
          Part-time workers (2).....................   17,812      7,280     10,532     17,919      7,286     10,632  
       Unemployed...................................    4,971      2,971      2,000      5,080      3,095      1,984  
           Unemployment rate........................      5.1        5.6        4.5        5.1        5.7        4.4  
  
     1 Usually work 35 hours or more a week at all jobs.
     2 Usually work less than 35 hours a week at all jobs.
     3 Includes never married, divorced, separated, and widowed persons.
     NOTE:  2006 estimates for total and for men differ from those published in the "Employment Characteristics of
  Families in 2006" news release (USDL 07-0673) due to a change in the weights for the estimates of married men.  Own
  children include sons, daughters, step-children, and adopted children.  Not included are nieces, nephews, grand-
  children, and other related and unrelated children.  Data may not sum to totals due to rounding.  Updated population
  controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.
  
  
  
  
  


  Table 6.  Employment status of mothers with own children under 3 years old by single year of age of youngest child and marital status,
  2006-07 annual averages
  
  (Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                          Civilian labor force                           
                                                                                                                                         
                                              Civilian                                                 Employed              Unemployed  
                                              noninsti-               Percent                                                            
                                              tutional                  of                                                               
                                              population     Total    popula-             Percent  Full-time  Part-time           Percent
                                                                       tion      Total      of      workers    workers    Number    of   
                                                                                          popula-     (1)        (2)               labor 
                                                                                           tion                                    force 
                                                                                                                                         
                      2006                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                         
                  TOTAL MOTHERS                                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                         
      With own children under 3 years old....   9,431        5,675     60.2      5,315     56.4      3,751      1,564      360      6.3  
        2 years .............................   2,864        1,847     64.5      1,746     61.0      1,280        466      101      5.5  
        1 year ..............................   3,318        2,006     60.5      1,883     56.7      1,305        577      123      6.1  
        Under 1 year.........................   3,248        1,822     56.1      1,686     51.9      1,166        520      136      7.4  
                                                                                                                                         
             Married, spouse present                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                         
      With own children under 3 years old....   6,998        4,076     58.2      3,933     56.2      2,756      1,177      143      3.5  
        2 years .............................   2,114        1,305     61.7      1,265     59.8        910        354       40      3.1  
        1 year ..............................   2,494        1,456     58.4      1,404     56.3        962        442       52      3.6  
        Under 1 year.........................   2,390        1,315     55.0      1,264     52.9        883        381       51      3.9  
                                                                                                                                         
            Other marital status (3)                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                         
      With own children under 3 years old....   2,433        1,600     65.7      1,382     56.8        996        386      217     13.6  
        2 years .............................     750          543     72.3        481     64.2        369        112       61     11.3  
        1 year ..............................     824          550     66.7        479     58.1        344        135       71     13.0  
        Under 1 year.........................     859          507     59.0        422     49.2        283        139       85     16.7  
                                                                                                                                         
                      2007                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                         
                  TOTAL MOTHERS                                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                         
      With own children under 3 years old....   9,659        5,721     59.2      5,354     55.4      3,783      1,571      367      6.4  
        2 years .............................   2,812        1,808     64.3      1,694     60.2      1,225        469      114      6.3  
        1 year ..............................   3,501        2,068     59.1      1,938     55.4      1,350        589      130      6.3  
        Under 1 year.........................   3,346        1,845     55.1      1,721     51.4      1,208        513      123      6.7  
                                                                                                                                         
             Married, spouse present                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                         
      With own children under 3 years old....   7,018        4,027     57.4      3,888     55.4      2,730      1,157      140      3.5  
        2 years .............................   2,076        1,281     61.7      1,230     59.2        881        349       51      4.0  
        1 year ..............................   2,536        1,433     56.5      1,388     54.7        954        434       46      3.2  
        Under 1 year.........................   2,406        1,313     54.6      1,270     52.8        896        374       43      3.3  
                                                                                                                                         
            Other marital status (3)                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                         
      With own children under 3 years old....   2,641        1,694     64.1      1,466     55.5      1,052        414      227     13.4  
        2 years .............................     736          528     71.6        464     63.1        344        120       63     12.0  
        1 year ..............................     965          635     65.8        551     57.1        396        155       84     13.2  
        Under 1 year.........................     940          531     56.5        451     48.0        312        139       80     15.1  
  
     1 Usually work 35 hours or more a week at all jobs.
     2 Usually work less than 35 hours a week at all jobs.
     3 Includes never married, divorced, separated, and widowed persons.
     NOTE:  Own children include sons, daughters, step-children, and adopted children.  Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren,
  and other related and unrelated children.  Data may not sum to totals due to rounding.  Updated population controls are introduced
  annually with the release of January data.
  
  
  
  
  
  

Last Modified Date: June 10, 2010
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