Economic News Release

Labor Force Characteristics of Foreign-born Workers News Release


Technical information:  (202) 691-6378     USDL 09-0303
               http://www.bls.gov/cps/
                                           For release:  10:00 A.M. (EDT)
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902     Thursday, March 26, 2009
                                   
                                   
       FOREIGN-BORN WORKERS:  LABOR FORCE CHARACTERISTICS IN 2008


   In 2008, 24.1 million persons, or 15.6 percent of the U.S. civilian 
labor force age 16 and over, were foreign born, the Bureau of Labor Statis-
tics of the U.S. Department of Labor reported today.  The unemployment rate 
for the foreign born was 5.8 percent in 2008, up from 4.3 percent in 2007.  
The jobless rate of the native born also increased to 5.8 percent in 2008; 
it was 4.7 percent in the prior year.

   This news release compares the labor force characteristics of the for-
eign born with those of their native-born counterparts.  The data on na-
tivity are collected as part of the Current Population Survey (CPS), a 
monthly sample survey of approximately 60,000 households.  The foreign born 
are persons who reside in the United States but who were born outside the 
country or one of its outlying areas to parents who were not U.S. citizens.  
The foreign born include legally-admitted immigrants, refugees, temporary 
residents such as students and temporary workers, and undocumented immi-
grants.  The survey data, however, do not separately identify the numbers 
of persons in these categories.  For further information about the survey, 
see the Technical Note.

Demographic Characteristics

   The demographic characteristics of the foreign-born labor force differ 
from those of the native born.  In 2008, men made up a larger proportion 
of the foreign-born labor force (59.8 percent) than they did of the native-
born (52.3 percent) labor force.  Also, a higher proportion of the foreign-
born than the native-born labor force was made up of 25- to 54-year-olds 
(76.6 and 66.0 percent, respectively); labor force participation is typi-
cally highest among persons in that age group.  (See table 1.)

   In 2008, Hispanics comprised 49.4 percent of the foreign-born labor 
force compared with 7.8 percent of the native-born labor force.  Asians 
made up 22.4 percent of the foreign-born labor force compared with 1.3 per-
cent of the native-born labor force.  (Data in this release for persons 
who are white, black, or Asian do not include those of Hispanic or Latino 
ethnicity.  Data on persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity are presented 
separately.)

   In terms of educational attainment, 26.4 percent of the foreign-born 
labor force 25 years old and over had not completed high school in 2008, 
compared with 5.8 percent of the native-born labor force.  Similar propor-
tions of foreign-born and native-born persons in the labor force had a 
bachelor's or higher degree (31.7 and 34.6 percent, respectively).  
Foreign-born workers were less likely than native-born workers to have 
some college or an associate degree.


                                   - 2 -

Labor Force and Unemployment

   In 2008, 68.1 percent of the foreign born were in the labor force,
0.4 percentage point lower than in 2007.  The labor force participa-
tion rate of the native-born workers held steady at 65.6 percent in 2008.  
Both the number of foreign-born labor force participants (24.1 million) 
and their share of the U.S. civilian labor force (15.6 percent) were 
little changed from 2007 to 2008.  (See table 1.)

   The labor force participation rate of foreign-born men was 81.4 per-
cent, compared with 71.4 percent for native-born men in 2008.  In contrast, 
54.8 percent of foreign-born women were labor force participants, compared 
with 60.3 percent of native-born women.

   Among the major race and ethnicity groups, labor force participation 
rates of foreign-born whites (60.3 percent) and Hispanics (70.7 percent) 
were down over the year.  The rates for foreign-born blacks (73.2 percent) 
and Asians (68.2 percent) showed little change in 2008.  Among the native 
born, labor force participation rates for all the major groups were about 
unchanged over the year.

   Foreign-born mothers with children under age 18 were less likely to be 
labor force participants than native-born mothers--60.7 versus 74.1 per-
cent.  Among women with children under age 3, the participation rate for 
the foreign born was 44.6 percent, while that for the native born was 64.5 
percent.  The labor force participation rate of both foreign- and native-
born fathers with children under age 18 was about 94 percent in 2008.  (See 
table 2.)

   The over-the-year increase in the unemployment rate of foreign-born 
workers--from 4.3 percent in 2007 to 5.8 percent in 2008--reflected in-
creases in the rates for both men and women.  The unemployment rate for 
foreign-born men rose from 4.1 to 5.7 percent, and the rate for foreign-
born women was up from 4.6 to 6.0 percent.  Among the native born, the 
unemployment rate increased from 4.7 to 5.8 percent over the year.  The 
rate for men rose from 4.9 to 6.2 percent, while the rate for women was 
up from 4.5 to 5.3 percent in 2008.  (See table 1.)

   By region, the foreign born made up a larger share of the total labor 
force in the West (24.1 percent) and in the Northeast (17.9 percent) than 
for the nation as a whole (15.6 percent).  In contrast, the shares of the 
labor force made up by foreign-born workers in the South (13.8 percent) 
and Midwest (7.8 percent) were less than for the nation.  (See table 6.)

Occupation

   In 2008, foreign-born workers were more likely than their native-born 
counterparts to be employed in service occupations (23.2 versus 15.6 per-
cent); in production, transportation, and material moving occupations 
(16.4 versus 11.5 percent); and in natural resources, construction, and 
maintenance occupations (15.1 versus 9.3 percent).  In contrast, native-
born workers were more likely than foreign-born workers to be employed in 
management, professional, and related occupations--37.8 versus 28.2 percent.
(See table 4.)


                                   - 3 -

   Foreign-born men were more likely than native-born men to be employed 
in service occupations; natural resources, construction, and maintenance 
occupations; and production, transportation, and material moving occupa-
tions.  Compared with native-born women, foreign-born women were more 
likely to be employed in service occupations and in production, transpor-
tation, and material moving occupations.

Earnings

   In 2008, the median usual weekly earnings of foreign-born full-time 
wage and salary workers were $595, compared with $744 for the native born.  
Among men, median earnings were $613 per week for the foreign born, com-
pared with $842 for the native born; the median for foreign-born women 
was $557, compared with $651 for the native born. (See table 5.)

   As with the native born, the earnings of foreign-born workers increased 
with education.  Foreign-born workers age 25 and over with less than a high 
school education earned $417 per week in 2008, while those with bachelor's 
degrees and higher earned about 2.6 times as much--$1,092 a week. 

   The gap between the earnings of foreign-born and native-born workers 
narrows with higher levels of education.  For example, among those with 
less than a high school diploma, full-time workers who were foreign born 
earned 84.6 percent as much as their native-born counterparts.  Among those 
with a bachelor's degree and higher, foreign born workers earned almost as 
much (97.6 percent) as native-born workers.





                                - 4 -
   
Technical Note
 
 
   The estimates in this release are based on annual average data from the
Current Population Survey (CPS).  The CPS, which is conducted by the U.S.
Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), is a monthly sur-
vey of about 60,000 households that provides information on the labor force
status, demographics, and other characteristics of the nation's civilian
noninstitutional population age 16 and over.  In response to the increased
demand for statistical information about the foreign born, questions on
nativity, citizenship, year of entry into the United States, and the pa-
rental nativity of respondents were added to the CPS beginning in January
1994.  Prior to 1994, the primary sources of data on the foreign born were
the decennial census, two CPS supplements (conducted in April 1983 and
November 1989), and, to some extent, information collected by the U.S.
Citizenship and Immigration Services (formerly known as the Immigration
and Naturalization Service).

   The foreign- and native-born data for 2008 are not strictly comparable with
data for 2007 and earlier years because of the introduction in January 2008 of
revised population controls used in the CPS.  The effect of the revised popu-
lation controls on the foreign- and native-born estimates is unknown.  However, 
the effect of the new controls on the monthly CPS estimates was to decrease the
December 2007 employment level by 598,000 and the unemployment level by 40,000.
The updated controls had little or no effect on unemployment rates and other
ratios.  More detailed information on the population adjustments and their effect
on national labor force estimates are available at http://www.bls.gov/cps/cps08adj.
pdf.

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request.  Voice phone:  (202) 691-5200, TDD message referral
phone number: 1-800-877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling
error.  When a sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there
is a chance that the sample estimates may differ from the "true" population
values they represent.  The exact difference, or sampling error, varies de-
pending upon the particular sample selected, and this variability is measured 
by the standard error of the estimate.  There is about a 90-percent chance,
or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no
more than 1.6 standard errors from the "true" population value because of sam-
pling error.  BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of 
confidence.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error.  Nonsampling error can
occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the popu-
lation, inability to obtain information for all respondents in the sample, in-
ability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information and 
errors made in the collection or processing of the data.  For a full discussion 
of the reliability of data from the CPS and information on estimating standard 
errors, see the Household Data section of the "Explanatory Notes and Estimates 
of Error" in Employment and Earnings Online at http://www.bls.gov/cps/eetech_
methods.pdf.


                                 - 5 -


Concepts and definitions

   Foreign born.  The foreign born are persons residing in the United States
who were not U.S. citizens at birth.  That is, they were born outside the
United States or one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to
parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen.  The foreign-born population
includes legally-admitted immigrants, refugees, temporary residents such
as students and temporary workers, and undocumented immigrants.  The survey
data, however, do not separately identify the number of persons in these
categories.

   Native born.  The native born are persons born in the United States or
one of its outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born
abroad of at least one parent who was a U.S. citizen.

   Race and ethnicity groups.  In this release, the data are presented
for non-Hispanic whites, blacks, and Asians and for persons of Hispanic
or Latino ethnicity.  These four groups are mutually exclusive but not
exhaustive.  Other race groups (including persons who selected more than
one race category) are included in the overall totals but are not shown
separately because the number of survey respondents is too small to develop
statistically reliable estimates.  The presentation of the data on race and
ethnicity in this release differs from that which appears in most analyses
of CPS labor force data in that persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity are
separated from the race groups.  Because persons of Hispanic or Latino
ethnicity can be of any race, they are usually included in the race groups
as well as shown separately in the Hispanic or Latino ethnicity group.  The
reason for the difference in the data presentation in this release is be-
cause about half of the foreign born are of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
and they have somewhat different labor force characteristics than the non-
Hispanic foreign born.

   Employed.  Employed persons are (a) all those who, during the survey
reference week, did any work at all as paid employees, worked in their own
business, profession, or on their own farm, or who worked 15 hours or more
as unpaid workers in a family-operated enterprise; and (b) all those who
did not work but had jobs or businesses from which they were temporarily
absent due to illness, bad weather, vacation, childcare problems, labor
disputes, or personal reasons, whether or not they were paid for the time
off and whether or not they were seeking other jobs.

   Unemployed.  The unemployed are persons who had no employment during the
reference  week, were available for work at that time, except for temporary
illness, and had made specific efforts to find employment sometime during
the 4-week period ending with the reference week.  Persons who were waiting
to be recalled to a job from which they had been laid off need not be looking
for work to be classified as unemployed.

   Civilian labor  force.  The civilian labor force comprises all persons
classified as employed or unemployed.

   Unemployment  rate.  The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as
a percent of the civilian labor force.

   Labor force participation rate.  The labor force participation rate is
the labor force as a percent of the population.

   Usual weekly earnings.  Data represent earnings before taxes and other
deductions and include any overtime pay, commissions, or tips usually
received (at the main job in the case of multiple jobholders).  Earnings
reported on a basis other than weekly are converted to a weekly equivalent.

   Median earnings.  The median is the amount which divides a given earnings
distribution into two equal groups, one having earnings above the median
and the other having earnings below the median.





  Table 1.  Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations by selected characteristics, 2007-08 annual averages

  (Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                             
                                                            2007                                                 2008                        
                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                             
                                                         Civilian labor force                                 Civilian labor force           
                                    Civilian                                             Civilian                                            
           Characteristic             non-                                                 non-                                              
                                     insti-                               Unemployed      insti-                               Unemployed    
                                    tutional         Partici-                            tutional         Partici-                           
                                     popula-  Total     pa-   Employed                    popula-  Total     pa-   Employed                  
                                      tion             tion                       Unem-    tion             tion                       Unem- 
                                                       rate             Number  ployment                    rate             Number  ployment
                                                                                  rate                                                 rate  
                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                             
                TOTAL                                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                                             
      Total, 16 years and over.....  231,867 153,124    66.0   146,047    7,078     4.6   233,788 154,287    66.0   145,362    8,924     5.8 
    Men............................  112,173  82,136    73.2    78,254    3,882     4.7   113,113  82,520    73.0    77,486    5,033     6.1 
    Women..........................  119,694  70,988    59.3    67,792    3,196     4.5   120,675  71,767    59.5    67,876    3,891     5.4 
                                                                                                                                             
            FOREIGN BORN                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                             
      Total, 16 years and over.....   35,017  23,994    68.5    22,967    1,027     4.3    35,317  24,063    68.1    22,660    1,403     5.8 
    Men............................   17,670  14,470    81.9    13,883      588     4.1    17,688  14,400    81.4    13,578      822     5.7 
    Women..........................   17,347   9,524    54.9     9,085      439     4.6    17,629   9,663    54.8     9,082      581     6.0 
                                                                                                                                             
                 Age                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                             
    16 to 24 years.................    4,205   2,454    58.4     2,266      188     7.7     3,845   2,211    57.5     1,979      232    10.5 
    25 to 34 years.................    8,243   6,421    77.9     6,147      274     4.3     7,992   6,236    78.0     5,866      371     5.9 
    35 to 44 years.................    8,322   6,782    81.5     6,546      236     3.5     8,327   6,814    81.8     6,473      341     5.0 
    45 to 54 years.................    6,278   5,126    81.7     4,930      196     3.8     6,602   5,380    81.5     5,083      297     5.5 
    55 to 64 years.................    3,850   2,531    65.7     2,424      107     4.2     4,126   2,700    65.4     2,580      120     4.5 
    65 years and over..............    4,119     680    16.5       655       25     3.7     4,424     721    16.3       679       42     5.9 
                                                                                                                                             
          Race and Hispanic                                                                                                                  
       or Latino ethnicity (1)                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                             
    White non-Hispanic or Latino ..    7,492   4,599    61.4     4,428      171     3.7     7,517   4,531    60.3     4,305      226     5.0 
    Black non-Hispanic or Latino ..    2,610   1,901    72.8     1,795      106     5.6     2,743   2,007    73.2     1,863      144     7.2 
    Asian non-Hispanic or Latino ..    7,762   5,264    67.8     5,106      158     3.0     7,894   5,382    68.2     5,185      197     3.7 
    Hispanic or Latino ethnicity...   16,817  11,987    71.3    11,405      582     4.9    16,816  11,889    70.7    11,067      822     6.9 
                                                                                                                                             
       Educational attainment                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                             
      Total, 25 years and over.....   30,812  21,540    69.9    20,701      839     3.9    31,472  21,852    69.4    20,681    1,171     5.4 
    Less than a high school diploma    9,456   5,893    62.3     5,585      308     5.2     9,420   5,759    61.1     5,316      443     7.7 
    High school graduates, no                                                                                                                
     college (2)...................    7,863   5,400    68.7     5,188      212     3.9     8,098   5,514    68.1     5,201      312     5.7 
    Some college or associate                                                                                                                
     degree........................    4,780   3,538    74.0     3,387      151     4.3     4,951   3,648    73.7     3,457      190     5.2 
    Bachelor's degree and                                                                                                                    
     higher (3) ...................    8,713   6,709    77.0     6,541      168     2.5     9,003   6,931    77.0     6,705      226     3.3 
                                                                                                                                             
             NATIVE BORN                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                             
      Total, 16 years and over.....  196,850 129,130    65.6   123,079    6,051     4.7   198,471 130,224    65.6   122,703    7,521     5.8 
    Men............................   94,503  67,666    71.6    64,372    3,294     4.9    95,424  68,119    71.4    63,908    4,211     6.2 
    Women..........................  102,347  61,464    60.1    58,707    2,757     4.5   103,047  62,104    60.3    58,795    3,310     5.3 
                                                                                                                                             
                 Age                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                             
    16 to 24 years.................   33,204  19,763    59.5    17,608    2,155    10.9    33,639  19,821    58.9    17,223    2,599    13.1 
    25 to 34 years.................   31,509  26,708    84.8    25,439    1,270     4.8    32,001  27,096    84.7    25,517    1,579     5.8 
    35 to 44 years.................   34,079  28,745    84.3    27,756      989     3.4    33,372  28,247    84.6    26,984    1,264     4.5 
    45 to 54 years.................   37,266  30,571    82.0    29,633      938     3.1    37,357  30,623    82.0    29,446    1,177     3.8 
    55 to 64 years.................   28,683  18,219    63.5    17,684      535     2.9    29,364  18,915    64.4    18,232      682     3.6 
    65 years and over..............   32,109   5,124    16.0     4,959      165     3.2    32,737   5,522    16.9     5,300      222     4.0 
                                                                                                                                             
          Race and Hispanic                                                                                                                  
       or Latino ethnicity (1)                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                             
    White non-Hispanic or Latino ..  151,596 100,279    66.1    96,411    3,868     3.9   152,157 100,679    66.2    95,909    4,770     4.7 
    Black non-Hispanic or Latino ..   23,921  14,961    62.5    13,671    1,290     8.6    24,157  15,101    62.5    13,524    1,577    10.4 
    Asian non-Hispanic or Latino ..    2,708   1,683    62.2     1,620       63     3.7     2,669   1,674    62.7     1,600       74     4.4 
    Hispanic or Latino ethnicity...   14,566   9,615    66.0     8,977      638     6.6    15,325  10,135    66.1     9,279      856     8.4 
                                                                                                                                             
       Educational attainment                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                             
      Total, 25 years and over.....  163,645 109,367    66.8   105,471    3,896     3.6   164,832 110,403    67.0   105,480    4,923     4.5 
    Less than a high school diploma   17,177   6,514    37.9     5,936      578     8.9    16,702   6,406    38.4     5,757      649    10.1 
    High school graduates, no                                                                                                                
     college (2)...................   53,510  33,139    61.9    31,670    1,470     4.4    53,017  32,749    61.8    30,896    1,854     5.7 
    Some college or associate                                                                                                                
     degree........................   45,051  32,349    71.8    31,225    1,124     3.5    46,153  33,070    71.7    31,582    1,488     4.5 
    Bachelor's degree and                                                                                                                    
     higher (3) ...................   47,908  37,365    78.0    36,640      725     1.9    48,959  38,177    78.0    37,245      932     2.4 

     1 Data for race/ethnicity groups do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races.
     2 Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
     3 Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.
     NOTE:  Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. See the Technical Note for further
  information. 





  Table 2.  Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations 16 years and over by presence and age of
  youngest child and sex, 2007-08 annual averages

  (Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       
                                                                2007                                2008               
                 Characteristic                                                                                        
                                                                                                                       
                                                   Total        Men        Women       Total        Men        Women   
                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                       
                  FOREIGN BORN                                                                                         
                                                                                                                       
           With own children under 18                                                                                  
                                                                                                                       
  Civilian noninstitutional population.........    13,970       6,640       7,329      13,864       6,618       7,245  
   Civilian labor force........................    10,667       6,260       4,407      10,626       6,228       4,399  
     Participation rate........................      76.4        94.3        60.1        76.6        94.1        60.7  
    Employed...................................    10,245       6,055       4,190      10,047       5,929       4,118  
     Employment-population ratio...............      73.3        91.2        57.2        72.5        89.6        56.8  
    Unemployed.................................       422         205         217         580         299         281  
     Unemployment rate.........................       4.0         3.3         4.9         5.5         4.8         6.4  
                                                                                                                       
     With own children 6 to 17, none younger                                                                           
                                                                                                                       
  Civilian noninstitutional population.........     6,974       3,252       3,722       7,173       3,359       3,814  
   Civilian labor force........................     5,640       3,029       2,611       5,791       3,123       2,668  
     Participation rate........................      80.9        93.1        70.2        80.7        93.0        69.9  
    Employed...................................     5,431       2,935       2,497       5,505       2,985       2,520  
     Employment-population ratio...............      77.9        90.2        67.1        76.7        88.9        66.1  
    Unemployed.................................       209          94         115         286         138         148  
     Unemployment rate.........................       3.7         3.1         4.4         4.9         4.4         5.5  
                                                                                                                       
            With own children under 6                                                                                  
                                                                                                                       
  Civilian noninstitutional population.........     6,996       3,388       3,608       6,691       3,259       3,431  
   Civilian labor force........................     5,027       3,231       1,795       4,835       3,104       1,731  
     Participation rate........................      71.9        95.4        49.8        72.3        95.2        50.4  
    Employed...................................     4,814       3,120       1,693       4,542       2,944       1,598  
     Employment-population ratio...............      68.8        92.1        46.9        67.9        90.3        46.6  
    Unemployed.................................       213         111         102         294         161         133  
     Unemployment rate.........................       4.2         3.4         5.7         6.1         5.2         7.7  
                                                                                                                       
            With own children under 3                                                                                  
                                                                                                                       
  Civilian noninstitutional population.........     4,087       1,982       2,105       3,923       1,927       1,996  
   Civilian labor force........................     2,821       1,888         933       2,727       1,837         890  
     Participation rate........................      69.0        95.3        44.3        69.5        95.3        44.6  
    Employed...................................     2,700       1,825         876       2,558       1,745         813  
     Employment-population ratio...............      66.1        92.1        41.6        65.2        90.6        40.7  
    Unemployed.................................       120          63          57         169          92          78  
     Unemployment rate.........................       4.3         3.4         6.1         6.2         5.0         8.7  
                                                                                                                       
          With no own children under 18                                                                                
                                                                                                                       
  Civilian noninstitutional population.........    21,047      11,030      10,018      21,453      11,070      10,383  
   Civilian labor force........................    13,327       8,210       5,117      13,436       8,173       5,264  
     Participation rate........................      63.3        74.4        51.1        62.6        73.8        50.7  
    Employed...................................    12,722       7,828       4,895      12,613       7,650       4,964  
     Employment-population ratio...............      60.4        71.0        48.9        58.8        69.1        47.8  
    Unemployed.................................       605         383         222         823         523         300  
     Unemployment rate.........................       4.5         4.7         4.3         6.1         6.4         5.7  
                                                                                                                       
                   NATIVE BORN                                                                                         
                                                                                                                       
           With own children under 18                                                                                  
                                                                                                                       
  Civilian noninstitutional population.........    52,683      22,996      29,686      51,642      22,467      29,175  
   Civilian labor force........................    43,578      21,699      21,879      42,762      21,144      21,617  
     Participation rate........................      82.7        94.4        73.7        82.8        94.1        74.1  
    Employed...................................    42,005      21,119      20,887      40,859      20,403      20,455  
     Employment-population ratio...............      79.7        91.8        70.4        79.1        90.8        70.1  
    Unemployed.................................     1,573         581         992       1,903         741       1,162  
     Unemployment rate.........................       3.6         2.7         4.5         4.5         3.5         5.4  
                                                                                                                       
     With own children 6 to 17, none younger                                                                           
                                                                                                                       
  Civilian noninstitutional population.........    29,861      13,085      16,775      29,259      12,841      16,418  
   Civilian labor force........................    25,413      12,197      13,216      24,936      11,955      12,981  
     Participation rate........................      85.1        93.2        78.8        85.2        93.1        79.1  
    Employed...................................    24,622      11,889      12,733      23,974      11,555      12,419  
     Employment-population ratio...............      82.5        90.9        75.9        81.9        90.0        75.6  
    Unemployed.................................       791         308         483         963         400         562  
     Unemployment rate.........................       3.1         2.5         3.7         3.9         3.3         4.3  
                                                                                                                       
            With own children under 6                                                                                  
                                                                                                                       
  Civilian noninstitutional population.........    22,822       9,911      12,911      22,384       9,627      12,757  
   Civilian labor force........................    18,165       9,502       8,663      17,825       9,189       8,636  
     Participation rate........................      79.6        95.9        67.1        79.6        95.5        67.7  
    Employed...................................    17,383       9,230       8,154      16,885       8,849       8,036  
     Employment-population ratio...............      76.2        93.1        63.2        75.4        91.9        63.0  
    Unemployed.................................       782         272         509         940         340         600  
     Unemployment rate.........................       4.3         2.9         5.9         5.3         3.7         6.9  
                                                                                                                       
            With own children under 3                                                                                  
                                                                                                                       
  Civilian noninstitutional population.........    13,406       5,851       7,554      13,358       5,758       7,600  
   Civilian labor force........................    10,412       5,624       4,788      10,419       5,517       4,902  
     Participation rate........................      77.7        96.1        63.4        78.0        95.8        64.5  
    Employed...................................     9,935       5,457       4,478       9,841       5,299       4,542  
     Employment-population ratio...............      74.1        93.3        59.3        73.7        92.0        59.8  
    Unemployed.................................       477         167         310         578         218         360  
     Unemployment rate.........................       4.6         3.0         6.5         5.5         3.9         7.4  
                                                                                                                       
          With no own children under 18                                                                                
                                                                                                                       
  Civilian noninstitutional population.........   144,167      71,506      72,661     146,829      72,957      73,872  
   Civilian labor force........................    85,552      45,967      39,585      87,462      46,975      40,487  
     Participation rate........................      59.3        64.3        54.5        59.6        64.4        54.8  
    Employed...................................    81,074      43,253      37,821      81,844      43,505      38,339  
     Employment-population ratio...............      56.2        60.5        52.1        55.7        59.6        51.9  
    Unemployed.................................     4,478       2,714       1,764       5,618       3,470       2,148  
     Unemployment rate.........................       5.2         5.9         4.5         6.4         7.4         5.3  

     NOTE:  Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. See the Technical
  Note for further information. 





  Table 3.  Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations 25 years and over by educational attainment,
  race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2007-08 annual averages

  (Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                              
                                                              2007                                      2008                  
                                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                              
               Characteristic              Less than    High       Some              Less than    High       Some             
                                             a high    school    college  Bachelor's   a high    school    college  Bachelor's
                                             school  graduates,     or    degree and   school  graduates,     or    degree and
                                            diploma  no college associate higher (2)  diploma  no college associate higher (2)
                                                         (1)      degree                           (1)      degree            
                                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                              
                FOREIGN BORN                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                              
        White non-Hispanic or Latino                                                                                          
                                                                                                                              
  Civilian noninstitutional population....      895     1,850      1,338     2,701        891     1,884      1,360     2,744  
   Civilian labor force...................      306     1,035        882     1,991        276       990        885     2,024  
     Participation rate...................     34.1      55.9       65.9      73.7       30.9      52.5       65.1      73.7  
    Employed..............................      292       993        850     1,937        253       939        838     1,952  
     Employment-population ratio..........     32.7      53.7       63.5      71.7       28.4      49.9       61.6      71.2  
    Unemployed............................       13        42         32        53         22        50         48        71  
     Unemployment rate....................      4.3       4.1        3.6       2.7        8.1       5.1        5.4       3.5  
                                                                                                                              
        Black non-Hispanic or Latino                                                                                          
                                                                                                                              
  Civilian noninstitutional population....      318       712        570       654        334       758        629       677  
   Civilian labor force...................      193       515        474       566        192       561        501       582  
     Participation rate...................     60.7      72.2       83.2      86.6       57.4      74.0       79.7      86.0  
    Employed..............................      177       491        445       549        176       516        466       559  
     Employment-population ratio..........     55.6      68.9       78.1      84.1       52.9      68.1       74.0      82.5  
    Unemployed............................       16        24         29        17         15        45         36        24  
     Unemployment rate....................      8.4       4.7        6.1       3.0        7.9       8.0        7.1       4.1  
                                                                                                                              
        Asian non-Hispanic or Latino                                                                                          
                                                                                                                              
  Civilian noninstitutional population....      836     1,428      1,066     3,754        864     1,453      1,033     3,880  
   Civilian labor force...................      370       924        769     2,889        402       951        758     2,979  
     Participation rate...................     44.3      64.7       72.1      77.0       46.6      65.5       73.4      76.8  
    Employed..............................      359       892        736     2,828        375       913        725     2,898  
     Employment-population ratio..........     43.0      62.5       69.0      75.3       43.4      62.8       70.2      74.7  
    Unemployed............................       11        32         33        61         27        39         33        81  
     Unemployment rate....................      3.0       3.5        4.3       2.1        6.8       4.1        4.4       2.7  
                                                                                                                              
        Hispanic or Latino ethnicity                                                                                          
                                                                                                                              
  Civilian noninstitutional population....    7,368     3,801      1,726     1,508      7,292     3,940      1,852     1,579  
   Civilian labor force...................    5,001     2,877      1,352     1,189      4,871     2,967      1,439     1,245  
     Participation rate...................     67.9      75.7       78.3      78.9       66.8      75.3       77.7      78.9  
    Employed..............................    4,736     2,764      1,297     1,155      4,495     2,790      1,368     1,198  
     Employment-population ratio..........     64.3      72.7       75.1      76.6       61.6      70.8       73.9      75.9  
    Unemployed............................      266       112         56        34        376       177         71        47  
     Unemployment rate....................      5.3       3.9        4.1       2.9        7.7       6.0        5.0       3.7  
                                                                                                                              
                NATIVE BORN                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                              
        White non-Hispanic or Latino                                                                                          
                                                                                                                              
  Civilian noninstitutional population....   11,099    41,790     35,413    41,067     10,723    41,180     35,972    41,982  
   Civilian labor force...................    4,092    25,333     25,048    31,725      3,975    24,863     25,386    32,458  
     Participation rate...................     36.9      60.6       70.7      77.3       37.1      60.4       70.6      77.3  
    Employed..............................    3,783    24,377     24,281    31,150      3,644    23,659     24,397    31,727  
     Employment-population ratio..........     34.1      58.3       68.6      75.9       34.0      57.5       67.8      75.6  
    Unemployed............................      309       955        767       575        331     1,204        990       731  
     Unemployment rate....................      7.5       3.8        3.1       1.8        8.3       4.8        3.9       2.3  
                                                                                                                              
        Black non-Hispanic or Latino                                                                                          
                                                                                                                              
  Civilian noninstitutional population....    3,215     6,938      5,306     3,496      3,128     6,923      5,533     3,582  
   Civilian labor force...................    1,154     4,481      3,948     2,872      1,167     4,467      4,125     2,881  
     Participation rate...................     35.9      64.6       74.4      82.1       37.3      64.5       74.6      80.4  
    Employed..............................    1,003     4,138      3,731     2,788        979     4,046      3,815     2,769  
     Employment-population ratio..........     31.2      59.6       70.3      79.7       31.3      58.4       69.0      77.3  
    Unemployed............................      151       343        216        84        187       420        310       113  
     Unemployment rate....................     13.1       7.7        5.5       2.9       16.0       9.4        7.5       3.9  
                                                                                                                              
        Asian non-Hispanic or Latino                                                                                          
                                                                                                                              
  Civilian noninstitutional population....      143       397        399       953        147       360        442       929  
   Civilian labor force...................       58       223        287       757         57       210        308       737  
     Participation rate...................     40.6      56.0       72.0      79.4       38.9      58.2       69.6      79.3  
    Employed..............................       56       218        281       734         55       200        301       715  
     Employment-population ratio..........     39.4      54.8       70.3      77.0       37.7      55.4       68.2      76.9  
    Unemployed............................        2         5          7        23          2        10          6        23  
     Unemployment rate....................      2.9       2.2        2.3       3.0        2.9       4.9        2.1       3.1  
                                                                                                                              
        Hispanic or Latino ethnicity                                                                                          
                                                                                                                              
  Civilian noninstitutional population....    2,275     3,390      2,939     1,784      2,264     3,587      3,131     1,835  
   Civilian labor force...................    1,039     2,468      2,340     1,517      1,040     2,609      2,476     1,588  
     Participation rate...................     45.7      72.8       79.6      85.1       45.9      72.8       79.1      86.5  
    Employed..............................      942     2,345      2,245     1,489        931     2,442      2,353     1,537  
     Employment-population ratio..........     41.4      69.2       76.4      83.5       41.1      68.1       75.2      83.8  
    Unemployed............................       97       122         94        29        109       167        123        50  
     Unemployment rate....................      9.4       5.0        4.0       1.9       10.4       6.4        5.0       3.2  

     1 Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
     2 Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.
     NOTE:  Data for race/ethnicity groups do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Updated
  population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. See the Technical Note for further
  information. 





  Table 4.  Employed foreign-born and native-born persons 16 years and over by occupation and sex,
  2008 annual averages

  (Percent distribution)
                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                     
                                                                   Foreign Born                  Native Born         
                        Occupation                                                                                   
                                                                                                                     
                                                            Total      Men      Women     Total      Men      Women  
                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                     
    Total................................................   22,660    13,578     9,082   122,703    63,908    58,795 
    Percent..............................................    100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0 
                                                                                                                     
  Management, professional, and related occupations......     28.2      25.9      31.5      37.8      35.1      40.7 
   Management, business, and financial operations                                                                    
    occupations..........................................     10.8      10.6      11.0      16.0      17.5      14.3 
    Management occupations...............................      7.7       8.3       6.8      11.5      13.8       9.0 
    Business and financial operations occupations........      3.1       2.3       4.2       4.5       3.8       5.3 
   Professional and related occupations..................     17.4      15.3      20.5      21.8      17.6      26.4 
    Computer and mathematical occupations................      3.6       4.7       2.1       2.3       3.3       1.2 
    Architecture and engineering occupations.............      2.0       2.9        .8       2.0       3.4        .6 
    Life, physical, and social science occupations.......      1.2       1.2       1.2        .9        .9        .8 
    Community and social services occupations............       .9        .7       1.1       1.7       1.3       2.2 
    Legal occupations....................................       .4        .3        .7       1.3       1.2       1.4 
    Education, training, and library occupations.........      3.3       1.8       5.4       6.4       3.1      10.0 
    Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media                                                                   
     occupations.........................................      1.4       1.2       1.6       2.0       2.0       2.0 
    Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations....      4.6       2.6       7.8       5.2       2.4       8.2 
                                                                                                                     
  Service occupations....................................     23.2      17.7      31.3      15.6      12.6      18.9 
    Healthcare support occupations.......................      2.5        .5       5.4       2.2        .5       4.0 
    Protective service occupations.......................       .9       1.1        .6       2.3       3.4       1.1 
    Food preparation and serving related occupations.....      7.5       7.3       7.7       5.0       3.8       6.3 
    Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance                                                                    
     occupations.........................................      8.2       7.2       9.7       2.9       3.6       2.2 
    Personal care and service occupations................      4.1       1.5       7.9       3.3       1.3       5.3 
                                                                                                                     
  Sales and office occupations...........................     17.2      12.4      24.3      25.8      17.8      34.5 
    Sales and related occupations........................      8.9       7.8      10.6      11.6      11.2      12.1 
    Office and administrative support occupations........      8.3       4.6      13.8      14.2       6.6      22.4 
                                                                                                                     
  Natural resources, construction, and maintenance                                                                   
   occupations...........................................     15.1      24.2       1.5       9.3      17.0        .8 
    Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations...........      1.7       2.2        .9        .5        .7        .2 
    Construction and extraction occupations..............     10.4      17.2        .4       5.1       9.6        .3 
    Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations....      3.0       4.8        .2       3.6       6.7        .3 
                                                                                                                     
  Production, transportation, and material moving                                                                    
   occupations...........................................     16.4      19.7      11.3      11.5      17.4       5.0 
    Production occupations...............................      9.3       9.9       8.4       5.6       7.8       3.2 
    Transportation and material moving occupations.......      7.1       9.9       2.9       5.9       9.6       1.8 

     NOTE:  Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. See the Technical
  Note for further information. 





  Table 5.  Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary works for the foreign born and native born by selected
  characteristics, 2007-08 annual averages

  (Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                               
                                                          2007                                         2008                    
                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                               
                                         Foreign Born      Native Born    Earnings    Foreign Born      Native Born    Earnings
                                                                             of                                           of   
            Characteristic                                                 foreign                                      foreign
                                                                          born as                                      born as 
                                                Median            Median   percent           Median            Median   percent
                                       Number   weekly   Number   weekly     of     Number   weekly   Number   weekly     of   
                                               earnings          earnings  native           earnings          earnings  native 
                                                                          born (1)                                     born (1)
                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                               
    Total, 16 years and over.........   17,876     $554   89,463     $722    76.8    17,328     $595   89,320     $744    79.9 
  Men................................   11,329      585   48,969      809    72.3    10,848      613   48,591      842    72.9 
  Women..............................    6,547      509   40,494      627    81.2     6,480      557   40,729      651    85.5 
                                                                                                                               
                  AGE                                                                                                          
                                                                                                                               
    16 to 24 years...................    1,650      391    9,599      435    89.8     1,337      402    9,284      451    89.1 
    25 to 34 years...................    5,078      520   20,792      669    77.8     4,786      572   20,857      689    83.0 
    35 to 44 years...................    5,186      604   21,814      807    74.7     5,118      635   21,290      842    75.4 
    45 to 54 years...................    3,816      615   22,877      817    75.2     3,846      663   22,794      848    78.2 
    55 to 64 years...................    1,761      632   12,435      828    76.3     1,849      661   12,914      849    77.9 
    65 years and over................      386      518    1,946      622    83.3       392      568    2,181      659    86.2 
                                                                                                                               
         RACE AND HISPANIC OR                                                                                                  
         LATINO ETHNICITY (2)                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                               
    White non-Hispanic or Latino ....    3,084      805   68,484      762   105.6     2,984      846   68,334      788   107.3 
    Black non-Hispanic or Latino ....    1,442      585   11,160      569   102.8     1,472      601   10,905      588   102.2 
    Asian non-Hispanic or Latino ....    3,876      832    1,188      832   100.0     3,988      864    1,184      865    99.8 
    Hispanic or Latino ethnicity.....    9,297      448    6,904      605    74.0     8,686      483    7,122      621    77.8 
                                                                                                                               
        EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                               
      Total, 25 years and over.......   16,225      586   79,864      763    76.7    15,992      614   80,036      788    78.0 
    Less than a high school diploma..    4,582      405    4,164      479    84.6     4,213      417    3,908      493    84.6 
    High school graduates, no                                                                                                  
     college (3) ....................    3,928      511   24,069      617    82.9     3,920      523   23,472      633    82.7 
    Some college or associate degree     2,539      617   23,651      714    86.5     2,582      651   23,944      729    89.3 
    Bachelor's degree and higher (4)     5,177    1,057   27,980    1,075    98.3     5,277    1,092   28,713    1,119    97.6 

     1 These figures are computed using unrounded medians and may differ slightly from percents computed using the rounded
  medians displayed in this table.
     2 Data for race/ethnicity groups do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races.
     3 Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
     4 Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.
     NOTE:  Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. See the Technical Note for
  further information. 





  Table 6.  Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations 16 years and over by census regions and divisions,
  2007-08 annual averages

  (Numbers in thousands)
                                                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                                
                                                     2007                                                        2008                           
                                                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                                
                                                  Civilian labor force                                        Civilian labor force              
    Census regions and    Civilian                                                    Civilian                                                  
        divisions         noninsti-                                                   noninsti-                                                 
                          tutional                                    Unemployed      tutional                                    Unemployed    
                          popula-              Par-                                    popula-             Par-                                 
                           tion      Total    ticipa-   Employed                        tion     Total    ticipa-   Employed                    
                                             tion rate             Number  Unemploy-                     tion rate             Number  Unemploy-
                                                                           ment rate                                                   ment rate
                                                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                                
       FOREIGN BORN                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                
    Northeast...........    7,742     5,113     66.0      4,887       225      4.4      7,652     5,044     65.9      4,793       251      5.0  
      New England.......    1,540     1,062     68.9      1,018        43      4.1      1,491     1,023     68.6        963        60      5.8  
      Middle Atlantic...    6,202     4,051     65.3      3,869       182      4.5      6,162     4,021     65.3      3,830       192      4.8  
                                                                                                                                                
    South...............   10,711     7,536     70.4      7,265       272      3.6     10,912     7,610     69.7      7,198       412      5.4  
      South Atlantic....    6,434     4,602     71.5      4,431       171      3.7      6,474     4,577     70.7      4,301       276      6.0  
      East South Central      567       424     74.8        412        12      2.9        583       434     74.5        413        21      4.9  
      West South Central    3,709     2,510     67.7      2,422        88      3.5      3,855     2,599     67.4      2,484       115      4.4  
                                                                                                                                                
    Midwest.............    3,791     2,626     69.3      2,506       120      4.6      3,931     2,708     68.9      2,547       161      5.9  
      East North Central    2,923     1,996     68.3      1,906        90      4.5      3,015     2,047     67.9      1,927       120      5.9  
      West North Central      868       630     72.6        600        30      4.8        916       661     72.2        620        41      6.2  
                                                                                                                                                
    West................   12,773     8,719     68.3      8,309       410      4.7     12,822     8,701     67.9      8,122       579      6.7  
      Mountain..........    2,178     1,513     69.5      1,453        61      4.0      2,195     1,529     69.6      1,445        83      5.5  
      Pacific...........   10,595     7,206     68.0      6,857       349      4.8     10,627     7,172     67.5      6,677       495      6.9  
                                                                                                                                                
       NATIVE BORN                                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                                
    Northeast...........   35,327    22,881     64.8     21,863     1,018      4.4     35,527    23,186     65.3     21,903     1,283      5.5  
      New England.......    9,770     6,623     67.8      6,322       301      4.5      9,839     6,659     67.7      6,299       360      5.4  
      Middle Atlantic...   25,556    16,257     63.6     15,541       717      4.4     25,688    16,527     64.3     15,604       923      5.6  
                                                                                                                                                
    South...............   73,484    47,086     64.1     44,994     2,092      4.4     74,203    47,437     63.9     44,826     2,611      5.5  
      South Atlantic....   38,242    24,749     64.7     23,708     1,041      4.2     38,649    24,989     64.7     23,584     1,406      5.6  
      East South Central   13,223     8,199     62.0      7,792       407      5.0     13,316     8,134     61.1      7,619       515      6.3  
      West South Central   22,019    14,139     64.2     13,494       645      4.6     22,238    14,314     64.4     13,624       691      4.8  
                                                                                                                                                
    Midwest.............   47,517    32,377     68.1     30,697     1,680      5.2     47,526    32,231     67.8     30,279     1,953      6.1  
      East North Central   32,930    22,073     67.0     20,827     1,245      5.6     32,903    21,939     66.7     20,483     1,456      6.6  
      West North Central   14,587    10,305     70.6      9,870       435      4.2     14,623    10,293     70.4      9,796       497      4.8  
                                                                                                                                                
    West................   40,522    26,786     66.1     25,525     1,261      4.7     41,215    27,369     66.4     25,694     1,675      6.1  
      Mountain..........   13,893     9,417     67.8      9,080       337      3.6     14,227     9,635     67.7      9,148       487      5.1  
      Pacific...........   26,629    17,368     65.2     16,445       923      5.3     26,988    17,734     65.7     16,546     1,188      6.7  

     NOTE:  The states (plus the District of Columbia) that comprise the census divisions are: New England (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts,
  New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont); Middle Atlantic (New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania); South Atlantic (Delaware, District of
  Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia); East South Central (Alabama, Kentucky,
  Mississippi, and Tennessee); West South Central Division (Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas); East North Central (Illinois, Indiana,
  Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin); West North Central (Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota); Mountain
  (Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming); Pacific (Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington). 
     Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. See the Technical Note for further information.




Last Modified Date: March 26, 2009
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