Economic News Release

Labor Force Characteristics of Foreign-born Workers News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Thursday, May 24, 2012                         USDL-12-1019

Technical information:  (202) 691-6378  *  cpsinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/cps
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


             FOREIGN-BORN WORKERS: LABOR FORCE CHARACTERISTICS -- 2011


The unemployment rate for the foreign born was 9.1 percent in 2011, down from 9.8
percent in 2010, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. The jobless
rate of the native born was 8.9 percent in 2011, compared with 9.6 percent in the
prior year. The foreign born made up 15.9 percent of the labor force.

Data on nativity are collected as part of the Current Population Survey (CPS), a
monthly sample survey of approximately 60,000 households. The foreign born are
persons who reside in the United States but who were born outside the country or
one of its outlying areas to parents who were not U.S. citizens. The foreign born
include legally-admitted immigrants, refugees, temporary residents such as students
and temporary workers, and undocumented immigrants. The survey data, however, do
not separately identify the numbers of persons in these categories. For further
information about the survey, see the Technical Note.

Highlights from the 2011 data:

  -- In 2011, there were 24.4 million foreign-born persons in the U.S. labor
     force, comprising 15.9 percent of the total. (See table 1.)

  -- Hispanics accounted for 49.0 percent of the foreign-born labor force in
     2011. Asians accounted for 22.3 percent. (See table 1.) (Data in this news
     release for persons who are white, black, or Asian do not include those
     of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. Data on persons of Hispanic or Latino
     ethnicity are presented separately.)

  -- Foreign-born workers were more likely than native-born workers to be
     employed in service occupations; production, transportation, and
     material moving occupations; and natural resources, construction, and
     maintenance occupations. (See table 4.)

  -- The median usual weekly earnings of foreign-born full-time wage and
     salary workers were $609 in 2011, compared with $780 for their native-
     born counterparts. (See table 5.) (Differences in earnings reflect a
     variety of factors, including variations in the distributions of foreign-
     born and native-born workers by educational attainment, occupation,
     industry, and geographic region.)

Demographic Characteristics

The demographic characteristics of the foreign-born labor force differ from those of
the native-born labor force. In 2011, men accounted for 59.0 percent of the foreign-
born labor force, compared with 52.3 percent of the native-born labor force. By age,
the proportion of the foreign-born labor force made up of 25- to 54-year-olds (75.4
percent) was higher than for their native-born counterparts (64.5 percent). Labor
force participation is typically highest among persons in that age bracket. (See
table 1.)

In 2011, nearly half (49.0 percent) of the foreign-born labor force was Hispanic, and
22.3 percent was Asian, compared with 8.5 and 1.4 percent, respectively, of the native-
born labor force. About 19 percent of the foreign-born labor force was white and 8.8
percent was black, compared with 76.4 and 11.6 percent, respectively, of the native-
born labor force.

In 2011, 25.5 percent of the foreign-born labor force 25 years old and over had not
completed high school, compared with 5.3 percent of the native-born labor force.
The foreign born were less likely than the native born to have some college or an
associate degree--17.5 versus 29.9 percent. Similar proportions of foreign-born and
native-born persons in the labor force had a bachelor's degree or higher (31.7 and
36.1 percent, respectively). 

Labor Force

The share of the U.S. civilian labor force that was foreign born was 15.9 percent in
2011, little different from 15.8 percent in 2010. (See table 1.)

In 2011, the labor force participation rate of the foreign born was 67.0 percent. The
labor force participation rate of the native born was 63.6 percent. The labor force
participation rate of foreign-born men was 79.5 percent in 2011, compared with 68.8
percent for native-born men. Among women, 54.6 percent of the foreign born were labor
force participants, compared with 58.7 percent of the native born.

Among the foreign born, the labor force participation rate for blacks was 71.2 percent
in 2011, little different from the participation rate for Hispanics (69.8 percent). The
participation rate for whites was 60.2 percent, while that for Asians was 65.6 percent.
Among the native born, the labor force participation rate for whites was 64.3 percent,
followed by Hispanics (63.2 percent), Asians (61.5 percent), and blacks (60.1 percent).

In 2011, foreign-born mothers with children under 18 years old were less likely to be
labor force participants than were native-born mothers--59.8 versus 73.2 percent. Labor
force participation differences between foreign-born and native-born mothers were
greater among those with younger children than among those with older children. The
labor force participation rate of foreign-born mothers with children under age 6 was
50.5 percent in 2011, much lower than that for native-born mothers with children under
age 6, at 67.3 percent. Among women with children under age 3, the participation rate
for the foreign born (45.2 percent) was nearly 20 percentage points below that for
native-born mothers (64.3 percent). The labor force participation rates of foreign- and
native-born fathers with children under age 18 were similar, at 93.8 and 93.1 percent,
respectively. (See table 2.)

By region, the foreign born made up a larger share of the labor force in the West
(24.0 percent) and in the Northeast (18.5 percent) than for the nation as a whole
(15.9 percent) in 2011. In contrast, the foreign born made up a smaller share of the
labor force than for the nation as a whole in the South (14.2 percent) and Midwest
(8.0 percent). (See table 6.)

Unemployment

From 2010 to 2011, the unemployment rates of the foreign born and the native born each
declined by 0.7 percentage point, to 9.1 percent and 8.9 percent, respectively. Overall,
the unemployment rates of the foreign born in younger age groups (ages 16 to 34) tend
to be lower than the jobless rates for the native born, while for older workers (ages 35
and up), unemployment rates of the foreign born tend to be higher than for the native
born. (See table 1.)

In 2011, the unemployment rate for foreign-born men was 8.8 percent, compared with 9.5
percent for native-born men. Among women, however, the jobless rate for the foreign born
was higher than for the native born, 9.5 versus 8.3 percent.

Among the major race and ethnicity groups, blacks had the highest unemployment rate in
2011, regardless of whether they were foreign born or native born. Among the foreign
born, blacks had an unemployment rate of 12.5 percent in 2011, compared with 6.7 percent
for Asians, 7.6 percent for whites, and 10.1 percent for Hispanics. Among the native
born, the jobless rate of blacks (16.3 percent) was higher than the rate for whites (7.2
percent), Asians (8.2 percent), and Hispanics (13.0 percent).

Occupation

In 2011, foreign-born workers were more likely than native-born workers to be employed
in service occupations (24.6 versus 16.4 percent). Within service occupations, about
two-thirds of the foreign born were employed in food preparation and serving related
occupations and in building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations (combined),
whereas about one-half of the native-born service workers were employed in the same
occupations. Foreign-born workers also were more likely than native-born workers to be
employed in production, transportation, and material moving occupations (15.8 versus
11.0 percent) and in natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations (13.5
versus 8.5 percent). (See table 4.)

Native-born workers were more likely than foreign-born workers to be employed in
management, professional, and related occupations (39.3 versus 28.6 percent) and in
sales and office occupations (24.8 versus 17.5 percent).

Employed foreign-born men were more likely than their native-born counterparts to work
in natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations; service occupations;
and production, transportation, and material moving occupations. Compared with native-
born women workers, employed foreign-born women were more likely to be in service
occupations and in production, transportation, and material moving occupations. The
disparity was especially great in service occupations. In 2011, 32.2 percent of
foreign-born women workers were in service occupations, compared with 19.4 percent of
native-born women workers. Employed native-born women were more likely than employed
foreign-born women to be in sales and office occupations, 32.6 versus 24.5 percent.

Earnings

In 2011, the median usual weekly earnings of foreign-born, full-time wage and salary
workers ($609) were 78.0 percent of the earnings of their native-born counterparts
($780). Among men, median earnings for the foreign born were $624 per week, while the
native born earned $879 per week. The median usual weekly earnings for foreign-born
women were $585, compared with $701 for native-born women. Differences in earnings
reflect a variety of factors, including variations in the distributions of foreign-
born and native-born workers by educational attainment, occupation, industry, and
geographic region. (See table 5.)

Hispanic foreign-born full-time wage and salary workers earned 77.0 percent as much
as their native-born counterparts in 2011. For white, black, and Asian workers,
earnings were similar for the foreign born and the native born.

The earnings of both foreign-born and native-born workers increase with education.
In 2011, foreign-born workers age 25 and over with less than a high school education
earned $417 per week, while those with a bachelor’s degree and higher earned about
2.8 times as much--$1,148 per week. Among the native born, those with a bachelor’s
degree and higher earned about 2.3 times as much as those with less than a high school
education--$1,151 versus $497 per week.

Native-born workers earn more than the foreign born at most educational attainment
levels. The gap between the earnings of foreign-born and native-born workers narrows
with higher levels of education. For example, among those with less than a high school
diploma in 2011, full-time workers who were foreign born earned 83.9 percent as much
as their native-born counterparts. Among those with a bachelor’s degree and higher,
foreign-born workers earned essentially as much (99.8 percent) as native-born workers.




Technical Note

   The estimates in this news release are based on annual average data from the Current
Population Survey (CPS). The CPS, which is conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for
the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), is a monthly survey of about 60,000 eligible
households that provides information on the labor force status, demographics, and
other characteristics of the nation's civilian noninstitutional population age 16
and over. In response to the increased demand for statistical information about the
foreign born, questions on nativity, citizenship, year of entry into the United
States, and the parental nativity of respondents were added to the CPS beginning in
January 1994. Prior to 1994, the primary sources of data on the foreign born were
the decennial census, two CPS supplements (conducted in April 1983 and November 1989),
and, to some extent, information collected by the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration
Services (formerly known as the Immigration and Naturalization Service).

   The foreign- and native-born data for 2011 are not strictly comparable with data for
2010 and earlier years because of the introduction in January 2011 of revised population
controls used in the CPS. The effect of the revised population controls on the foreign-
and native-born estimates is unknown. However, the effect of the new controls on the
monthly CPS estimates was to decrease the December 2010 employment level by 472,000 and
the unemployment level by 32,000. The updated controls had little or no effect on unem-
ployment rates and limited effects on other ratios. Additional information is available
from the BLS website at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#pop.

   Information in this news release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200, Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Reliability of the estimates

   Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. When
a sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, there is a chance that the
sample estimates may differ from the "true" population values they represent. The exact
difference, or sampling error, varies depending upon the particular sample selected, and
this variability is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There is about a 90-
percent chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ
by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the "true" population value because of sampling
error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

   The CPS data also are affected by nonsampling error. Nonsampling error can occur for
many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, inability to
obtain information for all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of
respondents to provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or pro-
cessing of the data.

   A full discussion of the reliability of data from the CPS and information on estimating
standard errors is available at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#reliability .

Definitions

   Definitions of the principal terms used in this news release are presented below.

   Foreign born. The foreign born are persons residing in the United States who were not
U.S. citizens at birth. That is, they were born outside the United States or one of its
outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam, to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen.
The foreign-born population includes legally-admitted immigrants, refugees, temporary
residents such as students and temporary workers, and undocumented immigrants. The survey
data, however, do not separately identify the number of persons in these categories.

   Native born. The native born are persons born in the United States or one of its
outlying areas such as Puerto Rico or Guam or who were born abroad of at least one parent
who was a U.S. citizen.

    Race and ethnicity groups. In this release, the data are presented for non-Hispanic
whites, blacks, and Asians and for persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. These four
groups are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive. Other race groups (including persons
who selected more than one race category) are included in the overall totals but are
not shown separately because the number of survey respondents is too small to develop
statistically reliable estimates. The presentation of the data on race and ethnicity in
this release differs from that which appears in most analyses of CPS labor force data
because persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity are separated from the race groups.
Because persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity can be of any race, they are usually
included in the race groups as well as shown separately in the Hispanic or Latino
ethnicity group. The reason for the difference in the data presentation in this release
is because about half of the foreign born are of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity and they
have somewhat different labor force characteristics than the non-Hispanic foreign born.

   Employed. Employed persons are (a) all those who, during the survey reference week,
did any work at all as paid employees, worked in their own business, profession, or on
their own farm, or who worked 15 hours or more as unpaid workers in a family-operated
enterprise; and (b) all those who did not work but had jobs or businesses from which
they were temporarily absent due to illness, bad weather, vacation, childcare problems,
labor disputes, or personal reasons, whether or not they were paid for the time off and
whether or not they were seeking other jobs.

   Unemployed. The unemployed are persons who had no employment during the reference week,
were available for work at that time, except for temporary illness, and had made specific
efforts to find employment sometime during the 4-week period ending with the reference
week. Persons who were waiting to be recalled to a job from which they had been laid off
need not be looking for work to be classified as unemployed.

   Civilian labor force. The civilian labor force comprises all persons classified as
employed or unemployed.

   Unemployment rate. The unemployment rate is the number unemployed as a percent of the
civilian labor force.

   Labor force participation rate. The labor force participation rate is the labor force
as a percent of the population.

   Usual weekly earnings. Data represent earnings before taxes and other deductions and
include any overtime pay, commissions, or tips usually received (at the main job in the
case of multiple jobholders). Earnings reported on a basis other than weekly are converted
to a weekly equivalent.

   Full-time wage and salary workers. These are workers who usually work 35 hours or
more per week at their sole or principal job and receive wages, salaries, commissions,
tips, payment in kind, or piece rates. The group includes employees in both the private
and public sectors but, for purposes of the earnings series, excludes all self-employed
persons, regardless of whether or not their businesses are incorporated.

   Median earnings. The median is the amount which divides a given earnings distribution
into two equal groups, one having earnings above the median and the other having earnings
below the median.




Table 1. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations by selected characteristics, 2010-2011 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2010 2011
Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force
Total Participa-
tion rate
Employed Unemployed Total Participa-
tion rate
Employed Unemployed
Number Unem-
ployment
rate
Number Unem-
ployment
rate

TOTAL

Total, 16 years and over

237,830 153,889 64.7 139,064 14,825 9.6 239,618 153,617 64.1 139,869 13,747 8.9

Men

115,174 81,985 71.2 73,359 8,626 10.5 116,317 81,975 70.5 74,290 7,684 9.4

Women

122,656 71,904 58.6 65,705 6,199 8.6 123,300 71,642 58.1 65,579 6,063 8.5

FOREIGN BORN

Total, 16 years and over

35,869 24,356 67.9 21,969 2,387 9.8 36,420 24,391 67.0 22,183 2,208 9.1

Men

17,936 14,375 80.1 12,946 1,429 9.9 18,090 14,379 79.5 13,120 1,260 8.8

Women

17,934 9,981 55.7 9,023 958 9.6 18,331 10,012 54.6 9,063 949 9.5

Age

16 to 24 years

3,533 1,975 55.9 1,661 314 15.9 3,631 1,971 54.3 1,695 276 14.0

25 to 34 years

7,714 5,936 77.0 5,387 550 9.3 7,562 5,758 76.1 5,255 503 8.7

35 to 44 years

8,470 6,884 81.3 6,265 619 9.0 8,492 6,843 80.6 6,301 542 7.9

45 to 54 years

6,949 5,719 82.3 5,172 547 9.6 7,089 5,799 81.8 5,274 525 9.1

55 to 64 years

4,528 3,011 66.5 2,727 284 9.4 4,737 3,161 66.7 2,870 290 9.2

65 years and over

4,674 831 17.8 757 74 8.9 4,909 860 17.5 788 72 8.3

Race and Hispanic
or Latino ethnicity(1)

White non-Hispanic or Latino

7,363 4,470 60.7 4,138 332 7.4 7,617 4,583 60.2 4,237 346 7.6

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

2,898 2,162 74.6 1,893 269 12.4 3,002 2,137 71.2 1,870 267 12.5

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

8,073 5,315 65.8 4,928 386 7.3 8,306 5,449 65.6 5,086 363 6.7

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

17,162 12,152 70.8 10,776 1,376 11.3 17,132 11,963 69.8 10,751 1,212 10.1

Educational attainment

Total, 25 years and over

32,336 22,381 69.2 20,308 2,073 9.3 32,790 22,420 68.4 20,488 1,932 8.6

Less than a high school diploma

9,620 5,930 61.6 5,219 712 12.0 9,532 5,721 60.0 5,086 634 11.1

High school graduates, no college(2)

8,284 5,663 68.4 5,087 576 10.2 8,488 5,674 66.8 5,145 529 9.3

Some college or associate degree

5,200 3,818 73.4 3,463 355 9.3 5,389 3,927 72.9 3,584 343 8.7

Bachelor's degree and higher(3)

9,232 6,970 75.5 6,539 431 6.2 9,381 7,098 75.7 6,673 425 6.0

NATIVE BORN

Total, 16 years and over

201,960 129,533 64.1 117,095 12,438 9.6 203,197 129,226 63.6 117,686 11,539 8.9

Men

97,238 67,610 69.5 60,414 7,196 10.6 98,228 67,595 68.8 61,170 6,425 9.5

Women

104,722 61,923 59.1 56,682 5,242 8.5 104,970 61,630 58.7 56,516 5,115 8.3

Age

16 to 24 years

34,415 18,960 55.1 15,417 3,543 18.7 34,567 19,026 55.0 15,668 3,358 17.7

25 to 34 years

33,189 27,678 83.4 24,842 2,836 10.2 33,801 27,967 82.7 25,282 2,685 9.6

35 to 44 years

31,620 26,482 83.8 24,398 2,084 7.9 31,006 25,817 83.3 23,970 1,847 7.2

45 to 54 years

37,348 30,242 81.0 28,019 2,223 7.4 36,753 29,560 80.4 27,593 1,967 6.7

55 to 64 years

31,357 20,286 64.7 18,909 1,377 6.8 32,250 20,604 63.9 19,315 1,289 6.3

65 years and over

34,032 5,886 17.3 5,511 375 6.4 34,819 6,252 18.0 5,858 393 6.3

Race and Hispanic
or Latino ethnicity(1)

White non-Hispanic or Latino

153,448 99,478 64.8 91,483 7,994 8.0 153,541 98,751 64.3 91,609 7,142 7.2

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

24,691 14,996 60.7 12,529 2,467 16.5 24,911 14,973 60.1 12,526 2,447 16.3

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

2,900 1,782 61.5 1,641 141 7.9 2,917 1,793 61.5 1,647 147 8.2

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

16,551 10,596 64.0 9,130 1,467 13.8 17,306 10,934 63.2 9,518 1,417 13.0

Educational attainment

Total, 25 years and over

167,546 110,573 66.0 101,679 8,895 8.0 168,630 110,200 65.4 102,019 8,181 7.4

Less than a high school diploma

16,046 5,949 37.1 4,896 1,053 17.7 15,590 5,878 37.7 4,881 998 17.0

High school graduates, no college(2)

53,753 32,573 60.6 29,206 3,367 10.3 53,444 31,670 59.3 28,679 2,992 9.4

Some college or associate degree

47,022 33,022 70.2 30,284 2,738 8.3 47,700 32,904 69.0 30,310 2,594 7.9

Bachelor's degree and higher(3)

50,724 39,029 76.9 37,293 1,736 4.4 51,896 39,747 76.6 38,149 1,598 4.0

Footnotes
(1) Data for race/ethnicity groups do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races.
(2) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(3) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 2. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations 16 years and over by presence and age of youngest child and sex, 2010-2011 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2010 2011
Total Men Women Total Men Women

FOREIGN BORN

With own children under 18

Civilian noninstitutional population

14,385 6,896 7,490 14,472 6,965 7,508

Civilian labor force

11,032 6,480 4,552 11,024 6,533 4,490

Participation rate

76.7 94.0 60.8 76.2 93.8 59.8

Employed

10,008 5,913 4,095 10,062 6,032 4,030

Employment-population ratio

69.6 85.7 54.7 69.5 86.6 53.7

Unemployed

1,025 568 457 961 501 460

Unemployment rate

9.3 8.8 10.0 8.7 7.7 10.2

With own children 6 to 17, none younger

Civilian noninstitutional population

7,338 3,423 3,915 7,484 3,474 4,010

Civilian labor force

5,908 3,184 2,725 5,941 3,215 2,725

Participation rate

80.5 93.0 69.6 79.4 92.6 68.0

Employed

5,373 2,903 2,470 5,437 2,969 2,468

Employment-population ratio

73.2 84.8 63.1 72.6 85.5 61.5

Unemployed

536 281 255 504 247 257

Unemployment rate

9.1 8.8 9.4 8.5 7.7 9.4

With own children under 6

Civilian noninstitutional population

7,047 3,473 3,574 6,989 3,491 3,497

Civilian labor force

5,124 3,296 1,827 5,083 3,318 1,765

Participation rate

72.7 94.9 51.1 72.7 95.0 50.5

Employed

4,635 3,010 1,625 4,625 3,063 1,562

Employment-population ratio

65.8 86.7 45.5 66.2 87.7 44.7

Unemployed

489 287 202 457 255 203

Unemployment rate

9.5 8.7 11.1 9.0 7.7 11.5

With own children under 3

Civilian noninstitutional population

4,074 2,022 2,053 3,961 2,019 1,942

Civilian labor force

2,871 1,916 955 2,802 1,925 877

Participation rate

70.5 94.8 46.5 70.8 95.4 45.2

Employed

2,585 1,748 837 2,547 1,784 762

Employment-population ratio

63.4 86.4 40.8 64.3 88.4 39.3

Unemployed

286 168 118 256 141 115

Unemployment rate

10.0 8.8 12.3 9.1 7.3 13.1

With no own children under 18

Civilian noninstitutional population

21,484 11,040 10,444 21,948 11,125 10,823

Civilian labor force

13,323 7,895 5,429 13,368 7,846 5,521

Participation rate

62.0 71.5 52.0 60.9 70.5 51.0

Employed

11,961 7,033 4,928 12,121 7,088 5,033

Employment-population ratio

55.7 63.7 47.2 55.2 63.7 46.5

Unemployed

1,362 862 501 1,247 758 489

Unemployment rate

10.2 10.9 9.2 9.3 9.7 8.9

NATIVE BORN

With own children under 18

Civilian noninstitutional population

51,801 22,530 29,270 51,190 22,218 28,972

Civilian labor force

42,459 21,018 21,441 41,879 20,675 21,204

Participation rate

82.0 93.3 73.2 81.8 93.1 73.2

Employed

38,981 19,430 19,551 38,703 19,357 19,346

Employment-population ratio

75.3 86.2 66.8 75.6 87.1 66.8

Unemployed

3,478 1,588 1,890 3,176 1,318 1,858

Unemployment rate

8.2 7.6 8.8 7.6 6.4 8.8

With own children 6 to 17, none younger

Civilian noninstitutional population

28,468 12,426 16,042 27,961 12,194 15,767

Civilian labor force

24,033 11,503 12,530 23,584 11,271 12,314

Participation rate

84.4 92.6 78.1 84.3 92.4 78.1

Employed

22,337 10,735 11,601 22,037 10,627 11,410

Employment-population ratio

78.5 86.4 72.3 78.8 87.1 72.4

Unemployed

1,697 768 929 1,548 644 903

Unemployment rate

7.1 6.7 7.4 6.6 5.7 7.3

With own children under 6

Civilian noninstitutional population

23,333 10,104 13,229 23,229 10,024 13,205

Civilian labor force

18,426 9,515 8,911 18,295 9,404 8,891

Participation rate

79.0 94.2 67.4 78.8 93.8 67.3

Employed

16,644 8,695 7,949 16,666 8,730 7,936

Employment-population ratio

71.3 86.1 60.1 71.7 87.1 60.1

Unemployed

1,781 820 961 1,629 674 955

Unemployment rate

9.7 8.6 10.8 8.9 7.2 10.7

With own children under 3

Civilian noninstitutional population

13,859 6,006 7,853 13,655 5,932 7,723

Civilian labor force

10,725 5,658 5,067 10,536 5,567 4,969

Participation rate

77.4 94.2 64.5 77.2 93.8 64.3

Employed

9,638 5,146 4,492 9,577 5,160 4,418

Employment-population ratio

69.5 85.7 57.2 70.1 87.0 57.2

Unemployed

1,087 511 575 958 407 551

Unemployment rate

10.1 9.0 11.4 9.1 7.3 11.1

With no own children under 18

Civilian noninstitutional population

150,159 74,708 75,452 152,007 76,010 75,998

Civilian labor force

87,074 46,591 40,483 87,346 46,920 40,426

Participation rate

58.0 62.4 53.7 57.5 61.7 53.2

Employed

78,115 40,983 37,131 78,983 41,814 37,170

Employment-population ratio

52.0 54.9 49.2 52.0 55.0 48.9

Unemployed

8,960 5,608 3,352 8,363 5,107 3,256

Unemployment rate

10.3 12.0 8.3 9.6 10.9 8.1

NOTE: Own children include sons, daughters, step-children, and adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 3. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations 25 years and over by educational attainment, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2010-2011 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2010 2011
Less than
a high
school
diploma
High school
graduates,
no college(1)
Some
college or
associate
degree
Bachelor's
degree and
higher(2)
Less than
a high
school
diploma
High school
graduates,
no college(1)
Some
college or
associate
degree
Bachelor's
degree and
higher(2)

FOREIGN BORN

White non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

870 1,773 1,364 2,832 815 1,884 1,407 2,935

Civilian labor force

307 937 883 2,053 274 978 899 2,144

Participation rate

35.3 52.8 64.8 72.5 33.6 51.9 63.9 73.0

Employed

282 851 818 1,935 243 897 832 2,019

Employment-population ratio

32.4 48.0 60.0 68.3 29.9 47.6 59.1 68.8

Unemployed

25 85 66 118 30 81 67 125

Unemployment rate

8.0 9.1 7.4 5.7 11.1 8.3 7.4 5.8

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

420 739 685 740 391 810 709 752

Civilian labor force

246 556 568 623 204 594 578 614

Participation rate

58.5 75.3 82.9 84.2 52.1 73.3 81.5 81.6

Employed

203 481 508 570 163 516 512 556

Employment-population ratio

48.3 65.1 74.2 77.1 41.7 63.7 72.2 74.0

Unemployed

43 75 60 53 41 78 66 57

Unemployment rate

17.4 13.6 10.6 8.5 19.9 13.2 11.4 9.3

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

931 1,536 1,088 3,877 955 1,628 1,149 3,892

Civilian labor force

414 977 767 2,889 404 1,014 807 2,936

Participation rate

44.5 63.6 70.6 74.5 42.3 62.3 70.3 75.4

Employed

368 901 703 2,724 366 935 749 2,785

Employment-population ratio

39.5 58.6 64.7 70.3 38.3 57.4 65.2 71.6

Unemployed

46 76 64 165 39 79 58 150

Unemployment rate

11.2 7.8 8.3 5.7 9.6 7.8 7.2 5.1

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Civilian noninstitutional population

7,351 4,146 1,989 1,667 7,331 4,072 2,052 1,687

Civilian labor force

4,937 3,134 1,542 1,316 4,815 3,032 1,586 1,309

Participation rate

67.2 75.6 77.5 78.9 65.7 74.4 77.3 77.6

Employed

4,341 2,802 1,383 1,225 4,294 2,746 1,437 1,221

Employment-population ratio

59.1 67.6 69.5 73.5 58.6 67.4 70.0 72.4

Unemployed

595 332 159 91 521 286 149 88

Unemployment rate

12.1 10.6 10.3 6.9 10.8 9.4 9.4 6.7

NATIVE BORN

White non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

10,172 41,667 36,307 43,147 9,841 41,003 36,755 44,100

Civilian labor force

3,654 24,684 25,135 32,916 3,609 23,710 24,997 33,543

Participation rate

35.9 59.2 69.2 76.3 36.7 57.8 68.0 76.1

Employed

3,086 22,458 23,275 31,582 3,103 21,813 23,315 32,316

Employment-population ratio

30.3 53.9 64.1 73.2 31.5 53.2 63.4 73.3

Unemployed

568 2,225 1,860 1,334 506 1,897 1,682 1,226

Unemployment rate

15.5 9.0 7.4 4.1 14.0 8.0 6.7 3.7

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

3,036 6,895 5,826 3,798 2,924 7,075 5,924 3,866

Civilian labor force

1,057 4,304 4,214 2,986 1,015 4,297 4,188 3,013

Participation rate

34.8 62.4 72.3 78.6 34.7 60.7 70.7 77.9

Employed

798 3,605 3,682 2,752 745 3,613 3,635 2,810

Employment-population ratio

26.3 52.3 63.2 72.5 25.5 51.1 61.4 72.7

Unemployed

259 698 532 235 270 684 553 203

Unemployment rate

24.5 16.2 12.6 7.9 26.6 15.9 13.2 6.7

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

Civilian noninstitutional population

133 387 471 1,008 119 397 451 1,090

Civilian labor force

54 228 329 817 46 221 317 862

Participation rate

40.5 58.9 69.9 81.0 39.0 55.8 70.3 79.1

Employed

49 212 304 777 41 207 292 814

Employment-population ratio

37.1 54.7 64.6 77.1 34.9 52.1 64.8 74.7

Unemployed

4 16 25 40 5 15 25 48

Unemployment rate

8.3 7.1 7.5 4.9 10.4 6.7 7.8 5.6

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Civilian noninstitutional population

2,295 3,769 3,314 2,059 2,281 3,927 3,414 2,074

Civilian labor force

1,033 2,714 2,583 1,728 1,043 2,781 2,628 1,722

Participation rate

45.0 72.0 77.9 83.9 45.7 70.8 77.0 83.0

Employed

842 2,373 2,343 1,637 862 2,470 2,393 1,636

Employment-population ratio

36.7 63.0 70.7 79.5 37.8 62.9 70.1 78.9

Unemployed

191 342 240 91 181 311 235 86

Unemployment rate

18.5 12.6 9.3 5.3 17.4 11.2 8.9 5.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Data for race/ethnicity groups do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 4. Employed foreign-born and native-born persons 16 years and over by occupation and sex, 2011 annual averages
[Percent distribution]
Occupation Foreign born Native born
Total Men Women Total Men Women

Total employed (in thousands)

22,183 13,120 9,063 117,686 61,170 56,516

Occupation as a percent of total employed

Total employed

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

28.6 26.5 31.6 39.3 36.1 42.7

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

11.0 11.2 10.7 16.3 17.7 14.8

Management occupations

7.6 8.5 6.3 11.5 13.6 9.3

Business and financial operations occupations

3.4 2.6 4.5 4.7 4.1 5.5

Professional and related occupations

17.6 15.4 20.9 23.0 18.4 27.9

Computer and mathematical occupations

3.5 4.5 2.0 2.4 3.4 1.3

Architecture and engineering occupations

2.0 2.8 0.7 2.0 3.3 0.6

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1.0 0.9 1.2 0.9 0.9 0.9

Community and social service occupations

0.9 0.7 1.2 1.8 1.2 2.5

Legal occupations

0.4 0.2 0.7 1.4 1.4 1.4

Education, training, and library occupations

3.7 2.1 5.9 6.6 3.3 10.3

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1.4 1.4 1.3 2.1 2.1 2.1

Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations

4.8 2.6 7.9 5.7 2.7 8.9

Service occupations

24.6 19.3 32.2 16.4 13.7 19.4

Healthcare support occupations

2.6 0.7 5.4 2.4 0.5 4.3

Protective service occupations

0.9 1.3 0.4 2.5 3.9 1.1

Food preparation and serving related occupations

7.9 7.8 7.9 5.1 4.1 6.2

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

8.8 8.0 10.0 3.0 3.8 2.2

Personal care and service occupations

4.3 1.5 8.4 3.4 1.4 5.6

Sales and office occupations

17.5 12.6 24.5 24.8 17.6 32.6

Sales and related occupations

8.7 7.4 10.7 11.4 11.1 11.7

Office and administrative support occupations

8.7 5.2 13.8 13.4 6.6 20.8

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13.5 21.8 1.5 8.5 15.7 0.7

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1.9 2.4 1.0 0.5 0.8 0.2

Construction and extraction occupations

8.5 14.1 0.3 4.5 8.3 0.2

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

3.2 5.2 0.2 3.6 6.6 0.3

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

15.8 19.8 10.1 11.0 16.9 4.7

Production occupations

8.7 9.3 7.7 5.3 7.5 2.9

Transportation and material moving occupations

7.2 10.5 2.4 5.7 9.3 1.8

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data. Effective with January 2011 data, occupations reflect the introduction of the 2010 Census occupational classification system into the Current Population Survey, or household survey. This classification system is derived from the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). No historical data have been revised. Data for 2011 are not strictly comparable with earlier years.


Table 5. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers for the foreign born and native born by selected characteristics, 2010-2011 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Characteristic 2010 2011
Foreign born Native born Earnings
of foreign
born as
percent of
native
born(1)
Foreign born Native born Earnings
of foreign
born as
percent of
native
born(1)
Number Median
weekly
earnings
Number Median
weekly
earnings
Number Median
weekly
earnings
Number Median
weekly
earnings

Total, 16 years and over

16,253 $598 83,278 $771 77.5 16,441 $609 84,015 $780 78.0

Men

10,056 610 45,003 873 69.9 10,177 624 45,794 879 71.0

Women

6,197 577 38,275 686 84.1 6,264 585 38,222 701 83.5

AGE

16 to 24 years

1,037 392 7,515 443 88.5 1,081 405 7,643 448 90.3

25 to 34 years

4,288 551 19,813 709 77.7 4,120 569 20,177 718 79.3

35 to 44 years

4,784 649 19,038 864 75.2 4,812 671 18,970 875 76.7

45 to 54 years

3,810 643 21,396 878 73.2 3,962 680 21,172 899 75.6

55 to 64 years

1,911 651 13,230 887 73.4 2,039 662 13,602 910 72.8

65 years and over

422 584 2,287 708 82.4 429 621 2,452 760 81.8

RACE AND HISPANIC OR
LATINO ETHNICITY(2)

White non-Hispanic or Latino

2,809 850 64,060 824 103.2 2,876 883 64,359 837 105.5

Black non-Hispanic or Latino

1,490 614 9,696 613 100.1 1,467 614 9,638 617 99.5

Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

3,665 871 1,179 841 103.5 3,876 868 1,226 878 98.8

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

8,092 480 6,745 629 76.4 8,044 489 7,103 636 77.0

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

Total, 25 years and over

15,216 615 75,764 818 75.2 15,361 628 76,373 831 75.6

Less than a high school diploma

3,895 416 3,258 486 85.5 3,822 417 3,197 497 83.9

High school graduates, no college(3)

3,687 521 21,512 648 80.4 3,828 530 21,328 661 80.2

Some college or associate degree

2,560 656 22,335 741 88.4 2,580 665 22,625 746 89.2

Bachelor's degree and higher(4)

5,073 1,119 28,658 1,147 97.6 5,131 1,148 29,222 1,151 99.8

Footnotes
(1) These figures are computed using unrounded medians and may differ slightly from percents computed using the rounded medians displayed in this table.
(2) Data for race/ethnicity groups do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races.
(3) Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(4) Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Table 6. Employment status of the foreign-born and native-born populations 16 years and over by census region and division, 2010-2011 annual averages
[Numbers in thousands]
Census region and
division
2010 2011
Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force Civilian
noninsti-
tutional
population
Civilian labor force
Total Participa-
tion rate
Employed Unemployed Total Participa-
tion rate
Employed Unemployed
Number Unem-
ployment
rate
Number Unem-
ployment
rate

FOREIGN BORN

Northeast

7,740 5,221 67.5 4,782 439 8.4 7,997 5,218 65.3 4,816 402 7.7

New England

1,465 1,013 69.2 923 90 8.9 1,525 1,025 67.2 946 78 7.7

Middle Atlantic

6,275 4,208 67.1 3,859 349 8.3 6,471 4,194 64.8 3,870 323 7.7

South

11,241 7,760 69.0 7,063 697 9.0 11,490 7,886 68.6 7,216 669 8.5

South Atlantic

6,556 4,534 69.2 4,075 459 10.1 6,722 4,622 68.8 4,202 420 9.1

East South Central

604 437 72.4 405 31 7.2 575 423 73.5 380 43 10.1

West South Central

4,082 2,789 68.3 2,583 206 7.4 4,193 2,841 67.8 2,634 207 7.3

Midwest

3,951 2,691 68.1 2,428 263 9.8 4,039 2,732 67.6 2,509 223 8.2

East North Central

3,018 2,029 67.2 1,827 203 10.0 3,077 2,045 66.5 1,878 167 8.2

West North Central

933 662 70.9 601 61 9.2 962 687 71.4 631 56 8.1

West

12,937 8,684 67.1 7,696 988 11.4 12,895 8,555 66.3 7,641 914 10.7

Mountain

2,216 1,463 66.0 1,300 163 11.1 2,257 1,517 67.2 1,368 149 9.8

Pacific

10,721 7,221 67.3 6,395 825 11.4 10,638 7,038 66.2 6,273 765 10.9

NATIVE BORN

Northeast

36,130 23,093 63.9 21,081 2,011 8.7 36,032 22,936 63.7 21,042 1,894 8.3

New England

10,071 6,744 67.0 6,174 570 8.4 10,080 6,716 66.6 6,193 522 7.8

Middle Atlantic

26,059 16,349 62.7 14,907 1,441 8.8 25,952 16,220 62.5 14,848 1,372 8.5

South

75,818 47,446 62.6 42,984 4,462 9.4 76,459 47,613 62.3 43,387 4,226 8.9

South Atlantic

39,475 24,735 62.7 22,286 2,449 9.9 39,759 24,741 62.2 22,449 2,292 9.3

East South Central

13,529 8,176 60.4 7,337 839 10.3 13,645 8,284 60.7 7,489 796 9.6

West South Central

22,814 14,535 63.7 13,361 1,174 8.1 23,055 14,588 63.3 13,449 1,139 7.8

Midwest

47,955 31,840 66.4 28,843 2,996 9.4 48,066 31,586 65.7 28,939 2,647 8.4

East North Central

33,128 21,572 65.1 19,313 2,259 10.5 33,149 21,261 64.1 19,285 1,976 9.3

West North Central

14,827 10,268 69.2 9,530 737 7.2 14,917 10,325 69.2 9,653 672 6.5

West

42,058 27,154 64.6 24,187 2,968 10.9 42,640 27,090 63.5 24,319 2,771 10.2

Mountain

14,628 9,614 65.7 8,699 914 9.5 14,783 9,533 64.5 8,694 839 8.8

Pacific

27,429 17,541 63.9 15,487 2,053 11.7 27,856 17,557 63.0 15,625 1,932 11.0

NOTE: The states (plus the Distric of Columbia) that comprise the census divisions are: New England (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont); Middle Atlantic (New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania); South Atlantic (Delaware, Distric of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia); East South Central (Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee); West South Central (Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas); East North Central (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin); West North Central (Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota); Mountain (Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming); Pacific (Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington). Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.


Last Modified Date: May 24, 2012
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