Economic News Release

International Comparisons of Hourly Compensation Costs in Manufacturing News Release




Internet address:  http://www.bls.gov/ilc  USDL: 09-0304
Technical information:  (202) 691-5654     For Release: 10:00 A.M. EDT
Media contact: (202) 691-5902              Thursday, March 26, 2009


INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS OF HOURLY COMPENSATION 
COSTS IN MANUFACTURING, 2007



    The trade-weighted average of hourly compensation costs in U.S. 
dollars for all employees in manufacturing among 31 foreign economies 
was 85 percent of the U.S. level in 2007, increasing from 79 percent in 
2006, according to data issued by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. 
Department of Labor.  Compensation costs relative to the United States 
rose or remained unchanged in all but one of the economies covered in 
2007.  (See table 1.)  This news release contains data for production 
workers in addition to the series for all employees.  (See discussion on 
page 6, table B, and table 7.)  A note on China's labor costs appears on 
page 6 of this release.

    In the United States, hourly compensation costs for all employees in 
manufacturing rose 1.9 percent from the 2006 level to $30.56 in 2007.  
When measured in national currency terms, trade-weighted average costs 
increased 3.4 percent in the combined 31 foreign economies in 2007.  The 
value of foreign currencies rose 4.9 percent against the U.S. dollar, 
resulting in a rise in hourly compensation costs in the foreign economies of 
8.5 percent on a U.S. dollar basis. (See chart 1 and table A.) 
 
Chart 1.  Hourly compensation costs in U.S. dollars for
          all employees in manufacturing, 1998-2007

PRINTED COPY CONTAINS CHART AT THIS POINT.



                               - 2 -


Compensation costs for all employees expressed in U.S. dollars

    This release provides manufacturing compensation data in terms of 
both national currencies and U.S. dollars.  While data on a national 
currency basis show underlying wage and benefit trends within each 
country, frequent and sometimes sharp changes in currency exchange rates 
can have a large impact on compensation costs in U.S. dollar terms.  Data 
on a U.S. dollar basis are calculated by dividing compensation costs in the 
national currency by the exchange rate (expressed as national currency 
units per U.S. dollar).  Compensation costs on a U.S. dollar basis are often 
used as indicators of competitiveness of manufactured goods in world 
trade and are the focus of the following discussion.

    Compensation costs for all employees in manufacturing measured in 
U.S. dollars continued to rise in 2007 in most of the foreign economies-
with only one country, Japan, showing a decrease in costs (-1.5 percent).  
Hourly compensation costs in Taiwan increased only marginally, by 0.6 
percent.  The rate of compensation increase in a trade-weighted average of 
the 31 foreign economies was 8.5 percent in 2007, more than double the 
3.9 percent historical average for the series. (See table A and table 3.)
 

Chart 2. Indexes of hourly compensation costs in U.S. dollars
         for all employees in manufacturing, 2007 (U.S.=100)

PRINTED COPY CONTAINS CHART AT THIS POINT.


    Although average costs in the United States continued to be higher 
than those in most of the economies covered outside of Europe, 13 of the 
19 European countries covered had higher hourly compensation costs than 
the United States, in most cases more than 20 percent higher. Hourly 
compensation costs in Denmark, Germany, and Norway were especially 
high when compared to the United States (56 percent higher, 66 percent 
higher, and 80 percent higher, respectively).  The euro appreciated against 
the U.S. dollar in 2007 by a considerable amount (+9.1 percent), causing 
double-digit growth in labor costs measured in U.S. dollars in most 


                               - 3 -


European countries.  Trade-weighted average hourly compensation costs in 
the four Eastern European countries in the series grew 23.0 percent when 
measured in U.S. dollars due in part to double-digit increases in the 
exchange rates of their national currencies against the U.S. dollar. 

    Compensation costs in Europe, on average, continued to be almost $9 
higher on a per hour basis than in the United States.  However, there is 
great variation in the level of compensation costs among the European 
countries covered.  For example, hourly compensation costs in Europe 
ranged from $7.69 in Poland to more than seven times that level in 
Norway ($55.03), the highest labor cost country in these comparisons. (See 
table 2.)

    Outside of Europe, only Canada and Australia had compensation 
costs higher than the United States when measured in U.S. dollars.  In 
2007, the lowest compensation costs relative to the United States were in 
Mexico and the Philippines (13 percent and 4 percent of the U.S. level, 
respectively).  In the East Asia ex-Japan economies, the trade-weighted 
average of hourly compensation costs rose to 43 percent of the U.S. level 
in 2007, continuing the upward trend seen since 2002, when compensation 
costs in the region were 32 percent of the U.S. level. 

    Annual percent changes in manufacturing compensation costs 
measured in U.S. dollars varied considerably in 2007 among the non-
European countries.  The only economies outside of Europe that did not 
show double-digit increases in hourly compensation costs were Canada, 
Mexico, Japan, and Taiwan. As mentioned above, Japan was the only 
country in these comparisons to show a decrease in hourly compensation 
costs measured in U.S. dollars due to both the depreciation of the Japanese 
yen and a relatively unchanged hourly compensation cost in the national 
currency of that country.  This is the third consecutive year that Japan has 
had negative growth in hourly compensation costs when measured in U.S. 
dollars. 
    
BOX: A note on the measures

     The hourly compensation costs measures in this news release 
are based on statistics available to BLS as of January 2009.  These
measures are prepared specifically for international comparisons of 
employer labor costs in manufacturing.  The methods used, as well as 
the results, differ somewhat from those of other BLS series on U.S. 
compensation costs.

      See the Technical Notes for further information regarding 
definitions, sources, and computation methods, as well as a 
description of the trade-weighted measures for economic groups.

     The data for some countries may be revised in later 
updates to reflect new or revised data provided to BLS subsequent 
to this news release. See International Comparisons of Hourly Compensation 
Costs for All Employees and Production Workers in Manufacturing, 22 
Manufacturing Industries at http://www.bls.gov/ilc/flshcaeindnaics.htm 
for the most recent data.

END OF BOX: A note on the measures  


                               - 4 -

Exchange rates
     The trade-weighted 4.9 percent increase in the value of the currencies 
of the 31 foreign economies against the U.S. dollar was the largest increase 
since 2004 (5.8 percent). From 1996 to 2002, the trade-weighted value of 
the currencies against the U.S. dollar weakened, on average, while the 
opposite has been true from 2003 to 2007.  The currencies of all economies 
appreciated against the U.S. dollar in 2007 with the exception of 
Argentina, Mexico, Japan, and Taiwan. (See table 5.)  

     The movements of the foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar in 
2007 had an influence on hourly manufacturing compensation costs 
measured in U.S. dollars.  Hourly compensation costs on a national 
currency basis in the 31 foreign economies rose 3.4 percent.  However, 
when adjusted for the appreciation of the foreign currencies against the 
U.S. dollar, this increase in costs was magnified to 8.5 percent.  In 2007, 
changes in both hourly compensation costs and exchange rates moved in 
the same direction for nearly all countries, so that increases (or decreases) 
in percent changes in hourly compensation costs in national currency were 
larger when measured in U.S. dollars. One exception, for example, is 
Argentina, where hourly compensation costs grew 22.7 percent in the 
national currency and only 21.4 percent when measured in U.S. dollars 
due to a 1.1 percent depreciation of the Argentine peso to the U.S. dollar.


                               - 5 -

Table A. Hourly compensation costs, in national currency and in 
U.S. dollars, for all employees in manufacturing and exchange 
rates (U.S. dollars per national currency unit)

Percent change, 2006-2007


                          Hourly                 Hourly
Country                compensation,          compensation,
or area                  national    Exchange     U.S.
                         currency     Rates     dollars

Americas        
  United States             1.9          -        1.9
  Argentina                22.7       -1.1       21.4
  Brazil                    6.5       11.7       19.0
  Canada                    3.2        5.6        9.0
  Mexico                    5.1        -.2        4.9
               
Asia and Oceania
  Australia                 2.4       11.4       14.0
  Israel                    3.6        7.8       11.7
  Japan                     -.3       -1.2       -1.5
  Korea, Republic of        7.7        2.7       10.7
  New Zealand               5.2       13.4       19.4
  Philippines               3.1        9.5       13.0
  Singapore                 6.3        5.4       12.0
  Taiwan                    1.6       -1.1         .6

Europe
  Austria                   3.4        9.1       12.8
  Belgium                   1.9        9.1       11.2
  Czech Republic            8.1       10.0       18.9
  Denmark                   5.7        9.2       15.4
  Finland                   3.2        9.1       12.6
  France                    2.7        9.1       12.1
  Germany                    .7        9.1        9.9
  Hungary                   9.7       13.6       24.7
  Ireland                   6.2        9.1       15.9
  Italy                     2.8        9.1       12.2
  Netherlands               1.9        9.1       11.2
  Norway                    6.6        9.5       16.7
  Poland                   10.4       10.7       22.3
  Portugal                   .5        9.1        9.7
  Slovakia                  7.9       18.8       28.3
  Spain                     3.8        9.1       13.3
  Sweden                    3.6        9.1       13.0
  Switzerland               1.5        4.4        6.0
  United Kingdom            3.9        8.5       12.8

Trade-weighted measures (1)
  All 31 foreign economies  3.4        4.9        8.5
  OECD (2)                  3.2        4.9        8.2
  Europe                    2.8        8.9       12.0
  Euro Area                 2.3        9.2       11.7 
  Eastern Europe            9.3       12.5       23.0
  East Asia ex-Japan        5.1        2.7        8.0
 
(1) For a description of trade-weighted measures and economic groups,
see the Technical Notes starting on page 10 of this release.
(2) Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.


                               - 6 -


Compensation costs for production workers 
 
     BLS also compiles hourly compensation data for production workers 
in manufacturing. Production workers generally include those employees 
who are engaged in fabricating, assembly, and related activities and 
typically account for a large part of manufacturing employment.  All 
employees include production workers as well as all others employed full 
or part time in an establishment.  (See the technical notes beginning on 
page 10 for more detailed definitions of production workers and all 
employees.)  The production worker series includes data for Hong Kong 
SAR, Sri Lanka, Greece, and Luxembourg, four economies not covered by 
the all employee series. Argentina and Slovakia are not included in the 
production worker series as comparable data are not available. 

BOX: Compensation Costs for China

     Acknowledging the importance of China as one of the United 
States' largest trading partners, BLS has undertaken the development of 
estimates of hourly compensation costs for that country.  Data for each 
year in the 2002-2006 period are shown below; the data for 2002, 2003, and
2004 were issued previously.  Compensation costs for China are not directly
comparable with the data for other countries found in this release and 
therefore are presented seperately.

     A description of the methods used to construct the estimate for 2002 
and data comparability issues can be found in Judith Banister's article
in the August 2005 Monthly Labor Review (which can be found on the BLS 
website at http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2005/08/art3full.pdf).  In general,
the methods used to prepare the hourly compensation costs data for 
subsequent years are the same as used in the Banister article.  (A discussion
of the estimates for 2003 and 2004 can be found in the November 2006 Monthly
Labor Review, at http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2006/11/art4full.pdf.) A 
discussion of the 2005 and 2006 data for China will be available in a 
forthcoming article scheduled for the April 2009 issue of the Review.

China: Hourly Compensation Costs for All Employees in 
Manufacturing, 2002-2006


               National           U.S.           Index (1)
Year           Currency           Dollar         (United 
               Basis              Basis          States
               (Yuan)             (US$)          =100) 

2002           4.73               0.57           2.1
2003           5.17               0.62           2.2
2004           5.50               0.67           2.3
2005           5.94               0.73           2.4
2006           6.43               0.81           2.7

(1) The index represents hourly compensation costs in China as a percent of
hourly compensation costs for all employees in U.S. manufacturing.  Previous
releases presented hourly compensation costs in China as a percent of hourly 
compensation costs for U.S. manufacturing production workers.

END OF BOX: Compensation Costs for China


                               - 7 -


     As the final column in Table B shows, hourly compensation costs for 
production workers are lower than those for all employees in each 
economy covered by the two series, generally ranging from 10 percent to 
25 percent lower than all employee hourly compensation costs.  The 
difference between the two series depends not only upon the higher 
compensation of non-production workers than production workers, but 
also on the relative employment levels of the two worker groups; typically 
the larger the portion of all employees accounted for by production 
workers, the smaller the gap in compensation costs.  

     In the United States, hourly compensation costs for production 
workers in manufacturing were $24.59 in 2007, 80 percent of all employee 
compensation costs.  Only 5 of the 29 foreign economies covered by both 
the production worker and all employee hourly compensation costs series 
had a larger difference between the compensation levels of the two groups 
than the United States.  

     Canada and Australia were the only non-European economies to have 
higher hourly compensation costs than the United States in 2007 for 
production workers when measured in U.S. dollars ($28.91 and $30.17, 
respectively). Among the European countries, 14 of 20 economies in the 
series had higher compensation costs than the United States.  Sri Lanka, 
which is not covered in the all employee series, had the lowest hourly 
compensation costs for production workers at only 2 percent of the U.S. 
level. 

     Measuring compensation costs on a production worker basis changes 
the position of some countries relative to the United States.  For example, 
all employee compensation costs in Singapore were 50 percent of the U.S. 
level for 2007.  However, the gap between all employee and production 
worker hourly compensation costs is much higher in Singapore than in the 
United States (46 percent versus 20 percent in 2007), so when 
compensation costs are measured on a production worker basis, 
Singapore's costs are only 34 percent of the U.S. level. 


                               - 8 -

Table B. Hourly Compensation Costs of All Employees and Production Workers 
in Manufacturing, 2007


Country            All        Production  All        Production   Production 
or area            Employees  Workers     Employees  Workers      Workers (All
                   (US=100)   (US=100)    (US$)      (US$)        Employees=100)
Americas        
  United States       100     100          30.56     24.59           80
  Argentina            26       -           7.98         -            -
  Brazil               23      24           7.13      5.96           84
  Canada              104     118          31.91     28.91           91
  Mexico               13      12           3.91      2.92           75
               
Asia and Oceania
  Australia           114     123          34.75     30.17           87
  Hong Kong SAR (1)     -      24              -      5.78            -
  Israel               52      57          15.92     13.91           87
  Japan                78      80          23.95     19.75           82
  Korea, Republic of   60      65          18.36     16.02           87
  New Zealand          63      70          19.19     17.27           90
  Philippines           4       4           1.37      1.10           81
  Singapore            50      34          15.43      8.35           54
  Sri Lanka             -       2              -       .61            -
  Taiwan               27      27           8.15      6.58           81

Europe
  Austria             141     144          43.17     35.33           82
  Belgium             127     144          38.75     35.45           92
  Czech Republic       32      33           9.67      8.20           85
  Denmark             156     172          47.54     42.29           89
  Finland             130     139          39.74     34.18           86
  France              123     116          37.68     28.57           76
  Germany             166     153          50.73     37.66           74
  Greece                -      73              -     18.03            -
  Hungary              34      32          10.49      7.91           75
  Ireland             117     118          35.62     29.04           82
  Italy               105     115          32.19     28.23           88
  Luxembourg            -     124              -     30.60            -
  Netherlands         129     139          39.47     34.07           86
  Norway              180     197          55.03     48.56           88
  Poland               25      25           7.69      6.17           80
  Portugal             34      34          10.29      8.27           80
  Slovakia             28       -           8.49         -            -
  Spain                80      85          24.55     20.98           85
  Sweden              127     147          38.80     36.03           93
  Switzerland         125     134          38.34     32.88           86
  United Kingdom      120     121          36.66     29.73           81

(1) Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China.


                               - 9 -

Additional data available

     In addition to the compensation cost measures covered in this news 
release, supplementary tables are available for comparative levels of hourly 
compensation costs, hourly direct pay, pay for time worked, and the 
structure of compensation for all employees in manufacturing for all years 
from 1996 to 2007, and for production workers in manufacturing for all 
years from 1975 to 2007.  Data also are available for national currency 
hourly compensation and exchange rates in the supplementary tables 
(http://www.bls.gov/ilc). 

     BLS also computes comparative measures for 22 component 
manufacturing industries.  Data for the component industries are not 
included in this release; in general, the data limitations for the component 
industries are greater than for total manufacturing.  Data are available via 
the Internet (http://www.bls.gov/ilc).  This series is updated several times 
per year as data become available.  The data for component industries 
currently are available on a North American Industry Classification System 
(NAICS) basis from 1996 to 2006 for all employees and from 1992 to 
2006 for production workers. 

     For further information, contact the Division of International Labor 
Comparisons by phone at 202-691-5654, by e-mail at ilchelp@bls.gov, or 
by mail at Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2 Massachusetts Avenue, NE, 
Room 2150, Washington, DC 20212.  

    Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired 
individuals upon request.  Voice phone:  202-691-5200; TDD message 
referral phone:  1-800-877-8339.

    This material is in the public domain and, with appropriate credit, may 
be reproduced without permission.  It may be translated into foreign 
languages without permission, with a separate credit for the translation.





                              -10-

TECHNICAL NOTES
 
     The tables in this news release present international comparisons of 
hourly compensation costs for all employees and production workers in 
manufacturing in selected countries or areas.  The total compensation 
measures are prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in order to assess 
international differences in employer labor costs.  For several reasons, the 
comparisons based on the more readily available average earnings statistics 
published by many countries can be misleading: national definitions of 
average earnings differ considerably; average earnings do not include all 
items of labor compensation; and the omitted items of compensation 
frequently represent a large proportion of total compensation.
     
     The compensation measures in this news release are based on statistics 
available to BLS as of January 2009.   These measures may be revised as 
data are collected to update compensation measures for component 
industries.  Data for component industries are available at 
http://www.bls.gov/fls/flshcindnaics.htm.  


Definitions
     
     Hourly compensation costs include (1) hourly direct pay and (2) 
employer social insurance expenditures and other labor taxes.  Hourly 
direct pay includes all payments made directly to the worker, before 
payroll deductions of any kind, consisting of pay for time worked and 
other direct pay.   Social insurance expenditures and other labor taxes 
refers to the value of social contributions incurred by employers in order to 
secure entitlement to social benefits for their employees; these 
contributions often provide delayed, future income and benefits to 
employees. Included are employer expenditures for legally required 
insurance programs, contractual and private benefit plans, and other labor 
taxes.  Other labor taxes refer to taxes on payrolls or employment (or 
reductions to reflect subsidies), even if they do not finance programs that 
directly benefit workers.  
    
The BLS definition of hourly compensation costs is not the same as 
the International Labor Office (ILO) definition of total labor costs.  BLS 
hourly compensation costs do not include all items of labor costs.  
Expenditures on the maintenance and repair of facilities related to 
company-provided services—such as cafeterias, daycare centers, private 
medical clinics, and recreational facilities— are excluded because they are 
overhead costs not directly linked to the level of employment or payroll.  
Recruitment and vocational training costs and reimbursements of business 
expenses are not included because the concepts used, and thus the 
measurement of these items, are not consistent across countries.  The above 
labor costs items not included account for no more than 2 percent of total 
labor costs in most countries for which the data are available.

    Production workers generally include those employees who are 
engaged in fabricating, assembly, and related activities; material handling, 
warehousing, and shipping; maintenance and repair; janitorial and guard 
services; auxiliary production (for example, power plants); and other 
services closely related to the above activities.  Working supervisors are 
generally included; apprentices and other trainees are generally excluded.

    All employees include production workers as well as all others 
employed full or part time in an establishment during a specified payroll 
period.  Temporary employees are included.  Persons are considered 
employed if they receive pay for any part of the specified pay period.  The 
self-employed, unpaid family workers, and workers in private households 
are excluded.


                              -11-


Hourly Compensation Costs consists of:
     > Hourly Direct Pay
         >> Pay for Time Worked
             >>> Basic wages
             >>> Piece rate
             >>> Overtime premiums
             >>> Shift, holiday, or night work premiums
             >>> Cost-of-living adjustments
             >>> Bonuses and premiums paid each pay period
         >> Other Direct Pay  
             >>> Pay for time not worked (vacations, holidays, and other 
               leave, except sick leave)
             >>> Seasonal and irregular bonuses
             >>> Allowances for family events, commuting expenses, etc.
             >>> The cash value of payments in kind
             >>> Severance pay (where explicitly not linked to a collective
               agreement)
     > Employer Social Insurance Expenditures (both legally required and 
        contractual and private) and Other Labor Taxes
         >> Retirement and disability pensions
         >> Health insurance
         >> Income guarantee insurance and sick leave
         >> Life and accident insurance
         >> Occupational injury and illness compensation 
         >> Unemployment insurance
         >> Severance pay (where linked to a collective
          agreement) 
         >> Other social insurance expenditures
         >> Taxes (or subsidies) on payrolls or employment

Data on Hourly Direct Pay, Pay for Time Worked, and Social Insurance 
Expenditures can be found in the supplementary tables to this news release 
at http://www.bls.gov/ilc/hcaesupptabtoc.htm for all employees and 
http://www.bls.gov/ilc/hcpwsupptabtoc.htm for production workers.


Methods

    Total compensation is computed by adjusting each country's average 
earnings series for items of direct pay not included in earnings and for 
employer expenditures for legally required insurance, contractual and 
private benefit plans, and other labor taxes and subsidies.  For the United 
States and other countries that measure earnings on an hours-paid basis, 
the figures are also adjusted in order to approximate compensation per 
hour worked.

    Earnings statistics are obtained from surveys of employment, hours, 
and earnings, from surveys or censuses of manufactures, or from 
administrative data sources.  The surveys used in the BLS series typically 
cover firms with a minimum of one to ten employees. 

    For most countries, average earnings are adjusted to total 
compensation using adjustment factors obtained from periodic labor cost 
surveys or censuses of manufacturers; the adjustment factors are 
interpolated or projected to non-survey years on the basis of other 
information.  Generally, these surveys cover all employees in the 
establishment; survey data are used for both production worker and all 
employee series.  Other information used includes tabulations of employer


                              -12-

 
social security contribution rates provided by the International Social 
Security Association, information on contractual and legislated fringe 
benefit changes, and statistical series on indirect labor costs.  For the 
United States, the adjustment factors are specially constructed for 
international comparisons using data from several surveys. The methods 
used, as well as the results, differ somewhat from those for other BLS 
series on U.S. compensation costs.

    The statistics are also adjusted, where necessary, to account for major 
differences in worker coverage; differences in industrial classification 
systems; and changes over time in survey coverage, sample benchmarks, or 
frequency of surveys.  Nevertheless, some differences remain. Exceptions 
to these methods, as well as data sources used can be found in "Country 
Notes and Sources" located at www.bls.gov/ilc.     


Exchange Rates and Currencies 
    
    Hourly compensation costs are converted to U.S. dollars using the 
average daily exchange rate for the reference period.  The exchange rates 
used are prevailing commercial market exchange rates as published by 
either the U.S. Federal Reserve Board or the International Monetary Fund.

        On January 1, 1999, several European countries joined the European 
Monetary Union (EMU): Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, 
Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain.  Greece 
joined on January 1, 2001 and Slovakia joined on January 1, 2009.  There 
are currently other member countries of the EMU that are not covered in 
this report.  Currencies of EMU members were established at fixed 
conversion rates to the euro, the official currency of the EMU. For the 
EMU countries, with the exception of Greece, data on hourly  
compensation costs are published in the old national currencies used in 
each country before the  adoption of the euro from 1992-1998 and in euros 
from 1999-2006. Data for Greece are reported in drachmas from 1992-
2000 and in euros from 2001-2006. Slovakia will be reported in euros 
beginning with 2009 data.


Industrial classification

    The hourly compensation measures relate to manufacturing on a North 
American Industry Classification System (NAICS) basis.  NAICS is the 
common industrial classification used by the United States, Canada, and 
Mexico.  The NAICS definition of manufacturing differs somewhat from 
the definition of manufacturing used in other countries.  Some industries 
that are not included in the NAICS definition of manufacturing, such as 
publishing of books and sound recordings, some repair and maintenance of 
equipment, and some business support services, are included in the 
definition of manufacturing in most other industrial classifications.  In 
contrast, other industries are included in the NAICS definition of 
manufacturing but not in the definition of manufacturing for most foreign 
economies, such as some processing of foods, some packaging, and retail 
sales of bakery products from the production facility.  Most of the 
differences other than the treatment of publishing are very minor and do 
not have a noticeable impact on overall manufacturing averages.   BLS 
makes adjustments to remove publishing from manufacturing for the 
foreign economies in which it is classified as a part of manufacturing— 
except for Sri Lanka, Luxembourg, Slovakia, and Switzerland, for which 
the data necessary to remove publishing are not available.  For the 
countries for which adjustments are made, the effect of publishing on 
manufacturing wages is estimated and removed using data from national 
sources or the United Nations Industrial Statistics Database.  Except for 
Hong Kong, the effect of removing publishing from manufacturing does 
not change the level of hourly compensation costs for any economy more


                              -13-
 
than 1.5 percent, and the change is less than one percent in most countries.  
For Hong Kong, the effect of the adjustments is 2 to 4 percent in several 
years.   


Trade-weighted measures

    The trade weights used to compute the average compensation cost 
measures for selected economic groups are weights based on the relative 
dollar value of U.S. trade in manufactured commodities (exports plus 
imports) with each country or area in 2007.  (See the following table.)  The 
trade data are compiled by the U.S. Census Bureau. 
 
    The only countries not covered in the trade-weighted measures of this 
report that accounted for as much as one percent of such trade in 2007 are 
China, India, Malaysia, and Thailand.  Hourly compensation costs data for 
China are included in this report in a special text box.  In addition, an 
article on manufacturing compensation costs in China is available on the 
BLS website at http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2006/11/art4full.pdf.  The 
compensation data on China are not directly comparable with the data for 
other countries found in this news release.

    The countries included in the Organization for Economic Cooperation 
and Development (OECD) trade-weighted measure are Canada, Mexico, 
Australia, Japan, the Republic of Korea, New Zealand, and all European 
countries covered in the series.  The group labeled "Euro Area" consists of 
the 13 European Union member countries in this release that have adopted 
the euro as the common currency as of January 1, 2009 (Austria, Belgium, 
Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the 
Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, and Spain).  The group labeled "Europe" 
consists of the members of the Euro Area and the Czech Republic, 
Denmark, Hungary, Norway, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, and the 
United Kingdom. The group labeled "Eastern Europe" consists of the 
Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia. The group labeled "East 
Asia ex-Japan" consists of Hong Kong SAR, the Republic of Korea, the 
Philippines, Singapore, and Taiwan.

    The trade-weighted measures relate to all the countries or areas 
covered in the series.  If data for the most recent year(s) are missing for a 
country, trade-weighted estimates are computed using the average percent 
change of all the other economies in the series to estimate the missing 
year(s).  An economy is included in trade-weight series beginning with the 
start year of that economy’s data series.

    The trade-weighted average rates of change are computed as the 
trade-weighted arithmetic average of the rates of change for the individual 
countries or areas; the trade-weighted average hourly compensation costs 
are computed as the trade-weighted arithmetic average of cost levels for 
the individual countries or areas.  Rates of change derived from the trade-
weighted average hourly compensation cost levels need not be the same as 
the trade-weighted average rates of change.

    
                              -14-


Share of total U.S. imports and exports of manufactured products in 2007
(in percent)

Country or area           2007        Country or area             2007
and economic             trade        and economic               trade
group                    share        group                      share


Argentina                  0.3        Greece                       0.1 
Brazil                     1.7        Hungary                      0.1
Canada                    16.8        Ireland                      1.4
Mexico                    10.6        Italy                        1.6
                                      Luxembourg                   0.1
Australia                  0.9        Netherlands                  1.7
Hong Kong SAR(1)           1.0        Norway                       0.3
Israel                     1.2        Poland                       0.2
Japan                      7.4        Portugal                     0.2
Korea, Republic of         2.8        Slovakia                     0.1
New Zealand                0.2        Spain                        0.6
Philippines                0.6        Sweden                       0.7
Singapore                  1.6        Switzerland                  1.0
Sri Lanka                  0.1        United Kingdom               3.4
Taiwan                     2.2        
                                      Economic Groups (2)
Austria                    0.4        31 foreign economies        67.3
Belgium                    1.4        OECD(3)                     59.6
Czech Republic             0.1        Europe                      21.0
Denmark                    0.3        Euro Area (4)               14.9
Finland                    0.3        Eastern Europe               0.5
France                     2.2        East Asia ex-Japan           7.3 
Germany                    4.9                                      

(1) Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China.
(2) Trade shares for Economic Groups refer to the country coverage of the 
all employees series.  The relevant trade shares for the production worker 
series are:  33 Foreign Economies, 68.1; OECD, 59.8; Europe, 21.1; Euro Area, 
15.0; Eastern Europe, 0.5; East Asia ex-Japan, 8.2.
(3) Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
(4) Euro Area consists of the European Union member countries in this 
release that have adopted the euro as the common currency as of January 1, 2009.



                              -15-


Data limitations

     Because compensation is partly estimated, the statistics should not be 
considered as precise measures of comparative compensation costs.  In 
addition, the figures are subject to revision as the results of new labor cost 
surveys or other data used to estimate compensation costs become 
available.

     The comparative level figures in this report are averages for all 
manufacturing industries and are not necessarily representative of all 
component industries.  In the United States and some other countries, such 
as Mexico and Taiwan, differentials in hourly compensation cost levels by 
industry are fairly wide.  


Labor costs versus labor income

    The hourly compensation figures in U.S. dollars shown in the tables 
provide comparative measures of employer labor costs; they do not 
provide inter-country comparisons of the purchasing power of worker 
incomes.  Prices of goods and services vary greatly among countries, and 
the commercial market exchange rates used to compare employer labor 
costs do not reliably indicate relative differences in prices.  Purchasing 
power parities, that is, the number of foreign currency units required to 
buy goods and services equivalent to what can be purchased with one unit 
of U.S. or another base currency, must be used for meaningful 
international comparisons of the relative purchasing power of worker 
incomes.

    Total compensation converted to U.S. dollars at purchasing power 
parities would provide one measure for comparing relative real levels of 
labor income.  It should be noted, however, that total compensation 
includes employer payments to funds for the benefit of workers in 
addition to payments made directly to workers.  For some countries, the 
compensation measures also include taxes or subsidies on payrolls or 
employment even if they do not finance programs which directly benefit 
workers.  Payments into these funds provide either deferred income (for 
example, payments to retirement funds), a type of insurance (for example, 
payments to unemployment or health benefit funds), or current social 
benefits (for example, family allowances), and the relationship between 
employer payments and current or future worker benefits is indirect.  On 
the other hand, excluding these payments would understate the total value 
of income derived from work because they substitute for worker savings 
or self-insurance to cover retirement, medical costs, etc.

    Total compensation, because it takes account of employer payments 
into funds for the benefit of workers, is a broader income concept than 
either total direct earnings or direct spendable earnings.  An even broader 
concept would take account of all social benefits available to workers, 
including those financed out of general revenues as well as those financed 
through employment or payroll taxes.





                                                -16-

   Table 1.  All Employees:  Indexes of hourly compensation costs in manufacturing, 32
             countries or areas and selected economic groups, selected years, 1996-2007


   Country or Area                 1996    1998    2000    2002    2004    2005    2006    2007


   Americas
   United States.............       100     100     100     100     100     100     100     100
   Argentina.................        33      34      33      11      15      18      22      26
   Brazil....................        32      29      17      11      13      17      20      23
   Canada....................        86      78      76      70      84      90      98     104
   Mexico....................        10      10      12      13      12      12      12      13

   Asia and Oceania
   Australia.................        90      77      70      66      95      99     102     114
   Israel....................        51      53      52      46      47      47      48      52
   Japan.....................       108      90     103      81      88      86      81      78
   Korea, Republic of........        41      28      38      36      42      48      55      60
   New Zealand...............        57      45      38      37      52      56      54      63
   Philippines...............         6       4       4       3       3       4       4       4
   Singapore.................        54      50      47      45      45      44      46      50
   Taiwan....................        31      27      30      25      25      26      27      27

   Europe
   Austria...................       142     121     100      98     123     124     128     141
   Belgium...................       124     107      89      88     114     113     116     127
   Czech Republic............        15      15      14      17      23      24      27      32
   Denmark...................         -     113      98     101     130     132     137     156
   Finland...................       114      97      81      83     112     113     118     130
   France....................       127     109      88      85     109     108     112     123
   Germany...................         -     144     119     117     152     147     154     166
   Hungary...................        17      16      14      19      26      27      28      34
   Ireland...................        79      75      66      73      98      99     103     117
   Italy.....................        94      83      67      68      93      93      96     105
   Netherlands...............         -     103      85      89     118     117     118     129
   Norway....................         -     121     106     120     145     150     157     180
   Poland....................         -      15      14      15      17      19      21      25
   Portugal..................        26      25      22      24      31      31      31      34
   Slovakia..................         -      13      11      12      18      20      22      28
   Spain.....................        69      60      50      51      69      69      72      80
   Sweden....................       116     103      89      85     113     110     114     127
   Switzerland...............       149     123     100     104     123     121     121     125
   United Kingdom............        75      86      82      83     104     105     108     120

   Trade-Weighted Measures (1,2)
   All 31 Foreign Economies..         -      70      66      62      75      76      79      85
   OECD (3)..................         -      74      70      66      81      82      85      91
   Europe....................         -     105      88      89     115     114     118     129
   Euro Area (4).............         -     110      91      91     119     117     122     133
   Eastern Europe (5)........         -      15      13      16      21      23      24      29
   East Asia ex-Japan (6)....         -      30      34      32      34      37      40      43

   Dash means data not available.
   (1) For a description of trade-weighted measures and economic groups, see the Technical
       Notes preceding these tables.
   (2) The trade-weighted measures for all employees in this table are not directly comparable
       with those for production workers later in this release; the country coverage of
       the two series differs slightly.
   (3) Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
   (4) Euro Area refers to European Union member countries in this release that have adopted
       the Euro as the common currency as of January 1, 2009.
   (5) Eastern Europe refers to the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia.
   (6) East Asia ex-Japan includes the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Singapore,
       and Taiwan.

   Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, March 2009.



                                                     -17-

   Table 2.  All Employees:  Hourly compensation costs in U.S. dollars in manufacturing,
             32 countries or areas and selected economic groups, selected years, 1996-2007


   Country or Area                 1996    1998    2000    2002    2004    2005    2006    2007


   Americas
   United States.............     22.11   23.12   24.63   27.01   28.94   29.74   29.98   30.56
   Argentina.................      7.32    7.87    8.05    2.98    4.47    5.45    6.57    7.98
   Brazil....................      7.12    6.69    4.31    3.07    3.81    5.01    5.99    7.13
   Canada....................     19.01   18.08   18.68   18.78   24.20   26.73   29.27   31.91
   Mexico....................      2.32    2.37    2.89    3.44    3.34    3.57    3.72    3.91

   Asia and Oceania
   Australia.................     19.86   17.82   17.12   17.94   27.45   29.44   30.48   34.75
   Israel....................     11.34   12.21   12.77   12.34   13.56   13.88   14.25   15.92
   Japan.....................     23.93   20.83   25.34   21.75   25.59   25.56   24.32   23.95
   Korea, Republic of........      9.17    6.37    9.26    9.80   12.04   14.30   16.59   18.36
   New Zealand...............     12.57   10.43    9.31   10.12   15.17   16.64   16.08   19.19
   Philippines...............      1.27    0.92    0.90    0.90    0.97    1.06    1.21    1.37
   Singapore.................     11.88   11.49   11.65   12.04   13.15   13.22   13.77   15.43
   Taiwan....................      6.91    6.31    7.35    6.84    7.26    7.87    8.11    8.15

   Europe
   Austria...................     31.45   28.06   24.57   26.34   35.65   36.91   38.26   43.17
   Belgium...................     27.49   24.68   22.03   23.81   32.85   33.69   34.85   38.75
   Czech Republic............      3.42    3.54    3.39    4.60    6.55    7.28    8.14    9.67
   Denmark...................         -   26.04   24.07   27.33   37.53   39.20   41.18   47.54
   Finland...................     25.12   22.45   19.90   22.52   32.51   33.73   35.28   39.74
   France....................     28.18   25.27   21.67   23.07   31.50   32.22   33.60   37.68
   Germany...................         -   33.29   29.26   31.59   43.94   43.58   46.14   50.73
   Hungary...................      3.70    3.68    3.56    5.05    7.50    8.16    8.41   10.49
   Ireland...................     17.52   17.28   16.32   19.69   28.41   29.44   30.74   35.62
   Italy.....................     20.88   19.21   16.57   18.50   26.97   27.74   28.70   32.19
   Netherlands...............         -   23.79   20.97   24.15   34.09   34.79   35.50   39.47
   Norway....................         -   28.01   26.16   32.29   41.92   44.61   47.17   55.03
   Poland....................         -    3.50    3.40    4.05    4.81    5.68    6.29    7.69
   Portugal..................      5.81    5.73    5.42    6.40    8.96    9.30    9.38   10.29
   Slovakia..................         -    2.92    2.62    3.27    5.23    5.85    6.62    8.49
   Spain.....................     15.30   13.94   12.24   13.77   19.83   20.59   21.66   24.55
   Sweden....................     25.68   23.76   21.86   22.96   32.70   32.80   34.32   38.80
   Switzerland...............     32.95   28.37   24.71   28.05   35.65   35.98   36.18   38.34
   United Kingdom............     16.48   19.94   20.11   22.37   30.05   31.27   32.50   36.66

   Trade-Weighted Measures (1,2)
   All 31 Foreign Economies..         -   16.18   16.24   16.64   21.59   22.63   23.77   25.93
   OECD (3)..................         -   17.22   17.31   17.83   23.31   24.41   25.63   27.96
   Europe....................         -   24.22   21.79   24.08   33.27   33.86   35.32   39.41
   Euro Area (4).............         -   25.41   22.39   24.64   34.50   34.93   36.53   40.71
   Eastern Europe (5)........         -    3.44    3.32    4.33    5.99    6.73    7.33    9.01
   East Asia ex-Japan (6)....         -    6.99    8.47    8.61    9.85   10.95   12.04   13.12

   Dash means data not available.
   (1) For a description of trade-weighted measures and economic groups, see the Technical
       Notes preceding these tables.
   (2) The trade-weighted measures for all employees in this table are not directly comparable
       with those for production workers later in this release; the country coverage of
       the two series differs slightly.
   (3) Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
   (4) Euro Area refers to European Union member countries in this release that have adopted
       the Euro as the common currency as of January 1, 2009.
   (5) Eastern Europe refers to the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia.
   (6) East Asia ex-Japan includes the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Singapore,
       and Taiwan.

   Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, March 2009.


                                                     -18-

   Table 3.  All Employees:  Annual percent change in hourly compensation costs in U.S.
             dollars in manufacturing, 32 countries or areas and selected economic groups,
             selected years, 1996-2007


   Country or Area                 1996-   1996-   2000-   2004    2005    2006    2007
                                   2007(1) 2000    2007 

   Americas
   United States.............       3.0     2.7     3.1     2.7     2.8      .8     1.9
   Argentina.................        .8     2.4     -.1    23.1    22.1    20.6    21.4
   Brazil....................        .0   -11.8     7.5    18.1    31.7    19.5    19.0
   Canada....................       4.8     -.4     7.9    11.8    10.5     9.5     9.0
   Mexico....................       4.9     5.7     4.4     -.7     7.1     4.2     4.9

   Asia and Oceania
   Australia.................       5.2    -3.6    10.6    18.4     7.2     3.5    14.0
   Israel....................       3.1     3.0     3.2     3.8     2.4     2.6    11.7
   Japan.....................        .0     1.4     -.8     7.9     -.1    -4.9    -1.5
   Korea, Republic of........       6.5      .2    10.3    11.2    18.8    16.0    10.7
   New Zealand...............       3.9    -7.2    10.9    16.7     9.7    -3.4    19.4
   Philippines...............        .7    -8.2     6.1     6.8     9.5    14.2    13.0
   Singapore.................       2.4     -.5     4.1     3.3      .5     4.2    12.0
   Taiwan....................       1.5     1.5     1.5     4.6     8.5     2.9      .6

   Europe
   Austria...................       2.9    -6.0     8.4    10.9     3.5     3.6    12.8
   Belgium...................       3.2    -5.4     8.4    13.0     2.5     3.4    11.2
   Czech Republic............       9.9     -.2    16.2    16.4    11.1    11.7    18.9
   Denmark...................       6.4       -    10.2    10.1     4.5     5.0    15.4
   Finland...................       4.3    -5.7    10.4    15.5     3.8     4.6    12.6
   France....................       2.7    -6.4     8.2    11.9     2.3     4.3    12.1
   Germany...................       4.8       -     8.2    12.7     -.8     5.9     9.9
   Hungary...................       9.9    -1.0    16.7    19.4     8.8     3.0    24.7
   Ireland...................       6.7    -1.8    11.8    15.4     3.6     4.4    15.9
   Italy.....................       4.0    -5.6     9.9    15.9     2.8     3.5    12.2
   Netherlands...............       5.4       -     9.5    12.6     2.0     2.1    11.2
   Norway....................       7.0       -    11.2    10.6     6.4     5.7    16.7
   Poland....................       9.1       -    12.3     9.9    18.0    10.7    22.3
   Portugal..................       5.3    -1.8     9.6    13.2     3.8      .8     9.7
   Slovakia..................      11.5       -    18.3    18.7    11.9    13.2    28.3
   Spain.....................       4.4    -5.4    10.5    14.4     3.8     5.2    13.3
   Sweden....................       3.8    -3.9     8.5    13.3      .3     4.6    13.0
   Switzerland...............       1.4    -6.9     6.5     8.7      .9      .5     6.0
   United Kingdom............       7.5     5.1     9.0    15.9     4.1     3.9    12.8

   Trade-Weighted Measures (2,3)
   All 31 Foreign Economies..       3.9       -     6.5     9.6     6.7     5.5     8.5
   OECD (4)..................       4.2       -     6.8     9.8     6.0     5.1     8.2
   Europe....................       4.8       -     9.1    13.5     2.3     4.3    12.0
   Euro Area (5).............       4.0       -     9.1    13.3     1.6     4.5    11.7
   Eastern Europe (6)........       9.9       -    15.3    15.2    13.0     9.3    23.0
   East Asia ex-Japan (7)....       3.6       -     5.9     7.1    10.9     9.2     8.0

   Rates of change based on compound rate method.
   Dash means data not available.
   (1) 1997-2007 data for Denmark, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, and Slovakia.  1998-2007
       data for Germany.
   (2) For a description of trade-weighted measures and economic groups, see the Technical
       Notes preceding these tables.
   (3) The trade-weighted measures for all employees in this table are not directly comparable
       with those for production workers later in this release; the country coverage of
       the two series differs slightly.
   (4) Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
   (5) Euro Area refers to European Union member countries in this release that have adopted
       the Euro as the common currency as of January 1, 2009.
   (6) Eastern Europe refers to the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia.
   (7) East Asia ex-Japan includes the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Singapore,
       and Taiwan.

   Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, March 2009.



                                                     -19-

   Table 4.  All Employees:   Annual percent change in hourly compensation costs in national
             currency in manufacturing, 32 countries or areas and selected economic groups,
             selected years, 1996-2007


   Country or Area                 1996-   1996-   2000-   2004    2005    2006    2007
                                   2007(1) 2000    2007 

   Americas
   United States.............       3.0     2.7     3.1     2.7     2.8      .8     1.9
   Argentina.................      11.7     2.4    17.4    24.0    21.3    26.8    22.7
   Brazil....................       6.2     2.4     8.4    12.4     9.6     6.7     6.5
   Canada....................       2.6     1.7     3.1     3.9     2.8     2.5     3.2
   Mexico....................       8.4    11.6     6.6     3.9     3.4     4.3     5.1

   Asia and Oceania
   Australia.................       4.6     3.8     5.0     4.9     3.6     4.8     2.4
   Israel....................       5.7     9.6     3.5     2.6     2.5     1.9     3.6
   Japan.....................        .7     1.2      .5      .7     1.7      .5     -.3
   Korea, Republic of........       7.9     9.2     7.2     6.9     6.3     8.1     7.7
   New Zealand...............       3.3     2.8     3.6     2.3     3.4     4.9     5.2
   Philippines...............       6.1     4.7     7.0    10.5     7.7     6.2     3.1
   Singapore.................       3.0     4.7     2.1      .1    -1.0     -.6     6.3
   Taiwan....................       3.2     4.9     2.2     1.4     4.5     4.1     1.6

   Europe
   Austria...................       2.4     2.4     2.5     1.0     3.5     2.7     3.4
   Belgium...................       2.7     3.1     2.4     2.9     2.5     2.5     1.9
   Czech Republic............       7.1     8.7     6.1     6.1     3.6     5.4     8.1
   Denmark...................       4.3       -     4.1     -.8     4.6     4.1     5.7
   Finland...................       3.7     2.7     4.3     5.1     3.7     3.6     3.2
   France....................       2.0     1.7     2.3     1.8     2.2     3.4     2.7
   Germany...................       2.5       -     2.3     2.7     -.9     4.9      .7
   Hungary...................      12.1    16.1     9.8     7.9     7.1     8.6     9.7
   Ireland...................       5.9     6.3     5.7     5.1     3.5     3.5     6.2
   Italy.....................       3.2     1.9     3.9     5.4     2.7     2.5     2.8
   Netherlands...............       3.4       -     3.5     2.6     2.0     1.1     1.9
   Norway....................       4.9       -     4.7     5.1     1.7     5.2     6.6
   Poland....................       7.4       -     5.5     3.4     4.4     6.2    10.4
   Portugal..................       4.8     7.0     3.5     3.5     3.7     -.1      .5
   Slovakia..................       8.2       -     8.4     4.1     7.6     8.0     7.9
   Spain.....................       4.0     3.2     4.4     4.2     3.7     4.3     3.8
   Sweden....................       3.9     3.9     3.9     3.1     2.0     3.2     3.6
   Switzerland...............       1.1      .6     1.4      .5     1.2     1.1     1.5
   United Kingdom............       5.1     5.9     4.7     3.4     4.7     2.6     3.9

   Trade-Weighted Measures(2,3)
   All 31 Foreign Economies..       4.2       -     3.8     3.6     3.0     3.3     3.4
   OECD (4)..................       4.1       -     3.7     3.4     2.7     3.2     3.2
   Europe....................       3.8       -     3.4     3.1     2.2     3.3     2.8
   Euro Area (5).............       3.4       -     3.1     3.2     1.5     3.5     2.3
   Eastern Europe (6)........       9.7       -     7.2     5.3     5.4     6.9     9.3
   East Asia ex-Japan (7)....       5.3       -     4.6     4.0     4.3     4.8     5.1

   Rates of change based on compound rate method.
   Dash means data not available.
   (1) 1997-2007 data for Denmark, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, and Slovakia.  1998-2007
       data for Germany.
   (2) For a description of trade-weighted measures and economic groups, see the Technical
       Notes preceding these tables.
   (3) The trade-weighted measures for all employees in this table are not directly comparable
       with those for production workers later in this release; the country coverage of
       the two series differs slightly.
   (4) Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
   (5) Euro Area refers to European Union member countries in this release that have adopted
       the Euro as the common currency as of January 1, 2009.
   (6) Eastern Europe refers to the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia.
   (7) East Asia ex-Japan includes the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Singapore,
       and Taiwan.

   Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, March 2009.



                                                     -20-

   Table 5.  All Employees:  Annual percent change in exchange rates (U.S. dollars per
             national currency unit), 32 countries or areas and selected economic groups,
             selected years, 1996-2007


   Country or Area                 1996-   1996-   2000-   2004    2005    2006    2007
                                   2007(1) 2000    2007 

   Americas
   United States.............         -       -       -       -       -       -       -
   Argentina.................      -9.7      .0   -14.9     -.8      .7    -4.9    -1.1
   Brazil....................      -5.8   -13.9     -.9     5.1    20.2    12.0    11.7
   Canada....................       2.2    -2.1     4.8     7.6     7.4     6.8     5.6
   Mexico....................      -3.2    -5.3    -2.0    -4.4     3.6     -.1     -.2

   Asia and Oceania
   Australia.................        .6    -7.2     5.4    12.9     3.6    -1.2    11.4
   Israel....................      -2.3    -5.9     -.2     1.6     -.1      .7     7.8
   Japan.....................       -.7      .2    -1.3     7.2    -1.8    -5.3    -1.2
   Korea, Republic of........      -1.3    -8.2     2.8     4.1    11.9     7.3     2.7
   New Zealand...............        .6    -9.7     7.1    14.1     6.1    -7.9    13.4
   Philippines...............      -5.2   -12.3     -.8    -3.3     1.7     7.5     9.5
   Singapore.................       -.6    -4.9     2.0     3.1     1.6     4.8     5.4
   Taiwan....................      -1.6    -3.2     -.7     3.1     3.9    -1.2    -1.1

   Europe
   Austria...................        .5    -8.2     5.8     9.9      .1      .9     9.1
   Belgium...................        .5    -8.2     5.8     9.9      .1      .9     9.1
   Czech Republic............       2.6    -8.4     9.4     9.8     7.3     6.0    10.0
   Denmark...................       2.0       -     5.8     9.8     -.1      .9     9.2
   Finland...................        .5    -8.1     5.8     9.9      .1      .9     9.1
   France....................        .6    -7.9     5.8     9.9      .1      .9     9.1
   Germany...................       2.4       -     5.8     9.9      .1      .9     9.1
   Hungary...................      -1.7   -14.2     6.2    10.6     1.6    -5.1    13.6
   Ireland...................        .8    -7.5     5.8     9.9      .1      .9     9.1
   Italy.....................        .8    -7.4     5.8     9.9      .1      .9     9.1
   Netherlands...............       2.0       -     5.8     9.9      .1      .9     9.1
   Norway....................       1.9       -     6.0     5.1     4.6      .5     9.5
   Poland....................       1.6       -     6.5     6.3    13.0     4.3    10.7
   Portugal..................        .5    -8.2     5.8     9.9      .1      .9     9.1
   Slovakia..................       3.0       -     9.2    14.0     4.0     4.8    18.8
   Spain.....................        .4    -8.4     5.8     9.9      .1      .9     9.1
   Sweden....................       -.1    -7.5     4.5    10.0    -1.6     1.3     9.1
   Switzerland...............        .3    -7.5     5.0     8.2     -.2     -.6     4.4
   United Kingdom............       2.3     -.7     4.1    12.1     -.6     1.3     8.5

   Trade-Weighted Measures (2,3)
   All 31 Foreign Economies..       -.3       -     2.6     5.8     3.5     2.1     4.9
   OECD (4)..................        .1       -     3.0     6.2     3.2     1.9     4.9
   Europe....................       1.0       -     5.5    10.1      .1      .9     8.9
   Euro Area (5).............        .6       -     5.8     9.9      .1      .9     9.2
   Eastern Europe (6)........        .3       -     7.5     9.4     7.3     2.3    12.5
   East Asia ex-Japan (7)....      -1.6       -     1.2     2.9     6.3     4.1     2.7

   Rates of change based on compound rate method.
   Dash means data not available.
   (1) 1997-2007 data for Denmark, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, and Slovakia.  1998-2007
       data for Germany.
   (2) For a description of trade-weighted measures and economic groups, see the Technical
       Notes preceding these tables.
   (3) The trade-weighted measures for all employees in this table are not directly comparable
       with those for production workers later in this release; the country coverage of
       the two series differs slightly.
   (4) Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
   (5) Euro Area refers to European Union member countries in this release that have adopted
       the Euro as the common currency as of January 1, 2009.
   (6) Eastern Europe refers to the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia.
   (7) East Asia ex-Japan includes the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Singapore,
       and Taiwan.

   Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, March 2009.


                                                   -21-

   Table 6.  All Employees:  Hourly compensation costs in national currency units and
             exchange rates, 32 countries or areas, 2007


    Country or Area        Compensation costs       Exchange Rates

   Americas
   United States.............   30.56                     1.000
   Argentina.................   24.64                     3.089
   Brazil....................   13.87                     1.946
   Canada....................   34.25                     1.073
   Mexico....................   42.70                     10.93

   Asia and Oceania
   Australia.................   41.41                     1.192
   Israel....................   65.79                     4.133
   Japan.....................    2820                     117.8
   Korea, Republic of........   17053                     929.0
   New Zealand...............   26.06                     1.358
   Philippines...............   63.91                     46.79
   Singapore.................   23.24                     1.507
   Taiwan....................   267.8                     32.85

   Europe
   Austria...................   31.49                     .7293
   Belgium...................   28.26                     .7293
   Czech Republic............   198.7                     20.54
   Denmark...................   258.7                     5.441
   Finland...................   28.98                     .7293
   France....................   27.48                     .7293
   Germany...................   37.00                     .7293
   Hungary...................    1942                     185.2
   Ireland...................   25.98                     .7293
   Italy.....................   23.48                     .7293
   Netherlands...............   28.79                     .7293
   Norway....................   322.2                     5.856
   Poland....................   21.55                     2.802
   Portugal..................    7.50                     .7293
   Slovakia..................   211.7                     24.92
   Spain.....................   17.91                     .7293
   Sweden....................   262.1                     6.755
   Switzerland...............   46.00                     1.200
   United Kingdom............   18.31                     .4995

   Dash means data not available.

   National currency units are: United States, dollar; Argentina, peso;
   Brazil, real; Canada, dollar; Mexico, peso; Australia, dollar;
   Israel, new shekel; Japan, yen; Korea, won; New Zealand, dollar;
   Philippines, peso; Singapore, dollar; Taiwan, dollar; Austria, euro;
   Belgium, euro; Czech Republic, koruna; Denmark, krone; Finland, euro;
   France, euro; Germany, euro; Hungary, forint; Ireland, euro;
   Italy, euro; Netherlands, euro; Norway, krone; Poland, zloty;
   Portugal, euro; Slovakia, koruna; Spain, euro; Sweden, krona;
   Switzerland, franc; United Kingdom, pound.

   Note: For data for all years 1975-2007, see the supplementary tables to this
         news release at http://www.bls.gov/ilc.

   Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, March 2009.



                                                  -22-

   Table 7. Production Workers:  Indexes of hourly compensation costs in manufacturing,
            34 countries or areas and selected economic groups, selected years, 1975-2007


   Country or Area                 1975    1980    1985    1990    1995    2000    2004    2005    2006    2007


   Americas
   United States.............       100     100     100     100     100     100     100     100     100     100
   Brazil....................         -       -       -       -       -      18      14      17      21      24
   Canada....................       102      92      89     111      97      84      96     102     109     118
   Mexico....................        23      22      12      10      10      10      11      11      11      12

   Asia and Oceania
   Australia.................        92      89      65      90      90      73     103     107     110     123
   Hong Kong SAR (1).........        12      15      13      21      28      27      24      24      24      24
   Israel....................        32      34      28      50      53      56      51      51      52      57
   Japan.....................        47      56      48      83     134     109      94      90      83      80
   Korea, Republic of........         5      10       9      24      41      41      45      52      60      65
   New Zealand...............        52      56      35      57      60      42      59      63      60      70
   Philippines...............         -       -       -       -       5       4       3       4       4       4
   Singapore.................        14      16      20      25      44      37      32      31      36      34
   Sri Lanka.................         4       2       2       2       3       2       2       2       2       2
   Taiwan....................         6      11      12      26      34      31      26      27      27      27

   Europe
   Austria...................        73      93      60     120     148     101     126     127     130     144
   Belgium...................        92     120      64     119     148     101     130     129     132     144
   Czech Republic............         -       -       -       -      15      14      24      26      28      33
   Denmark...................       100     111      62     122     143     108     145     146     152     172
   Finland...................        82      89      65     140     133      89     122     121     124     139
   France....................        90     103      63     109     115      80     104     103     105     116
   Germany...................         -       -       -       -     173     114     143     140     142     153
   Greece....................        27      38      28      45      52      38      63      64      66      73
   Hungary...................         -       -       -       -      17      14      25      26      26      32
   Ireland...................        59      69      50      84      85      69     102     103     106     118
   Italy.....................        75      84      60     120      96      73     102     102     104     115
   Luxembourg................       100     118      58     106     135      88     114     115     115     124
   Netherlands...............       105     124      68     120     138      94     128     126     127     139
   Norway....................       115     126      85     151     149     118     160     165     173     197
   Poland....................         -       -       -       -       -      14      17      19      21      25
   Portugal..................        24      20      11      24      29      23      32      31      31      34
   Spain.....................        40      59      35      74      72      53      73      74      77      85
   Sweden....................       114     127      74     138     124     104     130     128     132     147
   Switzerland...............        98     114      75     139     168     107     132     130     128     134
   United Kingdom............        51      74      46      80      76      82     105     107     109     121

   Trade-Weighted Measures (2,3)
   All 33 Foreign Economies..        64      69      52      81      87      68      79      80      82      88
   OECD (4)..................        69      74      56      86      93      74      86      87      89      96
   Europe....................        82     100      61     114     124      90     118     117     118     131
   Euro Area (5).............        85     103      62     118     133      91     121     119     121     133
   Eastern Europe (6)........         -       -       -       -       -      14      21      23      25      30
   East Asia ex-Japan (7)....         8      12      13      25      36      33      32      34      38      39

   Dash means data not available.
   (1) Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China
   (2) The trade-weighted measures for production workers in this table are not directly
       comparable with those for all employees earlier in this release; the country coverage
       of the two series differs slightly.
   (3) For a description of trade-weighted measures and economic groups, see the Technical
       Notes preceding these tables.
   (4) Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
   (5) Euro Area refers to European Union member countries in this release that have adopted
       the Euro as the common currency as of January 1, 2009.
   (6) Eastern Europe refers to the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland.
   (7) East Asia ex-Japan includes Hong Kong SAR, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines,
       Singapore, and Taiwan.

   Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, March 2009.



                                                     -23-

   Table 8. Production Workers:  Hourly compensation costs in U.S. dollars in manufacturing,
            34 countries or areas and selected economic groups, selected years, 1975-2007


   Country or Area                 1975    1980    1985    1990    1995    2000    2004    2005    2006    2007


   Americas
   United States.............      6.24    9.75   12.87   15.00   17.39   19.88   23.12   23.81   24.15   24.59
   Brazil....................         -       -       -       -       -    3.50    3.14    4.16    5.01    5.96
   Canada....................      6.40    9.02   11.39   16.62   16.80   16.78   22.25   24.40   26.28   28.91
   Mexico....................      1.43    2.15    1.55    1.54    1.70    2.07    2.45    2.65    2.77    2.92

   Asia and Oceania
   Australia.................      5.75    8.67    8.41   13.45   15.58   14.51   23.79   25.53   26.46   30.17
   Hong Kong SAR (1).........      0.75    1.50    1.73    3.22    4.81    5.45    5.51    5.65    5.78    5.78
   Israel....................      1.99    3.34    3.59    7.56    9.23   11.16   11.85   12.13   12.45   13.91
   Japan.....................      2.95    5.43    6.24   12.52   23.34   21.69   21.65   21.31   19.99   19.75
   Korea, Republic of........      0.31    0.93    1.20    3.59    7.14    8.08   10.50   12.48   14.48   16.02
   New Zealand...............      3.27    5.44    4.55    8.48   10.35    8.38   13.65   14.97   14.47   17.27
   Philippines...............         -       -       -       -    0.94    0.73    0.78    0.85    0.98    1.10
   Singapore.................      0.85    1.55    2.57    3.81    7.72    7.34    7.50    7.34    8.68    8.35
   Sri Lanka.................      0.28    0.22    0.28    0.35    0.48    0.48    0.52    0.54    0.57    0.61
   Taiwan....................      0.39    1.05    1.51    3.91    5.99    6.19    5.97    6.42    6.56    6.58

   Europe
   Austria...................      4.59    9.03    7.71   18.04   25.67   20.13   29.19   30.20   31.30   35.33
   Belgium...................      5.76   11.74    8.21   17.85   25.70   20.15   30.05   30.83   31.90   35.45
   Czech Republic............         -       -       -       -    2.54    2.85    5.48    6.08    6.83    8.20
   Denmark...................      6.23   10.83    8.03   18.29   24.87   21.45   33.53   34.88   36.67   42.29
   Finland...................      5.09    8.66    8.35   20.97   23.05   17.73   28.11   28.69   30.07   34.18
   France....................      5.61   10.06    8.04   16.31   20.06   15.98   23.98   24.56   25.47   28.57
   Germany...................         -       -       -       -   30.10   22.66   33.14   33.38   34.26   37.66
   Greece....................      1.69    3.73    3.66    6.71    9.04    7.63   14.52   15.17   15.96   18.03
   Hungary...................         -       -       -       -    2.98    2.78    5.69    6.13    6.30    7.91
   Ireland...................      3.66    6.72    6.49   12.63   14.77   13.66   23.62   24.51   25.68   29.04
   Italy.....................      4.70    8.21    7.67   17.92   16.69   14.53   23.66   24.33   25.17   28.23
   Luxembourg................      6.23   11.52    7.45   15.94   23.54   17.49   26.30   27.36   27.83   30.60
   Netherlands...............      6.58   12.05    8.73   17.98   24.02   18.68   29.58   30.02   30.64   34.07
   Norway....................      7.20   12.32   10.93   22.71   25.95   23.50   36.97   39.34   41.69   48.56
   Poland....................         -       -       -       -       -    2.81    3.85    4.53    5.05    6.17
   Portugal..................      1.50    1.96    1.45    3.55    5.09    4.64    7.32    7.42    7.53    8.27
   Spain.....................      2.47    5.75    4.55   11.10   12.47   10.46   16.94   17.59   18.51   20.98
   Sweden....................      7.12   12.41    9.58   20.75   21.63   20.70   30.12   30.50   31.85   36.03
   Switzerland...............      6.09   11.09    9.66   20.85   29.23   21.20   30.57   30.86   31.03   32.88
   United Kingdom............      3.21    7.22    5.97   11.95   13.24   16.31   24.37   25.36   26.36   29.73

   Trade-Weighted Measures (2,3)
   All 33 Foreign Economies..      4.01    6.69    6.74   12.08   15.11   13.62   18.18   19.03   19.77   21.66
   OECD (4)..................      4.32    7.20    7.21   12.86   16.10   14.68   19.88   20.80   21.57   23.68
   Europe....................      5.11    9.76    7.85   17.03   21.55   17.83   27.26   27.82   28.61   32.12
   Euro Area (5).............      5.33   10.07    8.01   17.63   23.08   18.10   27.96   28.40   29.12   32.71
   Eastern Europe (6)........         -       -       -       -       -    2.81    4.87    5.45    5.93    7.27
   East Asia ex-Japan (7)....      0.50    1.16    1.64    3.69    6.20    6.56    7.37    8.17    9.17    9.65

   Dash means data not available.
   (1) Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China
   (2) For a description of trade-weighted measures and economic groups, see the Technical
       Notes preceding these tables.
   (3) The trade-weighted measures for production workers in this table are not directly
       comparable with those for all employees earlier in this release; the country coverage
       of the two series differs slightly.
   (4) Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
   (5) Euro Area refers to European Union member countries in this release that have adopted
       the Euro as the common currency as of January 1, 2009.
   (6) Eastern Europe refers to the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland.
   (7) East Asia ex-Japan includes Hong Kong SAR, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines,
       Singapore, and Taiwan.

   Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, March 2009.



                                                     -24-

   Table 9. Production Workers:  Annual percent change in hourly compensation costs in
            U.S. dollars in manufacturing, 34 countries or areas and selected economic
            groups, selected years, 1975-2007


   Country or Area                 1975-   1975-   1980-   1985-   1990-   1995-   2000-   2005    2006    2007
                                   2007    1980    1985    1990    1995    2000    2007 

   Americas
   United States.............       4.4     9.3     5.7     3.1     3.0     2.7     3.1     3.0     1.4     1.8
   Brazil....................         -       -       -       -       -       -     7.9    32.5    20.3    19.0
   Canada....................       4.8     7.1     4.8     7.8      .2      .0     8.1     9.7     7.7    10.0
   Mexico....................       2.3     8.5    -6.3     -.2     2.0     4.1     5.0     8.2     4.5     5.5

   Asia and Oceania
   Australia.................       5.3     8.6     -.6     9.9     3.0    -1.4    11.0     7.3     3.6    14.0
   Hong Kong SAR (1).........       6.6    14.8     2.8    13.2     8.4     2.5      .8     2.6     2.4     -.1
   Israel....................       6.3    11.0     1.4    16.1     4.1     3.9     3.2     2.4     2.6    11.7
   Japan.....................       6.1    13.0     2.8    14.9    13.3    -1.5    -1.3    -1.6    -6.2    -1.2
   Korea, Republic of........      13.1    24.3     5.2    24.6    14.7     2.5    10.3    18.8    16.0    10.7
   New Zealand...............       5.3    10.7    -3.5    13.3     4.1    -4.2    10.9     9.7    -3.4    19.4
   Philippines...............         -       -       -       -       -    -4.9     6.1     9.5    14.2    13.0
   Singapore.................       7.4    12.9    10.6     8.2    15.1    -1.0     1.8    -2.0    18.3    -3.9
   Sri Lanka.................       2.4    -5.0     5.2     4.7     6.4      .0     3.5     4.7     4.5     7.0
   Taiwan....................       9.2    21.8     7.7    21.0     8.9      .7      .9     7.5     2.2      .2

   Europe
   Austria...................       6.6    14.5    -3.1    18.5     7.3    -4.7     8.4     3.5     3.6    12.8
   Belgium...................       5.8    15.3    -6.9    16.8     7.6    -4.8     8.4     2.6     3.5    11.2
   Czech Republic............         -       -       -       -       -     2.3    16.3    10.9    12.4    20.1
   Denmark...................       6.2    11.7    -5.8    17.9     6.3    -2.9    10.2     4.0     5.2    15.3
   Finland...................       6.1    11.2     -.7    20.2     1.9    -5.1     9.8     2.1     4.8    13.7
   France....................       5.2    12.4    -4.4    15.2     4.2    -4.5     8.7     2.4     3.7    12.2
   Germany...................         -       -       -       -       -    -5.5     7.5      .8     2.6     9.9
   Greece....................       7.7    17.2     -.4    12.9     6.1    -3.3    13.1     4.5     5.2    13.0
   Hungary...................         -       -       -       -       -    -1.3    16.1     7.8     2.7    25.6
   Ireland...................       6.7    12.9     -.7    14.2     3.2    -1.5    11.4     3.8     4.8    13.1
   Italy.....................       5.8    11.8    -1.4    18.5    -1.4    -2.7     9.9     2.8     3.5    12.2
   Luxembourg................       5.1    13.1    -8.3    16.4     8.1    -5.8     8.3     4.0     1.7    10.0
   Netherlands...............       5.3    12.9    -6.2    15.6     6.0    -4.9     9.0     1.5     2.1    11.2
   Norway....................       6.1    11.3    -2.4    15.8     2.7    -2.0    10.9     6.4     6.0    16.5
   Poland....................         -       -       -       -       -       -    11.9    17.5    11.4    22.2
   Portugal..................       5.5     5.4    -5.8    19.6     7.5    -1.9     8.6     1.3     1.6     9.7
   Spain.....................       6.9    18.4    -4.6    19.5     2.4    -3.5    10.5     3.8     5.2    13.3
   Sweden....................       5.2    11.8    -5.0    16.7      .8     -.9     8.2     1.3     4.4    13.2
   Switzerland...............       5.4    12.7    -2.7    16.6     7.0    -6.2     6.5      .9      .5     6.0
   United Kingdom............       7.2    17.6    -3.7    14.9     2.1     4.2     9.0     4.1     3.9    12.8

   Trade-Weighted Measures (2,3)
   All 33 Foreign Economies..       5.6    11.8      .0    11.6     4.9     -.3     6.3     5.6     4.3     8.0
   OECD (4)..................       5.4    11.4     -.6    11.2     4.4     -.4     6.8     5.8     4.0     8.7
   Europe....................       6.1    14.0    -4.1    16.6     4.6    -2.9     8.9     2.2     3.0    12.2
   Euro Area (5).............       5.9    13.5    -4.2    17.0     5.2    -4.4     9.0     1.8     2.7    12.3
   Eastern Europe (6)........         -       -       -       -       -       -    14.4    12.7     9.1    22.7
   East Asia ex-Japan (7)....      10.0    20.0     6.8    18.7    12.3     0.8     4.7     9.1    10.9     3.9

   Rates of change based on compound rate method.
   Dash means data not available.
   (1) Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China
   (2) For a description of trade-weighted measures and economic groups, see the Technical
       Notes preceding these tables.
   (3) The trade-weighted measures for production workers in this table are not directly
       comparable with those for all employees earlier in this release; the country coverage
       of the two series differs slightly.
   (4) Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
   (5) Euro Area refers to European Union member countries in this release that have adopted
       the Euro as the common currency as of January 1, 2009.
   (6) Eastern Europe refers to the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland.
   (7) East Asia ex-Japan includes Hong Kong SAR, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines,
       Singapore, and Taiwan.

   Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, March 2009.




                                                     -25-

   Table 10. Production Workers:  Annual percent change in hourly compensation costs in
             national currency in manufacturing, 34 countries or areas and selected economic
             groups, selected years, 1975-2007


   Country or Area                 1975-   1975-   1980-   1985-   1990-   1995-   2000-   2005    2006    2007
                                   2007    1980    1985    1990    1995    2000    2007 

   Americas
   United States.............       4.4     9.3     5.7     3.1     3.0     2.7     3.1     3.0     1.4     1.8
   Brazil....................         -       -       -       -       -       -     8.8    10.3     7.4     6.5
   Canada....................       5.0    10.1     8.1     4.5     3.5     1.6     3.2     2.1      .8     4.1
   Mexico....................      26.4    22.5    51.8    61.1    20.3    12.4     7.2     4.4     4.6     5.7

   Asia and Oceania
   Australia.................       6.8    11.6     9.6     7.5     4.1     3.5     5.4     3.6     4.9     2.4
   Hong Kong SAR (1).........       8.1    14.9    12.5    13.2     8.2     2.7      .9     2.4     2.2      .4
   Israel....................      39.9    68.3   201.0    29.2    12.8    10.5     3.5     2.5     1.9     3.6
   Japan.....................       3.1     7.0     3.9     4.1     3.8     1.2     -.1      .2     -.9      .0
   Korea, Republic of........      15.4    30.0    13.2    19.6    16.7    10.7     7.2     6.3     8.1     7.7
   New Zealand...............       7.0    15.7    10.3     9.2     2.1     3.0     3.6     3.4     4.9     5.2
   Philippines...............         -       -       -       -       -     5.9     7.0     7.7     6.2     3.1
   Singapore.................       5.9    10.6    11.2     4.1     9.6     3.0     -.1    -3.6    12.9    -8.8
   Sri Lanka.................      11.7    12.7    16.2    13.1    11.7     8.5     9.0     3.9     8.1    13.8
   Taiwan....................       8.7    20.5     9.8    11.8     8.5     4.1     1.6     3.5     3.4     1.3

   Europe
   Austria...................       4.8     7.9     6.4     5.1     4.8     3.0     2.4     3.4     2.7     3.4
   Belgium...................       5.1    10.1     7.3     4.1     4.9     3.0     2.5     2.5     2.5     1.9
   Czech Republic............         -       -       -       -       -    10.1     6.3     3.4     6.0     9.2
   Denmark...................       6.1    11.3     6.9     6.3     4.2     4.5     4.1     4.1     4.2     5.6
   Finland...................       6.7    11.5    10.0     9.2     4.7     2.5     3.8     2.0     3.8     4.1
   France....................       5.6    12.0    11.2     4.2     2.4     2.6     2.7     2.4     2.7     2.8
   Germany...................         -       -       -       -       -     2.3     1.6      .7     1.7      .7
   Greece....................      14.8    23.9    26.1    16.0    14.5     5.9     7.0     4.4     4.2     3.5
   Hungary...................         -       -       -       -       -    16.1     9.3     6.1     8.3    10.6
   Ireland...................       7.5    14.7    13.3     4.6     3.9     4.9     5.3     3.7     3.8     3.6
   Italy.....................       8.3    18.0    15.8     7.9     4.9     2.3     3.9     2.7     2.5     2.8
   Luxembourg................       4.4     8.0     5.6     3.8     5.4     1.9     2.4     3.9      .8      .7
   Netherlands...............       3.8     7.6     3.9     2.5     3.3     2.9     3.1     1.4     1.1     1.9
   Norway....................       6.5    10.1     8.9     8.7     3.1     4.6     4.5     1.7     5.5     6.4
   Poland....................         -       -       -       -       -       -     5.1     3.9     6.9    10.4
   Portugal..................      11.4    20.7    20.5    15.2     8.6     5.6     2.6     1.2      .7      .5
   Spain.....................       9.4    23.8    13.4     7.8     6.5     3.9     4.4     3.7     4.3     3.8
   Sweden....................       6.8    12.2     9.5     8.3     4.8     4.2     3.7     3.0     3.0     3.7
   Switzerland...............       2.9     3.4     5.0     4.1     3.6      .7     1.4     1.2     1.1     1.5
   United Kingdom............       7.5    16.5     8.1     7.8     4.6     5.0     4.7     4.7     2.6     3.9

   Trade-Weighted Measures (2,3)
   All 33 Foreign Economies..       9.8    14.7    18.7    15.5     7.7     4.5     3.5     2.4     2.4     3.3
   OECD (4)..................       9.4    13.5    15.7    15.7     7.5     4.5     3.8     2.5     2.1     3.7
   Europe....................       5.9    11.8     8.4     5.7     4.4     3.1     3.3     2.2     2.0     3.1
   Euro Area (5).............       5.7    11.3     8.7     5.1     4.5     2.8     3.0     1.7     1.8     2.9
   Eastern Europe (6)........         -       -       -       -       -       -     6.7     4.4     7.1    10.1
   East Asia ex-Japan (7)....      10.6    21.3    11.7    13.3    11.8     6.1     3.5     3.3     6.9     1.6

   Rates of change based on compound rate method.
   Dash means data not available.
   (1) Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China
   (2) For a description of trade-weighted measures and economic groups, see the Technical
       Notes preceding these tables.
   (3) The trade-weighted measures for production workers in this table are not directly
       comparable with those for all employees earlier in this release; the country coverage
       of the two series differs slightly.
   (4) Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
   (5) Euro Area refers to European Union member countries in this release that have adopted
       the Euro as the common currency as of January 1, 2009.
   (6) Eastern Europe refers to the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland.
   (7) East Asia ex-Japan includes Hong Kong SAR, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines,
       Singapore, and Taiwan.

   Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, March 2009.




                                                     -26-

   Table 11. Production Workers:  Annual percent change in exchange rates (U.S. dollars
             per national currency unit), 34 countries or areas and selected economic groups,
             selected years, 1975-2007


   Country or Area                 1975-   1975-   1980-   1985-   1990-   1995-   2000-   2005    2006    2007
                                   2007    1980    1985    1990    1995    2000    2007 

   Americas
   United States.............         -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -
   Brazil....................         -       -       -       -       -       -     -.9    20.2    12.0    11.7
   Canada....................       -.2    -2.7    -3.1     3.2    -3.2    -1.6     4.8     7.4     6.8     5.6
   Mexico....................     -19.1   -11.5   -38.3   -38.0   -15.2    -7.5    -2.0     3.6     -.1     -.2

   Asia and Oceania
   Australia.................      -1.4    -2.7    -9.3     2.2    -1.0    -4.7     5.4     3.6    -1.2    11.4
   Hong Kong SAR (1).........      -1.4     -.1    -8.6      .0      .1     -.1      .0      .1      .1     -.4
   Israel....................     -24.0   -34.1   -66.3   -10.2    -7.7    -5.9     -.2     -.1      .7     7.8
   Japan.....................       2.9     5.6    -1.1    10.5     9.1    -2.7    -1.3    -1.8    -5.3    -1.2
   Korea, Republic of........      -2.0    -4.4    -6.9     4.2    -1.7    -7.4     2.8    11.9     7.3     2.7
   New Zealand...............      -1.5    -4.3   -12.6     3.7     1.9    -7.0     7.1     6.1    -7.9    13.4
   Philippines...............         -       -       -       -       -   -10.3     -.8     1.7     7.5     9.5
   Singapore.................       1.4     2.1     -.5     3.9     5.1    -3.9     2.0     1.6     4.8     5.4
   Sri Lanka.................      -8.2   -15.7    -9.5    -7.5    -4.8    -7.8    -5.0      .7    -3.3    -6.0
   Taiwan....................        .5     1.1    -2.0     8.2      .3    -3.3     -.7     3.9    -1.2    -1.1

   Europe
   Austria...................       1.7     6.1    -9.0    12.8     2.4    -7.5     5.8      .1      .9     9.1
   Belgium...................        .7     4.7   -13.2    12.2     2.5    -7.6     5.8      .1      .9     9.1
   Czech Republic............         -       -       -       -       -    -7.2     9.4     7.3     6.0    10.0
   Denmark...................        .2      .4   -11.9    11.4     2.0    -7.1     5.8     -.1      .9     9.2
   Finland...................       -.5     -.3    -9.7    10.1    -2.6    -7.4     5.8      .1      .9     9.1
   France....................       -.3      .3   -14.0    10.5     1.8    -6.8     5.8      .1      .9     9.1
   Germany...................         -       -       -       -       -    -7.5     5.8      .1      .9     9.1
   Greece....................      -6.2    -5.4   -21.0    -2.7    -7.3    -8.7     5.7      .1      .9     9.1
   Hungary...................         -       -       -       -       -   -14.9     6.2     1.6    -5.1    13.6
   Ireland...................       -.8    -1.5   -12.3     9.2     -.7    -6.1     5.8      .1      .9     9.1
   Italy.....................      -2.4    -5.3   -14.8     9.8    -6.0    -4.9     5.8      .1      .9     9.1
   Luxembourg................        .7     4.7   -13.2    12.2     2.5    -7.6     5.8      .1      .9     9.1
   Netherlands...............       1.4     4.9    -9.8    12.7     2.6    -7.6     5.8      .1      .9     9.1
   Norway....................       -.4     1.1   -10.5     6.6     -.3    -6.4     6.0     4.6      .5     9.5
   Poland....................         -       -       -       -       -       -     6.5    13.0     4.3    10.7
   Portugal..................      -5.3   -12.7   -21.9     3.8    -1.0    -7.1     5.8      .1      .9     9.1
   Spain.....................      -2.3    -4.3   -15.9    10.8    -3.9    -7.1     5.8      .1      .9     9.1
   Sweden....................      -1.5     -.4   -13.2     7.8    -3.7    -4.9     4.5    -1.6     1.3     9.1
   Switzerland...............       2.4     9.0    -7.4    12.0     3.3    -6.9     5.0     -.2     -.6     4.4
   United Kingdom............       -.3      .9   -11.0     6.6    -2.4     -.8     4.1     -.6     1.3     8.5

   Trade-Weighted Measures (2,3)
   All 33 Foreign Economies..      -3.3    -2.0   -12.6     -.4    -2.3    -4.5     2.7     3.0     1.8     4.6
   OECD (4)..................      -3.1    -1.6   -12.3     -.7    -2.5    -4.6     3.0     3.2     1.9     4.8
   Europe....................        .2     2.2   -11.5    10.4      .2    -5.9     5.4      .0      .9     8.8
   Euro Area (5).............        .2     2.2   -11.8    11.3      .7    -7.0     5.8      .1      .9     9.1
   Eastern Europe (6)........         -       -       -       -       -       -     7.2     7.9     1.9    11.4
   East Asia ex-Japan (7)....       -.5     -.9    -4.4     4.8      .5    -4.9     1.1     5.6     3.7     2.3

   Rates of change based on compound rate method.
   Dash means data not available.
   (1) Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China
   (2) For a description of trade-weighted measures and economic groups, see the Technical
       Notes preceding these tables.
   (3) The trade-weighted measures for production workers in this table are not directly
       comparable with those for all employees earlier in this release; the country coverage
       of the two series differs slightly.
   (4) Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
   (5) Euro Area refers to European Union member countries in this release that have adopted
       the Euro as the common currency as of January 1, 2009.
   (6) Eastern Europe refers to the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland.
   (7) East Asia ex-Japan includes Hong Kong SAR, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines,
       Singapore, and Taiwan.

   Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, March 2009.




                                                   -27-

   Table 12. Production Workers:  Hourly compensation costs in national currency units
             and exchange rates, 34 countries or areas, 2007


    Country or Area        Compensation costs       Exchange Rates

   Americas
   United States.............   24.59                     1.000
   Brazil....................   11.60                     1.946
   Canada....................   31.03                     1.073
   Mexico....................   31.90                     10.93

   Asia and Oceania
   Australia.................   35.96                     1.192
   Hong Kong SAR (1).........   45.09                     7.802
   Israel....................   57.48                     4.133
   Japan.....................    2326                     117.8
   Korea, Republic of........   14883                     929.0
   New Zealand...............   23.45                     1.358
   Philippines...............   51.59                     46.79
   Singapore.................   12.58                     1.507
   Sri Lanka.................   67.13                     110.6
   Taiwan....................   216.0                     32.85

   Europe
   Austria...................   25.76                     .7293
   Belgium...................   25.86                     .7293
   Czech Republic............   168.5                     20.54
   Denmark...................   230.1                     5.441
   Finland...................   24.93                     .7293
   France....................   20.84                     .7293
   Germany...................   27.46                     .7293
   Greece....................   13.15                     .7293
   Hungary...................    1465                     185.2
   Ireland...................   21.18                     .7293
   Italy.....................   20.59                     .7293
   Luxembourg................   22.32                     .7293
   Netherlands...............   24.85                     .7293
   Norway....................   284.4                     5.856
   Poland....................   17.28                     2.802
   Portugal..................    6.03                     .7293
   Spain.....................   15.30                     .7293
   Sweden....................   243.4                     6.755
   Switzerland...............   39.46                     1.200
   United Kingdom............   14.85                     .4995

   Dash means data not available.
   (1) Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China

   National currency units are: United States, dollar; Brazil, real;
   Canada, dollar; Mexico, peso; Australia, dollar; Hong Kong SAR, dollar;
   Israel, new shekel; Japan, yen; Republic of Korea, won; New Zealand, dollar;
   Philippines, peso; Singapore, dollar; Sri Lanka, rupee; Taiwan, dollar;
   Austria, euro; Belgium, euro; Czech Republic, koruna; Denmark, krone;
   Finland, euro; France, euro; Germany, euro; Greece, euro; Hungary, forint;
   Ireland, euro; Italy, euro; Luxembourg, euro; Netherlands, euro;
   Norway, krone; Poland, zloty; Portugal, euro; Spain, euro; Sweden, krona;
   Switzerland, franc; United Kingdom, pound.

   Note: For data for all years 1975-2007, see the supplementary tables to this
         news release at http://www.bls.gov/ilc.

   Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, March 2009.


Last Modified Date: March 26, 2009
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