Economic News Release

Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey News Release



Technical information:      (202) 691-5870        USDL 09-31
                   http://www.bls.gov/jlt/
                                                  For release:  10:00 A.M. EST
Media contact:              (202) 691-5902        Tuesday, January 13, 2009


            JOB OPENINGS AND LABOR TURNOVER:  NOVEMBER 2008

     On the last business day of November, there were 2.8 million job
openings in the United States, and the job openings rate was 2.0
percent, the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U.S. Department of
Labor reported today.  The job openings rate declined in November,
matching the series low set in 2003.  The hires rate fell sharply in
November to a series low of 2.6 percent.  The total separations rate
was little changed in November, but the quits rate declined further to
1.4 percent, also a series low.  This release includes estimates of
the number and rate of job openings, hires, and separations for the
total nonfarm sector by industry and geographic region.

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| Beginning with the release of January 2009 data on March 10, BLS will  |
| implement improvements to the methodology used to generate estimates   |
| of hires, separations, and job openings from the Job Openings and      |
| Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) program.  These changes are designed to  |
| improve the measurement of hires, separations, and openings and to     |
| more closely align the hires and separations estimates with monthly    |
| employment change as measured by the BLS Current Employment Statistics |
| (establishment) survey.  All JOLTS historical series will be revised   |
| to incorporate the new methods and also will be released on March 10.  |
| See the JOLTS web page (http://www.bls.gov/jlt/#notices) for a more    |
| complete description of these changes.                                 |
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                - 2 -

Table A.  Job openings, hires, and total separations by industry, seasonally
adjusted
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   |    Job openings    |       Hires        | Total separations
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
     Industry      | Nov. | Oct. | Nov. | Nov. | Oct. | Nov. | Nov. | Oct. | Nov.
                   | 2007 | 2008 | 2008p| 2007 | 2008 | 2008p| 2007 | 2008 | 2008p
-------------------|--------------------------------------------------------------
                   |                     Levels (in thousands)
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
Total(1)...........|3,972 |3,001 |2,793 |4,672 |4,155 |3,548 |4,640 |4,299 |4,301
                   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
  Total private(1).|3,520 |2,585 |2,419 |4,305 |3,852 |3,157 |4,367 |4,034 |4,042
    Construction...|  138 |   64 |   67 |  351 |  334 |  236 |  322 |  418 |  455
    Manufacturing..|  303 |  213 |  142 |  353 |  257 |  216 |  400 |  424 |  388
    Trade, trans-  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     portation, and|      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     utilities(2)..|  648 |  507 |  554 |  946 |  837 |  726 |1,065 |  945 |  906
     Retail trade..|  344 |  316 |  385 |  655 |  565 |  501 |  764 |  634 |  596
    Professional   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     and business  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     services......|  685 |  498 |  459 |  902 |  748 |  719 |  878 |  771 |  750
    Education and  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     health ser-   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     vices.........|  713 |  606 |  592 |  527 |  512 |  438 |  423 |  427 |  402
    Leisure and    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     hospitality(3)|  591 |  404 |  251 |  846 |  734 |  579 |  799 |  671 |  683
     Accommodation |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
      and food     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
      services.....|  518 |  351 |  219 |  708 |  602 |  510 |  667 |  559 |  601
  Government(4)....|  454 |  429 |  375 |  349 |  322 |  292 |  286 |  264 |  261
    State and local|      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     government....|  404 |  367 |  358 |  287 |  278 |  263 |  240 |  234 |  232
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
                   |                       Rates (percent)
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
Total(1)...........|  2.8 |  2.1 |  2.0 |  3.4 |  3.0 |  2.6 |  3.4 |  3.1 |  3.2
                   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
  Total private(1).|  3.0 |  2.2 |  2.1 |  3.7 |  3.4 |  2.8 |  3.8 |  3.5 |  3.6
    Construction...|  1.8 |  0.9 |  1.0 |  4.7 |  4.7 |  3.4 |  4.3 |  5.9 |  6.6
    Manufacturing..|  2.2 |  1.6 |  1.1 |  2.6 |  1.9 |  1.6 |  2.9 |  3.2 |  2.9
    Trade, trans-  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     portation, and|      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     utilities(2)..|  2.4 |  1.9 |  2.1 |  3.5 |  3.2 |  2.8 |  4.0 |  3.6 |  3.5
     Retail trade..|  2.2 |  2.0 |  2.5 |  4.2 |  3.7 |  3.3 |  4.9 |  4.2 |  4.0
    Professional   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     and business  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     services......|  3.7 |  2.7 |  2.5 |  5.0 |  4.2 |  4.1 |  4.9 |  4.4 |  4.3
    Education and  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     health ser-   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     vices.........|  3.7 |  3.1 |  3.0 |  2.8 |  2.7 |  2.3 |  2.3 |  2.2 |  2.1
    Leisure and    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     hospitality(3)|  4.2 |  2.9 |  1.8 |  6.2 |  5.4 |  4.3 |  5.9 |  4.9 |  5.1
     Accommodation |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
      and food     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
      services.....|  4.3 |  2.9 |  1.9 |  6.1 |  5.2 |  4.4 |  5.7 |  4.8 |  5.2
  Government(4)....|  2.0 |  1.9 |  1.6 |  1.6 |  1.4 |  1.3 |  1.3 |  1.2 |  1.2
    State and local|      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     government....|  2.0 |  1.8 |  1.8 |  1.5 |  1.4 |  1.3 |  1.2 |  1.2 |  1.2
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  1 Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and
other services, not shown separately.
  2 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not
shown separately.
  3 Includes arts, entertainment, and recreation, not shown separately.
  4 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  p = preliminary.


Job Openings
     The number of job openings declined in November 2008, continuing
the downward trend begun over a year ago.  At 2.8 million in November,
openings were down 1.2 million, or 30 percent, from a year ago.  The
job openings rate was 2.0 percent in November, matching the series low
set in September 2003.  The job openings rate fell at the total
nonfarm level, and in manufacturing, accommodation and food services,
and government.  The rate increased significantly in November only in
retail trade.  (See table 1.)

                                - 3 -
     
     Over the last 12 months, the job openings rate (not seasonally
adjusted) rose significantly only in the retail industry and was
essentially unchanged in natural resources and mining; real estate and
rental and leasing; educational services; and other services.  In the
remaining 13 industries, the job openings rate fell significantly over
the year.  All four regions experienced a significant decline in the
job openings rate over the year.  (See table 5.)
     
Hires
     Hires fell sharply in November to 3.5 million, down 607,000 from
October and 1.1 million from a year ago.  The overall hires rate
dropped to 2.6 percent in November due to declines in the rates for
manufacturing; trade, transportation, and utilities; leisure and
hospitality; and government.  Regionally, the hires rate fell
significantly in November in three of the four regions-Midwest,
Northeast, and South.  No industry or region experienced a significant
increase in the hires rate in November.  (See table 2.)
     
     Over the past 12 months, the hires rate did not increase
significantly in any industry or region but decreased for total
nonfarm and total private and in most industries, including
construction; durable goods manufacturing; nondurable goods
manufacturing; retail trade; real estate and rental and leasing;
professional and business services; health care and social assistance;
arts, entertainment, and recreation; accommodation and food services;
federal government; and state and local government.  In the remainder
of the industries the hires rate decreased, but not significantly.  In
all four regions, the hires rate dropped significantly over the past
12 months.  (See table 6.)

Separations
     The total separations, or turnover, rate was essentially
unchanged in November from October and from a year ago.  The quits
rate can serve as a barometer of workers' ability to change jobs.  The
quits rate fell in November to a new series low of 1.4 percent; the
prior low was 1.5 percent, occurring in several months in 2003.
Comparing November 2008 to November 2007, the quits rate was
significantly lower for total nonfarm and total private and in many
industries, including durable goods manufacturing; nondurable goods
manufacturing; retail trade; professional and business services;
healthcare and social assistance; arts, entertainment, and recreation;
accommodation and food services; and state and local government.
Regionally, the quits rate fell over the year in all four regions.
The quits rate did not rise significantly over the past 12 months in
any industry or region.  (See tables 4, 7, and 8.)
     
     The other two components of total separations-layoffs and
discharges, and other separations-are not seasonally adjusted.  In
November, the layoffs and discharges rate (1.6 percent) and level (2.1
million) were higher than a year earlier due to increases in
construction; durable goods manufacturing; information; and finance
and insurance.  The layoffs and discharges rate declined over the year
in other services and in federal government.  The other separations
rate (0.2 percent) and level (285,000) were unchanged from a year
earlier at the total nonfarm level.  (See tables 9 and 10.)
     
     The total separations rate is driven by the relative contribution
of its three components (quits, layoffs and discharges, and other
separations), with quits contributing the largest portion.  The
percentage of total separations attributable to quits has varied over
time and has been trending downward from a high of 61 percent in
December 2006.  Quits accounted for only 43 percent of total
separations in November 2008, a new series low.  The prior minimum was
50 percent, occurring in June 2003 and again in December 2003.  (See
tables 3 and 4.)

                                - 4 -

For More Information
     
     For additional information, please read the Technical Note or
visit the JOLTS Web site at http://www.bls.gov/jlt/.  Additional
information about JOLTS also may be obtained by e-mailing
Joltsinfo@bls.gov or by calling (202) 691-5870.
     
     
     
     
     The Job Openings and Labor Turnover release for December 2008 is
scheduled to be issued on Tuesday, February 10.


                                  - 5 -


Technical Note


   The data for the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) are
collected and compiled monthly from a sample of business establishments
by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

Collection

   Each month, data are collected in a survey of business establishments
for total employment, job openings, hires, quits, layoffs and discharges,
and other separations.  Data collection methods include computer-assisted
telephone interviewing, touchtone data entry, fax, and mail.

Coverage

   The JOLTS program covers all private nonfarm establishments such as
factories, offices, and stores, as well as federal, state, and local
government entities in the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

Concepts

   Industry classification.  The industry classifications in this release
are in accordance with the 2007 version of the North American Industry
Classification System (NAICS).  In order to ensure the highest possible
quality of data, State Workforce Agencies verify with employers and up-
date, if necessary, the industry code, location, and ownership classi-
fication of all establishments on a 3-year cycle.  Changes in establish-
ment characteristics resulting from the verification process are always
introduced into the JOLTS sampling frame with the data reported for the
first month of the year.

   Employment.  Employment includes persons on the payroll who worked or
received pay for the pay period that includes the 12th day of the refer-
ence month.  Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term, seasonal, sala-
ried, and hourly employees are included, as are employees on paid vaca-
tions or other paid leave.  Proprietors or partners of unincorporated
businesses, unpaid family workers, or persons on leave without pay or on 
strike for the entire pay period, are not counted as employed.  Employees
of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contrac-
tors, and consultants are counted by their employer of record, not by the
establishment where they are working.

   Job openings.  Establishments submit job openings information for the
last business day of the reference month.  A job opening requires that:
1) a specific position exists and there is work available for that posi-
tion, 2) work could start within 30 days regardless of whether a suitable
candidate is found, and 3) the employer is actively recruiting from out-
side the establishment to fill the position.  Included are full-time,
part-time, permanent, short-term, and seasonal openings.  Active re-
cruiting means that the establishment is taking steps to fill a position
by advertising in newspapers or on the Internet, posting help-wanted
signs, accepting applications, or using other similar methods.

  Jobs to be filled only by internal transfers, promotions, demotions,
or recall from layoffs are excluded.  Also excluded are jobs with start
dates more than 30 days in the future, jobs for which employees have
been hired but have not yet reported for work, and jobs to be filled by
employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies, out-
side contractors, or consultants.  The job openings rate is computed by
dividing the number of job openings by the sum of employment and job
openings and multiplying that quotient by 100.


                                  - 6 -

   Hires.  Hires are the total number of additions to the payroll occur-
ring at any time during the reference month, including both new and
rehired employees, full-time and part-time, permanent, short-term and 
seasonal employees, employees recalled to the location after a layoff
lasting more than 7 days, on-call or intermittent employees who returned
to work after having been formally separated, and transfers from other
locations.  The hires count does not include transfers or promotions 
within the reporting site, employees returning from strike, employees of
temporary help agencies or employee leasing companies, outside contrac-
tors, or consultants.  The hires rate is computed by dividing the number
of hires by employment and multiplying that quotient by 100.

   Separations.  Separations are the total number of terminations of
employment occurring at any time during the reference month, and are
reported by type of separation--quits, layoffs and discharges, and 
other separations.  Quits are voluntary separations by employees (ex-
cept for retirements, which are reported as other separations).  Lay-
offs and discharges are involuntary separations initiated by the em-
ployer and include layoffs with no intent to rehire, formal layoffs
lasting or expected to last more than 7 days, discharges resulting
from mergers, downsizing, or closings, firings or other discharges
for cause, terminations of permanent or short-term employees, and
terminations of seasonal employees.  Other separations include re-
tirements, transfers to other locations, deaths, and separations
due to disability.  Separations do not include transfers within the
same location or employees on strike.

   The separations rate is computed by dividing the number of separa-
tions by employment and multiplying that quotient by 100.  The quits,
layoffs and discharges, and other separations rates are computed simi-
larly, dividing the number by employment and multiplying by 100.

   Annual estimates.  Annual estimates of rates and levels of hires,
quits, layoffs and discharges, other separations, and total separations
are released with the January news release each year.

   The JOLTS annual level estimates for hires, quits, layoffs and dis-
charges, other separations, and total separations are the sum of the
12 published monthly levels.  The annual rate estimates are computed by
dividing the annual level by the Current Employment Statistics (CES)
annual average employment level, and multiplying that quotient by 100.
This figure will be approximately equal to the sum of the 12 monthly
rates.  Note that both the JOLTS and CES annual levels are rounded to
the nearest thousand before the annual estimates are calculated.  Con-
sistent with BLS practices, annual estimates will be published only for
not seasonally adjusted data.

   Annual estimates are not calculated for job openings because job
openings are a stock, or point-in-time, measurement for the last busi-
ness day of each month.  Only jobs still open on the last day of the
month are counted.  For the same reason job openings cannot be cumulated
throughout each month, annual figures for job openings cannot be created
by summing the monthly estimates.  Hires and separations are flow mea-
sures and are cumulated over the month with a total reported for the
month.  Therefore, the annual figures can be created by summing the
monthly estimates.


                                  - 7 -

Sample methodology

   The JOLTS sample design is a random sample of 16,000 nonfarm business
establishments, including factories, offices, and stores, as well as
federal, state, and local governments in the 50 states and the District
of Columbia.  The establishments are drawn from a universe of over
eight million establishments compiled as part of the operations of the
Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, or QCEW, program.  This program
includes all employers subject to state Unemployment Insurance (UI) laws
and federal agencies subject to Unemployment Compensation for Federal
Employees (UCFE).

   The sampling frame is stratified by ownership, region, industry sector,
and size class.  Large firms fall into the sample with virtual certainty.
JOLTS total employment estimates are controlled to the employment esti-
mates of the Current Employment Statistics (CES) survey.  A ratio of CES 
to JOLTS employment is used to adjust the levels for all other JOLTS data
elements.  Rates are then computed from the adjusted levels.

Using JOLTS data

   The JOLTS data series on job openings, hires, and separations are rel-
atively new.  The full sample is divided into panels, with one panel en-
rolled each month.  A full complement of panels for the original data
series based on the 1987 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system
was not completely enrolled in the survey until January 2002.  The sup-
plemental panels of establishments needed to create NAICS estimates were
not completely enrolled until May 2003.  The data collected up until
those points are from less than a full sample.  Therefore, estimates from
earlier months should be used with caution, as fewer sampled units were
reporting data at that time.

   In March 2002, BLS procedures for collecting hires and separations data
were revised to address possible underreporting.  As a result, JOLTS hires
and separations estimates for months prior to March 2002 may not be compar-
able with estimates for March 2002 and later.

   The federal government reorganization that involved transferring approx-
imately 180,000 employees to the new Department of Homeland Security is not
reflected in the JOLTS hires and separations estimates for the federal gov-
ernment.  The Office of Personnel Management's record shows these transfers
were completed in March 2003.  The inclusion of transfers in the JOLTS defi-
nitions of hires and separations is intended to cover ongoing movements of
workers between establishments.  The Department of Homeland Security reor-
ganization was a massive one-time event, and the inclusion of these inter-
governmental transfers would distort the federal government time series.

Seasonal adjustment

   BLS seasonally adjusts several JOLTS series using the X-12-ARIMA seasonal
adjustment program.  Seasonal adjustment is the process of estimating and
removing periodic fluctuations caused by events such as weather, holidays,
and the beginning and ending of the school year.  Seasonal adjustment makes
it easier to observe fundamental changes in the level of the series, par-
ticularly those associated with general economic expansions and contrac-
tions.  A concurrent seasonal adjustment methodology is used in which new
seasonal adjustment factors are calculated each month, using all relevant
data, up to and including the data for the current month.


                                  - 8 -

  Prior to the January  2007 benchmark release in March 2007, seasonal adjust-
ment of the JOLTS series was conducted using the stable seasonal filter option
since there were not enough data observations available for the standard use
of moving averages as seasonal filters.  Although the seasonal adjustment of
the JOLTS series is conducted with fewer data observations than is customary,
the number of observations is now above the minimum required by  X-12-ARIMA to
use the normal seasonal filters.  Therefore, the standard use of moving aver-
ages as seasonal filter is now in place for JOLTS seasonal adjustment.  JOLTS
seasonal adjustment now includes both additive and multiplicative seasonal
adjustment models  and REGARIMA (regression  with autocorrelated errors)
modeling to improve the  seasonal adjustment factors at the beginning and end
of the series and to detect and adjust for outliers in the series.

Reliability of the estimates

   JOLTS estimates are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error.  When
a sample rather than the entire population is surveyed, there is a chance
that the sample estimates may differ from the "true" population values they
represent.  The exact difference, or sampling error, varies depending on the
particular sample selected, and this variability is measured by the standard
error of the estimate.  BLS analysis is generally conducted at the 90-percent
level of confidence.  That means that there is a 90-percent chance, or level
of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than
1.6 standard errors from the "true" population value because of sampling
error.  Estimates of sampling errors are available upon request.

   The JOLTS estimates also are affected by nonsampling error.  Nonsampling
error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to include a seg-
ment of the population, the inability to obtain data from all units in the
sample, the inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide data on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, errors made in the collection
or processing of the data, and errors from the employment benchmark data
used in estimation.

   JOLTS hires and separations estimates cannot be used to exactly explain net
changes in nonfarm payroll employment.  Some reasons why it is problematic to 
compare changes in payroll employment with JOLTS hires and separations, espe-
cially on a monthly basis, are:  1) the reference period for payroll employment
is the pay period including the 12th of the month, while the reference period
for hires and separations is the calendar month; and 2) payroll employment can
vary from month to month simply because part-time and on-call workers may not
always work during the pay period that includes the 12th of the month.  Addi-
tionally, research has found that some reporters systematically underreport
separations relative to hires due to a number of factors, including the nature
of their payroll systems and practices.  The shortfall appears to be about
2 percent or less over a 12-month period.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request.  Voice phone: 202-691-5200; TDD message referral
phone: 1-800-877-8339.







Table 1.  Job openings levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Nov.   June   July   Aug.   Sept.  Oct.   Nov.   Nov.  June  July  Aug.  Sept. Oct.  Nov.
                                            2007   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008p  2007  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008p

Total(4).................................  3,972  3,497  3,492  3,375  3,214  3,001  2,793    2.8   2.5   2.5   2.4   2.3   2.1   2.0

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  3,520  3,073  3,046  2,952  2,778  2,585  2,419    3.0   2.6   2.6   2.5   2.4   2.2   2.1
  Construction...........................    138    100     94     85    110     64     67    1.8   1.4   1.3   1.2   1.5    .9   1.0
  Manufacturing..........................    303    241    229    245    213    213    142    2.2   1.7   1.7   1.8   1.6   1.6   1.1
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    648    539    569    572    458    507    554    2.4   2.0   2.1   2.1   1.7   1.9   2.1
   Retail trade..........................    344    322    346    357    260    316    385    2.2   2.1   2.2   2.3   1.7   2.0   2.5
  Professional and business services.....    685    670    696    634    567    498    459    3.7   3.6   3.7   3.4   3.1   2.7   2.5
  Education and health services..........    713    682    687    643    617    606    592    3.7   3.5   3.5   3.3   3.1   3.1   3.0
  Leisure and hospitality(6).............    591    452    432    383    443    404    251    4.2   3.2   3.1   2.7   3.2   2.9   1.8
   Accommodation and food services.......    518    406    388    316    373    351    219    4.3   3.4   3.2   2.6   3.1   2.9   1.9
 Government(7)...........................    454    417    412    423    440    429    375    2.0   1.8   1.8   1.8   1.9   1.9   1.6
  State and local government.............    404    361    362    363    387    367    358    2.0   1.8   1.8   1.8   1.9   1.8   1.8


                 REGION(8)

  Northeast..............................    629    608    615    617    590    541    506    2.4   2.3   2.3   2.4   2.3   2.1   2.0
  South..................................  1,620  1,440  1,384  1,317  1,240  1,191  1,086    3.2   2.8   2.7   2.6   2.4   2.4   2.2
  Midwest................................    755    676    638    664    664    629    566    2.3   2.1   2.0   2.1   2.1   2.0   1.8
  West...................................    957    789    847    777    710    639    663    3.0   2.5   2.7   2.5   2.3   2.0   2.1


  1 Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
  2 The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus
job openings.
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series.
  4 Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes arts, entertainment, and recreation, not shown separately.
  7 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  8 The States (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts,
New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of
Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas,
Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio,
South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah,
Washington, and Wyoming.
  p = preliminary.



Table 2.  Hires levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Nov.   June   July   Aug.   Sept.  Oct.   Nov.   Nov.  June  July  Aug.  Sept. Oct.  Nov.
                                            2007   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008p  2007  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008p

Total(4).................................  4,672  4,438  4,026  4,063  4,362  4,155  3,548    3.4   3.2   2.9   3.0   3.2   3.0   2.6

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  4,305  4,136  3,751  3,822  4,090  3,852  3,157    3.7   3.6   3.3   3.3   3.6   3.4   2.8
  Construction...........................    351    354    242    322    288    334    236    4.7   4.9   3.4   4.5   4.0   4.7   3.4
  Manufacturing..........................    353    285    249    251    281    257    216    2.6   2.1   1.8   1.9   2.1   1.9   1.6
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    946    906    858    878    875    837    726    3.5   3.4   3.3   3.3   3.3   3.2   2.8
   Retail trade..........................    655    608    585    619    616    565    501    4.2   4.0   3.8   4.0   4.0   3.7   3.3
  Professional and business services.....    902    889    748    701    741    748    719    5.0   5.0   4.2   3.9   4.2   4.2   4.1
  Education and health services..........    527    485    474    509    514    512    438    2.8   2.6   2.5   2.7   2.7   2.7   2.3
  Leisure and hospitality(6).............    846    741    798    728    830    734    579    6.2   5.4   5.8   5.3   6.1   5.4   4.3
   Accommodation and food services.......    708    645    683    626    681    602    510    6.1   5.5   5.9   5.4   5.9   5.2   4.4
 Government(7)...........................    349    340    321    315    313    322    292    1.6   1.5   1.4   1.4   1.4   1.4   1.3
  State and local government.............    287    309    300    286    283    278    263    1.5   1.6   1.5   1.4   1.4   1.4   1.3


                 REGION(8)

  Northeast..............................    761    761    657    679    688    629    518    3.0   3.0   2.6   2.7   2.7   2.5   2.0
  South..................................  1,828  1,666  1,512  1,549  1,570  1,516  1,323    3.7   3.4   3.0   3.1   3.2   3.1   2.7
  Midwest................................  1,027    966    934    926  1,020    973    779    3.3   3.1   3.0   2.9   3.3   3.1   2.5
  West...................................  1,018  1,084    979  1,004  1,057    975    874    3.3   3.5   3.2   3.3   3.4   3.2   2.9


  1 Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
  2 The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series.
  4 Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes arts, entertainment, and recreation, not shown separately.
  7 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  8 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 3.  Total separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Nov.   June   July   Aug.   Sept.  Oct.   Nov.   Nov.  June  July  Aug.  Sept. Oct.  Nov.
                                            2007   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008p  2007  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008p

Total(4).................................  4,640  4,368  4,359  4,398  4,042  4,299  4,301    3.4   3.2   3.2   3.2   2.9   3.1   3.2

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  4,367  4,115  4,128  4,149  3,792  4,034  4,042    3.8   3.6   3.6   3.6   3.3   3.5   3.6
  Construction...........................    322    409    473    400    403    418    455    4.3   5.7   6.6   5.6   5.7   5.9   6.6
  Manufacturing..........................    400    353    324    325    335    424    388    2.9   2.6   2.4   2.4   2.5   3.2   2.9
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)  1,065  1,003  1,013    933    916    945    906    4.0   3.8   3.8   3.5   3.5   3.6   3.5
   Retail trade..........................    764    679    692    642    581    634    596    4.9   4.4   4.5   4.2   3.8   4.2   4.0
  Professional and business services.....    878    799    694    851    696    771    750    4.9   4.5   3.9   4.8   3.9   4.4   4.3
  Education and health services..........    423    417    464    424    378    427    402    2.3   2.2   2.4   2.2   2.0   2.2   2.1
  Leisure and hospitality(6).............    799    749    741    754    714    671    683    5.9   5.5   5.4   5.5   5.2   4.9   5.1
   Accommodation and food services.......    667    641    629    652    634    559    601    5.7   5.5   5.4   5.6   5.5   4.8   5.2
 Government(7)...........................    286    259    244    257    251    264    261    1.3   1.1   1.1   1.1   1.1   1.2   1.2
  State and local government.............    240    233    222    231    233    234    232    1.2   1.2   1.1   1.2   1.2   1.2   1.2


                 REGION(8)

  Northeast..............................    860    658    745    705    600    607    652    3.3   2.6   2.9   2.7   2.3   2.4   2.6
  South..................................  1,709  1,681  1,629  1,633  1,456  1,564  1,611    3.4   3.4   3.3   3.3   2.9   3.2   3.3
  Midwest................................    974    954    912    893    956  1,003    956    3.1   3.0   2.9   2.8   3.0   3.2   3.1
  West...................................  1,117  1,089  1,099  1,142  1,017  1,123  1,116    3.6   3.5   3.6   3.7   3.3   3.7   3.7


  1 Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
  2 The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series.
  4 Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes arts, entertainment, and recreation, not shown separately.
  7 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  8 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 4.  Quits levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Nov.   June   July   Aug.   Sept.  Oct.   Nov.   Nov.  June  July  Aug.  Sept. Oct.  Nov.
                                            2007   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008p  2007  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008p

Total(4).................................  2,501  2,365  2,314  2,252  2,144  2,135  1,870    1.8   1.7   1.7   1.6   1.6   1.6   1.4

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  2,361  2,242  2,209  2,134  2,032  2,020  1,772    2.0   1.9   1.9   1.9   1.8   1.8   1.6
  Construction...........................    116    139    157    150    118    108     81    1.5   1.9   2.2   2.1   1.7   1.5   1.2
  Manufacturing..........................    187    154    134    143    141    156    124    1.4   1.1   1.0   1.1   1.1   1.2    .9
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    572    545    545    485    494    488    401    2.1   2.1   2.1   1.8   1.9   1.9   1.5
   Retail trade..........................    433    391    405    355    351    340    292    2.8   2.6   2.6   2.3   2.3   2.2   1.9
  Professional and business services.....    398    413    363    352    317    373    318    2.2   2.3   2.0   2.0   1.8   2.1   1.8
  Education and health services..........    269    246    268    234    234    259    219    1.5   1.3   1.4   1.2   1.2   1.4   1.1
  Leisure and hospitality(6).............    557    525    499    482    485    450    420    4.1   3.8   3.7   3.5   3.6   3.3   3.1
   Accommodation and food services.......    516    481    452    445    423    416    393    4.4   4.1   3.9   3.8   3.6   3.6   3.4
 Government(7)...........................    140    123    111    121    120    116    110     .6    .5    .5    .5    .5    .5    .5
  State and local government.............    125    114    104    113    121    107    101     .6    .6    .5    .6    .6    .5    .5


                 REGION(8)

  Northeast..............................    367    344    341    306    279    286    264    1.4   1.3   1.3   1.2   1.1   1.1   1.0
  South..................................    996    969    930    912    821    837    744    2.0   2.0   1.9   1.8   1.7   1.7   1.5
  Midwest................................    529    515    504    513    531    524    410    1.7   1.6   1.6   1.6   1.7   1.7   1.3
  West...................................    607    539    541    518    492    493    451    2.0   1.7   1.8   1.7   1.6   1.6   1.5


  1 Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
  2 The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series.
  4 Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes arts, entertainment, and recreation, not shown separately.
  7 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  8 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 5.  Job openings levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Nov.     Oct.     Nov.          Nov.     Oct.     Nov.
                                                   2007     2008     2008p         2007     2008     2008p

Total...........................................  3,665    3,045    2,542           2.6      2.2      1.8

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  3,237    2,623    2,190           2.7      2.2      1.9
  Natural resources and mining..................     13       14       10           1.8      1.7      1.3
  Construction..................................    115       55       52           1.5       .7       .7
  Manufacturing.................................    269      206      127           1.9      1.5      1.0
   Durable goods................................    157      113       71           1.8      1.3       .8
   Nondurable goods.............................    111       93       57           2.2      1.9      1.1
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    581      582      510           2.1      2.2      1.9
   Wholesale trade..............................    115       99       63           1.9      1.6      1.1
   Retail trade.................................    326      387      381           2.0      2.5      2.4
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    140       96       66           2.7      1.9      1.3
  Information...................................     81       62       37           2.6      2.1      1.2
  Financial activities..........................    214      131      149           2.5      1.6      1.8
   Finance and insurance........................    170       95      107           2.7      1.6      1.7
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     44       36       42           2.0      1.7      2.0
  Professional and business services............    641      494      413           3.4      2.7      2.3
  Education and health services.................    680      596      556           3.5      3.0      2.8
   Educational services.........................     60       61       56           1.8      1.8      1.7
   Health care and social assistance............    620      536      500           3.8      3.2      3.0
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    525      374      223           3.8      2.7      1.7
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     54       44       25           2.8      2.2      1.4
   Accommodation and food services.............     471      329      198           3.9      2.8      1.7
  Other services................................    117      109      112           2.1      1.9      2.0

 Government.....................................    427      422      352           1.8      1.8      1.5
  Federal.......................................     46       60       16           1.7      2.1       .6
  State and local...............................    381      362      336           1.9      1.8      1.6

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    599      592      471           2.3      2.2      1.8
  South.........................................  1,493    1,195      988           2.9      2.3      2.0
  Midwest.......................................    664      627      489           2.0      2.0      1.5
  West..........................................    908      631      594           2.8      2.0      1.9


  1 Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
  2 The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a
percent of total employment plus job openings.
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 6.  Hires levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Nov.     Oct.     Nov.          Nov.     Oct.     Nov.
                                                   2007     2008     2008p         2007     2008     2008p

Total...........................................  4,230    4,217    3,120           3.0      3.1      2.3

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  3,974    3,921    2,918           3.4      3.4      2.6
  Natural resources and mining..................     19       27       17           2.6      3.4      2.1
  Construction..................................    276      304      180           3.6      4.2      2.6
  Manufacturing.................................    291      258      177           2.1      1.9      1.3
   Durable goods................................    165      143       90           1.9      1.7      1.1
   Nondurable goods.............................    126      115       87           2.5      2.3      1.8
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........  1,063      977      793           3.9      3.7      3.0
   Wholesale trade..............................    140      158      105           2.3      2.6      1.8
   Retail trade.................................    806      681      607           5.1      4.5      3.9
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    118      138       80           2.3      2.7      1.6
  Information...................................     47       63       38           1.6      2.1      1.3
  Financial activities..........................    174      159      124           2.1      2.0      1.5
   Finance and insurance........................    105      101       92           1.7      1.7      1.5
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     69       59       32           3.2      2.8      1.5
  Professional and business services............    831      758      652           4.6      4.2      3.7
  Education and health services.................    446      547      362           2.4      2.8      1.9
   Educational services.........................     49       82       38           1.5      2.5      1.2
   Health care and social assistance............    397      465      324           2.6      2.9      2.0
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    733      690      498           5.5      5.1      3.8
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........    110       90       66           5.9      4.6      3.7
   Accommodation and food services.............     623      600      432           5.4      5.2      3.8
  Other services................................     92      138       76           1.7      2.5      1.4

 Government.....................................    256      295      202           1.1      1.3       .9
  Federal.......................................     42       26       18           1.5       .9       .7
  State and local...............................    214      269      183           1.1      1.3       .9

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    690      640      462           2.7      2.5      1.8
  South.........................................  1,665    1,564    1,189           3.3      3.1      2.4
  Midwest.......................................    910    1,022      661           2.9      3.3      2.1
  West..........................................    966      991      807           3.1      3.2      2.6


  1 Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
  2 The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 7.  Total separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Nov.     Oct.     Nov.          Nov.     Oct.     Nov.
                                                   2007     2008     2008p         2007     2008     2008p

Total...........................................  4,292    4,331    4,018           3.1      3.1      2.9

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  4,100    4,119    3,842           3.5      3.6      3.4
  Natural resources and mining..................     24       28       31           3.2      3.5      3.8
  Construction..................................    335      440      489           4.4      6.1      6.9
  Manufacturing.................................    363      447      374           2.6      3.4      2.8
   Durable goods................................    207      285      233           2.4      3.4      2.8
   Nondurable goods.............................    156      161      141           3.1      3.3      2.9
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........  1,007      912      842           3.7      3.5      3.2
   Wholesale trade..............................    126      139      128           2.1      2.3      2.1
   Retail trade.................................    734      602      553           4.6      4.0      3.6
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    147      171      161           2.8      3.4      3.2
  Information...................................     52       79       62           1.7      2.7      2.1
  Financial activities..........................    162      183      193           2.0      2.2      2.4
   Finance and insurance........................     85      103      115           1.4      1.7      1.9
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     78       80       77           3.6      3.8      3.7
  Professional and business services............    861      775      766           4.7      4.3      4.3
  Education and health services.................    341      389      315           1.8      2.0      1.6
   Educational services.........................     39       45       36           1.2      1.4      1.1
   Health care and social assistance............    302      345      279           1.9      2.2      1.7
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    778      749      653           5.8      5.6      5.0
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........    149      135       97           8.0      6.9      5.3
   Accommodation and food services.............     628      614      556           5.5      5.3      4.9
  Other services................................    177      118      118           3.2      2.1      2.2

 Government.....................................    192      212      177            .8       .9       .8
  Federal.......................................     23       18       13            .8       .6       .5
  State and local...............................    169      194      164            .8      1.0       .8

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    780      596      601           3.0      2.3      2.3
  South.........................................  1,463    1,572    1,377           2.9      3.2      2.8
  Midwest.......................................    989      997      980           3.1      3.2      3.1
  West..........................................  1,060    1,166    1,061           3.4      3.8      3.4


  1 Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
  2 The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of
total employment.
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 8.  Quits levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Nov.     Oct.     Nov.          Nov.     Oct.     Nov.
                                                   2007     2008     2008p         2007     2008     2008p

Total...........................................  2,190    2,125    1,600           1.6      1.5      1.2

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  2,089    2,031    1,523           1.8      1.8      1.3
  Natural resources and mining..................     10       16       12           1.3      2.0      1.5
  Construction..................................     96      113       57           1.3      1.6       .8
  Manufacturing.................................    149      161       97           1.1      1.2       .7
   Durable goods................................     80       97       54            .9      1.2       .7
   Nondurable goods.............................     69       64       43           1.4      1.3       .9
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    519      482      361           1.9      1.8      1.4
   Wholesale trade..............................     54       60       39            .9      1.0       .7
   Retail trade.................................    407      336      273           2.6      2.2      1.8
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     59       86       49           1.1      1.7      1.0
  Information...................................     34       27       20           1.1       .9       .7
  Financial activities..........................     95       92       81           1.2      1.1      1.0
   Finance and insurance........................     64       60       54           1.0      1.0       .9
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     31       33       27           1.5      1.6      1.3
  Professional and business services............    377      361      286           2.1      2.0      1.6
  Education and health services.................    228      242      180           1.2      1.3       .9
   Educational services.........................     23       21       16            .7       .7       .5
   Health care and social assistance............    205      221      164           1.3      1.4      1.0
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    513      472      372           3.8      3.5      2.8
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     37       36       17           2.0      1.8      1.0
   Accommodation and food services.............     476      436      354           4.1      3.8      3.1
  Other services................................     69       64       58           1.3      1.2      1.1

 Government.....................................    101       95       77            .4       .4       .3
  Federal.......................................      8        4        3            .3       .1       .1
  State and local...............................     92       91       74            .5       .5       .4

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    332      282      235           1.3      1.1       .9
  South.........................................    840      843      607           1.7      1.7      1.2
  Midwest.......................................    485      515      379           1.5      1.6      1.2
  West..........................................    532      486      379           1.7      1.6      1.2


  1 Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
  2 The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 9.  Layoffs and discharges levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Nov.     Oct.     Nov.          Nov.     Oct.     Nov.
                                                   2007     2008     2008p         2007     2008     2008p

Total...........................................  1,817    1,927    2,133           1.3      1.4      1.6

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  1,758    1,848    2,065           1.5      1.6      1.8
  Natural resources and mining..................     12       10       19           1.7      1.2      2.3
  Construction..................................    217      309      412           2.9      4.3      5.8
  Manufacturing.................................    187      250      258           1.4      1.9      2.0
   Durable goods................................    112      163      167           1.3      1.9      2.0
   Nondurable goods.............................     75       87       91           1.5      1.8      1.9
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    403      367      400           1.5      1.4      1.5
   Wholesale trade..............................     63       72       81           1.0      1.2      1.4
   Retail trade.................................    263      226      230           1.6      1.5      1.5
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     77       70       89           1.5      1.4      1.8
  Information...................................     13       49       38            .4      1.7      1.3
  Financial activities..........................     56       69       83            .7       .8      1.0
   Finance and insurance........................     16       27       36            .3       .4       .6
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     41       42       48           1.9      2.0      2.3
  Professional and business services............    445      370      450           2.4      2.1      2.5
  Education and health services.................     88      113       94            .5       .6       .5
   Educational services.........................     13       20       18            .4       .6       .5
   Health care and social assistance............     74       93       76            .5       .6       .5
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    243      264      259           1.8      2.0      2.0
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........    110       98       74           5.9      5.0      4.1
   Accommodation and food services.............     133      166      184           1.2      1.4      1.6
  Other services................................     93       49       53           1.7       .9      1.0

 Government.....................................     59       79       68            .3       .3       .3
  Federal.......................................      8        9        5            .3       .3       .2
  State and local...............................     51       70       63            .3       .3       .3

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    401      266      304           1.5      1.0      1.2
  South.........................................    535      618      676           1.1      1.2      1.4
  Midwest.......................................    450      425      548           1.4      1.4      1.8
  West..........................................    430      617      605           1.4      2.0      2.0


  1 Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
  2 The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a
percent of total employment.
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 10.  Other separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Nov.     Oct.     Nov.          Nov.     Oct.     Nov.
                                                   2007     2008     2008p         2007     2008     2008p

Total...........................................    285      279      285           0.2      0.2      0.2

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................    253      240      254            .2       .2       .2
  Natural resources and mining..................      2        2      (4)            .2       .2      (4)
  Construction..................................     22       18       20            .3       .2       .3
  Manufacturing.................................     26       36       19            .2       .3       .1
   Durable goods................................     14       26       12            .2       .3       .1
   Nondurable goods.............................     12       10        7            .2       .2       .1
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........     85       64       81            .3       .2       .3
   Wholesale trade..............................      9        7        8            .2       .1       .1
   Retail trade.................................     64       41       50            .4       .3       .3
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     11       16       23            .2       .3       .5
  Information...................................      5        3        5            .2       .1       .2
  Financial activities..........................     11       22       28            .1       .3       .3
   Finance and insurance........................      5       16       25            .1       .3       .4
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........      6        6        3            .3       .3       .1
  Professional and business services............     39       44       30            .2       .2       .2
  Education and health services.................     26       34       41            .1       .2       .2
   Educational services.........................      3        4        2            .1       .1       .1
   Health care and social assistance............     23       30       38            .1       .2       .2
  Leisure and hospitality.......................     22       14       23            .2       .1       .2
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........      3        1        5            .1       .1       .3
   Accommodation and food services.............      20       12       18            .2       .1       .2
  Other services................................     16        5        7            .3       .1       .1

 Government.....................................     32       38       31            .1       .2       .1
  Federal.......................................      6        6        5            .2       .2       .2
  State and local...............................     26       33       27            .1       .2       .1

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................     47       48       62            .2       .2       .2
  South.........................................     88      112       94            .2       .2       .2
  Midwest.......................................     53       56       53            .2       .2       .2
  West..........................................     97       63       77            .3       .2       .2


  1 Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
  2 The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of
total employment.
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  4 Data round to zero.
  p = preliminary.


Last Modified Date: January 13, 2009
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