Economic News Release

Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey News Release


                                   
For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Tuesday, February 8, 2011     USDL-11-0152

Technical information:   (202) 691-5870  •  JoltsInfo@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/jlt
Media contact:           (202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov


            Job Openings and Labor Turnover – December 2010


There were 3.1 million job openings on the last business day of
December, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. The job
openings rate was essentially unchanged over the month at 2.3 percent.
Both the hires rate and the separations rate were unchanged at 3.2
percent each in December. This release includes estimates of the
number and rate of job openings, hires, and separations for the total
nonfarm sector by industry and by geographic region.

Job Openings
The number of job openings in December was 3.1 million, which was
little changed from 3.2 million in November. (See table 1.) Since the
most recent series trough in July 2009, the level of job openings has
risen by 0.7 million, or 31 percent. This trough immediately followed
the end of the recession in June 2009 (as designated by the National
Bureau of Economic Research). Even with the gains since July 2009, the
number of job openings in December remained 1.3 million below the 4.4
million openings when the recession began in December 2007.

The number of job openings in December 2010 (not seasonally adjusted)
increased from 12 months earlier for total nonfarm and total private.
The level was little changed over the year for government. Over the
year, the job openings level increased in seven industries, decreased
in one industry, and was essentially unchanged in the remaining
industries. The job openings level increased in the Midwest and West
regions. (See table 5.)

                                 - 2 -

Table A.  Job openings, hires, and total separations by industry, seasonally
adjusted
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   |    Job openings    |       Hires        | Total separations
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
     Industry      | Dec. | Nov. | Dec. | Dec. | Nov. | Dec. | Dec. | Nov. | Dec.
                   | 2009 | 2010 | 2010p| 2009 | 2010 | 2010p| 2009 | 2010 | 2010p
-------------------|--------------------------------------------------------------
                   |                     Levels (in thousands)
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
Total..............|2,531 |3,202 |3,063 |3,997 |4,214 |4,184 |4,195 |4,154 |4,162
                   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
 Total private(1)..|2,130 |2,888 |2,635 |3,715 |3,907 |3,883 |3,884 |3,834 |3,842
  Construction.....|   67 |   91 |   28 |  335 |  347 |  377 |  382 |  363 |  473
  Manufacturing....|  171 |  214 |  198 |  244 |  274 |  265 |  273 |  293 |  257
  Trade, trans-    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   portation, and  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   utilities(2)....|  378 |  461 |  505 |  849 |  855 |  804 |  901 |  832 |  768
   Retail trade....|  237 |  265 |  299 |  547 |  588 |  514 |  567 |  579 |  494
  Professional     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   and business    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   services........|  404 |  702 |  602 |  652 |  777 |  788 |  649 |  721 |  759
  Education and    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   health ser-     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   vices...........|  545 |  558 |  538 |  496 |  524 |  495 |  486 |  487 |  473
  Leisure and      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   hospitality.....|  227 |  306 |  314 |  657 |  656 |  677 |  688 |  646 |  650
   Arts, enter-    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    tainment and   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    recreation.....|   20 |   30 |   46 |   94 |  103 |  103 |  109 |  102 |   99
   Accommodation   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    and food       |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    services.......|  207 |  276 |  269 |  562 |  553 |  574 |  578 |  544 |  552
 Government(3).....|  401 |  314 |  428 |  282 |  308 |  301 |  311 |  319 |  320
  State and local  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   government......|  294 |  223 |  337 |  254 |  276 |  270 |  283 |  292 |  302
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
                   |                       Rates (percent)
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
Total..............|  1.9 |  2.4 |  2.3 |  3.1 |  3.2 |  3.2 |  3.2 |  3.2 |  3.2
                   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
 Total private(1)..|  2.0 |  2.6 |  2.4 |  3.5 |  3.6 |  3.6 |  3.6 |  3.5 |  3.5
  Construction.....|  1.2 |  1.6 |  0.5 |  5.9 |  6.2 |  6.7 |  6.7 |  6.5 |  8.4
  Manufacturing....|  1.5 |  1.8 |  1.7 |  2.1 |  2.3 |  2.3 |  2.4 |  2.5 |  2.2
  Trade, trans-    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   portation, and  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   utilities(2)....|  1.5 |  1.8 |  2.0 |  3.4 |  3.4 |  3.2 |  3.7 |  3.3 |  3.1
   Retail trade....|  1.6 |  1.8 |  2.0 |  3.8 |  4.1 |  3.5 |  3.9 |  4.0 |  3.4
  Professional     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   and business    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   services........|  2.4 |  4.0 |  3.4 |  4.0 |  4.6 |  4.7 |  3.9 |  4.3 |  4.5
  Education and    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   health ser-     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   vices...........|  2.7 |  2.7 |  2.6 |  2.6 |  2.7 |  2.5 |  2.5 |  2.5 |  2.4
  Leisure and      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   hospitality.....|  1.7 |  2.3 |  2.3 |  5.1 |  5.0 |  5.1 |  5.3 |  4.9 |  4.9
   Arts, enter-    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    tainment and   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    recreation.....|  1.1 |  1.5 |  2.3 |  5.0 |  5.4 |  5.4 |  5.8 |  5.4 |  5.2
   Accommodation   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    and food       |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    services.......|  1.8 |  2.4 |  2.3 |  5.1 |  4.9 |  5.1 |  5.2 |  4.8 |  4.9
 Government(3).....|  1.8 |  1.4 |  1.9 |  1.3 |  1.4 |  1.4 |  1.4 |  1.4 |  1.4
  State and local  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   government......|  1.5 |  1.1 |  1.7 |  1.3 |  1.4 |  1.4 |  1.4 |  1.5 |  1.6
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  1 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and
other services, not shown separately.
  2 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not
shown separately.
  3 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  p = preliminary.

Hires
In December, the hires rate was unchanged for total nonfarm (3.2
percent), total private (3.6 percent), and government (1.4 percent).
The hires rate decreased for retail trade. The hires rate was
essentially unchanged for all regions. (See table 2.) There were 4.2
million hires during the month, 9 percent higher than the most recent
series trough in June 2009. This trough coincided with the official
end of the recession. Despite the gains since June 2009, the number of
hires in December remained below the 5.0 million hires when the
recession began in December 2007. Since their respective troughs, the
hires level has risen at a slower pace than the job openings level.

Over the 12 months ending in December, the hires rate (not seasonally
adjusted) was essentially unchanged for total nonfarm, total private,
and government. The hires rate was essentially unchanged in all
industries and regions. (See table 6.)

                                 - 3 -

Separations
Total separations includes quits (voluntary separations), layoffs and
discharges (involuntary separations), and other separations (including
retirements). The total separations, or turnover, rate was unchanged
over the month for total nonfarm, total private, and government. The
total separations rate increased for construction and decreased for
retail trade. Over the 12 months ending in December, the total
separations rate (not seasonally adjusted) was essentially unchanged
for total nonfarm, total private, and government; the rate increased
for construction and state and local government and decreased for
federal government. (See tables 3 and 7.)

The quits rate can serve as a measure of workers’ willingness or
ability to change jobs. In December, the quits rate remained unchanged
for total nonfarm (1.5 percent), total private (1.7 percent), and
government (0.5 percent) and there was little or no change in every
industry and region. (See table 4.) The number of quits in December
(2.0 million) was higher than the series trough in September 2009 (1.7
million), but it was still well below the series peak in November 2006
(3.2 million).

Over the 12 months ending in December, the quits rate (not seasonally
adjusted) was essentially unchanged for total nonfarm and government
but increased for total private. The quits rate increased for
manufacturing, professional and business services, and information,
and remained essentially unchanged for the remaining industries and
all regions. (See table 8.)

The layoffs and discharges component of total separations is
seasonally adjusted at the total nonfarm, total private, and
government levels. The layoffs and discharges level was essentially
unchanged in December for total nonfarm, total private, and
government. The number of layoffs and discharges for total nonfarm
peaked at 2.6 million in January 2009, then fell to 1.8 million in
December 2010. (See table B below.)

The layoffs and discharges level (not seasonally adjusted) was
essentially unchanged over the 12 months ending in December for total
nonfarm. The level decreased for total private. The layoffs and
discharges level increased in construction over the year. The level
declined over the year in several industries and in the Midwest
region. (See table 9.)

Table B.  Layoffs and discharges by industry, seasonally adjusted
--------------------------------------------------------------------
                   | Levels (in thousands) |    Rates (percent)
                   |------------------------------------------------
     Industry      |  Dec. |  Nov. |  Dec. |  Dec. |  Nov. |  Dec.
                   |  2009 |  2010 |  2010p|  2009 |  2010 |  2010p
-------------------|------------------------------------------------
Total..............| 2,049 | 1,854 | 1,838 |  1.6  |  1.4  |  1.4
 Total private.....| 1,914 | 1,713 | 1,676 |  1.8  |  1.6  |  1.5
 Government........|   135 |   141 |   162 |  0.6  |  0.6  |  0.7
--------------------------------------------------------------------
  p = preliminary.

The other separations series is not seasonally adjusted. In December,
there were 332,000 other separations for total nonfarm, 276,000 for
total private, and 56,000 for government. Compared to December 2009,
the number of other separations was little changed for total nonfarm,
total private, and government. (See table 10.)

                                 - 4 -

Relative Contributions to Separations
The total separations level is influenced by the relative contribution
of its three components—quits, layoffs and discharges, and other
separations. The percentage of total separations at the total nonfarm
level attributable to the individual components has varied over time,
but for the majority of the months since the series began in December
2000, the proportion of quits has exceeded the proportion of layoffs
and discharges. Other separations is historically a very small portion
of total separations; it has rarely been above 10 percent of the
total.

Since February 2010, the proportions of quits and of layoffs and
discharges at the total nonfarm level have been close. In December
2010, the proportion of quits for total nonfarm was 48 percent and the
proportion of layoffs and discharges was 44 percent. For total
private, the proportions were 49 percent quits and 44 percent layoffs
and discharges. For government, the proportions were 33 percent quits
and 51 percent layoffs and discharges. (See table C below.)

Table C.  Quits and layoffs and discharges as a percentage of total separations, seasonally adjusted
(Levels in thousands)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   |                       Quits                      |             Layoffs and discharges
                   | ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   |      Dec.      |      Nov.      |      Dec.      |      Dec.      |      Nov.      |      Dec.
                   |      2009      |      2010      |      2010p     |      2009      |      2010      |      2010p
     Industry      | ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   |       |Portion |       |Portion |       |Portion |       |Portion |       |Portion |       |Portion
                   | Level |of total| Level |of total| Level |of total| Level |of total| Level |of total| Level |of total
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total..............| 1,753 |   42%  | 1,921 |   46%  | 1,991 |   48%  | 2,049 |   49%  | 1,854 |   45%  | 1,838 |   44%
 Total private.....| 1,639 |   42%  | 1,814 |   47%  | 1,884 |   49%  | 1,914 |   49%  | 1,713 |   45%  | 1,676 |   44%
 Government........|   114 |   37%  |   107 |   34%  |   106 |   33%  |   135 |   43%  |   141 |   44%  |   162 |   51%
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  p = preliminary.

Net Change in Employment
Over the 12 months ending in December, hires (not seasonally adjusted)
totaled 51.0 million and separations (not seasonally adjusted) totaled
50.1 million, yielding a net employment gain of 0.9 million. These
figures include workers who may have been hired and separated more
than once during the year. Nearly half of the hires and nearly half of
the separations during these 12 months occurred in three industries:
retail trade; professional and business services; and accommodation
and food services. The large share of total hires and separations
accounted for by these three industries reflects the size of the
industries as well as their relatively high hires and separations
rates.

____________
The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey results for January 2011
are scheduled to be released on Friday, March 11, 2011 at 10:00 a.m.
(EST).

_______________________________________________________________________
|                      Revisions to the JOLTS Data                    |
|                                                                     |
|With the release of January data on March 11, BLS will revise the job|
|openings, hires, and separations data to incorporate the annual      |
|updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates and|
|the JOLTS seasonal adjustment factors. Unadjusted data from December |
|2005 forward and seasonally adjusted data from December 2005 forward |
|are subject to revision.                                             |
_______________________________________________________________________




                                 - 5 -

Technical Note


  The data for the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS)
are collected and compiled monthly from a sample of business
establishments by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

Collection

  In a monthly survey of business establishments, data are
collected for total employment, job openings, hires, quits, layoffs
and discharges, and other separations.  Data collection methods
include computer-assisted telephone interviewing, touchtone data
entry, web, fax, e-mail, and mail.

Coverage

  The JOLTS program covers all private nonfarm establishments such
as factories, offices, and stores, as well as federal, state, and
local government entities in the 50 states and the District of
Columbia.

Concepts

  Industry classification.  The industry classifications in this
release are in accordance with the 2007 version of the North
American Industry Classification System (NAICS).  In order to
ensure the highest possible quality of data, State Workforce
Agencies verify with employers and update, if necessary, the
industry code, location, and ownership classification of all
establishments on a 3-year cycle.  Changes in establishment
characteristics resulting from the verification process are always
introduced into the JOLTS sampling frame with the data reported for
the first month of the year.

  Employment.  Employment includes persons on the payroll who
worked or received pay for the pay period that includes the 12th
day of the reference month.  Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-
term, seasonal, salaried, and hourly employees are included, as are
employees on paid vacations or other paid leave.  Proprietors or
partners of unincorporated businesses, unpaid family workers, or
persons on leave without pay or on strike for the entire pay
period, are not counted as employed.  Employees of temporary help
agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contractors, and
consultants are counted by their employer of record, not by the
establishment where they are working.

  Job openings.  Establishments submit job openings information for
the last business day of the reference month.  A job opening
requires that: 1) a specific position exists and there is work
available for that position, 2) work could start within 30 days
regardless of whether a suitable candidate is found, and 3) the
employer is actively recruiting from outside the establishment to
fill the position.  Included are full-time, part-time, permanent,
short-term, and seasonal openings.  Active recruiting means that
the establishment is taking steps to fill a position by advertising
in newspapers or on the Internet, posting help-wanted signs,
accepting applications, or using other similar methods.

  Jobs to be filled only by internal transfers, promotions,
demotions, or recall from layoffs are excluded.  Also excluded are
jobs with start dates more than 30 days in the future, jobs for
which employees have been hired but have not yet reported for work,
and jobs to be filled by employees of temporary help agencies,
employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants.
The job openings rate is computed by dividing the number of job
openings by the sum of employment and job openings and multiplying
that quotient by 100.

  Hires.  Hires are the total number of additions to the payroll
occurring at any time during the reference month, including both
new and rehired employees, full-time and part-time, permanent,
short-term and seasonal employees, employees recalled to the
location after a layoff lasting more than 7 days, on-call or
intermittent employees who returned to work after having been
formally separated, and transfers from other locations.  The hires
count does not include transfers or promotions within the reporting
site, employees returning from strike, employees of temporary help
agencies or employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or
consultants.  The hires rate is computed by dividing the number of
hires by employment and multiplying that quotient by 100.

  Separations.  Separations are the total number of terminations of
employment occurring at any time during the reference month, and
are reported by type of separation--quits, layoffs and discharges,
and other separations.  Quits are voluntary separations by
employees (except for retirements, which are reported as other
separations).  Layoffs and discharges are involuntary separations
initiated by the employer and include layoffs with no intent to
rehire; formal layoffs lasting or expected to last more than 7
days; discharges resulting from mergers, downsizing, or closings;
firings or other discharges for cause; terminations of permanent or
short-term employees; and terminations of seasonal employees.
Other separations include retirements, transfers to other
locations, deaths, and separations due to disability.  Separations
do not include transfers within the same location or employees on
strike.

                                 - 6 -

  The separations rate is computed by dividing the number of
separations by employment and multiplying that quotient by 100.
The quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations rates are
computed similarly, dividing the number by employment and
multiplying by 100.

  Annual estimates.  Annual estimates of rates and levels of hires,
quits, layoffs and discharges, other separations, and total
separations are released with the January news release each year.

   The JOLTS annual level estimates for hires, quits, layoffs and
discharges, other separations, and total separations are the sum of
the 12 published monthly levels.  The annual rate estimates are
computed by dividing the annual level by the Current Employment
Statistics (CES) annual average employment level, and multiplying
that quotient by 100.  This figure will be approximately equal to
the sum of the 12 monthly rates.  Note that both the JOLTS and CES
annual levels are rounded to the nearest thousand before the annual
estimates are calculated.  Consistent with BLS practices, annual
estimates are published only for not seasonally adjusted data.

  Annual estimates are not calculated for job openings because job
openings are a stock, or point-in-time, measurement for the last
business day of each month.  Only jobs still open on the last day
of the month are counted.  For the same reason job openings cannot
be cumulated throughout each month, annual figures for job openings
cannot be created by summing the monthly estimates.  Hires and
separations are flow measures and are cumulated over the month with
a total reported for the month.  Therefore, the annual figures can
be created by summing the monthly estimates.

Special collection procedures

  An implied measure of employment change can be derived from the
JOLTS data by subtracting separations from hires for a given
month.  Aggregating these monthly changes historically produced
employment levels that overstated employment change as measured by
CES at the total nonfarm level.  Research into this problem showed
that a significant amount of the divergence between the CES
employment levels and the derived JOLTS employment levels was
traceable to the Employment Services industry and to the State
Government Education industry.  In the former industry, businesses
have a difficult time reporting hires and separations of temporary
help workers.  In the latter industry, employers have difficulty
reporting hires and separations of student workers.  BLS now
devotes additional resources to the collection, editing, and review
of data for these industries.  BLS analysts more closely examine
reported data that do not provide a consistent picture over time,
and re-contact the respondents as necessary.  Analysts work with
the respondents to adjust their reporting practices as possible.
Units that cannot be reconciled but are clearly incorrect on a
consistent basis are not used, they are replaced by imputed values
using standard techniques.

Sample and estimation methodology

  The JOLTS survey design is a random sample of 16,000 nonfarm
business establishments, including factories, offices, and stores,
as well as federal, state, and local governments in the 50 states
and the District of Columbia.  The establishments are drawn from a
universe of over 9.1 million establishments compiled as part of the
operations of the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW)
program.  This program includes all employers subject to state
Unemployment Insurance (UI) laws and federal agencies subject to
Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE).

  The sampling frame is stratified by ownership, region, industry
sector, and size class. The JOLTS sample is constructed from
individual panels of sample units drawn on an annual basis. The
full annual sample consists of one certainty panel composed of only
large units selected with virtual certainty based on their size and
24 non-certainty panels.  Each month a new non-certainty panel is
rolled into collection, and the oldest non-certainty panel is
rolled out.  This means that at any given time the JOLTS sample is
constructed from panels from three different annual sampling
frames.  The entire sample of old plus new panels is post-
stratified and re-weighted annually to represent the most recent
sampling frame.  Additionally, the out-of-business establishments
are removed from the old panels.  The annual sample is supplemented
with a quarterly sample of birth establishments (i.e., new
establishments) to better reflect the impact of younger
establishments in the JOLTS sample.

  JOLTS total employment estimates are benchmarked monthly to the
employment estimates of the Current Employment Statistics (CES)
survey.  A ratio of CES to JOLTS employment is used to adjust the
levels for all other JOLTS data elements.

  JOLTS business birth/death model

  As with any sample survey, the JOLTS sample can only be as
current as its sampling frame.  The time lag from the birth of an
establishment until its appearance on the sampling frame is
approximately one year.  In addition, many of these new units may
fail within the first year.  Since these universe units cannot be
reflected on the sampling frame immediately, the JOLTS
sample cannot capture job openings, hires, and sepa-

                                 - 7 -

rations from these units during their early existence.  BLS has
developed a model to estimate birth/death activity for current
months by examining the birth/death activity from previous years on the
QCEW and projecting forward to the present using an econometric technique
known as X-12 ARIMA modeling. The birth/death model also uses historical
JOLTS data to estimate the amount of “churn” (hires and separations) that
exists in establishments of various sizes.  The model then combines
the estimated churn with the projected employment change to
estimate the number of hires and separations taking place in these
units that cannot be measured through sampling.

  The model-based estimate of total separations is distributed to
the three components–-quits; layoffs and discharges; and other
separations--in proportion to their contribution to the sample-
based estimate of total separations.  Additionally, job openings
for the modeled units are estimated by computing the ratio of
openings to hires in the collected data and applying that ratio to
the modeled hires.  The estimates of job openings, hires, and
separations produced by the birth/death model are then added to the
sample-based estimates produced from the survey to arrive at the
estimates for openings, hires, and separations.

Seasonal adjustment

  BLS seasonally adjusts several JOLTS series using the X-12 ARIMA
seasonal adjustment program.  Seasonal adjustment is the process of
estimating and removing periodic fluctuations caused by events such
as weather, holidays, and the beginning and ending of the school
year.  Seasonal adjustment makes it easier to observe fundamental
changes in the level of the series, particularly those associated
with general economic expansions and contractions.  A concurrent
seasonal adjustment methodology is used in which new seasonal
adjustment factors are calculated each month, using all relevant
data, up to and including the data for the current month.

  JOLTS uses moving averages as seasonal filters in seasonal
adjustment.  JOLTS seasonal adjustment includes both additive and
multiplicative seasonal adjustment models and REGARIMA (regression
with autocorrelated errors) modeling to improve the seasonal
adjustment factors at the beginning and end of the series and to
detect and adjust for outliers in the series.

Alignment procedure

  JOLTS hires minus separations should be comparable to the CES net
employment change.  However, definitional differences as well as
sampling and non-sampling errors between the two surveys
historically caused JOLTS to diverge from CES over time. To limit
the divergence, and improve the quality of the JOLTS hires and
separations series, BLS implemented the Monthly Alignment Method.
The Monthly Alignment Method applies the CES employment trends to
the seasonally adjusted JOLTS implied employment trend (hires minus
separations) forcing them to be approximately the same, while
preserving the seasonality of the JOLTS data.  First, the two
series are seasonally adjusted and the difference between the JOLTS
implied employment trend and the CES net employment change is
calculated. Next, the JOLTS implied employment trend is adjusted to
equal the CES net employment change through a proportional
adjustment. This proportional adjustment procedure adjusts the two
components (hires, separations) proportionally to their
contribution to the total churn (hires plus separations).  For
example, if hires are 40 percent of the churn for a given month,
they will receive 40 percent of the needed adjustment and
separations will receive 60 percent of the needed adjustment. The
adjusted hires and separations are converted back to not seasonally
adjusted data by reversing the application of the original seasonal
factors.  After the Monthly Alignment Method has been used to
adjust the level estimates, rate estimates are computed from the
adjusted levels.  The monthly alignment procedure assures a close
match of the JOLTS implied employment trend with the CES trend. The
CES series is considered a highly accurate measure of net
employment change owing to its very large sample size and annual
benchmarking to universe counts of employment from the QCEW
program.

Using JOLTS data

  The JOLTS data series on job openings, hires, and separations are
relatively new.  The full sample is divided into panels, with one
panel enrolled each month.  A full complement of panels for the
original data series based on the 1987 Standard Industrial
Classification (SIC) system was not completely enrolled in the
survey until January 2002.  The supplemental panels of
establishments needed to create NAICS estimates were not completely
enrolled until May 2003.  The data collected up until those points
are from less than a full sample.  Therefore, estimates from
earlier months should be used with caution, as fewer sampled units
were reporting data at that time.

  In March 2002, BLS procedures for collecting hires and
separations data were revised to address possible underreporting.
As a result, JOLTS hires and separations estimates for months prior
to March 2002 may not be comparable to estimates for March 2002 and
later.

  The federal government reorganization that involved transferring
approximately 180,000 employees to the new Department of Homeland
Security is not reflected in the JOLTS hires and separations
estimates for the

                                 - 8 -

federal government.  The Office of Personnel Management's record
shows these transfers were completed in March 2003.  The inclusion
of transfers in the JOLTS definitions of hires and separations
is intended to cover ongoing movements of workers between
establishments.  The Department of Homeland Security reorganization
was a massive one-time event, and the inclusion of these
intergovernmental transfers would distort the federal government
time series.

Reliability of the estimates

  JOLTS estimates are subject to both sampling and nonsampling
error.  When a sample rather than the entire population is
surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ
from the "true" population values they represent.  The exact
difference, or sampling error, varies depending on the particular
sample selected, and this variability is measured by the standard
error of the estimate.  BLS analysis is generally conducted at the
90-percent level of confidence.  That means that there is a 90-
percent chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a
sample will differ by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the
"true" population value because of sampling error.  Estimates of
sampling errors are available upon request.

  The JOLTS estimates also are affected by nonsampling error.
Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure
to include a segment of the population, the inability to obtain
data from all units in the sample, the inability or unwillingness
of respondents to provide data on a timely basis, mistakes made by
respondents, errors made in the collection or processing of the
data, and errors from the employment benchmark data used in
estimation.

Other information

  Information in this release will be made available to sensory
impaired individuals upon request.  Voice phone: (202) 691-5200;
Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.


Table 1.  Job openings levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Dec.   July   Aug.   Sept.  Oct.   Nov.   Dec.   Dec.  July  Aug.  Sept. Oct.  Nov.  Dec.
                                            2009   2010   2010   2010   2010   2010   2010p  2009  2010  2010  2010  2010  2010  2010p

Total....................................  2,531  3,141  3,092  3,011  3,328  3,202  3,063    1.9   2.4   2.3   2.3   2.5   2.4   2.3

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  2,130  2,821  2,752  2,658  2,998  2,888  2,635    2.0   2.5   2.5   2.4   2.7   2.6   2.4
  Construction...........................     67    101     65     71     79     91     28    1.2   1.8   1.1   1.2   1.4   1.6    .5
  Manufacturing..........................    171    238    190    203    209    214    198    1.5   2.0   1.6   1.7   1.8   1.8   1.7
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    378    485    449    472    481    461    505    1.5   1.9   1.8   1.9   1.9   1.8   2.0
   Retail trade..........................    237    295    263    265    279    265    299    1.6   2.0   1.8   1.8   1.9   1.8   2.0
  Professional and business services.....    404    564    590    559    680    702    602    2.4   3.3   3.4   3.2   3.9   4.0   3.4
  Education and health services..........    545    515    487    529    638    558    538    2.7   2.6   2.4   2.6   3.1   2.7   2.6
  Leisure and hospitality................    227    365    381    307    321    306    314    1.7   2.7   2.8   2.3   2.4   2.3   2.3
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation...     20     42     41     41     37     30     46    1.1   2.1   2.1   2.1   1.9   1.5   2.3
   Accommodation and food services.......    207    323    340    266    284    276    269    1.8   2.8   2.9   2.3   2.5   2.4   2.3
 Government(6)...........................    401    320    341    354    330    314    428    1.8   1.4   1.5   1.6   1.5   1.4   1.9
  State and local government.............    294    246    257    250    277    223    337    1.5   1.2   1.3   1.3   1.4   1.1   1.7


                 REGION(7)

  Northeast..............................    547    639    666    565    678    594    592    2.2   2.5   2.6   2.2   2.7   2.3   2.3
  South..................................    943  1,100  1,159  1,101  1,283  1,050  1,054    2.0   2.3   2.4   2.3   2.6   2.2   2.2
  Midwest................................    495    617    647    552    633    725    631    1.7   2.0   2.1   1.8   2.1   2.4   2.1
  West...................................    603    696    730    665    821    764    777    2.1   2.4   2.5   2.3   2.8   2.6   2.6


  1 Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
  2 The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus
job openings.
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series and because not all series are shown.
  4 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  7 The States (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts,
New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of
Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas,
Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio,
South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah,
Washington, and Wyoming.
  p = preliminary.



Table 2.  Hires levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Dec.   July   Aug.   Sept.  Oct.   Nov.   Dec.   Dec.  July  Aug.  Sept. Oct.  Nov.  Dec.
                                            2009   2010   2010   2010   2010   2010   2010p  2009  2010  2010  2010  2010  2010  2010p

Total....................................  3,997  4,275  4,156  4,208  4,249  4,214  4,184    3.1   3.3   3.2   3.2   3.3   3.2   3.2

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  3,715  3,985  3,891  3,953  3,963  3,907  3,883    3.5   3.7   3.6   3.7   3.7   3.6   3.6
  Construction...........................    335    361    357    336    370    347    377    5.9   6.4   6.4   6.0   6.6   6.2   6.7
  Manufacturing..........................    244    297    274    260    271    274    265    2.1   2.5   2.3   2.2   2.3   2.3   2.3
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    849    864    798    863    838    855    804    3.4   3.5   3.2   3.5   3.4   3.4   3.2
   Retail trade..........................    547    608    571    606    591    588    514    3.8   4.2   4.0   4.2   4.1   4.1   3.5
  Professional and business services.....    652    810    831    818    804    777    788    4.0   4.8   5.0   4.9   4.8   4.6   4.7
  Education and health services..........    496    515    492    514    483    524    495    2.6   2.6   2.5   2.6   2.5   2.7   2.5
  Leisure and hospitality................    657    712    688    714    686    656    677    5.1   5.4   5.2   5.4   5.2   5.0   5.1
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation...     94    119    109    118    105    103    103    5.0   6.2   5.7   6.2   5.6   5.4   5.4
   Accommodation and food services.......    562    593    579    595    581    553    574    5.1   5.3   5.2   5.3   5.2   4.9   5.1
 Government(6)...........................    282    289    264    254    287    308    301    1.3   1.3   1.2   1.1   1.3   1.4   1.4
  State and local government.............    254    247    228    222    256    276    270    1.3   1.3   1.2   1.1   1.3   1.4   1.4


                 REGION(7)

  Northeast..............................    746    731    702    787    756    703    678    3.0   3.0   2.8   3.2   3.1   2.8   2.7
  South..................................  1,463  1,531  1,541  1,562  1,598  1,643  1,539    3.1   3.2   3.3   3.3   3.4   3.5   3.3
  Midwest................................    900  1,011    946    924    996    929    921    3.1   3.4   3.2   3.1   3.4   3.1   3.1
  West...................................    879    923    870    950    944    902    834    3.1   3.2   3.0   3.3   3.3   3.1   2.9


  1 Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
  2 The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series and because not all series are shown.
  4 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  7 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 3.  Total separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Dec.   July   Aug.   Sept.  Oct.   Nov.   Dec.   Dec.  July  Aug.  Sept. Oct.  Nov.  Dec.
                                            2009   2010   2010   2010   2010   2010   2010p  2009  2010  2010  2010  2010  2010  2010p

Total....................................  4,195  4,390  4,210  4,139  4,084  4,154  4,162    3.2   3.4   3.2   3.2   3.1   3.2   3.2

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  3,884  3,940  3,796  3,761  3,798  3,834  3,842    3.6   3.7   3.5   3.5   3.5   3.5   3.5
  Construction...........................    382    361    321    334    348    363    473    6.7   6.5   5.7   5.9   6.2   6.5   8.4
  Manufacturing..........................    273    271    279    261    279    293    257    2.4   2.3   2.4   2.2   2.4   2.5   2.2
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    901    855    814    813    802    832    768    3.7   3.5   3.3   3.3   3.2   3.3   3.1
   Retail trade..........................    567    613    583    569    559    579    494    3.9   4.2   4.0   3.9   3.9   4.0   3.4
  Professional and business services.....    649    830    808    774    795    721    759    3.9   5.0   4.8   4.6   4.7   4.3   4.5
  Education and health services..........    486    491    454    487    424    487    473    2.5   2.5   2.3   2.5   2.2   2.5   2.4
  Leisure and hospitality................    688    701    663    675    694    646    650    5.3   5.3   5.0   5.1   5.3   4.9   4.9
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation...    109    121    106    105    112    102     99    5.8   6.3   5.5   5.5   5.9   5.4   5.2
   Accommodation and food services.......    578    580    557    570    582    544    552    5.2   5.2   5.0   5.1   5.2   4.8   4.9
 Government(6)...........................    311    450    414    378    286    319    320    1.4   2.0   1.8   1.7   1.3   1.4   1.4
  State and local government.............    283    268    267    269    242    292    302    1.4   1.4   1.4   1.4   1.2   1.5   1.6


                 REGION(7)

  Northeast..............................    817    775    731    707    748    749    683    3.3   3.1   3.0   2.9   3.0   3.0   2.8
  South..................................  1,499  1,533  1,602  1,553  1,419  1,474  1,592    3.2   3.3   3.4   3.3   3.0   3.1   3.4
  Midwest................................  1,016  1,018    930    984    914    923    936    3.5   3.4   3.1   3.3   3.1   3.1   3.2
  West...................................  1,061    929    889    910    868    882    866    3.7   3.2   3.1   3.2   3.0   3.0   3.0


  1 Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
  2 The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series and because not all series are shown.
  4 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  7 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 4.  Quits levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Dec.   July   Aug.   Sept.  Oct.   Nov.   Dec.   Dec.  July  Aug.  Sept. Oct.  Nov.  Dec.
                                            2009   2010   2010   2010   2010   2010   2010p  2009  2010  2010  2010  2010  2010  2010p

Total....................................  1,753  1,974  1,998  1,983  1,997  1,921  1,991    1.4   1.5   1.5   1.5   1.5   1.5   1.5

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  1,639  1,855  1,881  1,860  1,889  1,814  1,884    1.5   1.7   1.7   1.7   1.7   1.7   1.7
  Construction...........................     76     72     81     85     81     67     68    1.3   1.3   1.4   1.5   1.4   1.2   1.2
  Manufacturing..........................     75     97    107     95    108    115    121     .7    .8    .9    .8    .9   1.0   1.0
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    392    451    425    452    417    435    404    1.6   1.8   1.7   1.8   1.7   1.8   1.6
   Retail trade..........................    291    347    322    351    318    324    295    2.0   2.4   2.2   2.4   2.2   2.2   2.0
  Professional and business services.....    248    357    385    350    411    336    371    1.5   2.1   2.3   2.1   2.4   2.0   2.2
  Education and health services..........    271    258    249    245    243    261    241    1.4   1.3   1.3   1.3   1.2   1.3   1.2
  Leisure and hospitality................    375    401    407    394    412    362    421    2.9   3.1   3.1   3.0   3.1   2.7   3.2
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation...     32     31     36     39     51     40     43    1.7   1.6   1.9   2.1   2.7   2.1   2.3
   Accommodation and food services.......    344    370    370    355    361    323    377    3.1   3.3   3.3   3.2   3.2   2.9   3.3
 Government(6)...........................    114    119    117    124    108    107    106     .5    .5    .5    .6    .5    .5    .5
  State and local government.............    106    100    101    112     96     99    100     .5    .5    .5    .6    .5    .5    .5


                 REGION(7)

  Northeast..............................    280    318    333    271    288    279    312    1.1   1.3   1.3   1.1   1.2   1.1   1.3
  South..................................    722    749    791    804    777    755    824    1.5   1.6   1.7   1.7   1.6   1.6   1.7
  Midwest................................    391    475    452    410    481    436    481    1.3   1.6   1.5   1.4   1.6   1.5   1.6
  West...................................    382    404    425    411    420    387    400    1.3   1.4   1.5   1.4   1.5   1.3   1.4


  1 Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
  2 The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series and because not all series are shown.
  4 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  7 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 5.  Job openings levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Dec.     Nov.     Dec.          Dec.     Nov.     Dec.
                                                   2009     2010     2010p         2009     2010     2010p

Total...........................................  2,279    2,876    2,703           1.7      2.1      2.0

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  1,927    2,576    2,310           1.8      2.3      2.1
  Mining and Logging............................      6       26       24            .9      3.3      3.1
  Construction..................................     55       71       22           1.0      1.2       .4
  Manufacturing.................................    159      190      170           1.4      1.6      1.4
   Durable goods................................     80      137      124           1.1      1.9      1.7
   Nondurable goods.............................     79       54       47           1.7      1.2      1.0
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    295      390      387           1.2      1.5      1.5
   Wholesale trade..............................     75       89       81           1.3      1.6      1.4
   Retail trade.................................    177      240      218           1.2      1.6      1.4
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     43       62       87            .9      1.3      1.8
  Information...................................     56       92       87           2.0      3.2      3.1
  Financial activities..........................    134      254      182           1.7      3.2      2.3
   Finance and insurance........................     97      219      163           1.7      3.7      2.8
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     37       35       19           1.8      1.8      1.0
  Professional and business services............    381      649      560           2.2      3.7      3.2
  Education and health services.................    532      530      527           2.7      2.6      2.6
   Educational services.........................     42       57       51           1.3      1.7      1.5
   Health care and social assistance............    490      473      475           2.9      2.8      2.8
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    186      248      251           1.4      1.9      1.9
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     14       26       32            .8      1.5      1.8
   Accommodation and food services.............     172      223      219           1.5      2.0      1.9
  Other services................................    123      125      101           2.3      2.3      1.8

 Government.....................................    352      300      392           1.5      1.3      1.7
  Federal.......................................     86       86       77           3.0      3.0      2.6
  State and local...............................    266      214      316           1.3      1.1      1.6

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    488      557      523           1.9      2.2      2.0
  South.........................................    873      942      973           1.8      1.9      2.0
  Midwest.......................................    419      634      549           1.4      2.1      1.8
  West..........................................    499      743      659           1.7      2.5      2.2


  1 Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
  2 The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a
percent of total employment plus job openings.
  3 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 6.  Hires levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Dec.     Nov.     Dec.          Dec.     Nov.     Dec.
                                                   2009     2010     2010p         2009     2010     2010p

Total...........................................  2,912    3,728    3,061           2.2      2.8      2.3

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  2,746    3,498    2,878           2.6      3.2      2.6
  Mining and Logging............................     16       22       16           2.4      2.9      2.1
  Construction..................................    206      258      234           3.7      4.5      4.3
  Manufacturing.................................    152      220      161           1.3      1.9      1.4
   Durable goods................................     85      125       97           1.2      1.7      1.3
   Nondurable goods.............................     67       94       64           1.5      2.1      1.4
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    672      997      652           2.7      3.9      2.6
   Wholesale trade..............................     82      103      105           1.5      1.8      1.9
   Retail trade.................................    435      741      395           2.9      5.0      2.6
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    156      153      152           3.3      3.2      3.1
  Information...................................     57       70       57           2.1      2.6      2.1
  Financial activities..........................    148      138      165           1.9      1.8      2.2
   Finance and insurance........................     83       96      102           1.5      1.7      1.8
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     64       41       63           3.3      2.1      3.3
  Professional and business services............    524      703      624           3.2      4.1      3.7
  Education and health services.................    356      435      351           1.8      2.2      1.8
   Educational services.........................     31       60       34           1.0      1.8      1.0
   Health care and social assistance............    326      375      317           2.0      2.3      1.9
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    477      528      487           3.8      4.1      3.8
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     71       76       74           4.1      4.4      4.2
   Accommodation and food services.............     406      452      413           3.7      4.0      3.7
  Other services................................    138      126      130           2.6      2.4      2.4

 Government.....................................    166      230      183            .7      1.0       .8
  Federal.......................................     23       27       23            .8       .9       .8
  State and local...............................    144      203      160            .7      1.0       .8

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    544      626      543           2.2      2.5      2.2
  South.........................................  1,066    1,511    1,163           2.3      3.2      2.4
  Midwest.......................................    641      767      690           2.2      2.6      2.3
  West..........................................    661      825      665           2.3      2.8      2.3


  1 Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
  2 The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 7.  Total separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Dec.     Nov.     Dec.          Dec.     Nov.     Dec.
                                                   2009     2010     2010p         2009     2010     2010p

Total...........................................  3,900    3,584    3,916           3.0      2.7      3.0

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  3,654    3,377    3,649           3.4      3.1      3.4
  Mining and Logging............................     22       19       20           3.2      2.4      2.6
  Construction..................................    403      373      502           7.2      6.5      9.1
  Manufacturing.................................    237      256      220           2.0      2.2      1.9
   Durable goods................................    127      137      125           1.8      1.9      1.7
   Nondurable goods.............................    110      120       96           2.4      2.7      2.1
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    952      721      829           3.8      2.9      3.3
   Wholesale trade..............................    124      100      118           2.2      1.8      2.1
   Retail trade.................................    606      507      521           4.1      3.4      3.5
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    222      114      189           4.6      2.4      3.9
  Information...................................     72       57       61           2.6      2.1      2.2
  Financial activities..........................    156      129      156           2.0      1.7      2.1
   Finance and insurance........................     83       74       97           1.5      1.3      1.7
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     73       55       60           3.7      2.9      3.1
  Professional and business services............    707      696      813           4.3      4.1      4.8
  Education and health services.................    388      359      383           2.0      1.8      1.9
   Educational services.........................     52       44       50           1.6      1.3      1.5
   Health care and social assistance............    336      315      333           2.1      1.9      2.0
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    563      597      527           4.4      4.6      4.1
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     81      108       68           4.6      6.1      3.9
   Accommodation and food services.............     483      489      459           4.4      4.4      4.1
  Other services................................    154      170      137           2.9      3.2      2.6

 Government.....................................    246      207      267           1.1       .9      1.2
  Federal.......................................     31       20       17           1.1       .7       .6
  State and local...............................    215      187      250           1.1       .9      1.3

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    736      691      686           3.0      2.8      2.7
  South.........................................  1,278    1,229    1,452           2.7      2.6      3.1
  Midwest.......................................    969      867      950           3.3      2.9      3.2
  West..........................................    917      797      828           3.2      2.7      2.8


  1 Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
  2 The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of
total employment.
  3 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 8.  Quits levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Dec.     Nov.     Dec.          Dec.     Nov.     Dec.
                                                   2009     2010     2010p         2009     2010     2010p

Total...........................................  1,402    1,508    1,565           1.1      1.1      1.2

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  1,318    1,435    1,488           1.2      1.3      1.4
  Mining and Logging............................      3        7        8            .5       .9      1.1
  Construction..................................     58       50       49           1.0       .9       .9
  Manufacturing.................................     48       83       78            .4       .7       .7
   Durable goods................................     22       41       38            .3       .6       .5
   Nondurable goods.............................     26       41       40            .6       .9       .9
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    345      357      348           1.4      1.4      1.4
   Wholesale trade..............................     31       29       35            .6       .5       .6
   Retail trade.................................    265      274      262           1.8      1.9      1.7
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     49       54       51           1.0      1.1      1.1
  Information...................................     21       31       37            .8      1.1      1.4
  Financial activities..........................     66       56       72            .9       .7      1.0
   Finance and insurance........................     35       36       41            .6       .6       .7
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     31       20       31           1.6      1.0      1.6
  Professional and business services............    226      277      314           1.4      1.6      1.9
  Education and health services.................    206      203      181           1.1      1.0       .9
   Educational services.........................     23       24       22            .7       .7       .7
   Health care and social assistance............    184      179      160           1.1      1.1      1.0
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    293      296      325           2.3      2.3      2.5
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     21       27       28           1.2      1.5      1.6
   Accommodation and food services.............     272      269      297           2.5      2.4      2.7
  Other services................................     51       75       75           1.0      1.4      1.4

 Government.....................................     84       73       77            .4       .3       .3
  Federal.......................................      8        5        4            .3       .2       .2
  State and local...............................     76       68       73            .4       .3       .4

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    214      232      231            .9       .9       .9
  South.........................................    558      605      644           1.2      1.3      1.4
  Midwest.......................................    318      353      379           1.1      1.2      1.3
  West..........................................    313      317      312           1.1      1.1      1.1


  1 Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
  2 The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 9.  Layoffs and discharges levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Dec.     Nov.     Dec.          Dec.     Nov.     Dec.
                                                   2009     2010     2010p         2009     2010     2010p

Total...........................................  2,219    1,789    2,019           1.7      1.4      1.5

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  2,111    1,693    1,885           2.0      1.6      1.7
  Mining and Logging............................     17       10       11           2.5      1.3      1.4
  Construction..................................    326      315      451           5.8      5.5      8.2
  Manufacturing.................................    168      157      114           1.4      1.3      1.0
   Durable goods................................     95       82       66           1.3      1.1       .9
   Nondurable goods.............................     73       74       49           1.6      1.7      1.1
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    563      305      427           2.2      1.2      1.7
   Wholesale trade..............................     84       57       73           1.5      1.0      1.3
   Retail trade.................................    314      201      228           2.1      1.4      1.5
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    164       47      125           3.4      1.0      2.6
  Information...................................     45       21       19           1.6       .8       .7
  Financial activities..........................     79       59       66           1.0       .8       .9
   Finance and insurance........................     39       28       39            .7       .5       .7
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     40       31       27           2.0      1.6      1.4
  Professional and business services............    441      359      430           2.7      2.1      2.5
  Education and health services.................    144      129      154            .7       .6       .8
   Educational services.........................     26       17       22            .8       .5       .7
   Health care and social assistance............    118      112      132            .7       .7       .8
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    250      262      178           2.0      2.0      1.4
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     59       78       38           3.4      4.5      2.2
   Accommodation and food services.............     191      184      140           1.7      1.6      1.3
  Other services................................     80       77       36           1.5      1.4       .7

 Government.....................................    108       96      134            .5       .4       .6
  Federal.......................................     12       10        6            .4       .4       .2
  State and local...............................     96       86      128            .5       .4       .6

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    463      412      402           1.9      1.6      1.6
  South.........................................    624      534      695           1.3      1.1      1.5
  Midwest.......................................    597      429      489           2.0      1.4      1.6
  West..........................................    535      415      432           1.9      1.4      1.5


  1 Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
  2 The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a
percent of total employment.
  3 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 10.  Other separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Dec.     Nov.     Dec.          Dec.     Nov.     Dec.
                                                   2009     2010     2010p         2009     2010     2010p

Total...........................................    279      287      332           0.2      0.2      0.3

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................    225      249      276            .2       .2       .3
  Mining and Logging............................      1        2        1            .2       .2       .2
  Construction..................................     20        8        3            .4       .1       .1
  Manufacturing.................................     20       17       28            .2       .1       .2
   Durable goods................................     10       13       21            .1       .2       .3
   Nondurable goods.............................     11        4        7            .2       .1       .2
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........     44       59       54            .2       .2       .2
   Wholesale trade..............................      9       14       10            .2       .2       .2
   Retail trade.................................     27       32       31            .2       .2       .2
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...      9       13       13            .2       .3       .3
  Information...................................      6        5        5            .2       .2       .2
  Financial activities..........................     11       15       18            .1       .2       .2
   Finance and insurance........................      9       10       16            .2       .2       .3
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........      2        5        2            .1       .2       .1
  Professional and business services............     40       60       70            .2       .4       .4
  Education and health services.................     38       26       48            .2       .1       .2
   Educational services.........................      3        3        7            .1       .1       .2
   Health care and social assistance............     34       24       41            .2       .1       .2
  Leisure and hospitality.......................     21       39       24            .2       .3       .2
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........      1        2        2            .1       .1       .1
   Accommodation and food services.............      19       36       22            .2       .3       .2
  Other services................................     23       18       26            .4       .3       .5

 Government.....................................     54       38       56            .2       .2       .2
  Federal.......................................     11        4        7            .4       .2       .2
  State and local...............................     43       34       49            .2       .2       .2

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................     58       45       53            .2       .2       .2
  South.........................................    100       92      113            .2       .2       .2
  Midwest.......................................     53       85       82            .2       .3       .3
  West..........................................     68       65       84            .2       .2       .3


  1 Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
  2 The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of
total employment.
  3 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = preliminary.


Last Modified Date: February 08, 2011
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