Economic News Release

Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey News Release



Technical information:      (202) 691-5870        USDL 09-0149
                   http://www.bls.gov/jlt/
                                                  For release:  10:00 A.M. EST
Media contact:              (202) 691-5902        Tuesday, February 10, 2009


            JOB OPENINGS AND LABOR TURNOVER:  DECEMBER 2008

     On the last business day of December, there were 2.7 million job
openings in the United States, and the job openings rate was 1.9
percent, the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U.S. Department of
Labor reported today.  The job openings rate in December was the
lowest point so far in the 8-year-old series.  The hires rate was
essentially unchanged in December at 2.9 percent and remains low.  The
total separations rate jumped to 3.7 percent, due to rising layoffs
and discharges.  This release includes estimates of the number and
rate of job openings, hires, and separations for the total nonfarm
sector by industry and geographic region.


------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Beginning with the release of January 2009 data on March 10, 2009,   |
| BLS will implement improvements to the methodology used to generate  |
| estimates of hires, separations, and job openings from the Job       |
| Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) program.  These changes   |
| are designed to improve the measurement of hires, separations, and   |
| openings and to more closely align the hires and separations         |
| estimates with monthly employment change as measured by the BLS      |
| Current Employment Statistics (establishment) survey.  All JOLTS     |
| historical series will be revised to incorporate the new methods and |
| also will be released on March 10.  See the JOLTS web page           |
| (http://www.bls.gov/jlt/) for a more complete description of these   |
| changes.                                                             |
------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                - 2 -

Job Openings
     Although job openings were essentially unchanged from November to
December, the number of job openings has trended downward for 18
months.  At 2.7 million in December, monthly openings were down 1.4
million, or 35 percent, since the starting point of the downward trend
in July 2007.  The job openings rate was 1.9 percent in December, a
new series low.  The job openings rate changed significantly in
December in two industries—retail trade and education and health
services—in which the rate fell.  The rate did not change
significantly in December in any of the regions.  (See table 1.)

Table A.  Job openings, hires, and total separations by industry, seasonally
adjusted
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   |    Job openings    |       Hires        | Total separations
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
     Industry      | Dec. | Nov. | Dec. | Dec. | Nov. | Dec. | Dec. | Nov. | Dec.
                   | 2007 | 2008 | 2008p| 2007 | 2008 | 2008p| 2007 | 2008 | 2008p
-------------------|--------------------------------------------------------------
                   |                     Levels (in thousands)
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
Total(1)...........|3,974 |2,855 |2,692 |4,717 |3,738 |3,918 |4,408 |4,422 |4,991
                   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
  Total private(1).|3,526 |2,481 |2,325 |4,314 |3,360 |3,399 |4,107 |4,159 |4,730
    Construction...|  140 |   57 |   44 |  335 |  243 |  248 |  331 |  466 |  511
    Manufacturing..|  305 |  145 |  136 |  350 |  213 |  199 |  325 |  382 |  518
    Trade, trans-  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     portation, and|      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     utilities(2)..|  667 |  562 |  474 |  970 |  800 |  800 |  981 |  948 |  951
     Retail trade..|  358 |  386 |  305 |  693 |  560 |  544 |  686 |  629 |  607
    Professional   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     and business  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     services......|  706 |  489 |  499 |  851 |  735 |  748 |  814 |  801 |  969
    Education and  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     health ser-   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     vices.........|  698 |  604 |  553 |  460 |  458 |  456 |  417 |  417 |  458
    Leisure and    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     hospitality(3)|  574 |  260 |  255 |  880 |  621 |  584 |  803 |  688 |  732
     Accommodation |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
      and food     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
      services.....|  514 |  224 |  225 |  713 |  530 |  500 |  697 |  598 |  585
  Government(4)....|  446 |  370 |  362 |  390 |  292 |  297 |  295 |  254 |  246
    State and local|      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     government....|  398 |  350 |  338 |  326 |  256 |  273 |  256 |  226 |  229
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
                   |                       Rates (percent)
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
Total(1)...........|  2.8 |  2.1 |  1.9 |  3.4 |  2.7 |  2.9 |  3.2 |  3.3 |  3.7
                   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
  Total private(1).|  3.0 |  2.1 |  2.0 |  3.7 |  3.0 |  3.0 |  3.5 |  3.7 |  4.2
    Construction...|  1.8 |  0.8 |  0.6 |  4.5 |  3.5 |  3.6 |  4.4 |  6.7 |  7.5
    Manufacturing..|  2.2 |  1.1 |  1.0 |  2.5 |  1.6 |  1.5 |  2.4 |  2.9 |  4.0
    Trade, trans-  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     portation, and|      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     utilities(2)..|  2.4 |  2.1 |  1.8 |  3.6 |  3.1 |  3.1 |  3.7 |  3.7 |  3.7
     Retail trade..|  2.3 |  2.5 |  2.0 |  4.5 |  3.7 |  3.6 |  4.4 |  4.2 |  4.1
    Professional   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     and business  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     services......|  3.7 |  2.7 |  2.8 |  4.7 |  4.2 |  4.3 |  4.5 |  4.6 |  5.6
    Education and  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     health ser-   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     vices.........|  3.6 |  3.1 |  2.8 |  2.5 |  2.4 |  2.4 |  2.2 |  2.2 |  2.4
    Leisure and    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     hospitality(3)|  4.0 |  1.9 |  1.9 |  6.4 |  4.6 |  4.3 |  5.9 |  5.1 |  5.4
     Accommodation |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
      and food     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
      services.....|  4.2 |  1.9 |  1.9 |  6.1 |  4.6 |  4.3 |  6.0 |  5.2 |  5.1
  Government(4)....|  2.0 |  1.6 |  1.6 |  1.7 |  1.3 |  1.3 |  1.3 |  1.1 |  1.1
    State and local|      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     government....|  2.0 |  1.7 |  1.7 |  1.7 |  1.3 |  1.4 |  1.3 |  1.1 |  1.2
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  1 Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and
other services, not shown separately.
  2 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not
shown separately.
  3 Includes arts, entertainment, and recreation, not shown separately.
  4 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  p = preliminary.

                                - 3 -

     Over the 12 months ending in December, the job openings rate (not
seasonally adjusted) did not rise significantly in any industry or
region.  The rate was essentially unchanged in six industries:
natural resources and mining; retail trade; information; finance and
insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; and other services.  In
the remaining 12 industries and at the total nonfarm and total private
level, the job openings rate fell significantly over the year.  Three
of the four regions experienced a significant decline in the job
openings rate over the year:  Midwest, South, and West.  (See table
5.)
     
Hires
     Hires were essentially unchanged in December at 3.9 million but
remain low, down 900,000, or 19 percent, from a year ago.  The hires
rate was 2.9 percent in December.  No industry or region experienced a
significant change in the hires rate in December.  (See table 2.)
     
     Over the 12 months ending in December, the hires rate did not
increase significantly in any industry or region.  The rate decreased
over the past 12 months for total nonfarm and total private and in
several industries, including durable goods manufacturing; nondurable
goods manufacturing; retail trade; arts, entertainment, and
recreation; accommodation and food services; federal government; and
state and local government.  In three of the four regions, the hires
rate dropped significantly over the past 12 months:  Northeast, South,
and West.  (See table 6.)

Separations
     The total separations, or turnover, rate was higher in December
than in November and higher than a year ago.  The quits rate can serve
as a barometer of workers’ willingness or ability to change jobs.
Although the quits rate was essentially unchanged in December at 1.5
percent, it remains at a low level last occurring in August 2003.
Comparing December 2008 to December 2007, the quits rate was
significantly lower for total nonfarm and total private and in many
industries, including durable goods manufacturing; nondurable goods
manufacturing; wholesale trade; retail trade; real estate and rental
and leasing; arts, entertainment, and recreation; and accommodation
and food services.  Regionally, the quits rate fell over the year in
three of the four regions:  Midwest, South, and West.  The quits rate
did not rise significantly in the past 12 months in any industry or
region.  (See tables 4, 7, and 8.)
     
     The other two components of total separations—layoffs and
discharges, and other separations—are not seasonally adjusted.
Layoffs and discharges are up substantially over the past 12 months.
There were 2.8 million layoffs and discharges in December, which is a
58 percent increase from a year earlier.  In the past 12 months,
layoffs and discharges increased significantly in most industries, in
all four regions, and for total nonfarm and total private.  The
layoffs and discharges rate fell significantly only for the federal
government in the past 12 months.  The other separations level was
262,000 in December, which is significantly lower than a year ago.
(See tables 9 and 10.)
     
     The total separations rate is driven by the relative contribution
of its three components (quits, layoffs and discharges, and other
separations), with quits contributing the largest portion.  The
percentage of total separations attributable to quits has varied over
time and has been trending downward from a high of 61 percent in
December 2006.  Quits dropped to only 40 percent of total separations
in December 2008, a new series low, as layoffs and discharges
increased substantially.  (See tables 3 and 4.)

                                - 4 -

For More Information
     For additional information, please read the Technical Note or
visit the JOLTS Web site at http://www.bls.gov/jlt/.  Additional
information about JOLTS also may be obtained by e-mailing
Joltsinfo@bls.gov or by calling (202) 691-5870.
     
     
     
     The Job Openings and Labor Turnover release for January 2009 is
scheduled to be issued on Tuesday, March 10, 2009.


    ---------------------------------------------------------------------
    |                 Revisions to the JOLTS Data                       |
    | With the release of January data on March 10, 2009, BLS will      |
    | revise the job openings, hires, and separations data to           |
    | incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment          |
    | Statistics employment estimates and the JOLTS seasonal adjustment |
    | factors.  Unadjusted data from April 2007 forward and seasonally  |
    | adjusted data from December 2000 forward are subject to revision. |
    | These revisions are in addition to the full series revisions due  |
    | to methodology changes mentioned in the box note on page one of   |
    | this release.                                                     |
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------




                                  - 5 -


Technical Note


   The data for the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) are
collected and compiled monthly from a sample of business establishments
by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

Collection

   Each month, data are collected in a survey of business establishments
for total employment, job openings, hires, quits, layoffs and discharges,
and other separations.  Data collection methods include computer-assisted
telephone interviewing, touchtone data entry, fax, and mail.

Coverage

   The JOLTS program covers all private nonfarm establishments such as
factories, offices, and stores, as well as federal, state, and local
government entities in the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

Concepts

   Industry classification.  The industry classifications in this release
are in accordance with the 2007 version of the North American Industry
Classification System (NAICS).  In order to ensure the highest possible
quality of data, State Workforce Agencies verify with employers and up-
date, if necessary, the industry code, location, and ownership classi-
fication of all establishments on a 3-year cycle.  Changes in establish-
ment characteristics resulting from the verification process are always
introduced into the JOLTS sampling frame with the data reported for the
first month of the year.

   Employment.  Employment includes persons on the payroll who worked or
received pay for the pay period that includes the 12th day of the refer-
ence month.  Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term, seasonal, sala-
ried, and hourly employees are included, as are employees on paid vaca-
tions or other paid leave.  Proprietors or partners of unincorporated
businesses, unpaid family workers, or persons on leave without pay or on 
strike for the entire pay period, are not counted as employed.  Employees
of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contrac-
tors, and consultants are counted by their employer of record, not by the
establishment where they are working.

   Job openings.  Establishments submit job openings information for the
last business day of the reference month.  A job opening requires that:
1) a specific position exists and there is work available for that posi-
tion, 2) work could start within 30 days regardless of whether a suitable
candidate is found, and 3) the employer is actively recruiting from out-
side the establishment to fill the position.  Included are full-time,
part-time, permanent, short-term, and seasonal openings.  Active re-
cruiting means that the establishment is taking steps to fill a position
by advertising in newspapers or on the Internet, posting help-wanted
signs, accepting applications, or using other similar methods.

  Jobs to be filled only by internal transfers, promotions, demotions,
or recall from layoffs are excluded.  Also excluded are jobs with start
dates more than 30 days in the future, jobs for which employees have
been hired but have not yet reported for work, and jobs to be filled by
employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies, out-
side contractors, or consultants.  The job openings rate is computed by
dividing the number of job openings by the sum of employment and job
openings and multiplying that quotient by 100.


                                  - 6 -

   Hires.  Hires are the total number of additions to the payroll occur-
ring at any time during the reference month, including both new and
rehired employees, full-time and part-time, permanent, short-term and 
seasonal employees, employees recalled to the location after a layoff
lasting more than 7 days, on-call or intermittent employees who returned
to work after having been formally separated, and transfers from other
locations.  The hires count does not include transfers or promotions 
within the reporting site, employees returning from strike, employees of
temporary help agencies or employee leasing companies, outside contrac-
tors, or consultants.  The hires rate is computed by dividing the number
of hires by employment and multiplying that quotient by 100.

   Separations.  Separations are the total number of terminations of
employment occurring at any time during the reference month, and are
reported by type of separation--quits, layoffs and discharges, and 
other separations.  Quits are voluntary separations by employees (ex-
cept for retirements, which are reported as other separations).  Lay-
offs and discharges are involuntary separations initiated by the em-
ployer and include layoffs with no intent to rehire, formal layoffs
lasting or expected to last more than 7 days, discharges resulting
from mergers, downsizing, or closings, firings or other discharges
for cause, terminations of permanent or short-term employees, and
terminations of seasonal employees.  Other separations include re-
tirements, transfers to other locations, deaths, and separations
due to disability.  Separations do not include transfers within the
same location or employees on strike.

   The separations rate is computed by dividing the number of separa-
tions by employment and multiplying that quotient by 100.  The quits,
layoffs and discharges, and other separations rates are computed simi-
larly, dividing the number by employment and multiplying by 100.

   Annual estimates.  Annual estimates of rates and levels of hires,
quits, layoffs and discharges, other separations, and total separations
are released with the January news release each year.

   The JOLTS annual level estimates for hires, quits, layoffs and dis-
charges, other separations, and total separations are the sum of the
12 published monthly levels.  The annual rate estimates are computed by
dividing the annual level by the Current Employment Statistics (CES)
annual average employment level, and multiplying that quotient by 100.
This figure will be approximately equal to the sum of the 12 monthly
rates.  Note that both the JOLTS and CES annual levels are rounded to
the nearest thousand before the annual estimates are calculated.  Con-
sistent with BLS practices, annual estimates will be published only for
not seasonally adjusted data.

   Annual estimates are not calculated for job openings because job
openings are a stock, or point-in-time, measurement for the last busi-
ness day of each month.  Only jobs still open on the last day of the
month are counted.  For the same reason job openings cannot be cumulated
throughout each month, annual figures for job openings cannot be created
by summing the monthly estimates.  Hires and separations are flow mea-
sures and are cumulated over the month with a total reported for the
month.  Therefore, the annual figures can be created by summing the
monthly estimates.


                                  - 7 -

Sample methodology

   The JOLTS sample design is a random sample of 16,000 nonfarm business
establishments, including factories, offices, and stores, as well as
federal, state, and local governments in the 50 states and the District
of Columbia.  The establishments are drawn from a universe of over
eight million establishments compiled as part of the operations of the
Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, or QCEW, program.  This program
includes all employers subject to state Unemployment Insurance (UI) laws
and federal agencies subject to Unemployment Compensation for Federal
Employees (UCFE).

   The sampling frame is stratified by ownership, region, industry sector,
and size class.  Large firms fall into the sample with virtual certainty.
JOLTS total employment estimates are controlled to the employment esti-
mates of the Current Employment Statistics (CES) survey.  A ratio of CES 
to JOLTS employment is used to adjust the levels for all other JOLTS data
elements.  Rates are then computed from the adjusted levels.

Using JOLTS data

   The JOLTS data series on job openings, hires, and separations are rel-
atively new.  The full sample is divided into panels, with one panel en-
rolled each month.  A full complement of panels for the original data
series based on the 1987 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system
was not completely enrolled in the survey until January 2002.  The sup-
plemental panels of establishments needed to create NAICS estimates were
not completely enrolled until May 2003.  The data collected up until
those points are from less than a full sample.  Therefore, estimates from
earlier months should be used with caution, as fewer sampled units were
reporting data at that time.

   In March 2002, BLS procedures for collecting hires and separations data
were revised to address possible underreporting.  As a result, JOLTS hires
and separations estimates for months prior to March 2002 may not be compar-
able with estimates for March 2002 and later.

   The federal government reorganization that involved transferring approx-
imately 180,000 employees to the new Department of Homeland Security is not
reflected in the JOLTS hires and separations estimates for the federal gov-
ernment.  The Office of Personnel Management's record shows these transfers
were completed in March 2003.  The inclusion of transfers in the JOLTS defi-
nitions of hires and separations is intended to cover ongoing movements of
workers between establishments.  The Department of Homeland Security reor-
ganization was a massive one-time event, and the inclusion of these inter-
governmental transfers would distort the federal government time series.

Seasonal adjustment

   BLS seasonally adjusts several JOLTS series using the X-12-ARIMA seasonal
adjustment program.  Seasonal adjustment is the process of estimating and
removing periodic fluctuations caused by events such as weather, holidays,
and the beginning and ending of the school year.  Seasonal adjustment makes
it easier to observe fundamental changes in the level of the series, par-
ticularly those associated with general economic expansions and contrac-
tions.  A concurrent seasonal adjustment methodology is used in which new
seasonal adjustment factors are calculated each month, using all relevant
data, up to and including the data for the current month.


                                  - 8 -

  Prior to the January  2007 benchmark release in March 2007, seasonal adjust-
ment of the JOLTS series was conducted using the stable seasonal filter option
since there were not enough data observations available for the standard use
of moving averages as seasonal filters.  Although the seasonal adjustment of
the JOLTS series is conducted with fewer data observations than is customary,
the number of observations is now above the minimum required by  X-12-ARIMA to
use the normal seasonal filters.  Therefore, the standard use of moving aver-
ages as seasonal filter is now in place for JOLTS seasonal adjustment.  JOLTS
seasonal adjustment now includes both additive and multiplicative seasonal
adjustment models  and REGARIMA (regression  with autocorrelated errors)
modeling to improve the  seasonal adjustment factors at the beginning and end
of the series and to detect and adjust for outliers in the series.

Reliability of the estimates

   JOLTS estimates are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error.  When
a sample rather than the entire population is surveyed, there is a chance
that the sample estimates may differ from the "true" population values they
represent.  The exact difference, or sampling error, varies depending on the
particular sample selected, and this variability is measured by the standard
error of the estimate.  BLS analysis is generally conducted at the 90-percent
level of confidence.  That means that there is a 90-percent chance, or level
of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than
1.6 standard errors from the "true" population value because of sampling
error.  Estimates of sampling errors are available upon request.

   The JOLTS estimates also are affected by nonsampling error.  Nonsampling
error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to include a seg-
ment of the population, the inability to obtain data from all units in the
sample, the inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide data on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, errors made in the collection
or processing of the data, and errors from the employment benchmark data
used in estimation.

   JOLTS hires and separations estimates cannot be used to exactly explain net
changes in nonfarm payroll employment.  Some reasons why it is problematic to 
compare changes in payroll employment with JOLTS hires and separations, espe-
cially on a monthly basis, are:  1) the reference period for payroll employment
is the pay period including the 12th of the month, while the reference period
for hires and separations is the calendar month; and 2) payroll employment can
vary from month to month simply because part-time and on-call workers may not
always work during the pay period that includes the 12th of the month.  Addi-
tionally, research has found that some reporters systematically underreport
separations relative to hires due to a number of factors, including the nature
of their payroll systems and practices.  The shortfall appears to be about
2 percent or less over a 12-month period.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request.  Voice phone: 202-691-5200; TDD message referral
phone: 1-800-877-8339.







Table 1.  Job openings levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Dec.   July   Aug.   Sept.  Oct.   Nov.   Dec.   Dec.  July  Aug.  Sept. Oct.  Nov.  Dec.
                                            2007   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008p  2007  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008p

Total(4).................................  3,974  3,492  3,375  3,214  3,001  2,855  2,692    2.8   2.5   2.4   2.3   2.1   2.1   1.9

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  3,526  3,046  2,952  2,778  2,585  2,481  2,325    3.0   2.6   2.5   2.4   2.2   2.1   2.0
  Construction...........................    140     94     85    110     64     57     44    1.8   1.3   1.2   1.5    .9    .8    .6
  Manufacturing..........................    305    229    245    213    213    145    136    2.2   1.7   1.8   1.6   1.6   1.1   1.0
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    667    569    572    458    507    562    474    2.4   2.1   2.1   1.7   1.9   2.1   1.8
   Retail trade..........................    358    346    357    260    316    386    305    2.3   2.2   2.3   1.7   2.0   2.5   2.0
  Professional and business services.....    706    696    634    567    498    489    499    3.7   3.7   3.4   3.1   2.7   2.7   2.8
  Education and health services..........    698    687    643    617    606    604    553    3.6   3.5   3.3   3.1   3.1   3.1   2.8
  Leisure and hospitality(6).............    574    432    383    443    404    260    255    4.0   3.1   2.7   3.2   2.9   1.9   1.9
   Accommodation and food services.......    514    388    316    373    351    224    225    4.2   3.2   2.6   3.1   2.9   1.9   1.9
 Government(7)...........................    446    412    423    440    429    370    362    2.0   1.8   1.8   1.9   1.9   1.6   1.6
  State and local government.............    398    362    363    387    367    350    338    2.0   1.8   1.8   1.9   1.8   1.7   1.7


                 REGION(8)

  Northeast..............................    644    615    617    590    541    495    545    2.4   2.3   2.4   2.3   2.1   1.9   2.1
  South..................................  1,574  1,384  1,317  1,240  1,191  1,128  1,071    3.1   2.7   2.6   2.4   2.4   2.2   2.1
  Midwest................................    779    638    664    664    629    560    544    2.4   2.0   2.1   2.1   2.0   1.8   1.7
  West...................................    988    847    777    710    639    674    594    3.1   2.7   2.5   2.3   2.0   2.2   1.9


  1 Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
  2 The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus
job openings.
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series.
  4 Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes arts, entertainment, and recreation, not shown separately.
  7 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  8 The States (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts,
New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of
Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas,
Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio,
South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah,
Washington, and Wyoming.
  p = preliminary.



Table 2.  Hires levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Dec.   July   Aug.   Sept.  Oct.   Nov.   Dec.   Dec.  July  Aug.  Sept. Oct.  Nov.  Dec.
                                            2007   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008p  2007  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008p

Total(4).................................  4,717  4,026  4,063  4,362  4,155  3,738  3,918    3.4   2.9   3.0   3.2   3.0   2.7   2.9

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  4,314  3,751  3,822  4,090  3,852  3,360  3,399    3.7   3.3   3.3   3.6   3.4   3.0   3.0
  Construction...........................    335    242    322    288    334    243    248    4.5   3.4   4.5   4.0   4.7   3.5   3.6
  Manufacturing..........................    350    249    251    281    257    213    199    2.5   1.8   1.9   2.1   1.9   1.6   1.5
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    970    858    878    875    837    800    800    3.6   3.3   3.3   3.3   3.2   3.1   3.1
   Retail trade..........................    693    585    619    616    565    560    544    4.5   3.8   4.0   4.0   3.7   3.7   3.6
  Professional and business services.....    851    748    701    741    748    735    748    4.7   4.2   3.9   4.2   4.2   4.2   4.3
  Education and health services..........    460    474    509    514    512    458    456    2.5   2.5   2.7   2.7   2.7   2.4   2.4
  Leisure and hospitality(6).............    880    798    728    830    734    621    584    6.4   5.8   5.3   6.1   5.4   4.6   4.3
   Accommodation and food services.......    713    683    626    681    602    530    500    6.1   5.9   5.4   5.9   5.2   4.6   4.3
 Government(7)...........................    390    321    315    313    322    292    297    1.7   1.4   1.4   1.4   1.4   1.3   1.3
  State and local government.............    326    300    286    283    278    256    273    1.7   1.5   1.4   1.4   1.4   1.3   1.4


                 REGION(8)

  Northeast..............................    770    657    679    688    629    530    609    3.0   2.6   2.7   2.7   2.5   2.1   2.4
  South..................................  1,802  1,512  1,549  1,570  1,516  1,396  1,328    3.6   3.0   3.1   3.2   3.1   2.8   2.7
  Midwest................................  1,045    934    926  1,020    973    842    875    3.3   3.0   2.9   3.3   3.1   2.7   2.8
  West...................................  1,067    979  1,004  1,057    975    887    865    3.4   3.2   3.3   3.4   3.2   2.9   2.8


  1 Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
  2 The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series.
  4 Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes arts, entertainment, and recreation, not shown separately.
  7 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  8 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 3.  Total separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Dec.   July   Aug.   Sept.  Oct.   Nov.   Dec.   Dec.  July  Aug.  Sept. Oct.  Nov.  Dec.
                                            2007   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008p  2007  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008p

Total(4).................................  4,408  4,359  4,398  4,042  4,299  4,422  4,991    3.2   3.2   3.2   2.9   3.1   3.3   3.7

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  4,107  4,128  4,149  3,792  4,034  4,159  4,730    3.5   3.6   3.6   3.3   3.5   3.7   4.2
  Construction...........................    331    473    400    403    418    466    511    4.4   6.6   5.6   5.7   5.9   6.7   7.5
  Manufacturing..........................    325    324    325    335    424    382    518    2.4   2.4   2.4   2.5   3.2   2.9   4.0
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    981  1,013    933    916    945    948    951    3.7   3.8   3.5   3.5   3.6   3.7   3.7
   Retail trade..........................    686    692    642    581    634    629    607    4.4   4.5   4.2   3.8   4.2   4.2   4.1
  Professional and business services.....    814    694    851    696    771    801    969    4.5   3.9   4.8   3.9   4.4   4.6   5.6
  Education and health services..........    417    464    424    378    427    417    458    2.2   2.4   2.2   2.0   2.2   2.2   2.4
  Leisure and hospitality(6).............    803    741    754    714    671    688    732    5.9   5.4   5.5   5.2   4.9   5.1   5.4
   Accommodation and food services.......    697    629    652    634    559    598    585    6.0   5.4   5.6   5.5   4.8   5.2   5.1
 Government(7)...........................    295    244    257    251    264    254    246    1.3   1.1   1.1   1.1   1.2   1.1   1.1
  State and local government.............    256    222    231    233    234    226    229    1.3   1.1   1.2   1.2   1.2   1.1   1.2


                 REGION(8)

  Northeast..............................    635    745    705    600    607    677    842    2.5   2.9   2.7   2.3   2.4   2.7   3.3
  South..................................  1,712  1,629  1,633  1,456  1,564  1,670  1,741    3.4   3.3   3.3   2.9   3.2   3.4   3.6
  Midwest................................    980    912    893    956  1,003    981  1,052    3.1   2.9   2.8   3.0   3.2   3.2   3.4
  West...................................  1,117  1,099  1,142  1,017  1,123  1,131  1,237    3.6   3.6   3.7   3.3   3.7   3.7   4.1


  1 Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
  2 The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series.
  4 Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes arts, entertainment, and recreation, not shown separately.
  7 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  8 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 4.  Quits levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Dec.   July   Aug.   Sept.  Oct.   Nov.   Dec.   Dec.  July  Aug.  Sept. Oct.  Nov.  Dec.
                                            2007   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008p  2007  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008p

Total(4).................................  2,494  2,314  2,252  2,144  2,135  1,965  2,000    1.8   1.7   1.6   1.6   1.6   1.4   1.5

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  2,358  2,209  2,134  2,032  2,020  1,868  1,883    2.0   1.9   1.9   1.8   1.8   1.6   1.7
  Construction...........................    119    157    150    118    108     97    105    1.6   2.2   2.1   1.7   1.5   1.4   1.5
  Manufacturing..........................    182    134    143    141    156    128    107    1.3   1.0   1.1   1.1   1.2   1.0    .8
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    590    545    485    494    488    457    473    2.2   2.1   1.8   1.9   1.9   1.8   1.8
   Retail trade..........................    445    405    355    351    340    325    346    2.9   2.6   2.3   2.3   2.2   2.2   2.3
  Professional and business services.....    367    363    352    317    373    319    314    2.0   2.0   2.0   1.8   2.1   1.8   1.8
  Education and health services..........    258    268    234    234    259    227    237    1.4   1.4   1.2   1.2   1.4   1.2   1.2
  Leisure and hospitality(6).............    561    499    482    485    450    421    410    4.1   3.7   3.5   3.6   3.3   3.1   3.0
   Accommodation and food services.......    513    452    445    423    416    391    384    4.4   3.9   3.8   3.6   3.6   3.4   3.3
 Government(7)...........................    137    111    121    120    116    108    119     .6    .5    .5    .5    .5    .5    .5
  State and local government.............    120    104    113    121    107    100    112     .6    .5    .6    .6    .5    .5    .6


                 REGION(8)

  Northeast..............................    312    341    306    279    286    267    289    1.2   1.3   1.2   1.1   1.1   1.1   1.1
  South..................................  1,008    930    912    821    837    805    769    2.0   1.9   1.8   1.7   1.7   1.6   1.6
  Midwest................................    521    504    513    531    524    443    439    1.6   1.6   1.6   1.7   1.7   1.4   1.4
  West...................................    632    541    518    492    493    449    487    2.0   1.8   1.7   1.6   1.6   1.5   1.6


  1 Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
  2 The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series.
  4 Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes arts, entertainment, and recreation, not shown separately.
  7 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  8 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 5.  Job openings levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Dec.     Nov.     Dec.          Dec.     Nov.     Dec.
                                                   2007     2008     2008p         2007     2008     2008p

Total...........................................  3,529    2,608    2,361           2.5      1.9      1.7

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  3,120    2,260    2,031           2.6      1.9      1.8
  Natural resources and mining..................     13       10       13           1.8      1.3      1.6
  Construction..................................    102       45       31           1.4       .6       .5
  Manufacturing.................................    274      128      119           1.9      1.0       .9
   Durable goods................................    152       70       62           1.7       .8       .8
   Nondurable goods.............................    122       58       57           2.4      1.2      1.2
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    563      514      357           2.0      1.9      1.3
   Wholesale trade..............................    152       69       67           2.4      1.1      1.1
   Retail trade.................................    285      383      232           1.7      2.4      1.5
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    125       62       57           2.4      1.2      1.1
  Information...................................     68       65       42           2.2      2.1      1.4
  Financial activities..........................    198      141      179           2.3      1.7      2.2
   Finance and insurance........................    155      103      140           2.5      1.7      2.3
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     43       37       39           2.0      1.8      1.8
  Professional and business services............    653      443      453           3.5      2.4      2.5
  Education and health services.................    670      577      520           3.4      2.9      2.6
   Educational services.........................     57       52       40           1.8      1.6      1.2
   Health care and social assistance............    613      525      480           3.8      3.2      2.9
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    465      226      201           3.4      1.7      1.5
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     44       28       21           2.3      1.5      1.1
   Accommodation and food services.............     421      198      180           3.5      1.7      1.6
  Other services................................    115      113      116           2.0      2.0      2.1

 Government.....................................    409      348      330           1.8      1.5      1.4
  Federal.......................................     45       18       23           1.6       .7       .8
  State and local...............................    364      329      307           1.8      1.6      1.5

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    554      459      476           2.1      1.8      1.8
  South.........................................  1,407    1,032      943           2.7      2.0      1.9
  Midwest.......................................    683      485      466           2.1      1.5      1.5
  West..........................................    884      633      475           2.8      2.0      1.5


  1 Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
  2 The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a
percent of total employment plus job openings.
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 6.  Hires levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Dec.     Nov.     Dec.          Dec.     Nov.     Dec.
                                                   2007     2008     2008p         2007     2008     2008p

Total...........................................  3,462    3,267    2,674           2.5      2.4      2.0

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  3,229    3,067    2,499           2.8      2.7      2.2
  Natural resources and mining..................     17       18       15           2.3      2.2      1.8
  Construction..................................    208      184      148           2.8      2.6      2.2
  Manufacturing.................................    232      174      129           1.7      1.3      1.0
   Durable goods................................    130       89       70           1.5      1.1       .9
   Nondurable goods.............................    101       85       59           2.0      1.7      1.2
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    785      882      645           2.9      3.3      2.4
   Wholesale trade..............................    107      103       99           1.7      1.7      1.7
   Retail trade.................................    564      693      444           3.5      4.5      2.9
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    115       85      102           2.2      1.7      2.0
  Information...................................     38       44       40           1.2      1.5      1.4
  Financial activities..........................    145      126      106           1.8      1.6      1.3
   Finance and insurance........................     99       95       73           1.6      1.6      1.2
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     46       32       32           2.2      1.5      1.6
  Professional and business services............    663      674      563           3.6      3.8      3.2
  Education and health services.................    335      376      320           1.8      2.0      1.7
   Educational services.........................     37       35       25           1.2      1.1       .8
   Health care and social assistance............    298      341      295           1.9      2.1      1.8
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    680      509      426           5.1      3.9      3.2
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........    147       65       70           7.9      3.6      3.8
   Accommodation and food services.............     532      444      356           4.6      3.9      3.1
  Other services................................    128       81      108           2.3      1.5      2.0

 Government.....................................    233      200      175           1.0       .9       .8
  Federal.......................................     50       18       21           1.8       .6       .7
  State and local...............................    183      182      155            .9       .9       .8

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    575      475      449           2.2      1.9      1.8
  South.........................................  1,317    1,252      954           2.6      2.5      1.9
  Midwest.......................................    726      729      607           2.3      2.3      2.0
  West..........................................    844      811      665           2.7      2.6      2.2


  1 Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
  2 The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 7.  Total separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Dec.     Nov.     Dec.          Dec.     Nov.     Dec.
                                                   2007     2008     2008p         2007     2008     2008p

Total...........................................  4,220    4,131    4,745           3.0      3.0      3.5

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  3,977    3,960    4,544           3.4      3.5      4.0
  Natural resources and mining..................     26       31       33           3.5      3.8      4.1
  Construction..................................    363      486      573           4.9      6.9      8.6
  Manufacturing.................................    280      365      451           2.0      2.8      3.5
   Durable goods................................    149      226      285           1.7      2.7      3.5
   Nondurable goods.............................    131      139      166           2.6      2.8      3.4
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........  1,093      910    1,067           4.0      3.5      4.0
   Wholesale trade..............................    196      131      184           3.2      2.2      3.1
   Retail trade.................................    786      610      684           4.9      4.0      4.4
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    112      169      199           2.2      3.4      4.0
  Information...................................     49       60       53           1.6      2.0      1.8
  Financial activities..........................    202      189      144           2.4      2.3      1.8
   Finance and insurance........................    117      113      101           1.9      1.9      1.7
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     85       76       43           4.0      3.7      2.1
  Professional and business services............    797      818      990           4.4      4.6      5.7
  Education and health services.................    346      329      395           1.8      1.7      2.0
   Educational services.........................     41       37       49           1.3      1.1      1.5
   Health care and social assistance............    304      292      346           1.9      1.8      2.2
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    683      657      637           5.1      5.0      4.8
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     78      101      128           4.2      5.5      7.0
   Accommodation and food services.............     605      555      509           5.3      4.9      4.5
  Other services................................    140      117      201           2.5      2.1      3.7

 Government.....................................    243      171      201           1.1       .7       .9
  Federal.......................................     43       12       23           1.6       .4       .8
  State and local...............................    201      158      179           1.0       .8       .9

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    620      619      834           2.4      2.4      3.3
  South.........................................  1,557    1,442    1,624           3.1      2.9      3.3
  Midwest.......................................    974    1,002    1,106           3.1      3.2      3.6
  West..........................................  1,068    1,068    1,181           3.4      3.5      3.9


  1 Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
  2 The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of
total employment.
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 8.  Quits levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Dec.     Nov.     Dec.          Dec.     Nov.     Dec.
                                                   2007     2008     2008p         2007     2008     2008p

Total...........................................  2,075    1,683    1,640           1.5      1.2      1.2

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  1,977    1,607    1,552           1.7      1.4      1.4
  Natural resources and mining..................     12       11       11           1.6      1.4      1.3
  Construction..................................     93       71       75           1.3      1.0      1.1
  Manufacturing.................................    131      102       76            .9       .8       .6
   Durable goods................................     68       58       44            .8       .7       .5
   Nondurable goods.............................     62       44       31           1.2       .9       .7
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    541      411      438           2.0      1.6      1.7
   Wholesale trade..............................     73       49       46           1.2       .8       .8
   Retail trade.................................    414      304      329           2.6      2.0      2.1
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     54       58       63           1.1      1.2      1.3
  Information...................................     28       21       19            .9       .7       .7
  Financial activities..........................     92       77       53           1.1      1.0       .7
   Finance and insurance........................     46       52       44            .8       .9       .7
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     46       25       10           2.1      1.2       .5
  Professional and business services............    310      291      254           1.7      1.6      1.5
  Education and health services.................    215      188      198           1.1      1.0      1.0
   Educational services.........................     20       14       13            .7       .4       .4
   Health care and social assistance............    195      174      185           1.2      1.1      1.1
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    469      375      329           3.5      2.8      2.5
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     40       20       19           2.1      1.1      1.0
   Accommodation and food services.............     429      354      310           3.7      3.1      2.7
  Other services................................     86       60       99           1.6      1.1      1.8

 Government.....................................     98       77       87            .4       .3       .4
  Federal.......................................     10        3        5            .4       .1       .2
  State and local...............................     88       74       82            .4       .4       .4

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    248      238      232           1.0       .9       .9
  South.........................................    839      664      624           1.7      1.3      1.3
  Midwest.......................................    436      399      357           1.4      1.3      1.1
  West..........................................    552      383      426           1.8      1.2      1.4


  1 Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
  2 The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 9.  Layoffs and discharges levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Dec.     Nov.     Dec.          Dec.     Nov.     Dec.
                                                   2007     2008     2008p         2007     2008     2008p

Total...........................................  1,802    2,161    2,844           1.3      1.6      2.1

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  1,713    2,097    2,765           1.5      1.8      2.4
  Natural resources and mining..................     11       19       21           1.4      2.3      2.6
  Construction..................................    246      396      481           3.3      5.6      7.2
  Manufacturing.................................    129      242      355            .9      1.8      2.7
   Durable goods................................     69      154      230            .8      1.9      2.8
   Nondurable goods.............................     60       88      126           1.2      1.8      2.6
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    451      423      560           1.7      1.6      2.1
   Wholesale trade..............................     98       75      134           1.6      1.3      2.3
   Retail trade.................................    312      259      317           1.9      1.7      2.0
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     41       89      110            .8      1.8      2.2
  Information...................................     15       35       21            .5      1.2       .7
  Financial activities..........................     88       83       81           1.1      1.0      1.0
   Finance and insurance........................     51       34       50            .8       .6       .8
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     37       49       31           1.7      2.3      1.5
  Professional and business services............    438      491      696           2.4      2.8      4.0
  Education and health services.................     94      100      168            .5       .5       .9
   Educational services.........................     19       20       34            .6       .6      1.1
   Health care and social assistance............     76       80      135            .5       .5       .8
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    193      259      295           1.4      2.0      2.2
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     35       77      108           1.9      4.2      5.9
   Accommodation and food services.............     157      182      187           1.4      1.6      1.7
  Other services................................     49       50       87            .9       .9      1.6

 Government.....................................     89       64       79            .4       .3       .3
  Federal.......................................     22        5       12            .8       .2       .4
  State and local...............................     67       60       66            .3       .3       .3

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    295      315      540           1.1      1.2      2.1
  South.........................................    621      684      911           1.2      1.4      1.9
  Midwest.......................................    461      554      691           1.5      1.8      2.2
  West..........................................    426      609      702           1.4      2.0      2.3


  1 Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
  2 The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a
percent of total employment.
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 10.  Other separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Dec.     Nov.     Dec.          Dec.     Nov.     Dec.
                                                   2007     2008     2008p         2007     2008     2008p

Total...........................................    342      287      262           0.2      0.2      0.2

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................    287      257      226            .2       .2       .2
  Natural resources and mining..................      4        1        1            .5       .1       .2
  Construction..................................     23       19       17            .3       .3       .3
  Manufacturing.................................     21       21       20            .1       .2       .2
   Durable goods................................     12       14       12            .1       .2       .1
   Nondurable goods.............................      9        7        8            .2       .1       .2
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    101       76       68            .4       .3       .3
   Wholesale trade..............................     25        7        5            .4       .1       .1
   Retail trade.................................     60       47       37            .4       .3       .2
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     17       22       26            .3       .4       .5
  Information...................................      6        5       13            .2       .2       .4
  Financial activities..........................     21       29       10            .3       .4       .1
   Finance and insurance........................     20       26        7            .3       .4       .1
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........      2        2        3            .1       .1       .1
  Professional and business services............     49       35       40            .3       .2       .2
  Education and health services.................     36       41       28            .2       .2       .1
   Educational services.........................      2        2        1            .1       .1      (4)
   Health care and social assistance............     34       39       27            .2       .2       .2
  Leisure and hospitality.......................     21       23       13            .2       .2       .1
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........      3        4        1            .2       .2       .1
   Accommodation and food services.............      19       19       12            .2       .2       .1
  Other services................................      5        7       15            .1       .1       .3

 Government.....................................     56       30       35            .2       .1       .2
  Federal.......................................     10        5        5            .4       .2       .2
  State and local...............................     45       25       30            .2       .1       .1

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................     77       67       62            .3       .3       .2
  South.........................................     98       94       88            .2       .2       .2
  Midwest.......................................     77       50       59            .2       .2       .2
  West..........................................     90       76       53            .3       .2       .2


  1 Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
  2 The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of
total employment.
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  4 Data round to zero.
  p = preliminary.


Last Modified Date: February 10, 2009
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