Economic News Release

Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey News Release


For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Tuesday, February 12, 2013    USDL-13-0234

Technical information:   (202) 691-5870  •  JoltsInfo@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/jlt
Media contact:           (202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov


            Job Openings and Labor Turnover – December 2012

There were 3.6 million job openings on the last business day of
December, little changed from November, the U.S. Bureau of Labor
Statistics reported today. The hires rate (3.1 percent) and
separations rate (3.0 percent) also were little changed in December.
This release includes estimates of the number and rate of job
openings, hires, and separations for the nonfarm sector by industry
and by geographic region.

Job Openings

The number of job openings in December was 3.6 million, little changed
from November. (See table 1.) The number of openings decreased in
retail trade and was little changed in all remaining industries and in
all four regions in December. The level of total nonfarm job openings
was 2.4 million at the end of the recession in June 2009. (Recession
dates are determined by the National Bureau of Economic Research.)

The number of job openings in December (not seasonally adjusted) was
little changed over the year for total nonfarm, total private, and
government. Job openings increased over the year for retail trade,
real estate and rental and leasing, educational services, and health
care and social assistance but decreased in mining and logging and in
professional and business services. The Midwest region experienced an
increase in job openings over the 12 months ending in December. (See
table 7.)

Table A.  Job openings, hires, and total separations by industry, seasonally adjusted
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               |    Job openings    |       Hires        | Total separations
                               |--------------------------------------------------------------
     Industry                  | Dec. | Nov. | Dec. | Dec. | Nov. | Dec. | Dec. | Nov. | Dec.
                               | 2011 | 2012 | 2012p| 2011 | 2012 | 2012p| 2011 | 2012 | 2012p
-------------------------------|--------------------------------------------------------------
                               |                     Levels (in thousands)
                               |--------------------------------------------------------------
Total..........................|3,540 |3,790 |3,617 |4,188 |4,403 |4,194 |4,023 |4,222 |4,069
                               |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
 Total private(1)..............|3,188 |3,427 |3,257 |3,889 |4,111 |3,915 |3,695 |3,915 |3,767
  Construction.................|   78 |   89 |   92 |  315 |  380 |  287 |  303 |  369 |  280
  Manufacturing................|  252 |  281 |  259 |  269 |  241 |  251 |  239 |  237 |  216
  Trade, transportation,       |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   and utilities(2)............|  574 |  740 |  673 |  812 |  886 |  882 |  773 |  785 |  859
   Retail trade................|  323 |  496 |  420 |  517 |  591 |  599 |  509 |  513 |  595
  Professional and             |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   business services...........|  785 |  632 |  540 |  818 |  930 |  780 |  792 |  866 |  800
  Education and health         |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   services(3).................|  605 |  718 |  710 |  494 |  479 |  526 |  468 |  469 |  458
   Health care and             |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    social assistance..........|  552 |  656 |  640 |  414 |  425 |  445 |  402 |  409 |  396
  Leisure and hospitality......|  441 |  478 |  461 |  743 |  695 |  743 |  695 |  683 |  718
   Arts, entertainment         |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    and recreation.............|   44 |   51 |   61 |  141 |  107 |  114 |  133 |  102 |  118
   Accommodation and           |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    food services..............|  397 |  427 |  400 |  602 |  588 |  629 |  562 |  582 |  600
 Government(4).................|  352 |  363 |  360 |  299 |  293 |  279 |  328 |  307 |  302
  State and local..............|  301 |  296 |  299 |  270 |  264 |  246 |  292 |  269 |  263
                               |--------------------------------------------------------------
                               |                       Rates (percent)
                               |--------------------------------------------------------------
Total..........................|  2.6 |  2.8 |  2.6 |  3.2 |  3.3 |  3.1 |  3.0 |  3.2 |  3.0
                               |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
 Total private(1)..............|  2.8 |  3.0 |  2.8 |  3.5 |  3.7 |  3.5 |  3.4 |  3.5 |  3.4
  Construction.................|  1.4 |  1.6 |  1.6 |  5.7 |  6.9 |  5.2 |  5.5 |  6.7 |  5.0
  Manufacturing................|  2.1 |  2.3 |  2.1 |  2.3 |  2.0 |  2.1 |  2.0 |  2.0 |  1.8
  Trade, transportation,       |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   and utilities(2)............|  2.2 |  2.8 |  2.6 |  3.2 |  3.5 |  3.5 |  3.1 |  3.1 |  3.4
   Retail trade................|  2.1 |  3.2 |  2.7 |  3.5 |  4.0 |  4.0 |  3.5 |  3.4 |  4.0
  Professional and             |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   business services...........|  4.3 |  3.4 |  2.9 |  4.6 |  5.2 |  4.3 |  4.5 |  4.8 |  4.4
  Education and health         |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   services(3).................|  2.9 |  3.4 |  3.3 |  2.5 |  2.3 |  2.6 |  2.3 |  2.3 |  2.2
   Health care and             |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    social assistance..........|  3.2 |  3.7 |  3.6 |  2.5 |  2.5 |  2.6 |  2.4 |  2.4 |  2.3
  Leisure and hospitality......|  3.2 |  3.4 |  3.2 |  5.5 |  5.1 |  5.4 |  5.2 |  5.0 |  5.2
   Arts, entertainment         |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    and recreation.............|  2.3 |  2.6 |  3.0 |  7.4 |  5.5 |  5.9 |  7.0 |  5.2 |  6.1
   Accommodation and           |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    food services..............|  3.3 |  3.5 |  3.3 |  5.2 |  5.0 |  5.3 |  4.9 |  4.9 |  5.1
 Government(4).................|  1.6 |  1.6 |  1.6 |  1.4 |  1.3 |  1.3 |  1.5 |  1.4 |  1.4
  State and local..............|  1.5 |  1.5 |  1.5 |  1.4 |  1.4 |  1.3 |  1.5 |  1.4 |  1.4
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  1 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not
shown separately.
  2 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown
separately.
  3 Includes educational services, not shown separately.
  4 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  p Preliminary

Hires

In December, the hires rate was little changed at 3.1 percent. The
hires rate decreased in construction and in professional and business
services. The hires rate was little changed in all four regions. (See
table 2.) The number of hires in December was 4.2 million, up from 3.7
million at the end of the recession in June 2009.

Over the 12 months ending in December, the hires rate (not seasonally
adjusted) was essentially unchanged for total nonfarm, total private,
and government. The hires rate was little changed in all industries
and in all regions over the 12 months ending in December. (See table
8.)

Separations

The total separations figure includes quits, layoffs and discharges,
and other separations. Total separations also is referred to as
turnover. Quits are generally voluntary separations initiated by the
employee. Therefore, the quits rate can serve as a measure of workers’
willingness or ability to leave jobs. Layoffs and discharges are
involuntary separations initiated by the employer. Other separations
include separations due to retirement, death, and disability, as well
as transfers to other locations of the same firm.

In December, the quits rate was unchanged at 1.6 percent. The quits
rate was unchanged for total private and little changed for
government. (See table 4.) The number of quits was 2.2 million in
December compared to 1.8 million at the end of the recession in June
2009.

The number of quits (not seasonally adjusted) was essentially
unchanged over the 12 months ending in December for total nonfarm,
total private, and government. The quits level increased over the year
in accommodation and food services and in the South. (See table 10.)

The layoffs and discharges component of total separations is
seasonally adjusted at the total nonfarm, total private, and
government levels and for the four regions. The layoffs and discharges
rate was little changed in December at 1.2 percent. The rate was
essentially unchanged for total private, government, and all four
regions. (See table 5.) The number of layoffs and discharges for total
nonfarm was 1.6 million in December, down from 2.1 million at the end
of the recession in June 2009.

The layoffs and discharges level (not seasonally adjusted) was
essentially unchanged for total nonfarm, total private, and government
over the 12 months ending in December 2012. Over the year, the number
of layoffs and discharges rose in mining and logging and in retail
trade but fell in professional and business services. The number of
layoffs and discharges decreased over the year in the South. (See
table 11.)

In December, there were 345,000 other separations for total nonfarm,
unchanged from the previous month. The number of other separations was
little changed over the year. (See tables 6 and 12.)

Net Change in Employment

Large numbers of hires and separations occur every month throughout
the business cycle. Net employment change results from the
relationship between hires and separations. When the number of hires
exceeds the number of separations, employment rises, even if the hires
level is steady or declining. Conversely, when the number of hires is
less than the number of separations, employment declines, even if the
hires level is steady or rising. Over the 12 months ending in December
2012, hires totaled 51.8 million and separations totaled 50.0 million,
yielding a net employment gain of 1.8 million. These figures include
workers who may have been hired and separated more than once during
the year.

____________
The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey results for January 2013
are scheduled to be released on Tuesday, March 12, 2013 at 10:00 a.m.
(EDT).


                                   
_____________________________________________________________________
|                      Revisions to the JOLTS Data                  |
|                                                                   |
| With the release of January data on March 12, BLS will revise the |
| job openings, hires, and separations data to incorporate the      |
| annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment    |
| estimates and the JOLTS seasonal adjustment factors. Unadjusted   |
| data and seasonally adjusted data from January 2008 forward are   |
| subject to revision.                                              |
_____________________________________________________________________



Technical Note


  The data for the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS)
are collected and compiled monthly from a sample of business
establishments by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

Collection

  In a monthly survey of business establishments, data are
collected for total employment, job openings, hires, quits, layoffs
and discharges, and other separations.  Data collection methods
include computer-assisted telephone interviewing, touchtone data
entry, web, fax, e-mail, and mail.

Coverage

  The JOLTS program covers all private nonfarm establishments such
as factories, offices, and stores, as well as federal, state, and
local government entities in the 50 states and the District of
Columbia.

Concepts

  Industry classification.  The industry classifications in this
release are in accordance with the 2012 version of the North
American Industry Classification System (NAICS).  In order to
ensure the highest possible quality of data, State Workforce
Agencies verify with employers and update, if necessary, the
industry code, location, and ownership classification of all
establishments on a 3-year cycle.  Changes in establishment
characteristics resulting from the verification process are always
introduced into the JOLTS sampling frame with the data reported for
the first month of the year.

  Employment.  Employment includes persons on the payroll who
worked or received pay for the pay period that includes the 12th
day of the reference month.  Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-
term, seasonal, salaried, and hourly employees are included, as are
employees on paid vacations or other paid leave.  Proprietors or
partners of unincorporated businesses, unpaid family workers, or
persons on leave without pay or on strike for the entire pay
period, are not counted as employed.  Employees of temporary help
agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contractors, and
consultants are counted by their employer of record, not by the
establishment where they are working.

  Job openings.  Establishments submit job openings information for
the last business day of the reference month.  A job opening
requires that: 1) a specific position exists and there is work
available for that position, 2) work could start within 30 days
regardless of whether a suitable candidate is found, and 3) the
employer is actively recruiting from outside the establishment to
fill the position.  Included are full-time, part-time, permanent,
short-term, and seasonal openings.  Active recruiting means that
the establishment is taking steps to fill a position by advertising
in newspapers or on the Internet, posting help-wanted signs,
accepting applications, or using other similar methods.

  Jobs to be filled only by internal transfers, promotions,
demotions, or recall from layoffs are excluded.  Also excluded are
jobs with start dates more than 30 days in the future, jobs for
which employees have been hired but have not yet reported for work,
and jobs to be filled by employees of temporary help agencies,
employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants.
The job openings rate is computed by dividing the number of job
openings by the sum of employment and job openings and multiplying
that quotient by 100.

  Hires.  Hires are the total number of additions to the payroll
occurring at any time during the reference month, including both
new and rehired employees, full-time and part-time, permanent,
short-term and seasonal employees, employees recalled to the
location after a layoff lasting more than 7 days, on-call or
intermittent employees who returned to work after having been
formally separated, and transfers from other locations.  The hires
count does not include transfers or promotions within the reporting
site, employees returning from strike, employees of temporary help
agencies or employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or
consultants.  The hires rate is computed by dividing the number of
hires by employment and multiplying that quotient by 100.

  Separations.  Separations are the total number of terminations of
employment occurring at any time during the reference month, and
are reported by type of separation--quits, layoffs and discharges,
and other separations.  Quits are voluntary separations by
employees (except for retirements, which are reported as other
separations).  Layoffs and discharges are involuntary separations
initiated by the employer and include layoffs with no intent to
rehire; formal layoffs lasting or expected to last more than 7
days; discharges resulting from mergers, downsizing, or closings;
firings or other discharges for cause; terminations of permanent or
short-term employees; and terminations of seasonal employees.
Other separations include retirements, transfers to other
locations, deaths, and separations due to disability.  Separations
do not include transfers within the same location or employees on
strike.

  The separations rate is computed by dividing the number of
separations by employment and multiplying that quotient by 100.
The quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations rates are
computed similarly, dividing the number by employment and
multiplying by 100.

  Annual estimates.  Annual estimates of rates and levels of hires,
quits, layoffs and discharges, other separations, and total
separations are released with the January news release each year.

   The JOLTS annual level estimates for hires, quits, layoffs and
discharges, other separations, and total separations are the sum of
the 12 published monthly levels.  The annual rate estimates are
computed by dividing the annual level by the Current Employment
Statistics (CES) annual average employment level, and multiplying
that quotient by 100.  This figure will be approximately equal to
the sum of the 12 monthly rates.  Note that both the JOLTS and CES
annual levels are rounded to the nearest thousand before the annual
estimates are calculated.  Consistent with BLS practices, annual
estimates are published only for not seasonally adjusted data.

  Annual estimates are not calculated for job openings because job
openings are a stock, or point-in-time, measurement for the last
business day of each month.  Only jobs still open on the last day
of the month are counted.  For the same reason job openings cannot
be cumulated throughout each month, annual figures for job openings
cannot be created by summing the monthly estimates.  Hires and
separations are flow measures and are cumulated over the month with
a total reported for the month.  Therefore, the annual figures can
be created by summing the monthly estimates.

Special collection procedures

  An implied measure of employment change can be derived from the
JOLTS data by subtracting separations from hires for a given
month.  Aggregating these monthly changes historically produced
employment levels that overstated employment change as measured by
CES at the total nonfarm level.  Research into this problem showed
that a significant amount of the divergence between the CES
employment levels and the derived JOLTS employment levels was
traceable to the Employment Services industry and to the State
Government Education industry.  In the former industry, businesses
have a difficult time reporting hires and separations of temporary
help workers.  In the latter industry, employers have difficulty
reporting hires and separations of student workers.  BLS now
devotes additional resources to the collection, editing, and review
of data for these industries.  BLS analysts more closely examine
reported data that do not provide a consistent picture over time,
and re-contact the respondents as necessary.  Analysts work with
the respondents to adjust their reporting practices as possible.
Units that cannot be reconciled but are clearly incorrect on a
consistent basis are not used, they are replaced by imputed values
using standard techniques.

Sample and estimation methodology

  The JOLTS survey design is a stratified random sample of 16,400
nonfarm business establishments, including factories, offices, and
stores, as well as federal, state, and local governments in the 50
states and the District of Columbia.  The establishments are drawn
from a universe of over 9.1 million establishments compiled as part
of the operations of the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages
(QCEW) program.  This program includes all employers subject to state
Unemployment Insurance (UI) laws and federal agencies subject to
Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE).

  The sampling frame is stratified by ownership, region, industry
sector, and establishment size class. The JOLTS sample is constructed
from individual panels of sample units drawn on an annual basis. The
full annual sample consists of one certainty panel composed of only
large units selected with virtual certainty based on their size and
24 non-certainty panels.  Each month a new non-certainty panel is
rolled into collection, and the oldest non-certainty panel is
rolled out.  This means that at any given time the JOLTS sample is
constructed from panels from three different annual sampling
frames.  The entire sample of old plus new panels is post-
stratified and re-weighted annually to represent the most recent
sampling frame.  Additionally, the out-of-business establishments
are removed from the old panels.  The annual sample is supplemented
with a quarterly sample of birth establishments (i.e., new
establishments) to better reflect the impact of younger
establishments in the JOLTS sample.

  JOLTS total employment estimates are benchmarked or ratio adjusted
monthly to the strike-adjusted employment estimates of the Current
Employment Statistics (CES) survey.  A ratio of CES to JOLTS employment
is used to adjust the levels for all other JOLTS data elements.

  JOLTS business birth/death model

  As with any sample survey, the JOLTS sample can only be as
current as its sampling frame.  The time lag from the birth of an
establishment until its appearance on the sampling frame is
approximately one year.  In addition, many of these new units may
fail within the first year.  Since these universe units cannot be
reflected on the sampling frame immediately, the JOLTS
sample cannot capture job openings, hires, and separations from
these units during their early existence.  BLS has developed a model
to estimate birth/death activity for current months by examining the
birth/death activity from previous years on the QCEW and projecting
forward using the ratio of over-the-year CES employment change. 
The birth/death model also uses historical JOLTS data to estimate the
amount of “churn” (hires and separations) that exists in establishments
of various sizes.  The model then combines the estimated churn with
the projected employment change to estimate the number of hires and
separations taking place in these units that cannot be measured
through sampling.

  The model-based estimate of total separations is distributed to
the three components–-quits; layoffs and discharges; and other
separations--in proportion to their contribution to the sample-
based estimate of total separations.  Additionally, job openings
for the modeled units are estimated by computing the ratio of
openings to hires in the collected data and applying that ratio to
the modeled hires.  The estimates of job openings, hires, and
separations produced by the birth/death model are then added to the
sample-based estimates produced from the survey to arrive at the
estimates for openings, hires, and separations.

Seasonal adjustment

  BLS seasonally adjusts several JOLTS series using the X-12 ARIMA
seasonal adjustment program.  Seasonal adjustment is the process of
estimating and removing periodic fluctuations caused by events such
as weather, holidays, and the beginning and ending of the school
year.  Seasonal adjustment makes it easier to observe fundamental
changes in the level of the series, particularly those associated
with general economic expansions and contractions.  A concurrent
seasonal adjustment methodology is used in which new seasonal
adjustment factors are calculated each month, using all relevant
data, up to and including the data for the current month.

  JOLTS uses moving averages as seasonal filters in seasonal
adjustment.  JOLTS seasonal adjustment includes both additive and
multiplicative seasonal adjustment models and REGARIMA (regression
with autocorrelated errors) modeling to improve the seasonal
adjustment factors at the beginning and end of the series and to
detect and adjust for outliers in the series.

Alignment procedure

  JOLTS hires minus separations should be comparable to the CES net
employment change.  However, definitional differences as well as
sampling and non-sampling errors between the two surveys
historically caused JOLTS to diverge from CES over time. To limit
the divergence, and improve the quality of the JOLTS hires and
separations series, BLS implemented the Monthly Alignment Method.
The Monthly Alignment Method applies the CES employment trends to
the seasonally adjusted JOLTS implied employment trend (hires minus
separations) forcing them to be approximately the same, while
preserving the seasonality of the JOLTS data.  First, the two
series are seasonally adjusted and the difference between the JOLTS
implied employment trend and the CES net employment change is
calculated. Next, the JOLTS implied employment trend is adjusted to
equal the CES net employment change through a proportional
adjustment. This proportional adjustment procedure adjusts the two
components (hires, separations) proportionally to their
contribution to the total churn (hires plus separations).  For
example, if hires are 40 percent of the churn for a given month,
they will receive 40 percent of the needed adjustment and
separations will receive 60 percent of the needed adjustment. The
adjusted hires and separations are converted back to not seasonally
adjusted data by reversing the application of the original seasonal
factors.  After the Monthly Alignment Method has been used to
adjust the level estimates, rate estimates are computed from the
adjusted levels.  The monthly alignment procedure assures a close
match of the JOLTS implied employment trend with the CES trend. The
CES series is considered a highly accurate measure of net
employment change owing to its very large sample size and annual
benchmarking to universe counts of employment from the QCEW
program.

Historical changes in JOLTS data

  The JOLTS data series on job openings, hires, and separations are
relatively new.  The full sample is divided into panels, with one
panel enrolled each month.  A full complement of panels for the
original data series based on the 1987 Standard Industrial
Classification (SIC) system was not completely enrolled in the
survey until January 2002.  The supplemental panels of
establishments needed to create NAICS estimates were not completely
enrolled until May 2003.  The data collected up until those points
are from less than a full sample.  Therefore, estimates from
earlier months should be used with caution, as fewer sampled units
were reporting data at that time.

  In March 2002, BLS procedures for collecting hires and
separations data were revised to address possible underreporting.
As a result, JOLTS hires and separations estimates for months prior
to March 2002 may not be comparable to estimates for March 2002 and
later.

  The federal government reorganization that involved transferring
approximately 180,000 employees to the new Department of Homeland
Security is not reflected in the JOLTS hires and separations
estimates for the federal government.  The Office of Personnel
Management's record shows these transfers were completed in March
2003.  The inclusion of transfers in the JOLTS definitions of hires
and separations is intended to cover ongoing movements of workers
between establishments.  The Department of Homeland Security
reorganization was a massive one-time event, and the inclusion of
these intergovernmental transfers would distort the federal government
time series.

Reliability of the estimates

  JOLTS estimates are subject to both sampling and nonsampling
error.  When a sample rather than the entire population is
surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ
from the "true" population values they represent.  The exact
difference, or sampling error, varies depending on the particular
sample selected, and this variability is measured by the standard
error of the estimate.  BLS analysis is generally conducted at the
90-percent level of confidence.  That means that there is a 90-
percent chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a
sample will differ by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the
"true" population value because of sampling error.  Estimates of
sampling errors are available upon request.

  The JOLTS estimates also are affected by nonsampling error.
Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure
to include a segment of the population, the inability to obtain
data from all units in the sample, the inability or unwillingness
of respondents to provide data on a timely basis, mistakes made by
respondents, errors made in the collection or processing of the
data, and errors from the employment benchmark data used in
estimation.

Other information

  Information in this release will be made available to sensory
impaired individuals upon request.  Voice phone: (202) 691-5200;
Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1.  Job openings levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Dec.   July   Aug.   Sept.  Oct.   Nov.   Dec.   Dec.  July  Aug.  Sept. Oct.  Nov.  Dec.
                                            2011   2012   2012   2012   2012   2012   2012p  2011  2012  2012  2012  2012  2012  2012p

Total....................................  3,540  3,593  3,661  3,547  3,665  3,790  3,617    2.6   2.6   2.7   2.6   2.7   2.8   2.6

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  3,188  3,211  3,257  3,172  3,301  3,427  3,257    2.8   2.8   2.8   2.8   2.9   3.0   2.8
  Construction...........................     78     67     81     82     99     89     92    1.4   1.2   1.4   1.5   1.8   1.6   1.6
  Manufacturing..........................    252    273    257    241    281    281    259    2.1   2.2   2.1   2.0   2.3   2.3   2.1
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    574    585    592    592    610    740    673    2.2   2.3   2.3   2.3   2.3   2.8   2.6
   Retail trade..........................    323    334    350    342    374    496    420    2.1   2.2   2.3   2.3   2.5   3.2   2.7
  Professional and business services.....    785    641    761    622    645    632    540    4.3   3.5   4.1   3.3   3.5   3.4   2.9
  Education and health services(6).......    605    689    661    725    681    718    710    2.9   3.3   3.1   3.4   3.2   3.4   3.3
   Health care and social assistance.....    552    604    601    654    627    656    640    3.2   3.4   3.4   3.7   3.5   3.7   3.6
  Leisure and hospitality................    441    469    405    366    442    478    461    3.2   3.3   2.9   2.6   3.1   3.4   3.2
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation...     44     50     50     54     49     51     61    2.3   2.5   2.5   2.7   2.5   2.6   3.0
   Accommodation and food services.......    397    419    355    312    394    427    400    3.3   3.5   2.9   2.6   3.2   3.5   3.3
 Government(7)...........................    352    382    404    375    364    363    360    1.6   1.7   1.8   1.7   1.6   1.6   1.6
  State and local........................    301    329    327    306    304    296    299    1.5   1.7   1.7   1.6   1.6   1.5   1.5


                 REGION(8)

  Northeast..............................    595    671    681    659    654    679    654    2.3   2.6   2.6   2.5   2.5   2.6   2.5
  South..................................  1,443  1,399  1,431  1,325  1,420  1,417  1,322    2.9   2.8   2.9   2.7   2.8   2.8   2.6
  Midwest................................    763    759    790    817    849    913    904    2.5   2.4   2.5   2.6   2.7   2.9   2.9
  West...................................    740    763    758    747    742    782    737    2.5   2.5   2.5   2.5   2.5   2.6   2.4


  1 Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
  2 The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus
job openings.
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series and because not all series are shown.
  4 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes educational services, not shown separately.
  7 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  8 The States (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts,
New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of
Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas,
Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio,
South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah,
Washington, and Wyoming.
  p Preliminary



Table 2.  Hires levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Dec.   July   Aug.   Sept.  Oct.   Nov.   Dec.   Dec.  July  Aug.  Sept. Oct.  Nov.  Dec.
                                            2011   2012   2012   2012   2012   2012   2012p  2011  2012  2012  2012  2012  2012  2012p

Total....................................  4,188  4,278  4,440  4,204  4,316  4,403  4,194    3.2   3.2   3.3   3.1   3.2   3.3   3.1

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  3,889  3,989  4,109  3,922  4,053  4,111  3,915    3.5   3.6   3.7   3.5   3.6   3.7   3.5
  Construction...........................    315    359    323    327    318    380    287    5.7   6.5   5.9   5.9   5.7   6.9   5.2
  Manufacturing..........................    269    244    230    235    242    241    251    2.3   2.0   1.9   2.0   2.0   2.0   2.1
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    812    848    892    819    907    886    882    3.2   3.3   3.5   3.2   3.6   3.5   3.5
   Retail trade..........................    517    570    577    548    615    591    599    3.5   3.9   3.9   3.7   4.1   4.0   4.0
  Professional and business services.....    818    871    915    848    887    930    780    4.6   4.9   5.1   4.7   4.9   5.2   4.3
  Education and health services(6).......    494    500    502    499    501    479    526    2.5   2.5   2.5   2.4   2.5   2.3   2.6
   Health care and social assistance.....    414    427    430    417    433    425    445    2.5   2.5   2.5   2.4   2.5   2.5   2.6
  Leisure and hospitality................    743    720    747    708    738    695    743    5.5   5.3   5.5   5.2   5.4   5.1   5.4
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation...    141    106    104    102    120    107    114    7.4   5.5   5.4   5.3   6.2   5.5   5.9
   Accommodation and food services.......    602    614    643    606    618    588    629    5.2   5.2   5.5   5.1   5.2   5.0   5.3
 Government(7)...........................    299    288    332    283    263    293    279    1.4   1.3   1.5   1.3   1.2   1.3   1.3
  State and local........................    270    268    300    251    236    264    246    1.4   1.4   1.6   1.3   1.2   1.4   1.3


                 REGION(8)

  Northeast..............................    676    675    676    745    648    711    672    2.7   2.7   2.7   2.9   2.5   2.8   2.6
  South..................................  1,634  1,674  1,758  1,722  1,710  1,657  1,646    3.4   3.5   3.6   3.6   3.5   3.4   3.4
  Midwest................................    986    993  1,056    893    954  1,018    926    3.3   3.3   3.5   2.9   3.1   3.3   3.0
  West...................................    891    935    951    844  1,005  1,016    950    3.1   3.2   3.3   2.9   3.4   3.5   3.2


  1 Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
  2 The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series and because not all series are shown.
  4 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes educational services, not shown separately.
  7 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  8 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p Preliminary



Table 3.  Total separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Dec.   July   Aug.   Sept.  Oct.   Nov.   Dec.   Dec.  July  Aug.  Sept. Oct.  Nov.  Dec.
                                            2011   2012   2012   2012   2012   2012   2012p  2011  2012  2012  2012  2012  2012  2012p

Total....................................  4,023  4,088  4,355  4,017  4,087  4,222  4,069    3.0   3.1   3.3   3.0   3.1   3.2   3.0

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  3,695  3,789  4,062  3,759  3,767  3,915  3,767    3.4   3.4   3.6   3.4   3.4   3.5   3.4
  Construction...........................    303    358    316    332    290    369    280    5.5   6.5   5.7   6.0   5.2   6.7   5.0
  Manufacturing..........................    239    228    250    235    228    237    216    2.0   1.9   2.1   2.0   1.9   2.0   1.8
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    773    815    883    805    824    785    859    3.1   3.2   3.5   3.2   3.2   3.1   3.4
   Retail trade..........................    509    556    587    541    552    513    595    3.5   3.8   4.0   3.7   3.7   3.4   4.0
  Professional and business services.....    792    807    911    821    785    866    800    4.5   4.5   5.1   4.6   4.4   4.8   4.4
  Education and health services(6).......    468    463    474    438    477    469    458    2.3   2.3   2.3   2.1   2.3   2.3   2.2
   Health care and social assistance.....    402    396    404    375    397    409    396    2.4   2.3   2.4   2.2   2.3   2.4   2.3
  Leisure and hospitality................    695    685    730    672    706    683    718    5.2   5.0   5.3   4.9   5.1   5.0   5.2
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation...    133    105     88    104    112    102    118    7.0   5.5   4.5   5.4   5.8   5.2   6.1
   Accommodation and food services.......    562    579    642    568    594    582    600    4.9   4.9   5.5   4.8   5.0   4.9   5.1
 Government(7)...........................    328    299    292    258    320    307    302    1.5   1.4   1.3   1.2   1.5   1.4   1.4
  State and local........................    292    271    262    226    282    269    263    1.5   1.4   1.4   1.2   1.5   1.4   1.4


                 REGION(8)

  Northeast..............................    631    711    671    704    660    662    661    2.5   2.8   2.6   2.8   2.6   2.6   2.6
  South..................................  1,592  1,579  1,696  1,646  1,644  1,607  1,624    3.3   3.3   3.5   3.4   3.4   3.3   3.3
  Midwest................................    905    894  1,056    868    840  1,002    900    3.0   3.0   3.5   2.9   2.8   3.3   3.0
  West...................................    895    905    931    801    942    951    884    3.1   3.1   3.2   2.7   3.2   3.2   3.0


  1 Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
  2 The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series and because not all series are shown.
  4 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes educational services, not shown separately.
  7 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  8 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p Preliminary



Table 4.  Quits levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Dec.   July   Aug.   Sept.  Oct.   Nov.   Dec.   Dec.  July  Aug.  Sept. Oct.  Nov.  Dec.
                                            2011   2012   2012   2012   2012   2012   2012p  2011  2012  2012  2012  2012  2012  2012p

Total....................................  2,008  2,163  2,151  1,964  2,092  2,178  2,157    1.5   1.6   1.6   1.5   1.6   1.6   1.6

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  1,867  2,033  2,025  1,849  1,944  2,034  2,021    1.7   1.8   1.8   1.7   1.7   1.8   1.8
  Construction...........................     76     87     75     69     89     84     68    1.4   1.6   1.4   1.3   1.6   1.5   1.2
  Manufacturing..........................    113    107    113    109    102    106    107    1.0    .9    .9    .9    .9    .9    .9
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    447    482    471    425    452    466    486    1.8   1.9   1.9   1.7   1.8   1.8   1.9
   Retail trade..........................    331    340    337    317    315    336    344    2.2   2.3   2.3   2.1   2.1   2.3   2.3
  Professional and business services.....    363    386    386    362    363    407    410    2.1   2.2   2.2   2.0   2.0   2.3   2.3
  Education and health services(6).......    265    279    277    243    265    279    260    1.3   1.4   1.4   1.2   1.3   1.4   1.3
   Health care and social assistance.....    233    248    234    206    233    249    238    1.4   1.5   1.4   1.2   1.4   1.5   1.4
  Leisure and hospitality................    388    432    430    411    441    446    458    2.9   3.2   3.2   3.0   3.2   3.2   3.3
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation...     48     47     44     33     40     40     41    2.5   2.5   2.3   1.7   2.1   2.0   2.1
   Accommodation and food services.......    340    385    386    377    401    407    417    2.9   3.3   3.3   3.2   3.4   3.4   3.5
 Government(7)...........................    141    130    125    115    147    144    136     .6    .6    .6    .5    .7    .7    .6
  State and local........................    131    119    115    105    133    133    124     .7    .6    .6    .5    .7    .7    .6


                 REGION(8)

  Northeast..............................    279    315    325    290    292    298    314    1.1   1.2   1.3   1.1   1.1   1.2   1.2
  South..................................    816    945    906    868    896    899    936    1.7   2.0   1.9   1.8   1.8   1.8   1.9
  Midwest................................    469    449    488    431    442    513    454    1.6   1.5   1.6   1.4   1.5   1.7   1.5
  West...................................    445    454    432    375    462    468    453    1.5   1.6   1.5   1.3   1.6   1.6   1.5


  1 Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
  2 The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series and because not all series are shown.
  4 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes educational services, not shown separately.
  7 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  8 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p Preliminary



Table 5.  Layoffs and discharges levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Dec.   July   Aug.   Sept.  Oct.   Nov.   Dec.   Dec.  July  Aug.  Sept. Oct.  Nov.  Dec.
                                            2011   2012   2012   2012   2012   2012   2012p  2011  2012  2012  2012  2012  2012  2012p

Total....................................  1,685  1,582  1,848  1,728  1,673  1,699  1,567    1.3   1.2   1.4   1.3   1.3   1.3   1.2

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  1,572  1,482  1,745  1,643  1,564  1,604  1,473    1.4   1.3   1.6   1.5   1.4   1.4   1.3
  Construction...........................     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
  Manufacturing..........................     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
   Retail trade..........................     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
  Professional and business services.....     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
  Education and health services(6).......     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
   Health care and social assistance.....     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
  Leisure and hospitality................     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation...     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
   Accommodation and food services.......     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
 Government(7)...........................    112    100    103     85    108     94     94     .5    .5    .5    .4    .5    .4    .4
  State and local........................     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -


                 REGION(8)

  Northeast..............................    296    323    269    344    309    305    279    1.2   1.3   1.1   1.4   1.2   1.2   1.1
  South..................................    649    522    686    653    632    584    548    1.4   1.1   1.4   1.3   1.3   1.2   1.1
  Midwest................................    354    365    467    365    329    402    369    1.2   1.2   1.5   1.2   1.1   1.3   1.2
  West...................................    386    372    426    366    403    408    371    1.3   1.3   1.5   1.2   1.4   1.4   1.3


  1 Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
  2 The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series and because not all series are shown.
  4 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes educational services, not shown separately.
  7 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  8 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p Preliminary
  - Data not available.


Table 6.  Other separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Dec.   July   Aug.   Sept.  Oct.   Nov.   Dec.   Dec.  July  Aug.  Sept. Oct.  Nov.  Dec.
                                            2011   2012   2012   2012   2012   2012   2012p  2011  2012  2012  2012  2012  2012  2012p

Total....................................    330    343    356    326    323    345    345    0.2   0.3   0.3   0.2   0.2   0.3   0.3

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................    255    274    292    267    258    276    273     .2    .2    .3    .2    .2    .2    .2
  Construction...........................     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
  Manufacturing..........................     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
   Retail trade..........................     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
  Professional and business services.....     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
  Education and health services(6).......     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
   Health care and social assistance.....     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
  Leisure and hospitality................     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation...     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
   Accommodation and food services.......     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
 Government(7)...........................     75     69     64     59     65     69     72     .3    .3    .3    .3    .3    .3    .3
  State and local........................     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -


                 REGION(8)

  Northeast..............................     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
  South..................................     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
  Midwest................................     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -
  West...................................     -      -      -      -      -      -      -       -     -     -     -     -     -     -


  1 Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
  2 The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series and because not all series are shown.
  4 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes educational services, not shown separately.
  7 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  8 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p Preliminary
  - Data not available.


Table 7.  Job openings levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Dec.     Nov.     Dec.          Dec.     Nov.     Dec.
                                                   2011     2012     2012p         2011     2012     2012p

Total...........................................  3,118    3,380    3,131           2.3      2.4      2.3

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  2,779    3,039    2,789           2.5      2.6      2.4
  Mining and logging............................     28       13       17           3.3      1.6      2.0
  Construction..................................     52       64       62            .9      1.1      1.1
  Manufacturing.................................    218      244      224           1.8      2.0      1.8
   Durable goods................................    149      160      155           2.0      2.1      2.0
   Nondurable goods.............................     69       84       69           1.5      1.8      1.5
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    443      645      530           1.7      2.4      2.0
   Wholesale trade..............................     94      116      114           1.7      2.0      2.0
   Retail trade.................................    235      435      308           1.5      2.8      2.0
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    114       94      108           2.2      1.8      2.1
  Information...................................    103       94       74           3.7      3.4      2.7
  Financial activities..........................    176      212      243           2.2      2.7      3.0
   Finance and insurance........................    156      171      168           2.6      2.9      2.8
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     20       42       74           1.0      2.1      3.7
  Professional and business services............    748      585      502           4.1      3.1      2.7
  Education and health services.................    573      678      668           2.8      3.2      3.1
   Educational services.........................     45       56       65           1.3      1.6      1.8
   Health care and social assistance............    528      622      603           3.0      3.5      3.4
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    332      390      352           2.5      2.8      2.6
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     26       45       39           1.5      2.4      2.1
   Accommodation and food services..............    306      345      314           2.6      2.9      2.6
  Other services................................    107      113      118           2.0      2.1      2.1

 Government.....................................    338      341      342           1.5      1.5      1.5
  Federal.......................................     50       61       54           1.7      2.2      1.9
  State and local...............................    289      280      288           1.5      1.4      1.5

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    506      607      544           2.0      2.3      2.1
  South.........................................  1,329    1,255    1,193           2.7      2.5      2.4
  Midwest.......................................    648      797      774           2.1      2.5      2.5
  West..........................................    633      720      621           2.1      2.4      2.1


  1 Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
  2 The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a
percent of total employment plus job openings.
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p Preliminary


Table 8.  Hires levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Dec.     Nov.     Dec.          Dec.     Nov.     Dec.
                                                   2011     2012     2012p         2011     2012     2012p

Total...........................................  3,038    3,986    3,017           2.3      3.0      2.2

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  2,856    3,771    2,845           2.6      3.3      2.5
  Mining and logging............................     20       26       20           2.4      3.1      2.4
  Construction..................................    199      275      179           3.7      4.9      3.3
  Manufacturing.................................    171      198      155           1.4      1.7      1.3
   Durable goods................................    108      131       93           1.5      1.8      1.2
   Nondurable goods.............................     64       66       63           1.4      1.5      1.4
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    635    1,058      693           2.5      4.1      2.7
   Wholesale trade..............................    101       90       98           1.8      1.6      1.7
   Retail trade.................................    385      762      451           2.5      5.0      2.9
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    149      206      145           3.0      4.1      2.9
  Information...................................     52       72       46           2.0      2.7      1.7
  Financial activities..........................    124      174      126           1.6      2.2      1.6
   Finance and insurance........................     86      120       77           1.5      2.1      1.3
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     38       55       48           2.0      2.8      2.5
  Professional and business services............    663      845      597           3.7      4.6      3.3
  Education and health services.................    347      391      374           1.7      1.9      1.8
   Educational services.........................     41       36       42           1.2      1.0      1.2
   Health care and social assistance............    307      355      331           1.8      2.1      1.9
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    515      581      523           3.9      4.3      3.9
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     96       87       81           5.5      4.8      4.5
   Accommodation and food services..............    419      493      442           3.7      4.2      3.8
  Other services................................    131      150      133           2.5      2.8      2.5

 Government.....................................    181      215      171            .8      1.0       .8
  Federal.......................................     23       26       27            .8       .9      1.0
  State and local...............................    158      189      145            .8      1.0       .7

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    492      639      488           1.9      2.5      1.9
  South.........................................  1,204    1,509    1,200           2.5      3.1      2.5
  Midwest.......................................    683      880      633           2.3      2.9      2.1
  West..........................................    659      959      695           2.3      3.2      2.4


  1 Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
  2 The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p Preliminary


Table 9.  Total separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Dec.     Nov.     Dec.          Dec.     Nov.     Dec.
                                                   2011     2012     2012p         2011     2012     2012p

Total...........................................  3,903    3,800    3,889           2.9      2.8      2.9

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  3,618    3,597    3,619           3.3      3.2      3.2
  Mining and logging............................     26       24       31           3.1      2.9      3.8
  Construction..................................    341      401      307           6.3      7.1      5.6
  Manufacturing.................................    210      213      184           1.8      1.8      1.5
   Durable goods................................    115      124      112           1.6      1.7      1.5
   Nondurable goods.............................     94       89       72           2.1      2.0      1.6
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    847      686      950           3.3      2.6      3.6
   Wholesale trade..............................    121       96      108           2.2      1.7      1.9
   Retail trade.................................    521      449      625           3.4      2.9      4.1
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    205      140      218           4.1      2.8      4.3
  Information...................................     61       49       62           2.3      1.8      2.3
  Financial activities..........................    136      163      138           1.8      2.1      1.8
   Finance and insurance........................     99       99       88           1.7      1.7      1.5
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     37       65       49           1.9      3.3      2.5
  Professional and business services............    844      845      798           4.8      4.6      4.4
  Education and health services.................    416      377      400           2.1      1.8      1.9
   Educational services.........................     49       36       47           1.5      1.0      1.4
   Health care and social assistance............    367      341      353           2.2      2.0      2.0
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    591      654      603           4.5      4.8      4.5
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........    104      117       95           5.9      6.5      5.3
   Accommodation and food services..............    488      537      508           4.3      4.6      4.4
  Other services................................    146      185      145           2.7      3.4      2.7

 Government.....................................    285      204      270           1.3       .9      1.2
  Federal.......................................     36       30       41           1.3      1.1      1.5
  State and local...............................    249      173      229           1.3       .9      1.2

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    634      615      650           2.5      2.4      2.5
  South.........................................  1,492    1,361    1,488           3.1      2.8      3.0
  Midwest.......................................    929      952      919           3.1      3.1      3.0
  West..........................................    847      872      832           2.9      2.9      2.8


  1 Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
  2 The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of
total employment.
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p Preliminary


Table 10.  Quits levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Dec.     Nov.     Dec.          Dec.     Nov.     Dec.
                                                   2011     2012     2012p         2011     2012     2012p

Total...........................................  1,642    1,782    1,763           1.2      1.3      1.3

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  1,532    1,682    1,656           1.4      1.5      1.5
  Mining and logging............................     12       12       12           1.5      1.5      1.4
  Construction..................................     56       76       50           1.0      1.4       .9
  Manufacturing.................................     78       80       75            .7       .7       .6
   Durable goods................................     41       45       39            .6       .6       .5
   Nondurable goods.............................     37       36       35            .8       .8       .8
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    393      392      429           1.5      1.5      1.6
   Wholesale trade..............................     40       33       50            .7       .6       .9
   Retail trade.................................    297      284      308           2.0      1.9      2.0
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     56       75       70           1.1      1.5      1.4
  Information...................................     26       27       40           1.0      1.0      1.5
  Financial activities..........................     74       85       56           1.0      1.1       .7
   Finance and insurance........................     55       56       36            .9      1.0       .6
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     19       29       20           1.0      1.5      1.0
  Professional and business services............    293      362      329           1.7      2.0      1.8
  Education and health services.................    225      226      221           1.1      1.1      1.1
   Educational services.........................     23       20       15            .7       .6       .4
   Health care and social assistance............    202      206      205           1.2      1.2      1.2
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    314      354      371           2.4      2.6      2.8
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     34       26       30           1.9      1.4      1.7
   Accommodation and food services..............    280      328      341           2.5      2.8      2.9
  Other services................................     62       67       75           1.2      1.3      1.4

 Government.....................................    110      100      106            .5       .4       .5
  Federal.......................................      9        8       10            .3       .3       .4
  State and local...............................    101       92       96            .5       .5       .5

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    217      240      245            .9       .9      1.0
  South.........................................    664      741      769           1.4      1.5      1.6
  Midwest.......................................    400      420      379           1.3      1.4      1.2
  West..........................................    362      380      369           1.2      1.3      1.3


  1 Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
  2 The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p Preliminary


Table 11.  Layoffs and discharges levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Dec.     Nov.     Dec.          Dec.     Nov.     Dec.
                                                   2011     2012     2012p         2011     2012     2012p

Total...........................................  1,937    1,751    1,791           1.5      1.3      1.3

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  1,837    1,689    1,705           1.7      1.5      1.5
  Mining and logging............................     12       10       19           1.5      1.2      2.2
  Construction..................................    265      318      252           4.9      5.6      4.6
  Manufacturing.................................    112      119       93            .9      1.0       .8
   Durable goods................................     63       71       63            .9       .9       .8
   Nondurable goods.............................     49       48       30           1.1      1.1       .7
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    397      226      458           1.5       .9      1.8
   Wholesale trade..............................     71       52       48           1.3       .9       .8
   Retail trade.................................    196      128      271           1.3       .8      1.8
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    130       47      139           2.6       .9      2.8
  Information...................................     30       17       16           1.1       .6       .6
  Financial activities..........................     38       58       43            .5       .7       .5
   Finance and insurance........................     22       29       22            .4       .5       .4
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     16       29       20            .8      1.5      1.0
  Professional and business services............    507      443      425           2.9      2.4      2.3
  Education and health services.................    139      113      140            .7       .5       .7
   Educational services.........................     23       13       27            .7       .4       .8
   Health care and social assistance............    117      100      112            .7       .6       .7
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    257      283      203           2.0      2.1      1.5
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     68       89       63           3.9      4.9      3.5
   Accommodation and food services..............    190      194      140           1.7      1.7      1.2
  Other services................................     79      102       57           1.5      1.9      1.1

 Government.....................................    100       63       86            .4       .3       .4
  Federal.......................................     10       12       13            .4       .4       .5
  State and local...............................     90       51       73            .5       .3       .4

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    363      336      341           1.4      1.3      1.3
  South.........................................    708      521      583           1.5      1.1      1.2
  Midwest.......................................    454      466      467           1.5      1.5      1.5
  West..........................................    412      429      399           1.4      1.4      1.4


  1 Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
  2 The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a
percent of total employment.
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p Preliminary


Table 12.  Other separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Dec.     Nov.     Dec.          Dec.     Nov.     Dec.
                                                   2011     2012     2012p         2011     2012     2012p

Total...........................................    323      267      335           0.2      0.2      0.2

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................    248      226      257            .2       .2       .2
  Mining and logging............................      1        2        1            .2       .2       .2
  Construction..................................     20        7        4            .4       .1       .1
  Manufacturing.................................     20       14       17            .2       .1       .1
   Durable goods................................     11        9       11            .2       .1       .1
   Nondurable goods.............................      8        5        7            .2       .1       .1
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........     57       67       64            .2       .3       .2
   Wholesale trade..............................     11       11       10            .2       .2       .2
   Retail trade.................................     27       37       45            .2       .2       .3
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     19       19        9            .4       .4       .2
  Information...................................      5        5        5            .2       .2       .2
  Financial activities..........................     25       21       39            .3       .3       .5
   Finance and insurance........................     23       14       30            .4       .2       .5
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........      2        7        9            .1       .3       .5
  Professional and business services............     44       40       45            .2       .2       .2
  Education and health services.................     52       38       40            .3       .2       .2
   Educational services.........................      4        3        4            .1       .1       .1
   Health care and social assistance............     48       35       36            .3       .2       .2
  Leisure and hospitality.......................     20       17       29            .2       .1       .2
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........      2        2        2            .1       .1       .1
   Accommodation and food services..............     18       15       27            .2       .1       .2
  Other services................................      5       16       13            .1       .3       .2

 Government.....................................     75       41       78            .3       .2       .4
  Federal.......................................     17       11       18            .6       .4       .6
  State and local...............................     58       30       60            .3       .2       .3

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................     54       39       63            .2       .2       .2
  South.........................................    121      100      136            .3       .2       .3
  Midwest.......................................     76       65       72            .3       .2       .2
  West..........................................     73       63       63            .2       .2       .2


  1 Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
  2 The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of
total employment.
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p Preliminary


Last Modified Date: February 12, 2013
Recommend this page using: