Economic News Release

Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey News Release



Technical information:      (202) 691-5870        USDL 09-0245
                   http://www.bls.gov/jlt/
                                                  For release:  10:00 A.M. EDT
Media contact:              (202) 691-5902        Tuesday, March 10, 2009


            JOB OPENINGS AND LABOR TURNOVER:  JANUARY 2009

     On the last business day of January, there were 3.0 million job
openings in the United States, and the job openings rate was 2.2
percent, the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U.S. Department of
Labor reported today.  The job openings rate fell in January, while
the hires rate (3.3 percent) and the total separations rate (3.6
percent) were essentially unchanged.  This release includes estimates
of the number and rate of job openings, hires, and separations for the
total nonfarm sector by industry and geographic region.  This release
also includes annual estimates for hires and separations.  The annual
rate for hires, total separations, and quits decreased in 2008 while
the annual layoffs and discharges rate increased.



 ---------------------------------------------------------------
|                 Revisions to the JOLTS data                   |
|     The job openings, hires, and separations data in this     |
| release have been revised to incorporate annual updates to    |
| the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates and    |
| the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) seasonal   |
| adjustment factors.  See page 4 for more information.         |
|                                                               |
|     Also with this release, BLS is implementing improvements  |
| to the methodology used to generate estimates of hires,       |
| separations, and job openings from the JOLTS program.  These  |
| changes are designed to improve the measurements, and more    |
| closely align the hires and separations estimates with        |
| monthly payroll employment change as measured by the BLS      |
| Current Employment Statistics survey.  All JOLTS historical   |
| series have been revised to incorporate the new methods.  See |
| the JOLTS web page (http://www.bls.gov/jlt/) for a detailed   |
|description of these changes.                                  |
 ---------------------------------------------------------------
     
                             - 2 -
     
     
     From January 2008 to January 2009, the rates for job openings,
hires, and quits all fell significantly for both the total nonfarm and
total private sectors.  The rates for layoffs and discharges and other
separations moved the other direction, rising significantly over the
year.  (See tables 5, 6, 8, 9 and 10.)

Table A.  Job openings, hires, and total separations by industry, seasonally
adjusted
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   |    Job openings    |       Hires        | Total separations
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
     Industry      | Jan. | Dec. | Jan. | Jan. | Dec. | Jan. | Jan. | Dec. | Jan.
                   | 2008 | 2008 | 2009p| 2008 | 2008 | 2009p| 2008 | 2008 | 2009p
-------------------|--------------------------------------------------------------
                   |                     Levels (in thousands)
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
Total(1)...........|4,332 |3,224 |2,991 |4,995 |4,508 |4,399 |4,920 |4,958 |4,906
                   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
 Total private(1)..|3,873 |2,861 |2,525 |4,657 |4,214 |4,090 |4,625 |4,673 |4,631
  Construction.....|  131 |   66 |   43 |  368 |  366 |  384 |  418 |  452 |  515
  Manufacturing....|  302 |  188 |  123 |  349 |  252 |  232 |  371 |  419 |  429
  Trade, trans-    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   portation, and  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   utilities(2)....|  734 |  495 |  479 |1,030 |  891 |  919 |1,050 |1,041 |1,046
   Retail trade....|  367 |  337 |  366 |  714 |  595 |  589 |  725 |  664 |  656
  Professional     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   and business    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   services........|  759 |  562 |  523 |  897 |  786 |  764 |  918 |  898 |  856
  Education and    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   health ser-     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   vices...........|  740 |  685 |  684 |  562 |  528 |  534 |  515 |  498 |  485
  Leisure and      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   hospitality.....|  596 |  315 |  280 |  880 |  711 |  721 |  894 |  755 |  743
   Arts, enter-    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    tainment and   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    recreation.....|   54 |   40 |   28 |  136 |  111 |  115 |  136 |  106 |  119
   Accommodation   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    and food       |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    services.......|  539 |  274 |  250 |  747 |  605 |  612 |  758 |  647 |  627
 Government(3).....|  406 |  345 |  406 |  324 |  271 |  295 |  307 |  278 |  282
  State and local  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   government......|  372 |  312 |  311 |  290 |  253 |  263 |  260 |  251 |  269
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
                   |                       Rates (percent)
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
Total(1)...........|  3.0 |  2.3 |  2.2 |  3.6 |  3.3 |  3.3 |  3.6 |  3.7 |  3.6
                   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
 Total private(1)..|  3.2 |  2.5 |  2.2 |  4.0 |  3.7 |  3.7 |  4.0 |  4.1 |  4.1
  Construction.....|  1.7 |  0.9 |  0.6 |  4.9 |  5.3 |  5.7 |  5.6 |  6.6 |  7.6
  Manufacturing....|  2.1 |  1.4 |  1.0 |  2.5 |  2.0 |  1.8 |  2.7 |  3.2 |  3.4
  Trade, trans-    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   portation, and  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   utilities(2)....|  2.7 |  1.9 |  1.8 |  3.9 |  3.4 |  3.6 |  3.9 |  4.0 |  4.1
   Retail trade....|  2.3 |  2.2 |  2.4 |  4.6 |  4.0 |  3.9 |  4.7 |  4.4 |  4.4
  Professional     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   and business    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   services........|  4.0 |  3.1 |  2.9 |  5.0 |  4.5 |  4.4 |  5.1 |  5.2 |  5.0
  Education and    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   health ser-     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   vices...........|  3.8 |  3.5 |  3.4 |  3.0 |  2.8 |  2.8 |  2.8 |  2.6 |  2.5
  Leisure and      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   hospitality.....|  4.2 |  2.3 |  2.1 |  6.5 |  5.3 |  5.4 |  6.6 |  5.7 |  5.6
   Arts, enter-    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    tainment and   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    recreation.....|  2.6 |  2.0 |  1.4 |  6.8 |  5.7 |  5.9 |  6.8 |  5.4 |  6.1
   Accommodation   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    and food       |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    services.......|  4.5 |  2.4 |  2.2 |  6.5 |  5.3 |  5.4 |  6.6 |  5.7 |  5.5
 Government(3).....|  1.8 |  1.5 |  1.8 |  1.4 |  1.2 |  1.3 |  1.4 |  1.2 |  1.2
  State and local  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   government......|  1.9 |  1.6 |  1.5 |  1.5 |  1.3 |  1.3 |  1.3 |  1.3 |  1.4
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  1 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and
other services, not shown separately.
  2 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not
shown separately.
  3 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  p = preliminary.
  NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current
Employment Statistics employment estimates and the JOLTS seasonal adjustment 
factors.


                             - 3 -


Job Openings
     The job openings rate fell to a new series low of 2.2 percent in
January, continuing a 16-month downward trend.  At 3.0 million in
January, monthly openings were down 1.6 million, or 35 percent, since
the starting point of the downward trend in September 2007.  (See
table 1.)
     
     Over the 12 months ending in January, the job openings rate (not
seasonally adjusted) was essentially unchanged in five industries:
mining and logging; retail trade; information; educational services;
and other services.  In the remaining 12 industries, at the total
nonfarm and total private level, and in all four regions, the job
openings rate fell significantly over the year.  The job openings rate
rose significantly over the year only in the federal government.  (See
table 5.)

Hires
     Although the hires rate of 3.3 percent was unchanged from
December to January, the rate has trended downward over the last 15
months.  At 4.4 million in January, monthly hires were down 928,000,
or 17 percent, since the starting point of the downward trend in
October 2007.  (See table 2.)
     
     Over the 12 months ending in January, the hires rate did not
increase significantly in any industry or region. The rate decreased
for total nonfarm and total private and in several industries,
including mining and logging; durable goods manufacturing; retail
trade; accommodation and food services; and state and local
government.  Regionally, the hires rate fell over the year in the
South and West and was essentially unchanged in the Midwest and
Northeast.  (See table 6.)

Separations
     Total separations includes quits (voluntary separations), layoffs
and discharges (involuntary separations), and other separations
(including retirements).  The total separations, or turnover, rate
(seasonally adjusted) remained essentially unchanged in January at 3.6
percent.  The total separations rate (not seasonally adjusted) was
also essentially unchanged over the 12 months ending in January since
quits fell while layoffs and discharges rose.  (See tables 3, 7, 8 and
9.)
     
     The quits rate can serve as a barometer of workers’ willingness
or ability to change jobs.  Although the quits rate was essentially
unchanged in January at 1.5 percent, the rate was at the lowest point
in the 8-year series.  Quits have been trending downward since
December 2006, declining by 1.2 million, or 37 percent, in that time.
Comparing January 2009 to January 2008, the quits rate was
significantly lower for total nonfarm and total private, in most
industries, and in all four regions.  The rate was essentially
unchanged in mining and logging; transportation, warehousing, and
utilities; information; and other services.  The rate did not rise
significantly in the past 12 months in any industry or region.  (See
tables 4 and 8.)
     
     Beginning with this release, the layoffs and discharges component
of total separations is seasonally adjusted at the total nonfarm,
total private, and government levels.  Seasonally adjusted layoffs and
discharges in January were 2.5 million for total nonfarm, 2.4 million
for total private, and 131,000 for government, corresponding to
layoffs and discharges rates of 1.9 percent, 2.1 percent, and 0.6
percent, respectively.  Over the 12 months ending in January, the
layoffs and discharges rate (not seasonally adjusted) rose for total
nonfarm and total private, in all four regions, and in many
industries, including construction; durable goods manufacturing;
nondurable goods manufacturing; wholesale trade; transportation,
warehousing, and utilities; information; finance and insurance; real
estate and rental and leasing; professional and business services;
other services; and state and local government.  The rate fell
significantly over the year only in the federal government.  In the
remaining six industries, the rate was essentially unchanged.  (See
table 9 for not seasonally adjusted layoffs and discharges.

                             - 4 -

Seasonally adjusted layoffs and discharges are not presented in a
table but are available through the JOLTS web site.)
     
     The other separations series is not seasonally adjusted.
Comparing January 2008 to January 2009, the number of other
separations increased significantly for total nonfarm (to 505,000) and
total private (435,000) and decreased significantly for government
(70,000).  (See table 10.)

Net Change in Employment
     In the 12 months ending in January, hires totaled 55.9 million
and separations totaled 59.4 million, yielding a net employment loss
over the year of 3.5 million.  The loss resulted from total
separations remaining level over the year, while hires trended sharply
downward.

Annual Levels and Rates
     This release contains the 2008 annual rates and levels for hires,
total separations, quits, layoffs and discharges, and other
separations.  Note that annual figures for job openings are not
calculated because job openings are measured on a stock, or point-in-
time, basis rather than on a flow basis over a specified time period.
The annual figures and additional tables are published with the
release of January data each year.  (See the Technical Note for
additional information on these measures.)

     Calculating annual levels and rates allows additional comparisons
across years.  For the second year in a row, annual levels for hires,
total separations, quits, and other separations fell in 2008, while
annual levels for layoffs and discharges rose.  In 2008, annual hires
fell to 56.5 million (41.2 percent of employment), annual total
separations fell to 59.3 million (43.3 percent of employment), annual
quits declined steeply to 31.0 million (22.6 percent of employment),
and annual other separations decreased to 4.0 million (2.9 percent of
employment).  Annual layoffs and discharges rose to 24.4 million (17.8
percent of employment) in 2008.  (See tables 11 through 20.)
     
For More Information
     For additional information, please read the Technical Note or
visit the JOLTS Web site at http://www.bls.gov/jlt/.  Additional
information about JOLTS also may be obtained by e-mailing
Joltsinfo@bls.gov or by calling (202) 691-5870.
     
           ---------------------------------------------
     
     The Job Openings and Labor Turnover release for February 2009 is
scheduled to be issued on Tuesday, April 7.
     
     
           Revisions to Job Openings and Labor Turnover Data

     In accordance with annual practice, the Job Openings and Labor
Turnover Survey (JOLTS) data have been revised to reflect annual
updates to the Current Employment Statistics (CES), or establishment
survey, employment estimates.  The JOLTS employment levels are ratio-
adjusted to the CES employment levels, and the resulting ratios are
applied to all JOLTS data elements.  This annual benchmark process
resulted in revisions to all not seasonally adjusted JOLTS data series
from April 2007 forward, the time period since the last benchmark was
established.  Additionally, the seasonally adjusted JOLTS data series
have been recalculated from December 2000 forward to reflect updated
seasonal adjustment factors.

                             - 5 -
     
     Also with this release, BLS is implementing improvements to the
methodology used to generate estimates of hires, separations, and job
openings from the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS)
program.  These changes are designed to improve the measurement of
hires, separations, and openings and to more closely align the hires
and separations estimates with monthly payroll employment change as
measured by the BLS Current Employment Statistics survey.  All JOLTS
historical series have been revised to incorporate the new methods.
     
     Tables summarizing the effects of the above revisions for
December 2000 through December 2008 can be found on the JOLTS
homepage.  The revised data for the year 2008 incorporate the effect
of applying the new benchmark level and the methodology improvements.
The December 2008 revisions also reflect the routine incorporation of
additional sample receipts into the final December estimates.  Table B
through table G present revised total nonfarm data.  Table B (job
openings), table C (hires), table D (total separations), and table E
(quits) present revised data on a seasonally adjusted basis,
incorporating the new seasonal adjustment factors as well as the new
benchmark level and the methodology improvements.  Table F (layoffs
and discharges) presents revisions on a not seasonally adjusted basis
since layoffs and discharges are released on a seasonally adjusted
basis for the first time this year.  Table G (other separations)
presents revisions on a not seasonally adjusted basis since this
series is not seasonally adjusted.  Note that the revised estimates
are generally higher than the previously published estimates.  This is
primarily due to the addition of a birth/death model for JOLTS.  For
more information on this and other methodology changes, see the
technical note included in this release, or see the JOLTS homepage.
     
     LABSTAT, the BLS public database on the Internet, contains all
revised historical seasonally adjusted and not seasonally adjusted
JOLTS data.  The data can be accessed through the JOLTS homepage.
Further information on the revisions released today may be obtained by
contacting the JOLTS program.





                         - 6 -

Technical Note


  The data for the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS)
are collected and compiled monthly from a sample of business
establishments by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

Collection

  In a monthly survey of business establishments, data are
collected for total employment, job openings, hires, quits, layoffs
and discharges, and other separations.  Data collection methods
include computer-assisted telephone interviewing, touchtone data
entry, fax, e-mail, and mail.

Coverage

  The JOLTS program covers all private nonfarm establishments such
as factories, offices, and stores, as well as federal, state, and
local government entities in the 50 states and the District of
Columbia.

Concepts

  Industry classification.  The industry classifications in this
release are in accordance with the 2007 version of the North
American Industry Classification System (NAICS).  In order to
ensure the highest possible quality of data, State Workforce
Agencies verify with employers and update, if necessary, the
industry code, location, and ownership classification of all
establishments on a 3-year cycle.  Changes in establishment
characteristics resulting from the verification process are always
introduced into the JOLTS sampling frame with the data reported for
the first month of the year.

  Employment.  Employment includes persons on the payroll who
worked or received pay for the pay period that includes the 12th
day of the reference month.  Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-
term, seasonal, salaried, and hourly employees are included, as are
employees on paid vacations or other paid leave.  Proprietors or
partners of unincorporated businesses, unpaid family workers, or
persons on leave without pay or on strike for the entire pay
period, are not counted as employed.  Employees of temporary help
agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contractors, and
consultants are counted by their employer of record, not by the
establishment where they are working.

  Job openings.  Establishments submit job openings information for
the last business day of the reference month.  A job opening
requires that: 1) a specific position exists and there is work
available for that position, 2) work could start within 30 days
regardless of whether a suitable candidate is found, and 3) the
employer is actively recruiting from outside the establishment to
fill the position.  Included are full-time, part-time, permanent,
short-term, and seasonal openings.  Active recruiting means that
the establishment is taking steps to fill a position by advertising
in newspapers or on the Internet, posting help-wanted signs,
accepting applications, or using other similar methods.

  Jobs to be filled only by internal transfers, promotions,
demotions, or recall from layoffs are excluded.  Also excluded are
jobs with start dates more than 30 days in the future, jobs for
which employees have been hired but have not yet reported for work,
and jobs to be filled by employees of temporary help agencies,
employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants.
The job openings rate is computed by dividing the number of job
openings by the sum of employment and job openings and multiplying
that quotient by 100.

  Hires.  Hires are the total number of additions to the payroll
occurring at any time during the reference month, including both
new and rehired employees, full-time and part-time, permanent,
short-term and seasonal employees, employees recalled to the
location after a layoff lasting more than 7 days, on-call or
intermittent employees who returned to work after having been
formally separated, and transfers from other locations.  The hires
count does not include transfers or promotions within the reporting
site, employees returning from strike, employees of temporary help
agencies or employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or
consultants.  The hires rate is computed by dividing the number of
hires by employment and multiplying that quotient by 100.

  Separations.  Separations are the total number of terminations of
employment occurring at any time during the reference month, and
are reported by type of separation--quits, layoffs and discharges,
and other separations.  Quits are voluntary separations by
employees (except for retirements, which are reported as other
separations).  Layoffs and discharges are involuntary separations
initiated by the employer and include layoffs with no intent to
rehire; formal layoffs lasting or expected to last more than 7
days; discharges resulting from mergers, downsizing, or closings;
firings or other discharges for cause; terminations of permanent or
short-term employees; and terminations of seasonal employees.
Other separations include retirements, transfers to other
locations, deaths, and separations due to disability.  Separations
do not include transfers within the same location or employees on
strike.

  The separations rate is computed by dividing the number of
separations by employment and multiplying that quotient by 100.
The quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations rates are
computed similarly, dividing the number by employment and
multiplying by 100.

  Annual estimates.  Annual estimates of rates and levels

                         - 7 -

of hires, quits, layoffs and discharges, other separations, and total
separations are released with the January news release each year.

   The JOLTS annual level estimates for hires, quits, layoffs and
discharges, other separations, and total separations are the sum of
the 12 published monthly levels.  The annual rate estimates are
computed by dividing the annual level by the Current Employment
Statistics (CES) annual average employment level, and multiplying
that quotient by 100.  This figure will be approximately equal to
the sum of the 12 monthly rates.  Note that both the JOLTS and CES
annual levels are rounded to the nearest thousand before the annual
estimates are calculated.  Consistent with BLS practices, annual
estimates are published only for not seasonally adjusted data.

  Annual estimates are not calculated for job openings because job
openings are a stock, or point-in-time, measurement for the last
business day of each month.  Only jobs still open on the last day
of the month are counted.  For the same reason job openings cannot
be cumulated throughout each month, annual figures for job openings
cannot be created by summing the monthly estimates.  Hires and
separations are flow measures and are cumulated over the month with
a total reported for the month.  Therefore, the annual figures can
be created by summing the monthly estimates.

Special Collection Procedures

  An implied measure of employment change can be derived from the
JOLTS data by subtracting separations from hires for a given
month.  Aggregating these monthly changes historically produced
employment levels that overstated employment change as measured by
CES at the total nonfarm level.  Research into this problem showed
that a significant amount of the divergence between the CES
employment levels and the derived JOLTS employment levels was
traceable to the Employment Services industry and to the State
Government Education industry.  In the former industry, businesses
have a difficult time reporting hires and separations of temporary
help workers.  In the latter industry, employers have difficulty
reporting hires and separations of student workers.  BLS now
devotes additional resources to the collection, editing, and review
of data for these industries.  BLS analysts more closely examine
reported data that do not provide a consistent picture over time,
and re-contact the respondents as necessary.  Analysts work with
the respondents to adjust their reporting practices as possible.
Units that cannot be reconciled but are clearly incorrect on a
consistent basis are not used, they are replaced by imputed values
using standard techniques.

Sample and estimation methodology

  The JOLTS survey design is a random sample of 16,000 nonfarm
business establishments, including factories, offices, and stores,
as well as federal, state, and local governments in the 50 states
and the District of Columbia.  The establishments are drawn from a
universe of over 9.1 million establishments compiled as part of the
operations of the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW),
program.  This program includes all employers subject to state
Unemployment Insurance (UI) laws and federal agencies subject to
Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE).

  The sampling frame is stratified by ownership, region, industry
sector, and size class. The JOLTS sample is constructed from
individual panels of sample units drawn on an annual basis. The
full annual sample consists of one certainty panel composed of only
large units selected with virtual certainty based on their size and
24 non-certainty panels.  Each month a new non-certainty panel is
rolled into collection, and the oldest non-certainty panel is
rolled out.  This means that at any given time the JOLTS sample is
constructed from panels from three different annual sampling
frames.  The entire sample of old plus new panels is post-
stratified and re-weighted annually to represent the most recent
sampling frame.  Additionally, the out-of-business establishments
are removed from the old panels.  The annual sample is supplemented
with a quarterly sample of birth establishments (i.e., new
establishments) to better reflect the impact of younger
establishments in the JOLTS sample.

  JOLTS total employment estimates are benchmarked monthly to the
employment estimates of the Current Employment Statistics (CES)
survey.  A ratio of CES to JOLTS employment is used to adjust the
levels for all other JOLTS data elements.

  JOLTS Business Birth/Death Model

  As with any sample survey, the JOLTS sample can only be as
current as its sampling frame.  The time lag from the birth of an
establishment until its appearance on the sampling frame is
approximately one year.  In addition, many of these new units may
fail within the first year.  Since these universe units cannot be
reflected on the sampling frame immediately, the JOLTS sample
cannot capture job openings, hires, and separations from these
units during their early existence.  BLS has developed a model to
estimate birth/death activity for current months by examining the
birth/death activity from previous years on the QCEW and projecting
forward to the present using an econometric technique known as X-12
ARIMA modeling. The birth/death model also uses historical JOLTS
data to estimate the amount of “churn” (hires and separations) that
exists in establishments of various sizes.  The model then combines
the estimated churn with the projected employment change to
estimate the number of hires and separations taking place in these
units that cannot be measured through sampling.

                         - 8 -

  The model-based estimate of total separations is distributed to
the three components – quits; layoffs and discharges; and other
separations - in proportion to their contribution to the sample-
based estimate of total separations.  Additionally, job openings
for the modeled units are estimated by computing the ratio of
openings to hires in the collected data and applying that ratio to
the modeled hires.  The estimates of job openings, hires, and
separations produced by the birth/death model are then added to the
sample-based estimates produced from the survey to arrive at the
estimates for openings, hires, and separations.

Seasonal adjustment

  BLS seasonally adjusts several JOLTS series using the X-12-ARIMA
seasonal adjustment program.  Seasonal adjustment is the process of
estimating and removing periodic fluctuations caused by events such
as weather, holidays, and the beginning and ending of the school
year.  Seasonal adjustment makes it easier to observe fundamental
changes in the level of the series, particularly those associated
with general economic expansions and contractions.  A concurrent
seasonal adjustment methodology is used in which new seasonal
adjustment factors are calculated each month, using all relevant
data, up to and including the data for the current month.

Alignment procedure

  JOLTS hires minus separations should be comparable to the CES net
employment change.  However, definitional differences as well as
sampling and non-sampling errors between the two surveys
historically caused JOLTS to diverge from CES over time. To limit
the divergence, and improve the quality of the JOLTS hires and
separations series, BLS implemented the Monthly Alignment Method.
The Monthly Alignment Method applies the CES employment trends to
the seasonally adjusted JOLTS implied employment trend (hires minus
separations) forcing them to be approximately the same, while
preserving the seasonality of the JOLTS data.  First, the two
series are seasonally adjusted and the difference between the JOLTS
implied employment trend and the CES net employment change is
calculated. Next, the JOLTS implied employment trend is adjusted to
equal the CES net employment change through a proportional
adjustment. This proportional adjustment procedure adjusts the two
components (hires, separations) proportionally to their
contribution to the total churn (hires plus separations).  For
example, if hires are 40 percent of the churn for a given month,
they will receive 40 percent of the needed adjustment and
separations will receive 60 percent of the needed adjustment. The
adjusted hires and separations are converted back to not seasonally
adjusted data by reversing the application of the original seasonal
factors.  After the monthly alignment method has been used to
adjust the level estimates, rate estimates are computed from the
adjusted levels.  The Monthly Alignment procedure assures a close
match of the JOLTS implied employment trend with the CES trend. The
CES series is considered a highly accurate measure of net
employment change owing to its very large sample size and annual
benchmarking to universe counts of employment from the QCEW
program.

Using JOLTS data

  The JOLTS data series on job openings, hires, and separations are
relatively new.  The full sample is divided into panels, with one
panel enrolled each month.  A full complement of panels for the
original data series based on the 1987 Standard Industrial
Classification (SIC) system was not completely enrolled in the
survey until January 2002.  The supplemental panels of
establishments needed to create NAICS estimates were not completely
enrolled until May 2003.  The data collected up until those points
are from less than a full sample.  Therefore, estimates from
earlier months should be used with caution, as fewer sampled units
were reporting data at that time.

  In March 2002, BLS procedures for collecting hires and
separations data were revised to address possible underreporting.
As a result, JOLTS hires and separations estimates for months prior
to March 2002 may not be comparable to estimates for March 2002 and
later.

  The federal government reorganization that involved transferring
approximately 180,000 employees to the new Department of Homeland
Security is not reflected in the JOLTS hires and separations
estimates for the federal government.  The Office of Personnel
Management's record shows these transfers were completed in March
2003.  The inclusion of transfers in the JOLTS definitions of hires
and separations is intended to cover ongoing movements of workers
between establishments.  The Department of Homeland Security
reorganization was a massive one-time event, and the inclusion of
these intergovernmental transfers would distort the federal
government time series.

  JOLTS uses moving averages as seasonal filters in seasonal
adjustment.  JOLTS seasonal adjustment includes both additive and
multiplicative seasonal adjustment models and REGARIMA (regression
with autocorrelated errors) modeling to improve the seasonal
adjustment factors at the beginning and end of the series and to
detect and adjust for outliers in the series.

Reliability of the estimates

  JOLTS estimates are subject to both sampling and nonsampling
error.  When a sample rather than the entire population is
surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ
from the "true" population values they represent.  The exact
difference, or sampling error, varies depending on the particular
sample selected, and this variability is measured by the standard
error of the estimate.  BLS analysis is generally conducted at the
90-percent level of confidence.  That means that there is a

                         - 9 -

90-percent chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a
sample will differ by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the
"true" population value because of sampling error.  Estimates of
sampling errors are available upon request.

  The JOLTS estimates also are affected by nonsampling error.
Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure
to include a segment of the population, the inability to obtain
data from all units in the sample, the inability or unwillingness
of respondents to provide data on a timely basis, mistakes made by
respondents, errors made in the collection or processing of the
data, and errors from the employment benchmark data used in
estimation.

Other information

  Information in this release will be made available to sensory
impaired individuals upon request.  Voice phone: 202-691-5200; TDD
message referral phone: 1-800-877-8339.


Table 1.  Job openings levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Jan.   Aug.   Sept.  Oct.   Nov.   Dec.   Jan.   Jan.  Aug.  Sept. Oct.  Nov.  Dec.  Jan.
                                            2008   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008   2009p  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008  2009p

Total(4).................................  4,332  3,722  3,346  3,390  3,311  3,224  2,991    3.0   2.6   2.4   2.4   2.4   2.3   2.2

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  3,873  3,314  2,913  2,964  2,928  2,861  2,525    3.2   2.8   2.5   2.5   2.5   2.5   2.2
  Construction...........................    131     84    152     79     76     66     43    1.7   1.2   2.1   1.1   1.1    .9    .6
  Manufacturing..........................    302    300    236    230    203    188    123    2.1   2.2   1.7   1.7   1.5   1.4   1.0
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    734    638    525    564    624    495    479    2.7   2.4   2.0   2.1   2.3   1.9   1.8
   Retail trade..........................    367    393    297    363    410    337    366    2.3   2.5   1.9   2.3   2.6   2.2   2.4
  Professional and business services.....    759    692    608    603    505    562    523    4.0   3.8   3.3   3.3   2.8   3.1   2.9
  Education and health services..........    740    707    624    646    697    685    684    3.8   3.6   3.2   3.3   3.5   3.5   3.4
  Leisure and hospitality................    596    438    427    417    302    315    280    4.2   3.2   3.1   3.0   2.2   2.3   2.1
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation...     54     56     44     47     35     40     28    2.6   2.8   2.2   2.4   1.8   2.0   1.4
   Accommodation and food services.......    539    378    374    370    284    274    250    4.5   3.2   3.2   3.1   2.4   2.4   2.2
 Government(6)...........................    406    421    431    427    378    345    406    1.8   1.8   1.9   1.9   1.6   1.5   1.8
  State and local government.............    372    357    352    344    337    312    311    1.9   1.8   1.7   1.7   1.7   1.6   1.5


                 REGION(7)

  Northeast..............................    706    707    644    636    582    633    542    2.7   2.7   2.5   2.4   2.2   2.4   2.1
  South..................................  1,687  1,409  1,269  1,314  1,267  1,245  1,161    3.3   2.8   2.5   2.6   2.5   2.5   2.3
  Midwest................................    881    794    674    698    644    607    570    2.7   2.5   2.1   2.2   2.0   1.9   1.8
  West...................................    984    864    785    734    767    689    670    3.1   2.7   2.5   2.3   2.5   2.2   2.2


  1 Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
  2 The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus
job openings.
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series.
  4 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  7 The States (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts,
New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of
Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas,
Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio,
South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah,
Washington, and Wyoming.
  p = preliminary.
  NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates and the
JOLTS seasonal adjustment factors.



Table 2.  Hires levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Jan.   Aug.   Sept.  Oct.   Nov.   Dec.   Jan.   Jan.  Aug.  Sept. Oct.  Nov.  Dec.  Jan.
                                            2008   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008   2009p  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008  2009p

Total(4).................................  4,995  4,654  4,505  4,486  4,226  4,508  4,399    3.6   3.4   3.3   3.3   3.1   3.3   3.3

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  4,657  4,378  4,263  4,160  3,928  4,214  4,090    4.0   3.8   3.7   3.7   3.5   3.7   3.7
  Construction...........................    368    424    365    380    340    366    384    4.9   5.9   5.1   5.4   4.9   5.3   5.7
  Manufacturing..........................    349    285    305    290    257    252    232    2.5   2.1   2.3   2.2   2.0   2.0   1.8
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)  1,030    973    959    933    852    891    919    3.9   3.7   3.7   3.6   3.3   3.4   3.6
   Retail trade..........................    714    662    649    624    576    595    589    4.6   4.3   4.2   4.1   3.8   4.0   3.9
  Professional and business services.....    897    810    787    788    783    786    764    5.0   4.6   4.5   4.5   4.5   4.5   4.4
  Education and health services..........    562    554    506    544    528    528    534    3.0   2.9   2.7   2.9   2.8   2.8   2.8
  Leisure and hospitality................    880    838    814    769    706    711    721    6.5   6.2   6.1   5.7   5.3   5.3   5.4
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation...    136    161    117    119     92    111    115    6.8   8.2   6.0   6.1   4.7   5.7   5.9
   Accommodation and food services.......    747    692    708    651    620    605    612    6.5   6.0   6.2   5.7   5.4   5.3   5.4
 Government(6)...........................    324    305    278    318    281    271    295    1.4   1.4   1.2   1.4   1.2   1.2   1.3
  State and local government.............    290    279    259    275    251    253    263    1.5   1.4   1.3   1.4   1.3   1.3   1.3


                 REGION(7)

  Northeast..............................    794    800    742    759    661    726    733    3.1   3.1   2.9   3.0   2.6   2.9   2.9
  South..................................  1,906  1,714  1,643  1,652  1,572  1,659  1,618    3.8   3.5   3.3   3.4   3.2   3.4   3.3
  Midwest................................  1,092  1,034  1,038  1,051    934  1,009    995    3.5   3.3   3.3   3.4   3.0   3.3   3.2
  West...................................  1,158  1,124  1,088  1,043  1,043  1,053  1,011    3.7   3.7   3.6   3.4   3.4   3.5   3.4


  1 Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
  2 The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series.
  4 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  7 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = preliminary.
  NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates and the
JOLTS seasonal adjustment factors.



Table 3.  Total separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Jan.   Aug.   Sept.  Oct.   Nov.   Dec.   Jan.   Jan.  Aug.  Sept. Oct.  Nov.  Dec.  Jan.
                                            2008   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008   2009p  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008  2009p

Total(4).................................  4,920  4,888  4,852  4,910  4,863  4,958  4,906    3.6   3.6   3.5   3.6   3.6   3.7   3.6

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  4,625  4,587  4,553  4,607  4,571  4,673  4,631    4.0   4.0   4.0   4.0   4.0   4.1   4.1
  Construction...........................    418    436    412    440    472    452    515    5.6   6.1   5.8   6.2   6.8   6.6   7.6
  Manufacturing..........................    371    348    371    404    384    419    429    2.7   2.6   2.8   3.1   2.9   3.2   3.4
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)  1,050  1,031  1,046  1,034  1,030  1,041  1,046    3.9   3.9   4.0   4.0   4.0   4.0   4.1
   Retail trade..........................    725    699    684    680    680    664    656    4.7   4.6   4.5   4.5   4.5   4.4   4.4
  Professional and business services.....    918    871    809    906    909    898    856    5.1   4.9   4.6   5.1   5.2   5.2   5.0
  Education and health services..........    515    505    488    507    466    498    485    2.8   2.7   2.6   2.7   2.4   2.6   2.5
  Leisure and hospitality................    894    857    830    794    773    755    743    6.6   6.4   6.2   5.9   5.8   5.7   5.6
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation...    136    152    115    124     98    106    119    6.8   7.7   5.9   6.4   5.0   5.4   6.1
   Accommodation and food services.......    758    708    714    670    673    647    627    6.6   6.2   6.2   5.9   5.9   5.7   5.5
 Government(6)...........................    307    290    294    294    282    278    282    1.4   1.3   1.3   1.3   1.3   1.2   1.2
  State and local government.............    260    268    280    265    258    251    269    1.3   1.4   1.4   1.3   1.3   1.3   1.4


                 REGION(7)

  Northeast..............................    807    824    734    743    767    799    806    3.1   3.2   2.9   2.9   3.0   3.2   3.2
  South..................................  1,840  1,799  1,767  1,782  1,841  1,815  1,882    3.7   3.6   3.6   3.6   3.8   3.7   3.9
  Midwest................................  1,086  1,026  1,116  1,168  1,105  1,088  1,102    3.5   3.3   3.6   3.8   3.6   3.5   3.6
  West...................................  1,237  1,258  1,184  1,209  1,205  1,227  1,150    4.0   4.1   3.9   4.0   4.0   4.0   3.8


  1 Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
  2 The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series.
  4 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  7 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = preliminary.
  NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates and the
JOLTS seasonal adjustment factors.



Table 4.  Quits levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Jan.   Aug.   Sept.  Oct.   Nov.   Dec.   Jan.   Jan.  Aug.  Sept. Oct.  Nov.  Dec.  Jan.
                                            2008   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008   2009p  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008  2009p

Total(4).................................  2,926  2,453  2,454  2,436  2,201  2,114  2,000    2.1   1.8   1.8   1.8   1.6   1.6   1.5

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  2,770  2,322  2,319  2,305  2,076  1,984  1,887    2.4   2.0   2.0   2.0   1.8   1.8   1.7
  Construction...........................    151    151    128    107    109     92     82    2.0   2.1   1.8   1.5   1.6   1.3   1.2
  Manufacturing..........................    206    146    147    143    122     87     90    1.5   1.1   1.1   1.1    .9    .7    .7
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    643    541    580    548    489    518    490    2.4   2.1   2.2   2.1   1.9   2.0   1.9
   Retail trade..........................    474    397    414    377    352    379    366    3.0   2.6   2.7   2.5   2.3   2.5   2.4
  Professional and business services.....    443    361    368    477    349    297    287    2.5   2.0   2.1   2.7   2.0   1.7   1.7
  Education and health services..........    319    285    290    294    251    256    244    1.7   1.5   1.5   1.5   1.3   1.3   1.3
  Leisure and hospitality................    598    529    514    516    469    461    425    4.4   3.9   3.8   3.8   3.5   3.5   3.2
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation...     57     45     52     39     35     29     29    2.9   2.3   2.7   2.0   1.8   1.5   1.5
   Accommodation and food services.......    531    487    467    476    437    435    389    4.6   4.2   4.1   4.2   3.8   3.8   3.4
 Government(6)...........................    151    139    134    132    122    130    109     .7    .6    .6    .6    .5    .6    .5
  State and local government.............    134    131    133    122    117    121    103     .7    .7    .7    .6    .6    .6    .5


                 REGION(7)

  Northeast..............................    445    337    338    347    321    302    269    1.7   1.3   1.3   1.4   1.3   1.2   1.1
  South..................................  1,197    978    971    949    879    847    774    2.4   2.0   2.0   1.9   1.8   1.7   1.6
  Midwest................................    588    567    577    595    491    452    471    1.9   1.8   1.9   1.9   1.6   1.5   1.5
  West...................................    678    566    560    541    510    498    470    2.2   1.8   1.8   1.8   1.7   1.6   1.6


  1 Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
  2 The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series.
  4 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  7 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = preliminary.
  NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics employment estimates and the
JOLTS seasonal adjustment factors.


Table 5.  Job openings levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Jan.     Dec.     Jan.          Jan.     Dec.     Jan.
                                                   2008     2008     2009p         2008     2008     2009p

Total...........................................  4,466    2,796    3,091           3.2      2.0      2.3

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  4,059    2,492    2,686           3.5      2.2      2.4
  Mining and Logging............................     16       17       20           2.2      2.1      2.6
  Construction..................................    117       54       39           1.6       .8       .6
  Manufacturing.................................    308      161      127           2.2      1.2      1.0
   Durable goods................................    187       83       64           2.1      1.0       .8
   Nondurable goods.............................    122       78       63           2.4      1.6      1.3
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    719      399      465           2.6      1.5      1.8
   Wholesale trade..............................    209       85       50           3.4      1.4       .9
   Retail trade.................................    349      252      345           2.2      1.6      2.3
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    161       62       70           3.1      1.2      1.4
  Information...................................     95       62       83           3.1      2.1      2.8
  Financial activities..........................    412      190      222           4.8      2.3      2.7
   Finance and insurance........................    291      144      186           4.6      2.4      3.1
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........    121       46       36           5.4      2.2      1.7
  Professional and business services............    849      522      585           4.6      2.9      3.3
  Education and health services.................    777      651      720           4.0      3.3      3.6
   Educational services.........................     65       68       75           2.2      2.1      2.4
   Health care and social assistance............    712      584      645           4.4      3.5      3.9
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    583      268      271           4.3      2.0      2.1
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     49       27       25           2.7      1.5      1.4
   Accommodation and food services.............     534      242      246           4.6      2.1      2.2
  Other services................................    182      168      154           3.2      3.0      2.8

 Government.....................................    407      304      405           1.8      1.3      1.8
  Federal.......................................     44       33      109           1.6      1.2      3.8
  State and local...............................    363      271      295           1.8      1.3      1.5

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    786      560      602           3.0      2.1      2.4
  South.........................................  1,708    1,131    1,160           3.4      2.3      2.4
  Midwest.......................................    904      539      583           2.8      1.7      1.9
  West..........................................  1,068      567      746           3.4      1.8      2.5


  1 Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
  2 The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a
percent of total employment plus job openings.
  3 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = preliminary.
  NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment
Statistics employment estimates.


Table 6.  Hires levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Jan.     Dec.     Jan.          Jan.     Dec.     Jan.
                                                   2008     2008     2009p         2008     2008     2009p

Total...........................................  4,834    3,124    4,221           3.6      2.3      3.2

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  4,516    2,963    3,936           4.0      2.6      3.6
  Mining and Logging............................     39       18       29           5.3      2.3      3.7
  Construction..................................    321      222      335           4.6      3.3      5.3
  Manufacturing.................................    359      165      237           2.6      1.3      1.9
   Durable goods................................    219       95      120           2.5      1.2      1.5
   Nondurable goods.............................    140       70      116           2.8      1.5      2.5
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    923      689      823           3.5      2.6      3.2
   Wholesale trade..............................    200      113      206           3.3      1.9      3.6
   Retail trade.................................    578      467      475           3.7      3.0      3.2
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    145      109      142           2.9      2.2      2.9
  Information...................................     92       48       90           3.1      1.6      3.1
  Financial activities..........................    272      141      242           3.3      1.8      3.1
   Finance and insurance........................    193       84      162           3.2      1.4      2.8
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     79       57       80           3.7      2.7      4.0
  Professional and business services............    968      629      816           5.5      3.6      4.8
  Education and health services.................    578      372      550           3.1      1.9      2.9
   Educational services.........................     80       31       71           2.8      1.0      2.3
   Health care and social assistance............    498      341      480           3.2      2.1      3.0
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    758      522      618           5.9      4.0      4.9
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........    114       80       96           6.4      4.5      5.5
   Accommodation and food services.............     644      442      522           5.8      3.9      4.8
  Other services................................    206      157      196           3.8      2.9      3.6

 Government.....................................    318      161      285           1.4       .7      1.3
  Federal.......................................     36       19       34           1.3       .7      1.2
  State and local...............................    281      141      252           1.4       .7      1.3

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    764      534      701           3.0      2.1      2.8
  South.........................................  1,925    1,129    1,636           3.9      2.3      3.4
  Midwest.......................................  1,077      703      979           3.5      2.3      3.3
  West..........................................  1,068      758      905           3.5      2.5      3.1


  1 Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
  2 The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = preliminary.
  NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment
Statistics employment estimates.


Table 7.  Total separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Jan.     Dec.     Jan.          Jan.     Dec.     Jan.
                                                   2008     2008     2009p         2008     2008     2009p

Total...........................................  6,527    4,579    6,456           4.8      3.4      4.9

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  6,163    4,367    6,126           5.4      3.9      5.6
  Mining and Logging............................     48       29       43           6.5      3.7      5.6
  Construction..................................    548      465      675           7.8      6.9     10.7
  Manufacturing.................................    533      345      623           3.9      2.7      5.0
   Durable goods................................    315      214      389           3.6      2.6      4.9
   Nondurable goods.............................    217      131      234           4.4      2.7      5.0
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........  1,504    1,078    1,497           5.7      4.1      5.9
   Wholesale trade..............................    272      204      313           4.5      3.5      5.4
   Retail trade.................................  1,041      697      938           6.7      4.5      6.3
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    190      177      246           3.8      3.5      5.1
  Information...................................    140       74      165           4.7      2.5      5.7
  Financial activities..........................    453      166      457           5.5      2.1      5.8
   Finance and insurance........................    324       97      311           5.4      1.6      5.3
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........    128       69      147           6.1      3.3      7.2
  Professional and business services............  1,065    1,019      986           6.0      5.9      5.8
  Education and health services.................    695      387      655           3.8      2.0      3.4
   Educational services.........................     84       48       52           2.9      1.5      1.7
   Health care and social assistance............    611      339      603           3.9      2.1      3.8
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    943      624      778           7.3      4.8      6.1
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........    129       78      114           7.3      4.4      6.6
   Accommodation and food services.............     814      545      663           7.3      4.9      6.1
  Other services................................    236      181      247           4.3      3.3      4.6

 Government.....................................    364      212      330           1.6       .9      1.5
  Federal.......................................     75       24       33           2.8       .9      1.2
  State and local...............................    288      187      297           1.5       .9      1.5

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................  1,116      768    1,108           4.4      3.0      4.5
  South.........................................  2,343    1,604    2,389           4.8      3.3      5.0
  Midwest.......................................  1,484    1,103    1,506           4.8      3.6      5.0
  West..........................................  1,584    1,104    1,453           5.2      3.6      4.9


  1 Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
  2 The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of
total employment.
  3 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = preliminary.
  NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment
Statistics employment estimates.


Table 8.  Quits levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Jan.     Dec.     Jan.          Jan.     Dec.     Jan.
                                                   2008     2008     2009p         2008     2008     2009p

Total...........................................  3,380    1,659    2,287           2.5      1.2      1.7

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  3,210    1,568    2,167           2.8      1.4      2.0
  Mining and Logging............................     24        9       20           3.3      1.2      2.6
  Construction..................................    143       58       72           2.0       .9      1.1
  Manufacturing.................................    257       60      112           1.9       .5       .9
   Durable goods................................    132       34       59           1.5       .4       .7
   Nondurable goods.............................    125       25       53           2.5       .5      1.1
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    784      448      598           3.0      1.7      2.3
   Wholesale trade..............................    125       53       72           2.1       .9      1.3
   Retail trade.................................    568      332      437           3.7      2.1      2.9
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     91       64       89           1.8      1.3      1.8
  Information...................................     78       21       63           2.6       .7      2.2
  Financial activities..........................    251       52      124           3.1       .7      1.6
   Finance and insurance........................    185       42       81           3.1       .7      1.4
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     66       10       43           3.1       .5      2.1
  Professional and business services............    481      274      308           2.7      1.6      1.8
  Education and health services.................    428      193      323           2.3      1.0      1.7
   Educational services.........................     43       14       19           1.5       .4       .6
   Health care and social assistance............    385      179      304           2.5      1.1      1.9
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    611      369      431           4.7      2.8      3.4
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     54       16       26           3.1       .9      1.5
   Accommodation and food services.............     557      352      405           5.0      3.1      3.7
  Other services................................    153       84      116           2.8      1.5      2.2

 Government.....................................    171       91      121            .8       .4       .5
  Federal.......................................     21        5        8            .8       .2       .3
  State and local...............................    150       86      112            .8       .4       .6

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    530      230      322           2.1       .9      1.3
  South.........................................  1,381      661      887           2.8      1.3      1.9
  Midwest.......................................    703      355      556           2.3      1.2      1.8
  West..........................................    766      412      523           2.5      1.4      1.8


  1 Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
  2 The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = preliminary.
  NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment
Statistics employment estimates.


Table 9.  Layoffs and discharges levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Jan.     Dec.     Jan.          Jan.     Dec.     Jan.
                                                   2008     2008     2009p         2008     2008     2009p

Total...........................................  2,701    2,631    3,664           2.0      1.9      2.8

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  2,589    2,550    3,525           2.3      2.3      3.2
  Mining and Logging............................     17       18       21           2.3      2.4      2.8
  Construction..................................    386      389      582           5.5      5.8      9.2
  Manufacturing.................................    229      269      468           1.7      2.1      3.7
   Durable goods................................    154      169      296           1.8      2.1      3.8
   Nondurable goods.............................     75      100      171           1.5      2.1      3.6
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    636      563      792           2.4      2.1      3.1
   Wholesale trade..............................    130      143      233           2.2      2.4      4.0
   Retail trade.................................    418      331      436           2.7      2.1      2.9
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     88       89      123           1.7      1.8      2.5
  Information...................................     53       42       87           1.8      1.4      3.0
  Financial activities..........................    179       95      280           2.2      1.2      3.5
   Finance and insurance........................    121       47      182           2.0       .8      3.1
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     58       48       98           2.7      2.3      4.8
  Professional and business services............    518      679      616           2.9      3.9      3.6
  Education and health services.................    219      168      234           1.2       .9      1.2
   Educational services.........................     35       31       30           1.2      1.0      1.0
   Health care and social assistance............    184      137      203           1.2       .9      1.3
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    273      238      322           2.1      1.8      2.5
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     71       60       81           4.0      3.3      4.7
   Accommodation and food services.............     202      178      241           1.8      1.6      2.2
  Other services................................     80       88      123           1.5      1.6      2.3

 Government.....................................    112       82      139            .5       .4       .6
  Federal.......................................     26       14       11           1.0       .5       .4
  State and local...............................     86       68      128            .4       .3       .7

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    498      466      686           2.0      1.8      2.8
  South.........................................    845      853    1,312           1.7      1.7      2.7
  Midwest.......................................    645      690      823           2.1      2.2      2.7
  West..........................................    714      623      843           2.3      2.0      2.8


  1 Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
  2 The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a
percent of total employment.
  3 See footnote 7, table 1.
  p = preliminary.
  NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment
Statistics employment estimates.


Table 10.  Other separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Jan.     Dec.     Jan.          Jan.     Dec.     Jan.
                                                   2008     2008     2009p         2008     2008     2009p

Total...........................................    446      289      505           0.3      0.2      0.4

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................    365      250      435            .3       .2       .4
  Mining and Logging............................      7        1        2           1.0       .2       .2
  Construction..................................     19       19       22            .3       .3       .3
  Manufacturing.................................     47       16       43            .3       .1       .3
   Durable goods................................     29       10       34            .3       .1       .4
   Nondurable goods.............................     17        6        9            .3       .1       .2
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........     84       67      106            .3       .3       .4
   Wholesale trade..............................     17        9        7            .3       .1       .1
   Retail trade.................................     55       34       64            .4       .2       .4
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     11       24       35            .2       .5       .7
  Information...................................      9       11       15            .3       .4       .5
  Financial activities..........................     23       19       54            .3       .2       .7
   Finance and insurance........................     19        8       47            .3       .1       .8
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........      5       10        6            .2       .5       .3
  Professional and business services............     67       65       63            .4       .4       .4
  Education and health services.................     48       26       98            .3       .1       .5
   Educational services.........................      6        3        2            .2       .1       .1
   Health care and social assistance............     42       23       96            .3       .1       .6
  Leisure and hospitality.......................     59       17       25            .5       .1       .2
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........      3        2        7            .2       .1       .4
   Accommodation and food services.............      56       15       17            .5       .1       .2
  Other services................................      3       10        8           (4)       .2       .2

 Government.....................................     80       39       70            .4       .2       .3
  Federal.......................................     28        6       14           1.0       .2       .5
  State and local...............................     52       33       56            .3       .2       .3

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................     89       71       99            .3       .3       .4
  South.........................................    116       94      190            .2       .2       .4
  Midwest.......................................    137       54      127            .4       .2       .4
  West..........................................    104       71       88            .3       .2       .3


  1 Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
  2 The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of
total employment.
  3 See footnote 7, table 1.
  4 Data round to zero.
  p = preliminary.
  NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment
Statistics employment estimates.


Table 11.  Annual hires levels(1) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                            Levels (in thousands)

              Industry and region                  2001     2002     2003     2004     2005     2006     2007     2008

Total........................................... 63,768   59,800   57,788   61,615   64,502   64,911   63,381   56,496

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private.................................. 59,373   55,665   54,083   57,526   60,455   60,478   58,833   52,807
  Mining and Logging............................    281      237      260      284      303      312      347      382
  Construction..................................  5,435    5,104    5,235    5,439    5,885    5,398    4,811    4,618
  Manufacturing.................................  4,879    4,681    4,242    4,676    4,540    4,605    4,617    3,651
   Durable goods................................  2,670    2,733    2,580    2,961    2,896    2,737    2,687    2,089
   Nondurable goods.............................  2,208    1,945    1,661    1,715    1,643    1,869    1,930    1,561
  Trade, transportation, and utilities.......... 13,192   12,235   11,838   13,292   13,688   13,802   13,215   11,602
   Wholesale trade..............................  1,910    1,930    1,868    2,068    2,010    2,044    2,212    1,892
   Retail trade.................................  9,439    8,564    8,251    9,130    9,443    9,596    9,121    7,876
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...  1,843    1,743    1,720    2,092    2,234    2,160    1,881    1,833
  Information...................................  1,479    1,096      940      984    1,044    1,121      983      814
  Financial activities..........................  2,840    2,680    2,597    2,861    2,865    3,098    3,158    2,649
   Finance and insurance........................  1,937    1,723    1,579    1,770    1,849    1,992    2,089    1,704
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........    904      952    1,018    1,089    1,017    1,105    1,070      945
  Professional and business services............ 11,454   11,353   10,632   11,032   12,153   11,955   11,475   10,112
  Education and health services.................  6,176    5,772    5,733    5,791    6,210    6,385    6,438    6,553
   Educational services.........................    780      708      824      755      826      879      910      939
   Health care and social assistance............  5,390    5,064    4,906    5,037    5,386    5,506    5,529    5,616
  Leisure and hospitality....................... 11,204    9,991    9,975   10,556   10,948   11,245   11,194    9,965
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........  1,765    1,576    1,604    1,633    1,641    1,572    1,639    1,473
   Accommodation and food services.............   9,441    8,413    8,371    8,921    9,306    9,674    9,554    8,492
  Other services................................  2,438    2,519    2,630    2,615    2,817    2,560    2,600    2,462

 Government.....................................  4,393    4,134    3,705    4,090    4,046    4,434    4,549    3,688
  Federal.......................................    502      597      531      507      511      711      844      335
  State and local...............................  3,892    3,538    3,175    3,585    3,537    3,721    3,705    3,351

                    REGION (2)

  Northeast..................................... 10,624    9,724   10,013   10,722   10,678   10,245   10,010    9,237
  South......................................... 23,041   22,452   21,822   23,524   24,614   25,299   24,360   20,846
  Midwest....................................... 15,727   14,064   12,909   13,753   14,124   14,030   14,239   12,690
  West.......................................... 14,372   13,556   13,049   13,618   15,087   15,337   14,774   13,721


  1 The annual hires level is the total number of hires during the entire year.
  2 See footnote 7, table 1.
  NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment
Statistics employment estimates.



Table 12.  Annual hires rates(1) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                                  Rates

              Industry and region                2001     2002     2003     2004     2005     2006     2007     2008

Total........................................... 48.4     45.9     44.5     46.9     48.2     47.7     46.1     41.2

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private.................................. 53.6     51.1     49.9     52.4     54.0     53.0     51.0     46.1
  Mining and Logging............................ 46.4     40.7     45.5     48.1     48.2     45.6     47.9     49.4
  Construction.................................. 79.6     76.0     77.7     78.0     80.2     70.2     63.1     64.0
  Manufacturing................................. 29.7     30.7     29.2     32.7     31.9     32.5     33.3     27.2
   Durable goods................................ 25.8     28.8     28.8     33.2     32.3     30.5     30.5     24.6
   Nondurable goods............................. 36.2     33.7     29.9     31.8     31.2     36.1     38.1     31.5
  Trade, transportation, and utilities.......... 50.8     48.0     46.8     52.1     52.7     52.5     49.6     44.0
   Wholesale trade.............................. 33.1     34.1     33.3     36.5     34.9     34.6     36.8     31.7
   Retail trade................................. 61.9     57.0     55.3     60.6     61.8     62.5     58.8     51.3
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities... 37.1     36.2     36.1     43.5     45.5     43.0     36.9     36.2
  Information................................... 40.8     32.3     29.5     31.6     34.1     36.9     32.4     27.2
  Financial activities.......................... 36.4     34.2     32.6     35.6     35.1     37.2     38.0     32.5
   Finance and insurance........................ 33.6     29.6     26.7     29.8     30.7     32.4     34.1     28.3
   Real estate and rental and leasing........... 44.4     46.8     49.5     52.2     47.7     50.9     49.3     44.4
  Professional and business services............ 69.5     71.1     66.5     67.3     71.7     68.1     64.0     56.9
  Education and health services................. 39.5     35.6     34.6     34.2     35.7     35.8     35.1     34.8
   Educational services......................... 31.1     26.8     30.6     27.3     29.1     30.3     30.9     30.9
   Health care and social assistance............ 41.0     37.4     35.3     35.5     37.1     36.9     35.9     35.5
  Leisure and hospitality....................... 93.1     83.4     81.9     84.5     85.4     85.8     83.4     74.0
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation.......... 96.8     88.4     88.5     88.3     86.7     81.5     83.2     74.8
   Accommodation and food services.............  92.5     82.5     80.8     83.8     85.2     86.5     83.4     73.9
  Other services................................ 46.4     46.9     48.7     48.3     52.2     47.1     47.3     44.5

 Government..................................... 20.8     19.2     17.2     18.9     18.6     20.2     20.5     16.4
  Federal....................................... 18.2     21.6     19.2     18.6     18.7     26.0     30.9     12.1
  State and local............................... 21.2     18.9     16.9     19.0     18.5     19.3     19.0     17.0

                    REGION (2)

  Northeast..................................... 42.0     39.0     40.4     43.2     42.7     40.4     39.0     36.0
  South......................................... 49.6     48.8     47.3     50.2     51.4     51.6     49.0     42.1
  Midwest....................................... 50.1     45.5     42.1     44.8     45.6     45.0     45.4     40.7
  West.......................................... 50.2     47.7     45.8     46.9     50.6     50.2     47.8     44.6


  1 The annual hires rate is the number of hires during the entire year as a percent of annual average
employment.
  2 See footnote 7, table 1.
  NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment
Statistics employment estimates.


Table 13.  Annual total separations levels(1) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                            Levels (in thousands)

              Industry and region                  2001     2002     2003     2004     2005     2006     2007     2008

Total........................................... 65,611   60,410   57,849   59,671   62,087   62,626   62,104   59,343

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private.................................. 61,705   56,499   54,025   55,666   58,221   58,435   57,860   55,808
  Mining and Logging............................    279      259      270      262      253      256      311      334
  Construction..................................  5,422    5,183    5,102    5,136    5,484    5,220    4,971    5,242
  Manufacturing.................................  6,345    5,473    4,892    4,674    4,630    4,750    4,871    4,475
   Durable goods................................  3,724    3,306    2,993    2,853    2,883    2,766    2,880    2,695
   Nondurable goods.............................  2,622    2,170    1,902    1,821    1,745    1,985    1,988    1,780
  Trade, transportation, and utilities.......... 13,958   12,480   12,042   12,871   13,299   13,454   12,889   12,488
   Wholesale trade..............................  2,112    1,988    1,913    1,940    1,914    1,894    2,126    2,093
   Retail trade.................................  9,765    8,709    8,331    8,947    9,235    9,522    8,928    8,424
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...  2,082    1,782    1,800    1,983    2,149    2,034    1,835    1,970
  Information...................................  1,694    1,357    1,090    1,037    1,076    1,139      999      897
  Financial activities..........................  2,779    2,619    2,506    2,742    2,712    2,946    3,259    2,870
   Finance and insurance........................  1,878    1,663    1,528    1,701    1,736    1,866    2,181    1,856
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........    901      956      978    1,039      976    1,081    1,078    1,013
  Professional and business services............ 12,173   11,564   10,354   10,627   11,467   11,415   11,183   10,823
  Education and health services.................  5,551    5,317    5,408    5,400    5,767    5,907    5,911    6,055
   Educational services.........................    659      621      774      692      754      834      850      858
   Health care and social assistance............  4,891    4,696    4,636    4,711    5,012    5,070    5,060    5,199
  Leisure and hospitality....................... 11,190    9,789    9,739   10,278   10,709   10,856   10,938   10,158
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........  1,746    1,524    1,578    1,640    1,587    1,491    1,601    1,509
   Accommodation and food services.............   9,444    8,266    8,160    8,637    9,123    9,365    9,341    8,648
  Other services................................  2,319    2,457    2,629    2,639    2,825    2,493    2,529    2,467

 Government.....................................  3,905    3,912    3,823    4,007    3,868    4,191    4,242    3,534
  Federal.......................................    513      560      577      544      502      721      825      322
  State and local...............................  3,391    3,352    3,246    3,460    3,363    3,470    3,420    3,210

                    REGION (2)

  Northeast..................................... 10,856   10,008    9,701   10,277   10,197    9,856    9,530    9,742
  South......................................... 22,760   22,364   22,109   22,390   23,517   24,340   23,852   21,891
  Midwest....................................... 17,057   14,198   13,094   13,521   14,075   13,958   13,862   13,024
  West.......................................... 14,938   13,840   12,943   13,485   14,300   14,473   14,857   14,686


  1 The annual total separations level is the total number of total separations during the entire year.
  2 See footnote 7, table 1.
  NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment
Statistics employment estimates.



Table 14.  Annual total separations rates(1) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                                  Rates

              Industry and region                2001     2002     2003     2004     2005     2006     2007     2008

Total........................................... 49.8     46.3     44.5     45.4     46.4     46.0     45.1     43.3

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private.................................. 55.7     51.9     49.8     50.7     52.0     51.2     50.1     48.7
  Mining and Logging............................ 46.0     44.4     47.2     44.3     40.3     37.4     43.0     43.2
  Construction.................................. 79.4     77.2     75.8     73.6     74.8     67.9     65.2     72.7
  Manufacturing................................. 38.6     35.9     33.7     32.7     32.5     33.6     35.1     33.3
   Durable goods................................ 36.0     34.9     33.4     32.0     32.2     30.8     32.7     31.8
   Nondurable goods............................. 42.9     37.6     34.3     33.8     33.1     38.4     39.2     35.9
  Trade, transportation, and utilities.......... 53.7     48.9     47.6     50.4     51.2     51.2     48.4     47.3
   Wholesale trade.............................. 36.6     35.2     34.1     34.3     33.2     32.1     35.3     35.1
   Retail trade................................. 64.1     58.0     55.8     59.4     60.4     62.0     57.5     54.9
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities... 41.9     37.0     37.8     41.2     43.7     40.5     36.0     38.9
  Information................................... 46.7     40.0     34.2     33.3     35.2     37.5     32.9     29.9
  Financial activities.......................... 35.6     33.4     31.4     34.1     33.3     35.4     39.3     35.2
   Finance and insurance........................ 32.6     28.6     25.8     28.6     28.8     30.3     35.6     30.9
   Real estate and rental and leasing........... 44.2     47.0     47.5     49.8     45.7     49.8     49.7     47.6
  Professional and business services............ 73.9     72.4     64.8     64.8     67.6     65.0     62.3     60.9
  Education and health services................. 35.5     32.8     32.6     31.9     33.2     33.1     32.3     32.1
   Educational services......................... 26.2     23.5     28.7     25.1     26.6     28.7     28.9     28.3
   Health care and social assistance............ 37.2     34.6     33.4     33.2     34.5     34.0     32.9     32.9
  Leisure and hospitality....................... 93.0     81.7     80.0     82.3     83.6     82.8     81.5     75.5
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation.......... 95.7     85.5     87.0     88.6     83.9     77.3     81.3     76.6
   Accommodation and food services.............  92.5     81.0     78.8     81.2     83.5     83.8     81.5     75.3
  Other services................................ 44.1     45.7     48.7     48.8     52.4     45.8     46.0     44.6

 Government..................................... 18.5     18.2     17.7     18.5     17.7     19.1     19.1     15.7
  Federal....................................... 18.6     20.2     20.9     19.9     18.4     26.4     30.2     11.6
  State and local............................... 18.5     17.9     17.2     18.3     17.6     18.0     17.6     16.3

                    REGION (2)

  Northeast..................................... 43.0     40.1     39.2     41.4     40.8     38.9     37.1     38.0
  South......................................... 49.0     48.6     47.9     47.7     49.1     49.6     48.0     44.2
  Midwest....................................... 54.3     45.9     42.7     44.0     45.5     44.8     44.2     41.8
  West.......................................... 52.1     48.7     45.5     46.5     47.9     47.4     48.1     47.8


  1 The annual total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire year as a percent of annual average
employment.
  2 See footnote 7, table 1.
  NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment
Statistics employment estimates.


Table 15.  Annual quits levels(1) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                            Levels (in thousands)

              Industry and region                  2001     2002     2003     2004     2005     2006     2007     2008

Total........................................... 36,404   32,377   29,354   31,859   34,958   36,323   35,103   31,004

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private.................................. 34,352   30,474   27,594   30,020   33,110   34,239   33,095   29,344
  Mining and Logging............................    133      111       98      110      120      140      183      187
  Construction..................................  1,961    1,850    1,777    1,961    2,359    2,243    1,903    1,664
  Manufacturing.................................  2,518    2,290    2,106    2,327    2,361    2,506    2,512    1,929
   Durable goods................................  1,369    1,324    1,273    1,399    1,423    1,452    1,423    1,072
   Nondurable goods.............................  1,149      968      828      927      935    1,054    1,088      855
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........  8,553    7,046    6,387    7,108    7,862    8,166    7,652    6,824
   Wholesale trade..............................  1,141    1,014      929      963    1,033    1,054    1,170      999
   Retail trade.................................  6,232    5,175    4,699    5,324    5,847    6,002    5,553    4,861
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...  1,181      856      762      821      985    1,111      927      965
  Information...................................  1,013      720      592      569      700      795      581      465
  Financial activities..........................  1,619    1,422    1,404    1,613    1,566    1,766    1,896    1,528
   Finance and insurance........................  1,073      905      869    1,009    1,046    1,174    1,400    1,047
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........    543      516      535      604      520      592      500      481
  Professional and business services............  6,332    5,965    4,667    5,051    5,591    5,987    5,797    5,145
  Education and health services.................  3,605    3,286    3,243    3,362    3,697    3,794    3,732    3,531
   Educational services.........................    324      326      365      356      401      445      414      386
   Health care and social assistance............  3,279    2,961    2,880    3,004    3,297    3,353    3,315    3,148
  Leisure and hospitality.......................  7,184    6,332    5,920    6,289    7,111    7,482    7,443    6,685
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........    715      682      564      543      658      618      632      570
   Accommodation and food services.............   6,471    5,646    5,355    5,746    6,456    6,866    6,810    6,115
  Other services................................  1,435    1,459    1,403    1,623    1,741    1,358    1,400    1,387

 Government.....................................  2,055    1,903    1,758    1,840    1,845    2,083    2,008    1,661
  Federal.......................................    244      268      255      206      193      328      287      105
  State and local...............................  1,809    1,635    1,501    1,634    1,653    1,756    1,722    1,555

                    REGION (2)

  Northeast.....................................  5,654    4,907    4,272    4,670    5,225    5,314    4,708    4,616
  South......................................... 13,550   12,437   11,904   12,845   14,049   15,115   14,478   12,393
  Midwest.......................................  9,499    7,592    6,616    7,061    7,528    7,754    7,552    6,800
  West..........................................  7,703    7,444    6,561    7,282    8,160    8,142    8,366    7,191


  1 The annual quits level is the total number of quits during the entire year.
  2 See footnote 7, table 1.
  NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment
Statistics employment estimates.



Table 16.  Annual quits rates(1) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                                  Rates

              Industry and region                2001     2002     2003     2004     2005     2006     2007     2008

Total........................................... 27.6     24.8     22.6     24.2     26.1     26.7     25.5     22.6

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private.................................. 31.0     28.0     25.5     27.3     29.6     30.0     28.7     25.6
  Mining and Logging............................ 21.9     19.0     17.1     18.6     19.1     20.5     25.3     24.2
  Construction.................................. 28.7     27.5     26.4     28.1     32.2     29.2     24.9     23.1
  Manufacturing................................. 15.3     15.0     14.5     16.3     16.6     17.7     18.1     14.4
   Durable goods................................ 13.2     14.0     14.2     15.7     15.9     16.2     16.2     12.6
   Nondurable goods............................. 18.8     16.8     14.9     17.2     17.7     20.4     21.5     17.3
  Trade, transportation, and utilities.......... 32.9     27.6     25.3     27.8     30.3     31.1     28.7     25.9
   Wholesale trade.............................. 19.8     17.9     16.6     17.0     17.9     17.8     19.5     16.8
   Retail trade................................. 40.9     34.4     31.5     35.4     38.3     39.1     35.8     31.7
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities... 23.8     17.8     16.0     17.1     20.0     22.1     18.2     19.1
  Information................................... 27.9     21.2     18.6     18.2     22.9     26.2     19.2     15.5
  Financial activities.......................... 20.7     18.1     17.6     20.1     19.2     21.2     22.8     18.8
   Finance and insurance........................ 18.6     15.6     14.7     17.0     17.4     19.1     22.8     17.4
   Real estate and rental and leasing........... 26.6     25.4     26.0     29.0     24.4     27.3     23.1     22.6
  Professional and business services............ 38.4     37.3     29.2     30.8     33.0     34.1     32.3     28.9
  Education and health services................. 23.0     20.3     19.6     19.8     21.3     21.3     20.4     18.7
   Educational services......................... 12.9     12.3     13.5     12.9     14.1     15.3     14.1     12.7
   Health care and social assistance............ 25.0     21.8     20.7     21.2     22.7     22.5     21.6     19.9
  Leisure and hospitality....................... 59.7     52.8     48.6     50.3     55.5     57.1     55.4     49.7
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation.......... 39.2     38.3     31.1     29.4     34.8     32.1     32.1     28.9
   Accommodation and food services.............  63.4     55.3     51.7     54.0     59.1     61.4     59.4     53.2
  Other services................................ 27.3     27.2     26.0     30.0     32.3     25.0     25.5     25.1

 Government.....................................  9.7      8.8      8.1      8.5      8.5      9.5      9.0      7.4
  Federal.......................................  8.8      9.7      9.2      7.5      7.1     12.0     10.5      3.8
  State and local...............................  9.9      8.7      8.0      8.6      8.7      9.1      8.8      7.9

                    REGION (2)

  Northeast..................................... 22.4     19.7     17.3     18.8     20.9     21.0     18.3     18.0
  South......................................... 29.1     27.0     25.8     27.4     29.3     30.8     29.1     25.0
  Midwest....................................... 30.2     24.6     21.6     23.0     24.3     24.9     24.1     21.8
  West.......................................... 26.9     26.2     23.1     25.1     27.4     26.7     27.1     23.4


  1 The annual quits rate is the number of quits during the entire year as a percent of annual average
employment.
  2 See footnote 7, table 1.
  NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment
Statistics employment estimates.


Table 17.  Annual layoffs and discharges levels(1) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                            Levels (in thousands)

              Industry and region                  2001     2002     2003     2004     2005     2006     2007     2008

Total........................................... 24,351   23,325   23,959   23,387   22,766   21,433   22,539   24,370

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private.................................. 23,206   22,123   22,665   22,012   21,468   20,069   21,176   23,146
  Mining and Logging............................    106      106      107       82       78       74       91      117
  Construction..................................  3,193    3,118    3,143    2,944    2,925    2,623    2,848    3,347
  Manufacturing.................................  3,309    2,689    2,328    1,997    1,842    1,814    1,963    2,217
   Durable goods................................  1,993    1,653    1,414    1,215    1,150    1,019    1,205    1,413
   Nondurable goods.............................  1,319    1,038      914      781      691      796      757      801
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........  4,557    4,537    4,783    4,807    4,639    4,181    4,284    4,691
   Wholesale trade..............................    854      810      835      789      762      646      821      973
   Retail trade.................................  2,986    2,992    3,142    3,072    2,919    2,853    2,753    2,907
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    717      735      806      947      958      682      707      811
  Information...................................    572      537      426      390      273      257      315      365
  Financial activities..........................    838      951      772      787      861      869    1,107    1,100
   Finance and insurance........................    539      577      422      428      473      466      605      640
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........    301      375      348      359      389      405      500      461
  Professional and business services............  4,850    4,637    4,923    4,908    5,080    4,581    4,744    5,110
  Education and health services.................  1,538    1,626    1,732    1,656    1,679    1,685    1,737    2,069
   Educational services.........................    264      246      359      287      299      340      387      426
   Health care and social assistance............  1,274    1,380    1,372    1,371    1,381    1,348    1,350    1,644
  Leisure and hospitality.......................  3,552    3,090    3,407    3,582    3,231    3,050    3,174    3,152
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........    964      806      966    1,058      904      833      910      898
   Accommodation and food services.............   2,590    2,285    2,442    2,524    2,328    2,217    2,262    2,256
  Other services................................    686      839    1,043      860      857      937      914      977

 Government.....................................  1,146    1,205    1,294    1,374    1,297    1,363    1,364    1,227
  Federal.......................................    113      142      160      159      161      191      225      109
  State and local...............................  1,032    1,057    1,134    1,215    1,139    1,172    1,137    1,114

                    REGION (2)

  Northeast.....................................  4,329    4,201    4,531    4,687    4,198    3,671    3,996    4,326
  South.........................................  7,541    8,297    8,547    7,944    7,968    7,460    7,909    8,162
  Midwest.......................................  6,371    5,507    5,453    5,500    5,545    5,073    5,276    5,302
  West..........................................  6,108    5,317    5,429    5,255    5,058    5,229    5,357    6,582


  1 The annual layoffs and discharges level is the total number of layoffs and discharges during the entire year.
  2 See footnote 7, table 1.
  NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment
Statistics employment estimates.



Table 18.  Annual layoffs and discharges rates(1) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                                  Rates

              Industry and region                2001     2002     2003     2004     2005     2006     2007     2008

Total........................................... 18.5     17.9     18.4     17.8     17.0     15.7     16.4     17.8

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private.................................. 21.0     20.3     20.9     20.0     19.2     17.6     18.4     20.2
  Mining and Logging............................ 17.5     18.2     18.7     13.9     12.4     10.8     12.6     15.1
  Construction.................................. 46.8     46.4     46.7     42.2     39.9     34.1     37.3     46.4
  Manufacturing................................. 20.1     17.6     16.0     14.0     12.9     12.8     14.1     16.5
   Durable goods................................ 19.3     17.4     15.8     13.6     12.8     11.3     13.7     16.7
   Nondurable goods............................. 21.6     18.0     16.5     14.5     13.1     15.4     14.9     16.2
  Trade, transportation, and utilities.......... 17.5     17.8     18.9     18.8     17.9     15.9     16.1     17.8
   Wholesale trade.............................. 14.8     14.3     14.9     13.9     13.2     10.9     13.6     16.3
   Retail trade................................. 19.6     19.9     21.1     20.4     19.1     18.6     17.7     18.9
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities... 14.4     15.2     16.9     19.7     19.5     13.6     13.9     16.0
  Information................................... 15.8     15.8     13.4     12.5      8.9      8.5     10.4     12.2
  Financial activities.......................... 10.7     12.1      9.7      9.8     10.6     10.4     13.3     13.5
   Finance and insurance........................  9.3      9.9      7.1      7.2      7.9      7.6      9.9     10.6
   Real estate and rental and leasing........... 14.8     18.4     16.9     17.2     18.2     18.6     23.1     21.6
  Professional and business services............ 29.4     29.0     30.8     29.9     30.0     26.1     26.4     28.7
  Education and health services.................  9.8     10.0     10.4      9.8      9.7      9.5      9.5     11.0
   Educational services......................... 10.5      9.3     13.3     10.4     10.5     11.7     13.2     14.0
   Health care and social assistance............  9.7     10.2      9.9      9.7      9.5      9.0      8.8     10.4
  Leisure and hospitality....................... 29.5     25.8     28.0     28.7     25.2     23.3     23.6     23.4
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation.......... 52.9     45.2     53.3     57.2     47.8     43.2     46.2     45.6
   Accommodation and food services.............  25.4     22.4     23.6     23.7     21.3     19.8     19.7     19.6
  Other services................................ 13.0     15.6     19.3     15.9     15.9     17.2     16.6     17.7

 Government.....................................  5.4      5.6      6.0      6.4      5.9      6.2      6.1      5.5
  Federal.......................................  4.1      5.1      5.8      5.8      5.9      7.0      8.2      3.9
  State and local...............................  5.6      5.6      6.0      6.4      6.0      6.1      5.8      5.6

                    REGION (2)

  Northeast..................................... 17.1     16.8     18.3     18.9     16.8     14.5     15.6     16.9
  South......................................... 16.2     18.0     18.5     16.9     16.6     15.2     15.9     16.5
  Midwest....................................... 20.3     17.8     17.8     17.9     17.9     16.3     16.8     17.0
  West.......................................... 21.3     18.7     19.1     18.1     17.0     17.1     17.3     21.4


  1 The annual layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire year as a percent of annual average
employment.
  2 See footnote 7, table 1.
  NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment
Statistics employment estimates.


Table 19.  Annual other separations levels(1) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                            Levels (in thousands)

              Industry and region                  2001     2002     2003     2004     2005     2006     2007     2008

Total...........................................  4,852    4,708    4,536    4,425    4,364    4,870    4,463    3,969

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  4,145    3,901    3,766    3,636    3,643    4,123    3,591    3,319
  Mining and Logging............................     40       44       64       67       56       39       35       28
  Construction..................................    269      215      181      231      198      355      220      233
  Manufacturing.................................    515      494      462      349      426      429      393      332
   Durable goods................................    362      328      305      236      310      296      252      209
   Nondurable goods.............................    153      165      159      113      119      135      142      124
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    850      898      870      951      796    1,105      956      974
   Wholesale trade..............................    116      165      147      188      116      195      134      120
   Retail trade.................................    548      544      492      550      468      668      623      658
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    185      191      231      214      211      243      201      196
  Information...................................    107      102       67       76      102       84      100       68
  Financial activities..........................    318      246      328      341      285      312      257      245
   Finance and insurance........................    263      179      233      267      219      228      174      172
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     56       67       96       76       67       83       80       73
  Professional and business services............    990      965      767      668      797      851      644      568
  Education and health services.................    407      407      435      385      390      423      444      454
   Educational services.........................     70       50       50       51       53       53       50       48
   Health care and social assistance............    336      355      384      336      338      371      395      406
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    452      368      411      407      367      326      324      322
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     70       37       46       38       27       44       59       42
   Accommodation and food services.............     382      333      364      368      340      280      267      278
  Other services................................    198      159      182      158      227      200      217      102

 Government.....................................    707      809      771      791      719      745      872      647
  Federal.......................................    158      149      163      181      147      204      312      110
  State and local...............................    546      661      610      609      572      542      559      538

                    REGION (2)

  Northeast.....................................    869      896      891      916      774      870      821      799
  South.........................................  1,685    1,633    1,665    1,605    1,502    1,768    1,475    1,342
  Midwest.......................................  1,186    1,100    1,024      955    1,001    1,129    1,034      919
  West..........................................  1,113    1,079      953      947    1,087    1,103    1,132      909


  1 The annual other separations level is the total number of other separations during the entire year.
  2 See footnote 7, table 1.
  NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment
Statistics employment estimates.



Table 20.  Annual other separations rates(1) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                                  Rates

              Industry and region                2001     2002     2003     2004     2005     2006     2007     2008

Total...........................................  3.7      3.6      3.5      3.4      3.3      3.6      3.2      2.9

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  3.7      3.6      3.5      3.3      3.3      3.6      3.1      2.9
  Mining and Logging............................  6.6      7.5     11.2     11.3      8.9      5.7      4.8      3.6
  Construction..................................  3.9      3.2      2.7      3.3      2.7      4.6      2.9      3.2
  Manufacturing.................................  3.1      3.2      3.2      2.4      3.0      3.0      2.8      2.5
   Durable goods................................  3.5      3.5      3.4      2.6      3.5      3.3      2.9      2.5
   Nondurable goods.............................  2.5      2.9      2.9      2.1      2.3      2.6      2.8      2.5
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........  3.3      3.5      3.4      3.7      3.1      4.2      3.6      3.7
   Wholesale trade..............................  2.0      2.9      2.6      3.3      2.0      3.3      2.2      2.0
   Retail trade.................................  3.6      3.6      3.3      3.7      3.1      4.4      4.0      4.3
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...  3.7      4.0      4.9      4.4      4.3      4.8      3.9      3.9
  Information...................................  2.9      3.0      2.1      2.4      3.3      2.8      3.3      2.3
  Financial activities..........................  4.1      3.1      4.1      4.2      3.5      3.7      3.1      3.0
   Finance and insurance........................  4.6      3.1      3.9      4.5      3.6      3.7      2.8      2.9
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........  2.7      3.3      4.7      3.6      3.1      3.8      3.7      3.4
  Professional and business services............  6.0      6.0      4.8      4.1      4.7      4.8      3.6      3.2
  Education and health services.................  2.6      2.5      2.6      2.3      2.2      2.4      2.4      2.4
   Educational services.........................  2.8      1.9      1.9      1.8      1.9      1.8      1.7      1.6
   Health care and social assistance............  2.6      2.6      2.8      2.4      2.3      2.5      2.6      2.6
  Leisure and hospitality.......................  3.8      3.1      3.4      3.3      2.9      2.5      2.4      2.4
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........  3.8      2.1      2.5      2.1      1.4      2.3      3.0      2.1
   Accommodation and food services.............   3.7      3.3      3.5      3.5      3.1      2.5      2.3      2.4
  Other services................................  3.8      3.0      3.4      2.9      4.2      3.7      3.9      1.8

 Government.....................................  3.3      3.8      3.6      3.7      3.3      3.4      3.9      2.9
  Federal.......................................  5.7      5.4      5.9      6.6      5.4      7.5     11.4      4.0
  State and local...............................  3.0      3.5      3.2      3.2      3.0      2.8      2.9      2.7

                    REGION (2)

  Northeast.....................................  3.4      3.6      3.6      3.7      3.1      3.4      3.2      3.1
  South.........................................  3.6      3.5      3.6      3.4      3.1      3.6      3.0      2.7
  Midwest.......................................  3.8      3.6      3.3      3.1      3.2      3.6      3.3      2.9
  West..........................................  3.9      3.8      3.3      3.3      3.6      3.6      3.7      3.0


  1 The annual other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire year as a percent of annual average
employment.
  2 See footnote 7, table 1.
  NOTE: Data have been revised to incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment
Statistics employment estimates.

Last Modified Date: March 10, 2009
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