Economic News Release

Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey News Release

                                   
For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Tuesday, July 10, 2012        USDL-12-1379

Technical information:   (202) 691-5870  •  JoltsInfo@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/jlt
Media contact:           (202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov


              Job Openings and Labor Turnover – May 2012

There were 3.6 million job openings on the last business day of May,
little changed from 3.4 million in April, the U.S. Bureau of Labor
Statistics reported today. The hires rate (3.3 percent) and
separations rate (3.3 percent) were essentially unchanged in May. This
release includes estimates of the number and rate of job openings,
hires, and separations for the nonfarm sector by industry and by
geographic region.

Job Openings

The number of job openings in May was 3.6 million, little changed from
April. (See table 1.) Job openings increased for manufacturing,
government, and state and local government. The number of openings
also increased for the Midwest region. The level of total nonfarm job
openings in May was up from 2.4 million at the end of the recession in
June 2009. (Recession dates are determined by the National Bureau of
Economic Research.)

The number of job openings in May (not seasonally adjusted) increased
over the year for total nonfarm, total private, and government. Job
openings increased over the year for several industries and the
Northeast and South regions. (See table 5.)

Table A.  Job openings, hires, and total separations by industry, seasonally
adjusted
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   |    Job openings    |       Hires        | Total separations
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
     Industry      | May  | Apr. | May  | May  | Apr. | May  | May  | Apr. | May
                   | 2011 | 2012 | 2012p| 2011 | 2012 | 2012p| 2011 | 2012 | 2012p
-------------------|--------------------------------------------------------------
                   |                     Levels (in thousands)
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
Total..............|3,077 |3,447 |3,642 |4,182 |4,213 |4,361 |4,177 |4,142 |4,349
                   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
 Total private(1)..|2,774 |3,093 |3,247 |3,923 |3,916 |4,063 |3,867 |3,838 |4,020
  Construction.....|  100 |   69 |   77 |  366 |  276 |  284 |  369 |  290 |  327
  Manufacturing....|  227 |  259 |  310 |  269 |  260 |  258 |  258 |  239 |  241
  Trade, trans-    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   portation, and  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   utilities(2)....|  513 |  562 |  594 |  833 |  826 |  857 |  793 |  817 |  790
   Retail trade....|  303 |  338 |  348 |  564 |  556 |  552 |  548 |  560 |  539
  Professional     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   and business    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   services........|  626 |  660 |  688 |  911 |  888 |  925 |  894 |  855 |  961
  Education and    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   health ser-     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   vices(3)........|  575 |  665 |  699 |  468 |  495 |  536 |  438 |  470 |  479
   Health care     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    and social     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    assistance.....|  527 |  610 |  640 |  412 |  427 |  462 |  372 |  408 |  416
  Leisure and      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   hospitality.....|  301 |  419 |  429 |  643 |  717 |  727 |  688 |  710 |  732
   Arts, enter-    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    tainment and   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    recreation.....|   33 |   61 |   56 |  120 |  123 |  113 |  151 |  133 |  139
   Accommodation   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    and food       |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    services.......|  268 |  358 |  373 |  523 |  594 |  614 |  538 |  577 |  594
 Government(4).....|  303 |  354 |  395 |  258 |  297 |  298 |  310 |  304 |  329
  State and local  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   government......|  257 |  282 |  333 |  228 |  263 |  261 |  281 |  271 |  297
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
                   |                       Rates (percent)
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
Total..............|  2.3 |  2.5 |  2.7 |  3.2 |  3.2 |  3.3 |  3.2 |  3.1 |  3.3
                   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
 Total private(1)..|  2.5 |  2.7 |  2.8 |  3.6 |  3.5 |  3.7 |  3.5 |  3.5 |  3.6
  Construction.....|  1.8 |  1.2 |  1.4 |  6.7 |  5.0 |  5.2 |  6.7 |  5.2 |  5.9
  Manufacturing....|  1.9 |  2.1 |  2.5 |  2.3 |  2.2 |  2.2 |  2.2 |  2.0 |  2.0
  Trade, trans-    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   portation, and  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   utilities(2)....|  2.0 |  2.2 |  2.3 |  3.3 |  3.3 |  3.4 |  3.2 |  3.2 |  3.1
   Retail trade....|  2.0 |  2.2 |  2.3 |  3.9 |  3.8 |  3.7 |  3.8 |  3.8 |  3.7
  Professional     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   and business    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   services........|  3.5 |  3.6 |  3.7 |  5.3 |  5.0 |  5.2 |  5.2 |  4.8 |  5.4
  Education and    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   health ser-     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   vices(3)........|. 2.8 |  3.2 |  3.3 |  2.4 |  2.4 |  2.6 |  2.2 |  2.3 |  2.4
   Health care     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    and social     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    assistance.....|. 3.1 |  3.5 |  3.6 |  2.5 |  2.5 |  2.7 |  2.2 |  2.4 |  2.5
  Leisure and      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   hospitality.....|  2.2 |  3.0 |  3.1 |  4.8 |  5.3 |  5.4 |  5.2 |  5.2 |  5.4
   Arts, enter-    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    tainment and   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    recreation.....|  1.7 |  3.1 |  2.8 |  6.3 |  6.4 |  5.9 |  7.9 |  6.9 |  7.3
   Accommodation   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    and food       |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
    services.......|  2.3 |  3.0 |  3.1 |  4.6 |  5.1 |  5.3 |  4.7 |  4.9 |  5.1
 Government(4).....|  1.4 |  1.6 |  1.8 |  1.2 |  1.3 |  1.4 |  1.4 |  1.4 |  1.5
  State and local  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
   government......|  1.3 |  1.5 |  1.7 |  1.2 |  1.4 |  1.4 |  1.5 |  1.4 |  1.5
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  1 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and
other services, not shown separately.
  2 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not
shown separately.
  3 Includes educational services, not shown separately.
  4 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  p = Preliminary

Hires

In May, the hires rate was essentially unchanged at 3.3 percent for
total nonfarm. The hires rate was little changed in all industries and
regions. (See table 2.) The number of hires in May was 4.4 million, up
from 3.7 million at the end of the recession in June 2009.

Over the 12 months ending in May, the hires rate (not seasonally
adjusted) was little changed for total nonfarm and total private but
increased for government. The hires rate declined over the year in
construction but rose in transportation, warehousing, and utilities
and federal government. (See table 6.)

Separations

The total separations figure includes quits, layoffs and discharges,
and other separations. Total separations is also referred to as
turnover. Quits are generally voluntary separations initiated by the
employee. Therefore, the quits rate can serve as a measure of workers’
willingness or ability to leave jobs. Layoffs and discharges are
involuntary separations initiated by the employer. Other separations
include separations due to retirement, death, and disability, as well
as transfers to other locations of the same firm.

The seasonally adjusted total separations rate was essentially
unchanged for total nonfarm, total private, and government in May.
(See table 3.) Over the year, the total separations rate (not
seasonally adjusted) was essentially unchanged for total nonfarm,
total private, and government. (See table 7.)

In May, the quits rate displayed little or no change for total
nonfarm, total private, and government. (See table 4.) The number of
quits was 2.1 million in May, up from 1.8 million at the end of the
recession in June 2009.

The number of quits (not seasonally adjusted) in May was essentially
unchanged over the year for total nonfarm, total private, and
government. The number of quits increased over the year in several
industries but decreased in retail trade. (See table 8.)

The layoffs and discharges component of total separations is
seasonally adjusted at the total nonfarm, total private, and
government levels and for the four regions. The layoffs and discharges
rate was essentially unchanged for total nonfarm and total private but
increased for government. The layoffs and discharges rate showed
little change in all four regions. (See table B.) The number of
layoffs and discharges for total nonfarm was 1.9 million in May 2012,
down from 2.1 million at the end of the recession in June 2009.

Table B.  Layoffs and discharges, seasonally adjusted
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       | Levels (in thousands) |    Rates (percent)
                       |------------------------------------------------
Industry and region(1) |  May  |  Apr. |  May  |  May  |  Apr. |  May
                       |  2011 |  2012 |  2012p|  2011 |  2012 |  2012p
-----------------------|------------------------------------------------
Total..................| 1,843 | 1,743 | 1,885 |  1.4  |  1.3  |  1.4
 Total private.........| 1,732 | 1,644 | 1,749 |  1.6  |  1.5  |  1.6
 Government............|   111 |    98 |   136 |  0.5  |  0.4  |  0.6
                       |       |       |       |       |       |
                       |       |       |       |       |       |
 Northeast.............|   377 |   334 |   354 |  1.5  |  1.3  |  1.4
 South.................|   612 |   614 |   662 |  1.3  |  1.3  |  1.4
 Midwest...............|   399 |   406 |   459 |  1.3  |  1.3  |  1.5
 West..................|   455 |   388 |   410 |  1.6  |  1.3  |  1.4
------------------------------------------------------------------------
  1 For region definitions see footnote 8, table 1.
  p = Preliminary

The layoffs and discharges level (not seasonally adjusted) for total
nonfarm, total private, and government was little changed over the 12
months ending in May 2012. Over the year, the number of layoffs and
discharges rose for mining and logging and was essentially unchanged
in all four regions. (See table 9.)

The other separations component of total separations is seasonally
adjusted at the total nonfarm, total private, and government levels.
In May 2012, there were 344,000 other separations for total nonfarm,
an increase from the previous month. Over the 12 months ending in May
2012, the number of other separations was little changed. (See tables
C and 10.)

Table C.  Other separations, seasonally adjusted
--------------------------------------------------------------------
                   | Levels (in thousands) |    Rates (percent)
                   |------------------------------------------------
     Industry      |  May  |  Apr. |  May  |  May  |  Apr. |  May
                   |  2011 |  2012 |  2012p|  2011 |  2012 |  2012p
-------------------|------------------------------------------------
Total..............|   338 |   285 |   344 |  0.3  |  0.2  |  0.3
 Total private.....|   261 |   224 |   286 |  0.2  |  0.2  |  0.3
 Government........|    77 |    61 |    58 |  0.3  |  0.3  |  0.3
--------------------------------------------------------------------
  p = Preliminary

Net Change in Employment

Large numbers of hires and separations occur every month throughout
the business cycle. Net employment change results from the
relationship between hires and separations. When the number of hires
exceeds the number of separations, employment rises, even if the hires
level is steady or declining. Conversely, when the number of hires is
less than the number of separations, employment declines, even if the
hires level is steady or rising. Over the 12 months ending in May
2012, hires totaled 51.1 million and separations totaled 49.3 million,
yielding a net employment gain of 1.8 million. These figures include
workers who may have been hired and separated more than once during
the year.

____________
The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey results for June 2012 are
scheduled to be released on Tuesday, August 7, 2012 at 10:00 a.m.
(EDT).

  ___________________________________________________________________  
  |  Upcoming Changes to the Job Openings and Labor Turnover News   |
  |                             Release                             |
  |                                                                 |
  |  Effective with the release of June data on Tuesday, August     |
  |  7, 2012, current tables B and C will be moved to the           |
  |  numbered tables section and will become tables 5 and 6,        |
  |  respectively. Current tables 5 through 10 will be renumbered   |
  |  tables 7 through 12.                                           |
  |_________________________________________________________________|  



Technical Note


  The data for the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS)
are collected and compiled monthly from a sample of business
establishments by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

Collection

  In a monthly survey of business establishments, data are
collected for total employment, job openings, hires, quits, layoffs
and discharges, and other separations.  Data collection methods
include computer-assisted telephone interviewing, touchtone data
entry, web, fax, e-mail, and mail.

Coverage

  The JOLTS program covers all private nonfarm establishments such
as factories, offices, and stores, as well as federal, state, and
local government entities in the 50 states and the District of
Columbia.

Concepts

  Industry classification.  The industry classifications in this
release are in accordance with the 2012 version of the North
American Industry Classification System (NAICS).  In order to
ensure the highest possible quality of data, State Workforce
Agencies verify with employers and update, if necessary, the
industry code, location, and ownership classification of all
establishments on a 3-year cycle.  Changes in establishment
characteristics resulting from the verification process are always
introduced into the JOLTS sampling frame with the data reported for
the first month of the year.

  Employment.  Employment includes persons on the payroll who
worked or received pay for the pay period that includes the 12th
day of the reference month.  Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-
term, seasonal, salaried, and hourly employees are included, as are
employees on paid vacations or other paid leave.  Proprietors or
partners of unincorporated businesses, unpaid family workers, or
persons on leave without pay or on strike for the entire pay
period, are not counted as employed.  Employees of temporary help
agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contractors, and
consultants are counted by their employer of record, not by the
establishment where they are working.

  Job openings.  Establishments submit job openings information for
the last business day of the reference month.  A job opening
requires that: 1) a specific position exists and there is work
available for that position, 2) work could start within 30 days
regardless of whether a suitable candidate is found, and 3) the
employer is actively recruiting from outside the establishment to
fill the position.  Included are full-time, part-time, permanent,
short-term, and seasonal openings.  Active recruiting means that
the establishment is taking steps to fill a position by advertising
in newspapers or on the Internet, posting help-wanted signs,
accepting applications, or using other similar methods.

  Jobs to be filled only by internal transfers, promotions,
demotions, or recall from layoffs are excluded.  Also excluded are
jobs with start dates more than 30 days in the future, jobs for
which employees have been hired but have not yet reported for work,
and jobs to be filled by employees of temporary help agencies,
employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants.
The job openings rate is computed by dividing the number of job
openings by the sum of employment and job openings and multiplying
that quotient by 100.

  Hires.  Hires are the total number of additions to the payroll
occurring at any time during the reference month, including both
new and rehired employees, full-time and part-time, permanent,
short-term and seasonal employees, employees recalled to the
location after a layoff lasting more than 7 days, on-call or
intermittent employees who returned to work after having been
formally separated, and transfers from other locations.  The hires
count does not include transfers or promotions within the reporting
site, employees returning from strike, employees of temporary help
agencies or employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or
consultants.  The hires rate is computed by dividing the number of
hires by employment and multiplying that quotient by 100.

  Separations.  Separations are the total number of terminations of
employment occurring at any time during the reference month, and
are reported by type of separation--quits, layoffs and discharges,
and other separations.  Quits are voluntary separations by
employees (except for retirements, which are reported as other
separations).  Layoffs and discharges are involuntary separations
initiated by the employer and include layoffs with no intent to
rehire; formal layoffs lasting or expected to last more than 7
days; discharges resulting from mergers, downsizing, or closings;
firings or other discharges for cause; terminations of permanent or
short-term employees; and terminations of seasonal employees.
Other separations include retirements, transfers to other
locations, deaths, and separations due to disability.  Separations
do not include transfers within the same location or employees on
strike.

  The separations rate is computed by dividing the number of
separations by employment and multiplying that quotient by 100.
The quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations rates are
computed similarly, dividing the number by employment and
multiplying by 100.

  Annual estimates.  Annual estimates of rates and levels of hires,
quits, layoffs and discharges, other separations, and total
separations are released with the January news release each year.

   The JOLTS annual level estimates for hires, quits, layoffs and
discharges, other separations, and total separations are the sum of
the 12 published monthly levels.  The annual rate estimates are
computed by dividing the annual level by the Current Employment
Statistics (CES) annual average employment level, and multiplying
that quotient by 100.  This figure will be approximately equal to
the sum of the 12 monthly rates.  Note that both the JOLTS and CES
annual levels are rounded to the nearest thousand before the annual
estimates are calculated.  Consistent with BLS practices, annual
estimates are published only for not seasonally adjusted data.

  Annual estimates are not calculated for job openings because job
openings are a stock, or point-in-time, measurement for the last
business day of each month.  Only jobs still open on the last day
of the month are counted.  For the same reason job openings cannot
be cumulated throughout each month, annual figures for job openings
cannot be created by summing the monthly estimates.  Hires and
separations are flow measures and are cumulated over the month with
a total reported for the month.  Therefore, the annual figures can
be created by summing the monthly estimates.

Special collection procedures

  An implied measure of employment change can be derived from the
JOLTS data by subtracting separations from hires for a given
month.  Aggregating these monthly changes historically produced
employment levels that overstated employment change as measured by
CES at the total nonfarm level.  Research into this problem showed
that a significant amount of the divergence between the CES
employment levels and the derived JOLTS employment levels was
traceable to the Employment Services industry and to the State
Government Education industry.  In the former industry, businesses
have a difficult time reporting hires and separations of temporary
help workers.  In the latter industry, employers have difficulty
reporting hires and separations of student workers.  BLS now
devotes additional resources to the collection, editing, and review
of data for these industries.  BLS analysts more closely examine
reported data that do not provide a consistent picture over time,
and re-contact the respondents as necessary.  Analysts work with
the respondents to adjust their reporting practices as possible.
Units that cannot be reconciled but are clearly incorrect on a
consistent basis are not used, they are replaced by imputed values
using standard techniques.

Sample and estimation methodology

  The JOLTS survey design is a stratified random sample of 16,400
nonfarm business establishments, including factories, offices, and
stores, as well as federal, state, and local governments in the 50
states and the District of Columbia.  The establishments are drawn
from a universe of over 9.1 million establishments compiled as part
of the operations of the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages
(QCEW) program.  This program includes all employers subject to state
Unemployment Insurance (UI) laws and federal agencies subject to
Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE).

  The sampling frame is stratified by ownership, region, industry
sector, and establishment size class. The JOLTS sample is constructed
from individual panels of sample units drawn on an annual basis. The
full annual sample consists of one certainty panel composed of only
large units selected with virtual certainty based on their size and
24 non-certainty panels.  Each month a new non-certainty panel is
rolled into collection, and the oldest non-certainty panel is
rolled out.  This means that at any given time the JOLTS sample is
constructed from panels from three different annual sampling
frames.  The entire sample of old plus new panels is post-
stratified and re-weighted annually to represent the most recent
sampling frame.  Additionally, the out-of-business establishments
are removed from the old panels.  The annual sample is supplemented
with a quarterly sample of birth establishments (i.e., new
establishments) to better reflect the impact of younger
establishments in the JOLTS sample.

  JOLTS total employment estimates are benchmarked or ratio adjusted
monthly to the strike-adjusted employment estimates of the Current
Employment Statistics (CES) survey.  A ratio of CES to JOLTS employment
is used to adjust the levels for all other JOLTS data elements.

  JOLTS business birth/death model

  As with any sample survey, the JOLTS sample can only be as
current as its sampling frame.  The time lag from the birth of an
establishment until its appearance on the sampling frame is
approximately one year.  In addition, many of these new units may
fail within the first year.  Since these universe units cannot be
reflected on the sampling frame immediately, the JOLTS
sample cannot capture job openings, hires, and separations from
these units during their early existence.  BLS has developed a model
to estimate birth/death activity for current months by examining the
birth/death activity from previous years on the QCEW and projecting
forward using the ratio of over-the-year CES employment change. 
The birth/death model also uses historical JOLTS data to estimate the
amount of “churn” (hires and separations) that exists in establishments
of various sizes.  The model then combines the estimated churn with
the projected employment change to estimate the number of hires and
separations taking place in these units that cannot be measured
through sampling.

  The model-based estimate of total separations is distributed to
the three components–-quits; layoffs and discharges; and other
separations--in proportion to their contribution to the sample-
based estimate of total separations.  Additionally, job openings
for the modeled units are estimated by computing the ratio of
openings to hires in the collected data and applying that ratio to
the modeled hires.  The estimates of job openings, hires, and
separations produced by the birth/death model are then added to the
sample-based estimates produced from the survey to arrive at the
estimates for openings, hires, and separations.

Seasonal adjustment

  BLS seasonally adjusts several JOLTS series using the X-12 ARIMA
seasonal adjustment program.  Seasonal adjustment is the process of
estimating and removing periodic fluctuations caused by events such
as weather, holidays, and the beginning and ending of the school
year.  Seasonal adjustment makes it easier to observe fundamental
changes in the level of the series, particularly those associated
with general economic expansions and contractions.  A concurrent
seasonal adjustment methodology is used in which new seasonal
adjustment factors are calculated each month, using all relevant
data, up to and including the data for the current month.

  JOLTS uses moving averages as seasonal filters in seasonal
adjustment.  JOLTS seasonal adjustment includes both additive and
multiplicative seasonal adjustment models and REGARIMA (regression
with autocorrelated errors) modeling to improve the seasonal
adjustment factors at the beginning and end of the series and to
detect and adjust for outliers in the series.

Alignment procedure

  JOLTS hires minus separations should be comparable to the CES net
employment change.  However, definitional differences as well as
sampling and non-sampling errors between the two surveys
historically caused JOLTS to diverge from CES over time. To limit
the divergence, and improve the quality of the JOLTS hires and
separations series, BLS implemented the Monthly Alignment Method.
The Monthly Alignment Method applies the CES employment trends to
the seasonally adjusted JOLTS implied employment trend (hires minus
separations) forcing them to be approximately the same, while
preserving the seasonality of the JOLTS data.  First, the two
series are seasonally adjusted and the difference between the JOLTS
implied employment trend and the CES net employment change is
calculated. Next, the JOLTS implied employment trend is adjusted to
equal the CES net employment change through a proportional
adjustment. This proportional adjustment procedure adjusts the two
components (hires, separations) proportionally to their
contribution to the total churn (hires plus separations).  For
example, if hires are 40 percent of the churn for a given month,
they will receive 40 percent of the needed adjustment and
separations will receive 60 percent of the needed adjustment. The
adjusted hires and separations are converted back to not seasonally
adjusted data by reversing the application of the original seasonal
factors.  After the Monthly Alignment Method has been used to
adjust the level estimates, rate estimates are computed from the
adjusted levels.  The monthly alignment procedure assures a close
match of the JOLTS implied employment trend with the CES trend. The
CES series is considered a highly accurate measure of net
employment change owing to its very large sample size and annual
benchmarking to universe counts of employment from the QCEW
program.

Historical changes in JOLTS data

  The JOLTS data series on job openings, hires, and separations are
relatively new.  The full sample is divided into panels, with one
panel enrolled each month.  A full complement of panels for the
original data series based on the 1987 Standard Industrial
Classification (SIC) system was not completely enrolled in the
survey until January 2002.  The supplemental panels of
establishments needed to create NAICS estimates were not completely
enrolled until May 2003.  The data collected up until those points
are from less than a full sample.  Therefore, estimates from
earlier months should be used with caution, as fewer sampled units
were reporting data at that time.

  In March 2002, BLS procedures for collecting hires and
separations data were revised to address possible underreporting.
As a result, JOLTS hires and separations estimates for months prior
to March 2002 may not be comparable to estimates for March 2002 and
later.

  The federal government reorganization that involved transferring
approximately 180,000 employees to the new Department of Homeland
Security is not reflected in the JOLTS hires and separations
estimates for the federal government.  The Office of Personnel
Management's record shows these transfers were completed in March
2003.  The inclusion of transfers in the JOLTS definitions of hires
and separations is intended to cover ongoing movements of workers
between establishments.  The Department of Homeland Security
reorganization was a massive one-time event, and the inclusion of
these intergovernmental transfers would distort the federal government
time series.

Reliability of the estimates

  JOLTS estimates are subject to both sampling and nonsampling
error.  When a sample rather than the entire population is
surveyed, there is a chance that the sample estimates may differ
from the "true" population values they represent.  The exact
difference, or sampling error, varies depending on the particular
sample selected, and this variability is measured by the standard
error of the estimate.  BLS analysis is generally conducted at the
90-percent level of confidence.  That means that there is a 90-
percent chance, or level of confidence, that an estimate based on a
sample will differ by no more than 1.6 standard errors from the
"true" population value because of sampling error.  Estimates of
sampling errors are available upon request.

  The JOLTS estimates also are affected by nonsampling error.
Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, including the failure
to include a segment of the population, the inability to obtain
data from all units in the sample, the inability or unwillingness
of respondents to provide data on a timely basis, mistakes made by
respondents, errors made in the collection or processing of the
data, and errors from the employment benchmark data used in
estimation.

Other information

  Information in this release will be made available to sensory
impaired individuals upon request.  Voice phone: (202) 691-5200;
Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1.  Job openings levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              May    Dec.   Jan.   Feb.   Mar.   Apr.   May    May   Dec.  Jan.  Feb.  Mar.  Apr.  May
                                            2011   2011   2012   2012   2012   2012   2012p  2011  2011  2012  2012  2012  2012  2012p

Total.................................     3,077  3,540  3,477  3,565  3,741  3,447  3,642    2.3   2.6   2.6   2.6   2.7   2.5   2.7

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  2,774  3,188  3,119  3,163  3,362  3,093  3,247    2.5   2.8   2.7   2.8   2.9   2.7   2.8
  Construction...........................    100     78     86     73     92     69     77    1.8   1.4   1.5   1.3   1.6   1.2   1.4
  Manufacturing..........................    227    252    261    271    308    259    310    1.9   2.1   2.2   2.2   2.5   2.1   2.5
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    513    574    584    584    598    562    594    2.0   2.2   2.3   2.3   2.3   2.2   2.3
   Retail trade..........................    303    323    315    365    368    338    348    2.0   2.1   2.1   2.4   2.4   2.2   2.3
  Professional and business services.....    626    785    695    710    787    660    688    3.5   4.3   3.8   3.8   4.2   3.6   3.7
  Education and health services(6)........   575    605    630    655    670    665    699    2.8   2.9   3.0   3.1   3.2   3.2   3.3
   Health care and social assistance         527    552    576    598    605    610    640    3.1   3.2   3.3   3.4   3.5   3.5   3.6
  Leisure and hospitality................    301    441    432    408    431    419    429    2.2   3.2   3.1   2.9   3.1   3.0   3.1
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation...     33     44     72     48     57     61     56    1.7   2.3   3.6   2.5   2.8   3.1   2.8
   Accommodation and food services.......    268    397    360    360    375    358    373    2.3   3.3   3.0   3.0   3.1   3.0   3.1
 Government(7).........................      303    352    358    402    378    354    395    1.4   1.6   1.6   1.8   1.7   1.6   1.8
  State and local government.............    257    301    305    338    310    282    333    1.3   1.5   1.6   1.7   1.6   1.5   1.7


                 REGION(8)

  Northeast...........................       565    595    590    671    688    679    684    2.2   2.3   2.3   2.6   2.6   2.6   2.6
  South...............................     1,078  1,443  1,442  1,402  1,453  1,370  1,428    2.2   2.9   2.9   2.8   2.9   2.8   2.9
  Midwest.............................       706    763    738    791    853    666    758    2.3   2.5   2.4   2.6   2.7   2.2   2.4
  West................................       728    740    707    702    746    732    774    2.5   2.5   2.4   2.4   2.5   2.5   2.6


  1 Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
  2 The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus
job openings.
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series and because not all series are shown.
  4 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes educational services, not shown separately.
  7 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  8 The States (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts,
New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of
Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas,
Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio,
South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah,
Washington, and Wyoming.
  p = Preliminary


Table 2.  Hires levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              May    Dec.   Jan.   Feb.   Mar.   Apr.   May    May   Dec.  Jan.  Feb.  Mar.  Apr.  May
                                            2011   2011   2012   2012   2012   2012   2012p  2011  2011  2012  2012  2012  2012  2012p

Total.................................     4,182  4,188  4,239  4,444  4,335  4,213  4,361    3.2   3.2   3.2   3.3   3.3   3.2   3.3

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  3,923  3,889  3,945  4,128  4,041  3,916  4,063    3.6   3.5   3.6   3.7   3.6   3.5   3.7
  Construction...........................    366    315    331    318    286    276    284    6.7   5.7   5.9   5.7   5.1   5.0   5.2
  Manufacturing..........................    269    269    253    260    263    260    258    2.3   2.3   2.1   2.2   2.2   2.2   2.2
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    833    812    836    815    827    826    857    3.3   3.2   3.3   3.2   3.3   3.3   3.4
   Retail trade..........................    564    517    557    551    550    556    552    3.9   3.5   3.8   3.7   3.7   3.8   3.7
  Professional and business services.....    911    818    831    973    888    888    925    5.3   4.6   4.7   5.5   5.0   5.0   5.2
  Education and health services(6)........   468    494    517    527    523    495    536    2.4   2.5   2.6   2.6   2.6   2.4   2.6
   Health care and social assistance         412    414    441    455    442    427    462    2.5   2.5   2.6   2.7   2.6   2.5   2.7
  Leisure and hospitality................    643    743    757    794    795    717    727    4.8   5.5   5.6   5.9   5.8   5.3   5.4
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation...    120    141    139    156    154    123    113    6.3   7.4   7.2   8.1   7.9   6.4   5.9
   Accommodation and food services.......    523    602    618    639    640    594    614    4.6   5.2   5.3   5.5   5.5   5.1   5.3
 Government(7).........................      258    299    294    316    294    297    298    1.2   1.4   1.3   1.4   1.3   1.3   1.4
  State and local government.............    228    270    275    284    264    263    261    1.2   1.4   1.4   1.5   1.4   1.4   1.4


                 REGION(8)

  Northeast...........................       717    676    710    756    711    673    669    2.9   2.7   2.8   3.0   2.8   2.7   2.6
  South...............................     1,646  1,634  1,667  1,748  1,677  1,676  1,748    3.5   3.4   3.5   3.6   3.5   3.5   3.6
  Midwest.............................       942    986    977    985  1,004    938    979    3.2   3.3   3.2   3.3   3.3   3.1   3.2
  West................................       876    891    884    955    943    925    965    3.0   3.1   3.0   3.3   3.2   3.2   3.3


  1 Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
  2 The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series and because not all series are shown.
  4 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes educational services, not shown separately.
  7 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  8 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = Preliminary


Table 3.  Total separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              May    Dec.   Jan.   Feb.   Mar.   Apr.   May    May   Dec.  Jan.  Feb.  Mar.  Apr.  May
                                            2011   2011   2012   2012   2012   2012   2012p  2011  2011  2012  2012  2012  2012  2012p

Total.................................     4,177  4,023  4,017  4,124  4,167  4,142  4,349    3.2   3.0   3.0   3.1   3.1   3.1   3.3

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  3,867  3,695  3,729  3,823  3,869  3,838  4,020    3.5   3.4   3.4   3.5   3.5   3.5   3.6
  Construction...........................    369    303    308    317    281    290    327    6.7   5.5   5.5   5.7   5.1   5.2   5.9
  Manufacturing..........................    258    239    217    235    234    239    241    2.2   2.0   1.8   2.0   2.0   2.0   2.0
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    793    773    837    780    832    817    790    3.2   3.1   3.3   3.1   3.3   3.2   3.1
   Retail trade..........................    548    509    579    543    566    560    539    3.8   3.5   3.9   3.7   3.8   3.8   3.7
  Professional and business services.....    894    792    745    850    835    855    961    5.2   4.5   4.2   4.8   4.7   4.8   5.4
  Education and health services(6)........   438    468    501    458    473    470    479    2.2   2.3   2.5   2.3   2.3   2.3   2.4
   Health care and social assistance         372    402    412    396    414    408    416    2.2   2.4   2.4   2.3   2.4   2.4   2.5
  Leisure and hospitality................    688    695    700    747    753    710    732    5.2   5.2   5.2   5.5   5.5   5.2   5.4
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation...    151    133    125    153    128    133    139    7.9   7.0   6.5   7.9   6.6   6.9   7.3
   Accommodation and food services.......    538    562    575    594    625    577    594    4.7   4.9   5.0   5.1   5.4   4.9   5.1
 Government(7).........................      310    328    288    301    299    304    329    1.4   1.5   1.3   1.4   1.4   1.4   1.5
  State and local government.............    281    292    262    269    267    271    297    1.5   1.5   1.4   1.4   1.4   1.4   1.5


                 REGION(8)

  Northeast...........................       753    631    692    703    624    697    701    3.0   2.5   2.7   2.8   2.5   2.8   2.8
  South...............................     1,523  1,592  1,598  1,571  1,678  1,556  1,643    3.2   3.3   3.3   3.3   3.5   3.2   3.4
  Midwest.............................       927    905    866    970    943    971  1,047    3.1   3.0   2.9   3.2   3.1   3.2   3.5
  West................................       974    895    862    880    923    918    958    3.4   3.1   3.0   3.0   3.2   3.1   3.3


  1 Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
  2 The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series and because not all series are shown.
  4 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes educational services, not shown separately.
  7 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  8 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = Preliminary


Table 4.  Quits levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              May    Dec.   Jan.   Feb.   Mar.   Apr.   May    May   Dec.  Jan.  Feb.  Mar.  Apr.  May
                                            2011   2011   2012   2012   2012   2012   2012p  2011  2011  2012  2012  2012  2012  2012p

Total.................................     1,996  2,008  2,002  2,072  2,159  2,114  2,120    1.5   1.5   1.5   1.6   1.6   1.6   1.6

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  1,874  1,867  1,876  1,947  2,025  1,969  1,986    1.7   1.7   1.7   1.8   1.8   1.8   1.8
  Construction...........................     91     76     70     75     74     70     64    1.7   1.4   1.3   1.3   1.3   1.3   1.2
  Manufacturing..........................    109    113     97    102    112    114    108     .9   1.0    .8    .9    .9   1.0    .9
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    473    447    449    461    472    455    421    1.9   1.8   1.8   1.8   1.9   1.8   1.7
   Retail trade..........................    351    331    342    345    343    332    301    2.4   2.2   2.3   2.3   2.3   2.3   2.0
  Professional and business services.....    366    363    352    371    380    396    430    2.1   2.1   2.0   2.1   2.1   2.2   2.4
  Education and health services(6)........   247    265    282    287    284    266    262    1.2   1.3   1.4   1.4   1.4   1.3   1.3
   Health care and social assistance         217    233    251    256    253    238    234    1.3   1.4   1.5   1.5   1.5   1.4   1.4
  Leisure and hospitality................    383    388    398    425    471    445    470    2.9   2.9   2.9   3.1   3.5   3.3   3.5
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation...     39     48     43     58     47     47     55    2.0   2.5   2.2   3.0   2.4   2.5   2.9
   Accommodation and food services.......    344    340    355    368    425    398    415    3.0   2.9   3.1   3.2   3.6   3.4   3.6
 Government(7).........................      122    141    125    125    134    145    134     .6    .6    .6    .6    .6    .7    .6
  State and local government.............    113    131    116    113    122    132    121     .6    .7    .6    .6    .6    .7    .6


                 REGION(8)

  Northeast...........................       310    279    343    314    278    309    292    1.2   1.1   1.4   1.2   1.1   1.2   1.2
  South...............................       793    816    827    825    908    855    864    1.7   1.7   1.7   1.7   1.9   1.8   1.8
  Midwest.............................       454    469    412    493    508    495    506    1.5   1.6   1.4   1.6   1.7   1.6   1.7
  West................................       440    445    419    440    465    456    458    1.5   1.5   1.4   1.5   1.6   1.6   1.6


  1 Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
  2 The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series and because not all series are shown.
  4 Includes mining and logging, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes educational services, not shown separately.
  7 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  8 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = Preliminary


Table 5.  Job openings levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  May      Apr.     May           May      Apr.     May
                                                   2011     2012     2012p         2011     2012     2012p

Total...........................................  3,074    3,683    3,669           2.3      2.7      2.7

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  2,766    3,326    3,266           2.5      2.9      2.8
  Mining and Logging............................     22       16       19           2.8      1.9      2.2
  Construction..................................    121       87       97           2.1      1.6      1.7
  Manufacturing.................................    236      268      330           2.0      2.2      2.7
   Durable goods................................    157      167      220           2.1      2.2      2.9
   Nondurable goods.............................     80      101      110           1.8      2.2      2.4
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    499      580      578           2.0      2.3      2.2
   Wholesale trade..............................     84      126      127           1.5      2.2      2.2
   Retail trade.................................    293      350      336           2.0      2.3      2.2
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    123      103      115           2.5      2.1      2.3
  Information...................................    101      110       79           3.6      4.0      2.9
  Financial activities..........................    187      226      202           2.4      2.9      2.6
   Finance and insurance........................    142      192      149           2.4      3.2      2.5
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     46       34       53           2.3      1.7      2.6
  Professional and business services............    607      675      671           3.4      3.7      3.6
  Education and health services.................    566      693      701           2.8      3.3      3.3
   Educational services.........................     51       62       60           1.5      1.8      1.8
   Health care and social assistance............    515      631      641           3.0      3.6      3.6
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    319      508      456           2.3      3.6      3.2
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     43       77       74           2.1      4.0      3.6
   Accommodation and food services.............     276      430      382           2.3      3.6      3.1
  Other services................................    106      164      135           1.9      3.0      2.4

 Government.....................................    309      357      403           1.4      1.6      1.8
  Federal.......................................     44       79       59           1.5      2.7      2.0
  State and local...............................    265      278      344           1.3      1.4      1.7

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    563      708      695           2.2      2.7      2.7
  South.........................................  1,055    1,447    1,415           2.2      2.9      2.8
  Midwest.......................................    718      752      769           2.3      2.4      2.5
  West..........................................    739      776      790           2.5      2.6      2.6


  1 Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
  2 The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a
percent of total employment plus job openings.
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = Preliminary


Table 6.  Hires levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  May      Apr.     May           May      Apr.     May
                                                   2011     2012     2012p         2011     2012     2012p

Total...........................................  4,577    4,490    4,796           3.5      3.4      3.6

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  4,297    4,281    4,469           3.9      3.9      4.0
  Mining and Logging............................     32       34       37           4.2      4.2      4.4
  Construction..................................    460      366      358           8.3      6.8      6.4
  Manufacturing.................................    303      271      292           2.6      2.3      2.4
   Durable goods................................    181      169      180           2.5      2.3      2.4
   Nondurable goods.............................    121      102      113           2.7      2.3      2.5
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    864      874      893           3.5      3.5      3.5
   Wholesale trade..............................    144      146      127           2.6      2.6      2.3
   Retail trade.................................    596      592      585           4.1      4.1      4.0
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    124      136      180           2.6      2.8      3.7
  Information...................................     61       59       70           2.3      2.2      2.6
  Financial activities..........................    173      198      191           2.3      2.6      2.5
   Finance and insurance........................    115      115      123           2.0      2.0      2.1
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     58       83       69           3.0      4.3      3.5
  Professional and business services............    958      991    1,000           5.5      5.6      5.6
  Education and health services.................    437      457      511           2.2      2.2      2.5
   Educational services.........................     38       45       48           1.2      1.3      1.4
   Health care and social assistance............    399      411      463           2.4      2.4      2.7
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    810      828      896           6.0      6.1      6.5
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........    189      159      171           9.6      8.5      8.6
   Accommodation and food services.............     621      669      725           5.4      5.8      6.1
  Other services................................    199      202      221           3.7      3.8      4.1

 Government.....................................    280      209      328           1.2       .9      1.5
  Federal.......................................     35       29       48           1.2      1.0      1.7
  State and local...............................    245      180      279           1.2       .9      1.4

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    803      711      738           3.2      2.8      2.9
  South.........................................  1,707    1,793    1,852           3.6      3.7      3.8
  Midwest.......................................  1,110    1,046    1,144           3.7      3.5      3.8
  West..........................................    957      941    1,062           3.3      3.2      3.6


  1 Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
  2 The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = Preliminary


Table 7.  Total separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  May      Apr.     May           May      Apr.     May
                                                   2011     2012     2012p         2011     2012     2012p

Total...........................................  3,912    4,034    4,092           3.0      3.0      3.1

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  3,549    3,825    3,733           3.2      3.5      3.4
  Mining and Logging............................     16       30       28           2.1      3.7      3.3
  Construction..................................    310      277      280           5.6      5.1      5.0
  Manufacturing.................................    243      246      232           2.1      2.1      1.9
   Durable goods................................    130      139      134           1.8      1.9      1.8
   Nondurable goods.............................    113      107       98           2.5      2.4      2.2
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    776      770      744           3.1      3.1      2.9
   Wholesale trade..............................    135      105      104           2.4      1.9      1.9
   Retail trade.................................    543      525      515           3.7      3.6      3.5
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     98      139      125           2.0      2.9      2.5
  Information...................................     60       57       68           2.2      2.2      2.6
  Financial activities..........................    128      190      163           1.7      2.5      2.1
   Finance and insurance........................     94      127      114           1.6      2.2      2.0
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     35       64       50           1.8      3.3      2.5
  Professional and business services............    803      933      885           4.6      5.2      5.0
  Education and health services.................    430      439      472           2.2      2.2      2.3
   Educational services.........................     76       48       71           2.3      1.4      2.1
   Health care and social assistance............    354      392      401           2.1      2.3      2.4
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    612      683      671           4.5      5.1      4.9
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........    112      128      108           5.7      6.8      5.5
   Accommodation and food services.............     501      555      563           4.3      4.8      4.8
  Other services................................    169      199      190           3.2      3.7      3.5

 Government.....................................    363      209      358           1.6       .9      1.6
  Federal.......................................     27       29       31            .9      1.0      1.1
  State and local...............................    337      180      328           1.7       .9      1.7

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    658      644      602           2.6      2.5      2.4
  South.........................................  1,503    1,608    1,613           3.1      3.3      3.3
  Midwest.......................................    844      879      962           2.8      2.9      3.2
  West..........................................    907      903      915           3.1      3.1      3.1


  1 Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
  2 The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of
total employment.
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = Preliminary


Table 8.  Quits levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  May      Apr.     May           May      Apr.     May
                                                   2011     2012     2012p         2011     2012     2012p

Total...........................................  2,010    2,144    2,143           1.5      1.6      1.6

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  1,866    2,036    1,987           1.7      1.8      1.8
  Mining and Logging............................     10       18       16           1.3      2.1      1.9
  Construction..................................     87       70       62           1.6      1.3      1.1
  Manufacturing.................................    113      120      111           1.0      1.0       .9
   Durable goods................................     59       65       59            .8       .9       .8
   Nondurable goods.............................     54       56       52           1.2      1.3      1.2
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    491      469      426           2.0      1.9      1.7
   Wholesale trade..............................     63       51       53           1.1       .9       .9
   Retail trade.................................    372      337      310           2.6      2.3      2.1
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     56       80       64           1.1      1.6      1.3
  Information...................................     34       32       35           1.3      1.2      1.3
  Financial activities..........................     76      112       89           1.0      1.5      1.2
   Finance and insurance........................     51       70       61            .9      1.2      1.1
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     24       42       28           1.3      2.2      1.4
  Professional and business services............    358      406      437           2.1      2.3      2.5
  Education and health services.................    244      262      256           1.2      1.3      1.3
   Educational services.........................     31       24       28            .9       .7       .8
   Health care and social assistance............    213      237      228           1.3      1.4      1.3
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    372      456      468           2.8      3.4      3.4
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     36       45       51           1.8      2.4      2.6
   Accommodation and food services.............     337      411      417           2.9      3.5      3.5
  Other services................................     81       94       86           1.5      1.8      1.6

 Government.....................................    144      107      156            .6       .5       .7
  Federal.......................................      9       11       14            .3       .4       .5
  State and local...............................    135       97      142            .7       .5       .7

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    300      314      277           1.2      1.2      1.1
  South.........................................    812      905      887           1.7      1.9      1.8
  Midwest.......................................    439      468      495           1.5      1.5      1.6
  West..........................................    459      457      484           1.6      1.6      1.6


  1 Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
  2 The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = Preliminary


Table 9.  Layoffs and discharges levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  May      Apr.     May           May      Apr.     May
                                                   2011     2012     2012p         2011     2012     2012p

Total...........................................  1,578    1,618    1,608           1.2      1.2      1.2

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  1,443    1,564    1,473           1.3      1.4      1.3
  Mining and Logging............................      5       11       10            .7      1.4      1.2
  Construction..................................    211      196      207           3.8      3.6      3.7
  Manufacturing.................................    110       99       97            .9       .8       .8
   Durable goods................................     58       58       58            .8       .8       .8
   Nondurable goods.............................     52       41       39           1.2       .9       .9
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    208      231      237            .8       .9       .9
   Wholesale trade..............................     62       43       40           1.1       .8       .7
   Retail trade.................................    121      143      150            .8      1.0      1.0
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     25       44       47            .5       .9       .9
  Information...................................     22       21       24            .8       .8       .9
  Financial activities..........................     36       53       46            .5       .7       .6
   Finance and insurance........................     26       34       28            .5       .6       .5
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     10       18       18            .5       .9       .9
  Professional and business services............    402      497      402           2.3      2.8      2.3
  Education and health services.................    150      153      181            .8       .7       .9
   Educational services.........................     38       20       39           1.2       .6      1.1
   Health care and social assistance............    112      133      142            .7       .8       .8
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    220      201      175           1.6      1.5      1.3
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     73       81       54           3.7      4.3      2.8
   Accommodation and food services.............     148      120      121           1.3      1.0      1.0
  Other services................................     77      101       95           1.4      1.9      1.8

 Government.....................................    135       54      134            .6       .2       .6
  Federal.......................................      7        7        7            .3       .3       .2
  State and local...............................    128       47      128            .7       .2       .7

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    299      280      276           1.2      1.1      1.1
  South.........................................    573      614      604           1.2      1.3      1.2
  Midwest.......................................    333      348      386           1.1      1.2      1.3
  West..........................................    373      376      341           1.3      1.3      1.2


  1 Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
  2 The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a
percent of total employment.
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = Preliminary


Table 10.  Other separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  May      Apr.     May           May      Apr.     May
                                                   2011     2012     2012p         2011     2012     2012p

Total...........................................    324      273      341           0.2      0.2      0.3

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................    240      225      273            .2       .2       .2
  Mining and Logging............................      1        2        2            .2       .2       .3
  Construction..................................     12       11       10            .2       .2       .2
  Manufacturing.................................     20       27       24            .2       .2       .2
   Durable goods................................     13       16       17            .2       .2       .2
   Nondurable goods.............................      7       10        7            .2       .2       .2
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........     77       71       80            .3       .3       .3
   Wholesale trade..............................     10       11       11            .2       .2       .2
   Retail trade.................................     50       45       55            .3       .3       .4
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     18       15       14            .4       .3       .3
  Information...................................      3        4        8            .1       .2       .3
  Financial activities..........................     17       26       29            .2       .3       .4
   Finance and insurance........................     16       22       25            .3       .4       .4
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........      1        4        4           (4)       .2       .2
  Professional and business services............     43       30       46            .2       .2       .3
  Education and health services.................     35       25       36            .2       .1       .2
   Educational services.........................      7        4        4            .2       .1       .1
   Health care and social assistance............     28       21       31            .2       .1       .2
  Leisure and hospitality.......................     20       27       28            .1       .2       .2
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........      3        3        3            .2       .1       .1
   Accommodation and food services.............      17       24       26            .1       .2       .2
  Other services................................     11        4       10            .2       .1       .2

 Government.....................................     84       47       68            .4       .2       .3
  Federal.......................................     11       11       10            .4       .4       .4
  State and local...............................     74       36       58            .4       .2       .3

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................     59       50       49            .2       .2       .2
  South.........................................    118       90      122            .2       .2       .3
  Midwest.......................................     71       62       80            .2       .2       .3
  West..........................................     75       70       91            .3       .2       .3


  1 Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
  2 The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of
total employment.
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  4 Data round to zero.
  p = Preliminary


Last Modified Date: July 10, 2012
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