Economic News Release

Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey News Release



Technical information:      (202) 691-5870        USDL 08-1270
                   http://www.bls.gov/jlt/
                                                  For release:  10:00 A.M. EDT
Media contact:              (202) 691-5902        Tuesday, September 9,2008


              JOB OPENINGS AND LABOR TURNOVER:  JULY 2008


     On the last business day of July, there were 3.4 million job
openings in the United States, and the job openings rate was 2.4
percent, the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U.S. Department of
Labor reported today.  The job openings rate and total separations
rate were little changed in July, while the hires rate decreased
slightly.  This release includes estimates of the number and rate of
job openings, hires, and separations for the total nonfarm sector by
industry and geographic region.


     
     Although the month-to-month changes in job openings, hires, and
turnover data are often small, the trends over time are notable.  The
job openings rate remained essentially flat from August 2006 through
September 2007 followed by an overall downward trend through July
2008.  The hires rate has trended downward since July 2006. At 3.0
percent in two of the last three months, the hires rate is at the
lowest level since May 2003.  After remaining essentially flat for
much of 2007, the separations rate began an overall downward trend in
December 2007.  (See tables 1, 2, and 3.)

     
                                   - 2 -


Table A.  Job openings, hires, and total separations by industry, seasonally
adjusted
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   |    Job openings    |       Hires        | Total separations
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
     Industry      | July | June | July | July | June | July | July | June | July
                   | 2007 | 2008 | 2008p| 2007 | 2008 | 2008p| 2007 | 2008 | 2008p
-------------------|--------------------------------------------------------------
                   |                     Levels (in thousands)
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
Total(1)...........|4,116 |3,497 |3,416 |4,818 |4,438 |4,062 |4,562 |4,368 |4,308
                   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
  Total private(1).|3,648 |3,073 |2,983 |4,489 |4,136 |3,792 |4,222 |4,115 |4,085
    Construction...|  162 |  100 |   84 |  401 |  354 |  267 |  382 |  409 |  436
    Manufacturing..|  331 |  241 |  233 |  355 |  285 |  253 |  370 |  353 |  304
    Trade, trans-  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     portation, and|      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     utilities(2)..|  693 |  539 |  591 |  952 |  906 |  893 |  987 |1,003 |1,025
     Retail trade..|  378 |  322 |  374 |  638 |  608 |  597 |  687 |  679 |  719
    Professional   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     and business  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     services......|  686 |  670 |  600 |  879 |  889 |  788 |  765 |  799 |  756
    Education and  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     health ser-   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     vices.........|  692 |  682 |  674 |  501 |  485 |  473 |  420 |  417 |  465
    Leisure and    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     hospitality(3)|  530 |  452 |  436 |  869 |  741 |  775 |  835 |  749 |  674
     Accommodation |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
      and food     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
      services.....|  482 |  406 |  395 |  739 |  645 |  654 |  723 |  641 |  570
  Government(4)....|  470 |  417 |  432 |  387 |  340 |  325 |  322 |  259 |  237
    State and local|      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     government....|  431 |  361 |  379 |  305 |  309 |  303 |  258 |  233 |  214
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
                   |                       Rates (percent)
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
Total(1)...........|  2.9 |  2.5 |  2.4 |  3.5 |  3.2 |  3.0 |  3.3 |  3.2 |  3.1
                   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
  Total private(1).|  3.1 |  2.6 |  2.5 |  3.9 |  3.6 |  3.3 |  3.7 |  3.6 |  3.5
    Construction...|  2.1 |  1.4 |  1.2 |  5.3 |  4.9 |  3.7 |  5.0 |  5.7 |  6.1
    Manufacturing..|  2.3 |  1.7 |  1.7 |  2.6 |  2.1 |  1.9 |  2.7 |  2.6 |  2.3
    Trade, trans-  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     portation, and|      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     utilities(2)..|  2.5 |  2.0 |  2.2 |  3.6 |  3.4 |  3.4 |  3.7 |  3.8 |  3.9
     Retail trade..|  2.4 |  2.1 |  2.4 |  4.1 |  4.0 |  3.9 |  4.4 |  4.4 |  4.7
    Professional   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     and business  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     services......|  3.7 |  3.6 |  3.2 |  4.9 |  5.0 |  4.4 |  4.3 |  4.5 |  4.2
    Education and  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     health ser-   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     vices.........|  3.6 |  3.5 |  3.4 |  2.7 |  2.6 |  2.5 |  2.3 |  2.2 |  2.5
    Leisure and    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     hospitality(3)|  3.8 |  3.2 |  3.1 |  6.5 |  5.4 |  5.7 |  6.2 |  5.5 |  4.9
     Accommodation |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
      and food     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
      services.....|  4.0 |  3.4 |  3.3 |  6.4 |  5.5 |  5.6 |  6.3 |  5.5 |  4.9
  Government(4)....|  2.1 |  1.8 |  1.9 |  1.7 |  1.5 |  1.4 |  1.5 |  1.1 |  1.1
    State and local|      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     government....|  2.2 |  1.8 |  1.9 |  1.6 |  1.6 |  1.5 |  1.3 |  1.2 |  1.1
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  1 Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and
other services, not shown separately.
  2 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not
shown separately.
  3 Includes arts, entertainment, and recreation, not shown separately.
  4 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  p = preliminary.


     
Job Openings
     
     In July, the job openings rate was essentially unchanged at 2.4
percent. The rate has been trending downward and is at the lowest
level since November 2004.  Job openings include only those jobs open
on the last business day of the month.  In July, the job openings rate
changed significantly only in retail trade, where the rate increased.
Since the series began in December 2000, three industries consistently
have had higher job openings rates than the other industries:
education and health services (3.4 percent in July), 

                                   - 3 -


accommodation and food services (3.3 percent) and professional and
business services (3.2 percent).  (See table 1.)

     Over the year, the job openings rate (not seasonally adjusted)
rose significantly only in federal government (to 2.2 percent).  The
rate fell over the year for total nonfarm (2.5 percent) and total
private (2.5 percent) as well as in most industries, including
construction; durable goods manufacturing; nondurable goods
manufacturing; wholesale trade; transportation, warehousing, and
utilities; information; finance and insurance; professional and
business services; educational services; accommodation and food
services; other services; and state and local government.  Regionally,
the job openings rate fell over the year in all four regions.  (See
table 5.)
     
Hires
     
     The hires rate decreased in July to 3.0 percent and was at the
lowest level since May 2003.  Hires are any additions to the payroll
during the month.  The hires rate fell significantly in July for total
nonfarm, total private, the construction industry, and the Northeast
and South regions.  The hires rate did not increase significantly in
any industry or region in July.  As occurs nearly every month, the
seasonally adjusted hires rate was highest in accommodation and food
services (5.6 percent) and lowest in state and local government (1.5
percent).  (See table 2.)
     
     From July 2007 to July 2008, the hires rate (not seasonally
adjusted) decreased significantly for total nonfarm (to 3.1 percent)
and total private (3.4 percent), and in construction; durable goods
manufacturing; nondurable goods manufacturing; information; real
estate and rental and leasing; educational services; accommodation and
food services; other services; and federal government.  Regionally,
the hires rate fell over the year in the Northeast, South, and West.
The hires rate did not rise significantly in any industry or region
over the year.  (See table 6.)

Separations
     
     The total separations, or turnover, rate was little changed at
3.1 percent in July.  Separations are terminations of employment that
occur at any time during the month.  Over the month, the separations
rate did not change significantly in any industry or region.  As often
occurs, the seasonally adjusted separations rate was highest in
construction (6.1 percent) and lowest in state and local government
(1.1 percent).  From July 2007 to July 2008, the total separations
rate rose significantly only in the construction industry.  The rate
fell in nondurable goods manufacturing; finance and insurance;
accommodation and food services; federal government; and state and
local government.  Regionally, the rate rose in the Northeast and fell
in the South over the year.  (See tables 3 and 7.)
     
     Total separations include quits (voluntary separations), layoffs
and discharges (involuntary separations), and other separations
(including retirements).  The quits rate, which can serve as a
barometer of workers’ ability to change jobs, was unchanged in July
for total nonfarm (1.7 percent) and has been stable since November
2007. The quits rate did not change significantly in any industry or
region in July.  As has occurred every month since the series began in
December 2000, the seasonally adjusted quits rate was highest in the
accommodation and food services industry (3.6 percent) and lowest in
state and local government (0.5 percent).  (See table 4.)
     
     From July 2007 to July 2008, the quits rate (not seasonally
adjusted) did not rise significantly for any industry or region.  The
rate fell for total nonfarm (to 1.8 percent) and total private (2.1
percent), and for several industries, including durable goods
manufacturing; nondurable goods manufacturing; finance and 

                                   - 4 -


insurance; accommodation and food services; federal government; and 
state and local government.  The quits rate fell in July in the South 
and West regions.  (See table 8.)
     
     The other two components of total separations—layoffs and
discharges, and other separations—are not seasonally adjusted.  For
July, the layoffs and discharges rate (1.2 percent) and level (1.7
million) were essentially unchanged from a year earlier.  The layoffs
and discharges rate increased significantly for total private and in
construction; educational services; health care and social assistance;
and the Northeast region.  The rate fell for federal government and
state and local government. The layoffs and discharges rate in July
2008 was highest in construction (3.3 percent) and lowest in federal
government (0.2 percent).  The other separations rate (0.2 percent)
and level (269,000) were lower in July than a year earlier.  The other
separations rate was highest in July 2008 for transportation,
warehousing, and utilities (0.4 percent).  The other separations rate
for most of the other industries range from 0.1 to 0.3 percent each
month.  (See tables 9 and 10.)
     
     The total separations rate is driven by the relative contribution
of its three components (quits, layoffs and discharges, and other
separations), with quits contributing the largest portion.  The
percentage of total separations attributable to quits has varied over
time. The proportion of total separations due to quits (seasonally
adjusted) rose from a post-recession low of 50 percent in December
2003 to a high of 61 percent in December 2006 before trending downward
again.  Quits accounted for 54 percent of total separations in July
2008.  The proportion of separations attributable to quits has varied
the most over the history of the series in the construction industry
(ranging from 26 percent to 55 percent) and in the Northeast region
(ranging from 39 percent to 65 percent).  The proportion of
separations attributable to quits varies widely by industry with the
highest proportion regularly occurring in the accommodation and food
services industry (74 percent in July) and the lowest proportion
regularly occurring in the construction industry (33 percent in July).
(See tables 3 and 4.)

Flows in the Labor Market

     Several industries consistently have high rates of both hires and
separations.  These include construction; retail trade; professional
and business services; arts, entertainment, and recreation; and
accommodation and food services.  In the 12 months ending in July
2008, these 5 industries produced 31.8 million hires and 31.5 million
separations, accounting for 58 percent of total nonfarm hires and 59
percent of total nonfarm separations while comprising only 40 percent
of total nonfarm employment.

For More Information
     
     For additional information, please read the Technical Note or
visit the JOLTS Web site at http://www.bls.gov/jlt/.  Additional
information about JOLTS also may be obtained by e-mailing
Joltsinfo@bls.gov or by calling (202) 691-5870.
     
     
     
     The Job Openings and Labor Turnover release for August 2008 is
scheduled to be issued on Tuesday, October 7.



                                  - 5 -


Technical Note


   The data for the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) are
collected and compiled monthly from a sample of business establishments
by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

Collection

   Each month, data are collected in a survey of business establishments
for total employment, job openings, hires, quits, layoffs and discharges,
and other separations.  Data collection methods include computer-assisted
telephone interviewing, touchtone data entry, fax, and mail.

Coverage

   The JOLTS program covers all private nonfarm establishments such as
factories, offices, and stores, as well as federal, state, and local
government entities in the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

Concepts

   Industry classification.  The industry classifications in this release
are in accordance with the 2007 version of the North American Industry
Classification System (NAICS).  In order to ensure the highest possible
quality of data, State Workforce Agencies verify with employers and up-
date, if necessary, the industry code, location, and ownership classi-
fication of all establishments on a 3-year cycle.  Changes in establish-
ment characteristics resulting from the verification process are always
introduced into the JOLTS sampling frame with the data reported for the
first month of the year.

   Employment.  Employment includes persons on the payroll who worked or
received pay for the pay period that includes the 12th day of the refer-
ence month.  Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term, seasonal, sala-
ried, and hourly employees are included, as are employees on paid vaca-
tions or other paid leave.  Proprietors or partners of unincorporated
businesses, unpaid family workers, or persons on leave without pay or on 
strike for the entire pay period, are not counted as employed.  Employees
of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contrac-
tors, and consultants are counted by their employer of record, not by the
establishment where they are working.

   Job openings.  Establishments submit job openings information for the
last business day of the reference month.  A job opening requires that:
1) a specific position exists and there is work available for that posi-
tion, 2) work could start within 30 days regardless of whether a suitable
candidate is found, and 3) the employer is actively recruiting from out-
side the establishment to fill the position.  Included are full-time,
part-time, permanent, short-term, and seasonal openings.  Active re-
cruiting means that the establishment is taking steps to fill a position
by advertising in newspapers or on the Internet, posting help-wanted
signs, accepting applications, or using other similar methods.

  Jobs to be filled only by internal transfers, promotions, demotions,
or recall from layoffs are excluded.  Also excluded are jobs with start
dates more than 30 days in the future, jobs for which employees have
been hired but have not yet reported for work, and jobs to be filled by
employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies, out-
side contractors, or consultants.  The job openings rate is computed by
dividing the number of job openings by the sum of employment and job
openings and multiplying that quotient by 100.


                                  - 6 -

   Hires.  Hires are the total number of additions to the payroll occur-
ring at any time during the reference month, including both new and
rehired employees, full-time and part-time, permanent, short-term and 
seasonal employees, employees recalled to the location after a layoff
lasting more than 7 days, on-call or intermittent employees who returned
to work after having been formally separated, and transfers from other
locations.  The hires count does not include transfers or promotions 
within the reporting site, employees returning from strike, employees of
temporary help agencies or employee leasing companies, outside contrac-
tors, or consultants.  The hires rate is computed by dividing the number
of hires by employment and multiplying that quotient by 100.

   Separations.  Separations are the total number of terminations of
employment occurring at any time during the reference month, and are
reported by type of separation--quits, layoffs and discharges, and 
other separations.  Quits are voluntary separations by employees (ex-
cept for retirements, which are reported as other separations).  Lay-
offs and discharges are involuntary separations initiated by the em-
ployer and include layoffs with no intent to rehire, formal layoffs
lasting or expected to last more than 7 days, discharges resulting
from mergers, downsizing, or closings, firings or other discharges
for cause, terminations of permanent or short-term employees, and
terminations of seasonal employees.  Other separations include re-
tirements, transfers to other locations, deaths, and separations
due to disability.  Separations do not include transfers within the
same location or employees on strike.

   The separations rate is computed by dividing the number of separa-
tions by employment and multiplying that quotient by 100.  The quits,
layoffs and discharges, and other separations rates are computed simi-
larly, dividing the number by employment and multiplying by 100.

   Annual estimates.  Annual estimates of rates and levels of hires,
quits, layoffs and discharges, other separations, and total separations
are released with the January news release each year.

   The JOLTS annual level estimates for hires, quits, layoffs and dis-
charges, other separations, and total separations are the sum of the
12 published monthly levels.  The annual rate estimates are computed by
dividing the annual level by the Current Employment Statistics (CES)
annual average employment level, and multiplying that quotient by 100.
This figure will be approximately equal to the sum of the 12 monthly
rates.  Note that both the JOLTS and CES annual levels are rounded to
the nearest thousand before the annual estimates are calculated.  Con-
sistent with BLS practices, annual estimates will be published only for
not seasonally adjusted data.

   Annual estimates are not calculated for job openings because job
openings are a stock, or point-in-time, measurement for the last busi-
ness day of each month.  Only jobs still open on the last day of the
month are counted.  For the same reason job openings cannot be cumulated
throughout each month, annual figures for job openings cannot be created
by summing the monthly estimates.  Hires and separations are flow mea-
sures and are cumulated over the month with a total reported for the
month.  Therefore, the annual figures can be created by summing the
monthly estimates.


                                  - 7 -

Sample methodology

   The JOLTS sample design is a random sample of 16,000 nonfarm business
establishments, including factories, offices, and stores, as well as
federal, state, and local governments in the 50 states and the District
of Columbia.  The establishments are drawn from a universe of over
eight million establishments compiled as part of the operations of the
Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, or QCEW, program.  This program
includes all employers subject to state Unemployment Insurance (UI) laws
and federal agencies subject to Unemployment Compensation for Federal
Employees (UCFE).

   The sampling frame is stratified by ownership, region, industry sector,
and size class.  Large firms fall into the sample with virtual certainty.
JOLTS total employment estimates are controlled to the employment esti-
mates of the Current Employment Statistics (CES) survey.  A ratio of CES 
to JOLTS employment is used to adjust the levels for all other JOLTS data
elements.  Rates are then computed from the adjusted levels.

Using JOLTS data

   The JOLTS data series on job openings, hires, and separations are rel-
atively new.  The full sample is divided into panels, with one panel en-
rolled each month.  A full complement of panels for the original data
series based on the 1987 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system
was not completely enrolled in the survey until January 2002.  The sup-
plemental panels of establishments needed to create NAICS estimates were
not completely enrolled until May 2003.  The data collected up until
those points are from less than a full sample.  Therefore, estimates from
earlier months should be used with caution, as fewer sampled units were
reporting data at that time.

   In March 2002, BLS procedures for collecting hires and separations data
were revised to address possible underreporting.  As a result, JOLTS hires
and separations estimates for months prior to March 2002 may not be compar-
able with estimates for March 2002 and later.

   The federal government reorganization that involved transferring approx-
imately 180,000 employees to the new Department of Homeland Security is not
reflected in the JOLTS hires and separations estimates for the federal gov-
ernment.  The Office of Personnel Management's record shows these transfers
were completed in March 2003.  The inclusion of transfers in the JOLTS defi-
nitions of hires and separations is intended to cover ongoing movements of
workers between establishments.  The Department of Homeland Security reor-
ganization was a massive one-time event, and the inclusion of these inter-
governmental transfers would distort the federal government time series.

Seasonal adjustment

   BLS seasonally adjusts several JOLTS series using the X-12-ARIMA seasonal
adjustment program.  Seasonal adjustment is the process of estimating and
removing periodic fluctuations caused by events such as weather, holidays,
and the beginning and ending of the school year.  Seasonal adjustment makes
it easier to observe fundamental changes in the level of the series, par-
ticularly those associated with general economic expansions and contrac-
tions.  A concurrent seasonal adjustment methodology is used in which new
seasonal adjustment factors are calculated each month, using all relevant
data, up to and including the data for the current month.


                                  - 8 -

  Prior to the January  2007 benchmark release in March 2007, seasonal adjust-
ment of the JOLTS series was conducted using the stable seasonal filter option
since there were not enough data observations available for the standard use
of moving averages as seasonal filters.  Although the seasonal adjustment of
the JOLTS series is conducted with fewer data observations than is customary,
the number of observations is now above the minimum required by  X-12-ARIMA to
use the normal seasonal filters.  Therefore, the standard use of moving aver-
ages as seasonal filter is now in place for JOLTS seasonal adjustment.  JOLTS
seasonal adjustment now includes both additive and multiplicative seasonal
adjustment models  and REGARIMA (regression  with autocorrelated errors)
modeling to improve the  seasonal adjustment factors at the beginning and end
of the series and to detect and adjust for outliers in the series.

Reliability of the estimates

   JOLTS estimates are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error.  When
a sample rather than the entire population is surveyed, there is a chance
that the sample estimates may differ from the "true" population values they
represent.  The exact difference, or sampling error, varies depending on the
particular sample selected, and this variability is measured by the standard
error of the estimate.  BLS analysis is generally conducted at the 90-percent
level of confidence.  That means that there is a 90-percent chance, or level
of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than
1.6 standard errors from the "true" population value because of sampling
error.  Estimates of sampling errors are available upon request.

   The JOLTS estimates also are affected by nonsampling error.  Nonsampling
error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to include a seg-
ment of the population, the inability to obtain data from all units in the
sample, the inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide data on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, errors made in the collection
or processing of the data, and errors from the employment benchmark data
used in estimation.

   JOLTS hires and separations estimates cannot be used to exactly explain net
changes in nonfarm payroll employment.  Some reasons why it is problematic to 
compare changes in payroll employment with JOLTS hires and separations, espe-
cially on a monthly basis, are:  1) the reference period for payroll employment
is the pay period including the 12th of the month, while the reference period
for hires and separations is the calendar month; and 2) payroll employment can
vary from month to month simply because part-time and on-call workers may not
always work during the pay period that includes the 12th of the month.  Addi-
tionally, research has found that some reporters systematically underreport
separations relative to hires due to a number of factors, including the nature
of their payroll systems and practices.  The shortfall appears to be about
2 percent or less over a 12-month period.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request.  Voice phone: 202-691-5200; TDD message referral
phone: 1-800-877-8339.







Table 1.  Job openings levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              July   Feb.   Mar.   Apr.   May    June   July   July  Feb.  Mar.  Apr.  May   June  July
                                            2007   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008p  2007  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008p

Total(4).................................  4,116  3,799  3,672  3,612  3,631  3,497  3,416    2.9   2.7   2.6   2.6   2.6   2.5   2.4

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  3,648  3,350  3,225  3,192  3,185  3,073  2,983    3.1   2.8   2.7   2.7   2.7   2.6   2.5
  Construction...........................    162    123    102     99    130    100     84    2.1   1.6   1.4   1.3   1.8   1.4   1.2
  Manufacturing..........................    331    239    251    244    249    241    233    2.3   1.7   1.8   1.8   1.8   1.7   1.7
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    693    598    562    550    572    539    591    2.5   2.2   2.1   2.0   2.1   2.0   2.2
   Retail trade..........................    378    326    344    338    363    322    374    2.4   2.1   2.2   2.2   2.3   2.1   2.4
  Professional and business services.....    686    699    714    676    649    670    600    3.7   3.7   3.8   3.6   3.5   3.6   3.2
  Education and health services..........    692    737    696    684    648    682    674    3.6   3.8   3.6   3.5   3.3   3.5   3.4
  Leisure and hospitality(6).............    530    530    501    491    503    452    436    3.8   3.7   3.5   3.5   3.5   3.2   3.1
   Accommodation and food services.......    482    477    450    433    438    406    395    4.0   3.9   3.7   3.6   3.6   3.4   3.3
 Government(7)...........................    470    450    441    422    451    417    432    2.1   2.0   1.9   1.8   2.0   1.8   1.9
  State and local government.............    431    413    389    395    407    361    379    2.2   2.1   1.9   2.0   2.0   1.8   1.9


                 REGION(8)

  Northeast..............................    733    576    602    618    600    608    588    2.8   2.2   2.3   2.3   2.3   2.3   2.2
  South..................................  1,601  1,485  1,386  1,364  1,386  1,440  1,360    3.1   2.9   2.7   2.7   2.7   2.8   2.7
  Midwest................................    764    766    781    752    721    676    647    2.4   2.4   2.4   2.3   2.2   2.1   2.0
  West...................................  1,041    954    918    883    937    789    831    3.3   3.0   2.9   2.8   2.9   2.5   2.6


  1 Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
  2 The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus
job openings.
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series.
  4 Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes arts, entertainment, and recreation, not shown separately.
  7 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  8 The States (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts,
New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of
Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas,
Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio,
South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah,
Washington, and Wyoming.
  p = preliminary.



Table 2.  Hires levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              July   Feb.   Mar.   Apr.   May    June   July   July  Feb.  Mar.  Apr.  May   June  July
                                            2007   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008p  2007  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008p

Total(4).................................  4,818  4,586  4,569  4,715  4,123  4,438  4,062    3.5   3.3   3.3   3.4   3.0   3.2   3.0

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  4,489  4,203  4,147  4,311  3,871  4,136  3,792    3.9   3.6   3.6   3.7   3.4   3.6   3.3
  Construction...........................    401    349    350    385    286    354    267    5.3   4.7   4.8   5.3   3.9   4.9   3.7
  Manufacturing..........................    355    285    309    300    274    285    253    2.6   2.1   2.3   2.2   2.0   2.1   1.9
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    952    882    884    943    828    906    893    3.6   3.3   3.3   3.6   3.1   3.4   3.4
   Retail trade..........................    638    603    598    642    585    608    597    4.1   3.9   3.9   4.2   3.8   4.0   3.9
  Professional and business services.....    879    780    893    858    770    889    788    4.9   4.3   5.0   4.8   4.3   5.0   4.4
  Education and health services..........    501    522    501    510    479    485    473    2.7   2.8   2.7   2.7   2.5   2.6   2.5
  Leisure and hospitality(6).............    869    868    801    841    847    741    775    6.5   6.4   5.9   6.1   6.2   5.4   5.7
   Accommodation and food services.......    739    730    654    719    731    645    654    6.4   6.3   5.6   6.2   6.3   5.5   5.6
 Government(7)...........................    387    387    429    407    329    340    325    1.7   1.7   1.9   1.8   1.5   1.5   1.4
  State and local government.............    305    306    315    315    304    309    303    1.6   1.6   1.6   1.6   1.5   1.6   1.5


                 REGION(8)

  Northeast..............................    753    713    715    743    646    761    658    2.9   2.8   2.8   2.9   2.5   3.0   2.6
  South..................................  1,913  1,769  1,703  1,725  1,538  1,666  1,507    3.9   3.6   3.4   3.5   3.1   3.4   3.0
  Midwest................................  1,050    944    986    986    914    966    947    3.3   3.0   3.1   3.1   2.9   3.1   3.0
  West...................................  1,167  1,186  1,170  1,246  1,111  1,084  1,017    3.8   3.8   3.8   4.0   3.6   3.5   3.3


  1 Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
  2 The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series.
  4 Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes arts, entertainment, and recreation, not shown separately.
  7 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  8 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 3.  Total separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              July   Feb.   Mar.   Apr.   May    June   July   July  Feb.  Mar.  Apr.  May   June  July
                                            2007   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008p  2007  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008p

Total(4).................................  4,562  4,503  4,390  4,404  4,313  4,368  4,308    3.3   3.3   3.2   3.2   3.1   3.2   3.1

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  4,222  4,224  4,100  4,112  4,046  4,115  4,085    3.7   3.7   3.6   3.6   3.5   3.6   3.5
  Construction...........................    382    329    367    378    393    409    436    5.0   4.5   5.0   5.2   5.4   5.7   6.1
  Manufacturing..........................    370    350    304    390    359    353    304    2.7   2.6   2.2   2.9   2.6   2.6   2.3
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    987    957    941  1,003    868  1,003  1,025    3.7   3.6   3.5   3.8   3.3   3.8   3.9
   Retail trade..........................    687    669    688    716    605    679    719    4.4   4.3   4.5   4.7   3.9   4.4   4.7
  Professional and business services.....    765    861    806    739    741    799    756    4.3   4.8   4.5   4.1   4.1   4.5   4.2
  Education and health services..........    420    459    449    429    434    417    465    2.3   2.5   2.4   2.3   2.3   2.2   2.5
  Leisure and hospitality(6).............    835    854    776    722    801    749    674    6.2   6.2   5.7   5.3   5.8   5.5   4.9
   Accommodation and food services.......    723    718    656    619    675    641    570    6.3   6.2   5.6   5.3   5.8   5.5   4.9
 Government(7)...........................    322    278    291    295    269    259    237    1.5   1.2   1.3   1.3   1.2   1.1   1.1
  State and local government.............    258    229    228    248    240    233    214    1.3   1.2   1.2   1.3   1.2   1.2   1.1


                 REGION(8)

  Northeast..............................    637    770    737    709    685    658    750    2.5   3.0   2.9   2.8   2.7   2.6   2.9
  South..................................  1,800  1,673  1,617  1,666  1,614  1,681  1,602    3.6   3.4   3.3   3.4   3.3   3.4   3.2
  Midwest................................    985    902    918    949    915    954    911    3.1   2.9   2.9   3.0   2.9   3.0   2.9
  West...................................  1,178  1,167  1,101  1,094  1,096  1,089  1,069    3.8   3.8   3.6   3.5   3.5   3.5   3.5


  1 Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
  2 The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series.
  4 Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes arts, entertainment, and recreation, not shown separately.
  7 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  8 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 4.  Quits levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              July   Feb.   Mar.   Apr.   May    June   July   July  Feb.  Mar.  Apr.  May   June  July
                                            2007   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008p  2007  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008p

Total(4).................................  2,621  2,522  2,375  2,444  2,336  2,365  2,324    1.9   1.8   1.7   1.8   1.7   1.7   1.7

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  2,476  2,384  2,258  2,301  2,210  2,242  2,212    2.1   2.1   2.0   2.0   1.9   1.9   1.9
  Construction...........................    159    133    111    127    124    139    144    2.1   1.8   1.5   1.7   1.7   1.9   2.0
  Manufacturing..........................    179    187    157    182    163    154    134    1.3   1.4   1.2   1.3   1.2   1.1   1.0
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    565    532    535    550    495    545    561    2.1   2.0   2.0   2.1   1.9   2.1   2.1
   Retail trade..........................    425    374    399    404    352    391    423    2.7   2.4   2.6   2.6   2.3   2.6   2.8
  Professional and business services.....    431    492    386    385    391    413    403    2.4   2.7   2.1   2.1   2.2   2.3   2.3
  Education and health services..........    277    271    279    270    229    246    270    1.5   1.5   1.5   1.4   1.2   1.3   1.4
  Leisure and hospitality(6).............    584    539    529    516    547    525    482    4.3   3.9   3.9   3.8   4.0   3.8   3.5
   Accommodation and food services.......    545    488    494    473    500    481    422    4.7   4.2   4.2   4.1   4.3   4.1   3.6
 Government(7)...........................    146    135    126    144    126    123    115     .7    .6    .6    .6    .6    .5    .5
  State and local government.............    123    116    101    129    117    114    106     .6    .6    .5    .7    .6    .6    .5


                 REGION(8)

  Northeast..............................    309    410    334    368    327    344    357    1.2   1.6   1.3   1.4   1.3   1.3   1.4
  South..................................  1,111  1,021    996  1,001    937    969    916    2.2   2.1   2.0   2.0   1.9   2.0   1.8
  Midwest................................    540    475    491    500    485    515    536    1.7   1.5   1.6   1.6   1.5   1.6   1.7
  West...................................    658    632    568    575    584    539    519    2.1   2.0   1.8   1.9   1.9   1.7   1.7


  1 Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
  2 The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series.
  4 Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes arts, entertainment, and recreation, not shown separately.
  7 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  8 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 5.  Job openings levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  July     June     July          July     June     July
                                                   2007     2008     2008p         2007     2008     2008p

Total...........................................  4,287    3,587    3,507           3.0      2.5      2.5

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  3,772    3,124    3,030           3.1      2.6      2.5
  Natural resources and mining..................     12       18       18           1.6      2.2      2.2
  Construction..................................    185      113       92           2.3      1.5      1.2
  Manufacturing.................................    349      250      242           2.4      1.8      1.8
   Durable goods................................    223      144      140           2.5      1.6      1.6
   Nondurable goods.............................    126      107      102           2.4      2.1      2.0
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    711      519      614           2.6      1.9      2.3
   Wholesale trade..............................    182      119      130           2.9      1.9      2.1
   Retail trade.................................    392      299      393           2.5      1.9      2.5
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    138      101       92           2.6      1.9      1.8
  Information...................................    132       74       57           4.2      2.4      1.9
  Financial activities..........................    255      179      184           2.9      2.1      2.2
   Finance and insurance........................    198      144      144           3.1      2.3      2.3
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     57       35       40           2.5      1.6      1.8
  Professional and business services............    695      703      584           3.7      3.7      3.1
  Education and health services.................    696      693      673           3.7      3.6      3.5
   Educational services.........................     69       59       52           2.5      2.0      1.9
   Health care and social assistance............    627      634      621           3.9      3.9      3.8
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    570      447      453           3.9      3.0      3.1
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     59       41       48           2.5      1.8      2.0
   Accommodation and food services.............     511      406      406           4.1      3.3      3.3
  Other services................................    166      128      113           2.9      2.2      2.0

 Government.....................................    515      463      476           2.4      2.0      2.2
  Federal.......................................     42       54       61           1.5      1.9      2.2
  State and local...............................    473      409      415           2.5      2.0      2.2

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    761      626      610           2.9      2.4      2.3
  South.........................................  1,645    1,447    1,380           3.2      2.8      2.7
  Midwest.......................................    818      678      668           2.5      2.1      2.1
  West..........................................  1,063      836      848           3.3      2.6      2.7


  1 Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
  2 The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a
percent of total employment plus job openings.
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 6.  Hires levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  July     June     July          July     June     July
                                                   2007     2008     2008p         2007     2008     2008p

Total...........................................  5,147    5,471    4,311           3.7      3.9      3.1

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  4,723    5,013    3,970           4.1      4.3      3.4
  Natural resources and mining..................     25       41       27           3.3      5.3      3.4
  Construction..................................    437      468      284           5.5      6.3      3.8
  Manufacturing.................................    387      350      269           2.8      2.6      2.0
   Durable goods................................    209      186      149           2.4      2.2      1.7
   Nondurable goods.............................    178      163      120           3.5      3.3      2.4
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    918    1,009      865           3.4      3.8      3.3
   Wholesale trade..............................    175      183      166           2.9      3.0      2.7
   Retail trade.................................    599      678      559           3.9      4.4      3.7
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    144      148      141           2.8      2.9      2.8
  Information...................................     71       60       40           2.3      2.0      1.3
  Financial activities..........................    242      286      200           2.9      3.5      2.4
   Finance and insurance........................    163      187      155           2.6      3.1      2.5
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     79       99       45           3.6      4.6      2.1
  Professional and business services............    920    1,022      816           5.1      5.6      4.5
  Education and health services.................    549      568      510           3.0      3.0      2.7
   Educational services.........................    101       93       77           3.8      3.3      2.8
   Health care and social assistance............    448      475      433           2.9      3.0      2.7
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    912      941      800           6.4      6.6      5.6
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........    141      158      131           6.2      7.0      5.7
   Accommodation and food services.............     771      784      669           6.5      6.5      5.6
  Other services................................    262      268      159           4.7      4.8      2.8

 Government.....................................    424      457      341           2.0      2.0      1.6
  Federal.......................................    104       36       29           3.8      1.3      1.0
  State and local...............................    320      421      312           1.8      2.1      1.7

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    851      968      734           3.3      3.7      2.9
  South.........................................  1,995    1,981    1,548           4.0      4.0      3.1
  Midwest.......................................  1,035    1,188      929           3.3      3.8      3.0
  West..........................................  1,266    1,334    1,100           4.1      4.3      3.6


  1 Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
  2 The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 7.  Total separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  July     June     July          July     June     July
                                                   2007     2008     2008p         2007     2008     2008p

Total...........................................  4,784    4,656    4,500           3.5      3.4      3.3

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  4,339    4,260    4,191           3.7      3.7      3.6
  Natural resources and mining..................     24       24       20           3.2      3.1      2.5
  Construction..................................    355      392      441           4.5      5.3      5.9
  Manufacturing.................................    384      355      311           2.8      2.6      2.3
   Durable goods................................    224      221      195           2.5      2.6      2.3
   Nondurable goods.............................    160      134      115           3.1      2.7      2.3
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    958    1,024    1,016           3.6      3.9      3.9
   Wholesale trade..............................    160      205      151           2.6      3.4      2.5
   Retail trade.................................    657      670      708           4.2      4.4      4.6
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    140      149      157           2.8      2.9      3.1
  Information...................................     70       63       57           2.3      2.1      1.9
  Financial activities..........................    226      169      192           2.7      2.0      2.3
   Finance and insurance........................    168      111      110           2.7      1.8      1.8
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     58       59       82           2.6      2.7      3.8
  Professional and business services............    828      811      798           4.6      4.5      4.4
  Education and health services.................    461      489      519           2.6      2.6      2.8
   Educational services.........................     59       85       78           2.3      3.0      2.9
   Health care and social assistance............    402      404      440           2.6      2.6      2.8
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    847      782      677           6.0      5.5      4.7
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     80       88       80           3.5      3.9      3.5
   Accommodation and food services.............     767      693      597           6.5      5.8      5.0
  Other services................................    188      152      161           3.4      2.7      2.9

 Government.....................................    444      396      309           2.1      1.8      1.4
  Federal.......................................     82       24       24           3.0       .9       .9
  State and local...............................    362      371      285           2.0      1.9      1.5

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    614      703      758           2.4      2.7      3.0
  South.........................................  1,920    1,778    1,707           3.9      3.6      3.4
  Midwest.......................................  1,020      995      929           3.3      3.1      3.0
  West..........................................  1,230    1,180    1,105           4.0      3.8      3.6


  1 Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
  2 The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of
total employment.
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 8.  Quits levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  July     June     July          July     June     July
                                                   2007     2008     2008p         2007     2008     2008p

Total...........................................  2,879    2,558    2,535           2.1      1.8      1.8

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  2,695    2,387    2,394           2.3      2.1      2.1
  Natural resources and mining..................     15       17       12           2.0      2.1      1.5
  Construction..................................    197      159      191           2.5      2.1      2.6
  Manufacturing.................................    201      161      147           1.4      1.2      1.1
   Durable goods................................    109       99       82           1.2      1.1      1.0
   Nondurable goods.............................     92       62       65           1.8      1.2      1.3
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    573      545      575           2.2      2.1      2.2
   Wholesale trade..............................     69       73       79           1.1      1.2      1.3
   Retail trade.................................    423      382      422           2.7      2.5      2.8
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     82       90       74           1.6      1.8      1.5
  Information...................................     37       36       36           1.2      1.2      1.2
  Financial activities..........................    122      102       86           1.5      1.2      1.0
   Finance and insurance........................     98       69       48           1.6      1.1       .8
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     24       32       38           1.1      1.5      1.7
  Professional and business services............    474      432      447           2.6      2.4      2.5
  Education and health services.................    305      272      302           1.7      1.5      1.6
   Educational services.........................     40       33       36           1.5      1.1      1.3
   Health care and social assistance............    264      239      266           1.7      1.5      1.7
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    658      561      520           4.7      3.9      3.6
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     55       53       53           2.4      2.4      2.3
   Accommodation and food services.............     603      508      467           5.1      4.2      3.9
  Other services................................    113      102       80           2.0      1.8      1.4

 Government.....................................    184      171      141            .9       .8       .7
  Federal.......................................     28        9        9           1.0       .3       .3
  State and local...............................    156      163      132            .9       .8       .7

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    337      363      390           1.3      1.4      1.5
  South.........................................  1,240    1,046    1,007           2.5      2.1      2.0
  Midwest.......................................    556      537      566           1.8      1.7      1.8
  West..........................................    745      613      573           2.4      2.0      1.9


  1 Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
  2 The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 9.  Layoffs and discharges levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  July     June     July          July     June     July
                                                   2007     2008     2008p         2007     2008     2008p

Total...........................................  1,525    1,794    1,695           1.1      1.3      1.2

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  1,354    1,660    1,584           1.2      1.4      1.4
  Natural resources and mining..................      6        6        6            .9       .7       .7
  Construction..................................    142      215      245           1.8      2.9      3.3
  Manufacturing.................................    162      168      141           1.2      1.2      1.0
   Durable goods................................    102      108       98           1.2      1.2      1.2
   Nondurable goods.............................     60       60       42           1.2      1.2       .8
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    317      417      362           1.2      1.6      1.4
   Wholesale trade..............................     79      118       61           1.3      1.9      1.0
   Retail trade.................................    193      248      236           1.2      1.6      1.5
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     44       51       66            .9      1.0      1.3
  Information...................................     27       24       15            .9       .8       .5
  Financial activities..........................     81       60       86           1.0       .7      1.0
   Finance and insurance........................     53       38       46            .9       .6       .8
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     28       22       40           1.3      1.0      1.8
  Professional and business services............    303      337      319           1.7      1.9      1.8
  Education and health services.................    110      190      196            .6      1.0      1.1
   Educational services.........................     13       50       41            .5      1.7      1.5
   Health care and social assistance............     97      140      156            .6       .9      1.0
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    149      195      134           1.1      1.4       .9
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     20       33       24            .9      1.4      1.1
   Accommodation and food services.............     129      162      109           1.1      1.4       .9
  Other services................................     56       48       80           1.0       .9      1.4

 Government.....................................    172      134      111            .8       .6       .5
  Federal.......................................     23        9        6            .8       .3       .2
  State and local...............................    148      125      105            .8       .6       .6

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    212      291      304            .8      1.1      1.2
  South.........................................    555      623      607           1.1      1.2      1.2
  Midwest.......................................    368      389      307           1.2      1.2      1.0
  West..........................................    391      490      478           1.3      1.6      1.5


  1 Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
  2 The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a
percent of total employment.
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 10.  Other separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  July     June     July          July     June     July
                                                   2007     2008     2008p         2007     2008     2008p

Total...........................................    380      304      269           0.3      0.2      0.2

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................    291      214      213            .2       .2       .2
  Natural resources and mining..................      3        2        2            .4       .2       .2
  Construction..................................     16       17        5            .2       .2       .1
  Manufacturing.................................     21       26       23            .2       .2       .2
   Durable goods................................     13       15       15            .1       .2       .2
   Nondurable goods.............................      8       11        8            .2       .2       .2
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........     68       62       80            .3       .2       .3
   Wholesale trade..............................     13       13       10            .2       .2       .2
   Retail trade.................................     41       41       51            .3       .3       .3
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     14        8       18            .3       .2       .4
  Information...................................      6        4        6            .2       .1       .2
  Financial activities..........................     22        8       19            .3       .1       .2
   Finance and insurance........................     17        3       15            .3       .1       .3
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........      5        4        4            .2       .2       .2
  Professional and business services............     51       43       32            .3       .2       .2
  Education and health services.................     46       26       21            .3       .1       .1
   Educational services.........................      5        2        2            .2       .1       .1
   Health care and social assistance............     40       24       19            .3       .2       .1
  Leisure and hospitality.......................     39       25       23            .3       .2       .2
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........      5        2        3            .2       .1       .1
   Accommodation and food services.............      34       23       20            .3       .2       .2
  Other services................................     19        2        2            .3      (4)      (4)

 Government.....................................     89       90       57            .4       .4       .3
  Federal.......................................     32        7        8           1.1       .3       .3
  State and local...............................     57       83       48            .3       .4       .3

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................     65       49       64            .3       .2       .3
  South.........................................    125      109       94            .3       .2       .2
  Midwest.......................................     96       68       56            .3       .2       .2
  West..........................................     94       77       55            .3       .2       .2


  1 Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
  2 The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of
total employment.
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  4 Data round to zero.
  p = preliminary.


Last Modified Date: September 09, 2008
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