Economic News Release

Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey News Release



Technical information:      (202) 691-5870        USDL 08-1423
                   http://www.bls.gov/jlt/
                                                  For release:  10:00 A.M. EDT
Media contact:              (202) 691-5902        Tuesday, October 7, 2008


             JOB OPENINGS AND LABOR TURNOVER:  AUGUST 2008

     On the last business day of August, there were 3.3 million job
openings in the United States, and the job openings rate was 2.3
percent, the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U.S. Department of
Labor reported today.  The job openings rate decreased from 2.5 to 2.3
percent in August while the hires rate and total separations rate were
essentially unchanged.  This release includes estimates of the number
and rate of job openings, hires, and separations for the total nonfarm
sector by industry and geographic region.


     
     Although the month-to-month changes in job openings, hires, and
turnover data are often small, the trends over time are notable.  The
job openings rate remained essentially flat from August 2006 through
September 2007, followed by a downward trend through August 2008.  The
hires rate has trended downward since August 2006.  At 3.0 percent or
lower in three of the last four months, the hires rate has been
essentially at the lowest level since May 2003.  The separations rate,
after trending down from December 2007 through May of this year, has
held steady at 3.2 percent for the past three months.  With the hires
rate trending downward and the separations rate leveling off recently,
the hires rate has been lower than the separations rate several times
in recent months. (See tables 1, 2, and 3.)
     
                                - 2 -

Table A.  Job openings, hires, and total separations by industry, seasonally
adjusted
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   |    Job openings    |       Hires        | Total separations
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
     Industry      | Aug. | July | Aug. | Aug. | July | Aug. | Aug. | July | Aug.
                   | 2007 | 2008 | 2008p| 2007 | 2008 | 2008p| 2007 | 2008 | 2008p
-------------------|--------------------------------------------------------------
                   |                     Levels (in thousands)
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
Total(1)...........|4,162 |3,492 |3,278 |4,796 |4,026 |4,070 |4,502 |4,359 |4,391
                   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
  Total private(1).|3,717 |3,046 |2,857 |4,371 |3,751 |3,826 |4,166 |4,128 |4,141
    Construction...|  144 |   94 |   87 |  367 |  242 |  332 |  365 |  473 |  406
    Manufacturing..|  324 |  229 |  252 |  350 |  249 |  256 |  377 |  324 |  332
    Trade, trans-  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     portation, and|      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     utilities(2)..|  735 |  569 |  567 |  924 |  858 |  859 |  957 |1,013 |  931
     Retail trade..|  377 |  346 |  356 |  677 |  585 |  585 |  674 |  692 |  642
    Professional   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     and business  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     services......|  689 |  696 |  540 |  776 |  748 |  719 |  756 |  694 |  880
    Education and  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     health ser-   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     vices.........|  700 |  687 |  648 |  504 |  474 |  499 |  432 |  464 |  406
    Leisure and    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     hospitality(3)|  578 |  432 |  361 |  898 |  798 |  762 |  797 |  741 |  771
     Accommodation |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
      and food     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
      services.....|  509 |  388 |  301 |  753 |  683 |  615 |  697 |  629 |  640
  Government(4)....|  444 |  412 |  420 |  393 |  321 |  316 |  326 |  244 |  252
    State and local|      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     government....|  402 |  362 |  363 |  319 |  300 |  290 |  259 |  222 |  228
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
                   |                       Rates (percent)
                   |--------------------------------------------------------------
Total(1)...........|  2.9 |  2.5 |  2.3 |  3.5 |  2.9 |  3.0 |  3.3 |  3.2 |  3.2
                   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
  Total private(1).|  3.1 |  2.6 |  2.4 |  3.8 |  3.3 |  3.3 |  3.6 |  3.6 |  3.6
    Construction...|  1.9 |  1.3 |  1.2 |  4.8 |  3.4 |  4.6 |  4.8 |  6.6 |  5.7
    Manufacturing..|  2.3 |  1.7 |  1.8 |  2.5 |  1.8 |  1.9 |  2.7 |  2.4 |  2.5
    Trade, trans-  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     portation, and|      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     utilities(2)..|  2.7 |  2.1 |  2.1 |  3.5 |  3.3 |  3.3 |  3.6 |  3.8 |  3.5
     Retail trade..|  2.4 |  2.2 |  2.3 |  4.4 |  3.8 |  3.8 |  4.3 |  4.5 |  4.2
    Professional   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     and business  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     services......|  3.7 |  3.7 |  2.9 |  4.3 |  4.2 |  4.0 |  4.2 |  3.9 |  4.9
    Education and  |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     health ser-   |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     vices.........|  3.7 |  3.5 |  3.3 |  2.7 |  2.5 |  2.6 |  2.3 |  2.4 |  2.1
    Leisure and    |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     hospitality(3)|  4.1 |  3.1 |  2.6 |  6.7 |  5.8 |  5.6 |  5.9 |  5.4 |  5.6
     Accommodation |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
      and food     |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
      services.....|  4.2 |  3.2 |  2.5 |  6.5 |  5.9 |  5.3 |  6.0 |  5.4 |  5.5
  Government(4)....|  2.0 |  1.8 |  1.8 |  1.8 |  1.4 |  1.4 |  1.5 |  1.1 |  1.1
    State and local|      |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     government....|  2.0 |  1.8 |  1.8 |  1.6 |  1.5 |  1.5 |  1.3 |  1.1 |  1.2
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  1 Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and
other services, not shown separately.
  2 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not
shown separately.
  3 Includes arts, entertainment, and recreation, not shown separately.
  4 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  p = preliminary.
     
Job Openings
     
     Continuing the downward trend that began in September 2007, the
job openings rate declined to 2.3 percent in August, the lowest level
since April 2004.  The decrease in the job openings rate in recent
months is due to declines in construction, wholesale trade,
professional and business services, and accommodation and food
services.  Throughout the series, three industries consistently have
had higher job openings rates than the other industries, although the
gap has recently decreased:  education and 

                                - 3 -

health services (3.3percent in August), professional and business 
services (2.9 percent),and accommodation and food services (2.5 percent).
(See table 1.)

     Over the last 12 months, the job openings rate (not seasonally
adjusted) rose significantly only in natural resources and mining (to
2.1 percent) and in the federal government (2.4 percent).  The rate
fell over the year for total nonfarm and total private as well as in
most industries, including construction; durable goods manufacturing;
wholesale trade; transportation, warehousing, and utilities;
information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and
leasing; professional and business services; health care and social
assistance; accommodation and food services; and state and local
government.  The job openings rate also fell over the year in all four
regions.  (See table 5.)
     
Hires
     
     The hires rate was little changed in August at 3.0 percent.  The
only industry or region with a significant over-the-month change in
August was construction, in which the hires rate rose.  As occurs
nearly every month, the seasonally adjusted hires rate was highest in
accommodation and food services (5.3 percent) and lowest in state and
local government (1.5 percent).  (See table 2.)

     Over the past 12 months, the hires rate increased significantly
in only transportation, warehousing, and utilities and in educational
services.  The rate decreased significantly over the year for total
nonfarm, total private, and many industries, including durable goods
manufacturing; nondurable goods manufacturing; retail trade;
information; finance and insurance; accommodation and food services;
federal government; and state and local government.  Regionally, the
hires rate dropped significantly over the year in the Northeast and
the South.  (See table 6.)

Separations
     
     The total separations, or turnover, rate was unchanged at 3.2
percent in August.  Only two industries had a significant change in
the separations rate in August—in professional and business services
the rate rose and in education and health services the rate fell.
Over the past 12 months, the separations rate rose significantly only
in the other services industry and fell in nondurable goods
manufacturing; finance and insurance; health care and social
assistance; federal government; and state and local government.  After
rising in 2006 and 2007, the separations rate dropped sharply in 2008
in the federal government, with decreases in every type of
separation—quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations.  As
often occurs, the seasonally adjusted separations rate was highest in
construction (5.7 percent) and lowest in state and local government
(1.2 percent).  (See tables 3 and 7.)
     
     Total separations include quits (voluntary separations), layoffs
and discharges (involuntary separations), and other separations
(including retirements).  The quits rate, which can serve as a
barometer of workers’ ability to change jobs, was unchanged in August
for total nonfarm (1.7 percent) and has been stable since November
2007. The quits rate edged down in August only in education and health
services; the rate did not rise significantly over the month in any
industry or region.  As has occurred every month since the series
began in December 2000, the seasonally adjusted quits rate was highest
in the accommodation and food services industry (3.7 percent) and
lowest in state and local government (0.6 percent).  From August 2007
to August 2008, the quits rate fell for total nonfarm and total
private and in many industries, including durable goods manufacturing;
nondurable goods manufacturing; wholesale trade; finance and
insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; health care and social
assistance; arts, entertainment, and recreation; accommodation and
food services; federal government; and state and local government.
The quits rate also fell over the year in three of the four
regions—

                                - 4 -
    

Northeast, South, and West.  The quits rate rose significantly
over the year only in the other services industry.  (See tables 4 and
8.)

     The other two components of total separations—layoffs and
discharges, and other separations—are not seasonally adjusted.  In
August, the layoffs and discharges rate (1.6 percent) and level (2.1
million) were higher than a year earlier with significant increases in
durable goods manufacturing; professional and business services; and
arts, entertainment, and recreation.  The rate fell over the year for
the federal government. The layoffs and discharges rate was highest in
arts, entertainment, and recreation (6.0 percent) and lowest in
federal government (0.3 percent).  The other separations rate (0.2
percent) and level (340,000) were essentially unchanged from a year
earlier at the total nonfarm level.  Although the other separations
rate was unchanged at the total nonfarm level over the year, the rate
was up in professional and business services and down in information;
arts, entertainment, and recreation; federal government; and state and
local government.  (See tables 9 and 10.)
     
     The total separations rate is driven by the relative contribution
of its three components (quits, layoffs and discharges, and other
separations), with quits contributing the largest portion.  The
percentage of total separations attributable to quits has varied over
time. The proportion of total separations due to quits (seasonally
adjusted) rose from a post-recession low of 50 percent in December
2003 to a high of 61 percent in December 2006 before trending downward
again.  Quits accounted for only 52 percent of total separations in
August 2008, down considerably in the past two months as quits
decreased and layoffs increased.  (See tables 3 and 4.)

Flows in the Labor Market

     Several industries consistently have high rates of both hires and
separations.  These include construction; retail trade; professional
and business services; arts, entertainment, and recreation; and
accommodation and food services.  In the 12 months ending in August
2008, these 5 industries produced 31.4 million hires and 31.6 million
separations, accounting for 58 percent of total nonfarm hires and 59
percent of total nonfarm separations while comprising only 39 percent
of total nonfarm employment.

For More Information
     
     For additional information, please read the Technical Note or
visit the JOLTS Web site at http://www.bls.gov/jlt/.  Additional
information about JOLTS also may be obtained by e-mailing
Joltsinfo@bls.gov or by calling (202) 691-5870.
     
     
     
     The Job Openings and Labor Turnover release for September 2008 is
scheduled to be issued on Thursday, November 13.





                                  - 5 -


Technical Note


   The data for the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) are
collected and compiled monthly from a sample of business establishments
by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

Collection

   Each month, data are collected in a survey of business establishments
for total employment, job openings, hires, quits, layoffs and discharges,
and other separations.  Data collection methods include computer-assisted
telephone interviewing, touchtone data entry, fax, and mail.

Coverage

   The JOLTS program covers all private nonfarm establishments such as
factories, offices, and stores, as well as federal, state, and local
government entities in the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

Concepts

   Industry classification.  The industry classifications in this release
are in accordance with the 2007 version of the North American Industry
Classification System (NAICS).  In order to ensure the highest possible
quality of data, State Workforce Agencies verify with employers and up-
date, if necessary, the industry code, location, and ownership classi-
fication of all establishments on a 3-year cycle.  Changes in establish-
ment characteristics resulting from the verification process are always
introduced into the JOLTS sampling frame with the data reported for the
first month of the year.

   Employment.  Employment includes persons on the payroll who worked or
received pay for the pay period that includes the 12th day of the refer-
ence month.  Full-time, part-time, permanent, short-term, seasonal, sala-
ried, and hourly employees are included, as are employees on paid vaca-
tions or other paid leave.  Proprietors or partners of unincorporated
businesses, unpaid family workers, or persons on leave without pay or on 
strike for the entire pay period, are not counted as employed.  Employees
of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contrac-
tors, and consultants are counted by their employer of record, not by the
establishment where they are working.

   Job openings.  Establishments submit job openings information for the
last business day of the reference month.  A job opening requires that:
1) a specific position exists and there is work available for that posi-
tion, 2) work could start within 30 days regardless of whether a suitable
candidate is found, and 3) the employer is actively recruiting from out-
side the establishment to fill the position.  Included are full-time,
part-time, permanent, short-term, and seasonal openings.  Active re-
cruiting means that the establishment is taking steps to fill a position
by advertising in newspapers or on the Internet, posting help-wanted
signs, accepting applications, or using other similar methods.

  Jobs to be filled only by internal transfers, promotions, demotions,
or recall from layoffs are excluded.  Also excluded are jobs with start
dates more than 30 days in the future, jobs for which employees have
been hired but have not yet reported for work, and jobs to be filled by
employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies, out-
side contractors, or consultants.  The job openings rate is computed by
dividing the number of job openings by the sum of employment and job
openings and multiplying that quotient by 100.


                                  - 6 -

   Hires.  Hires are the total number of additions to the payroll occur-
ring at any time during the reference month, including both new and
rehired employees, full-time and part-time, permanent, short-term and 
seasonal employees, employees recalled to the location after a layoff
lasting more than 7 days, on-call or intermittent employees who returned
to work after having been formally separated, and transfers from other
locations.  The hires count does not include transfers or promotions 
within the reporting site, employees returning from strike, employees of
temporary help agencies or employee leasing companies, outside contrac-
tors, or consultants.  The hires rate is computed by dividing the number
of hires by employment and multiplying that quotient by 100.

   Separations.  Separations are the total number of terminations of
employment occurring at any time during the reference month, and are
reported by type of separation--quits, layoffs and discharges, and 
other separations.  Quits are voluntary separations by employees (ex-
cept for retirements, which are reported as other separations).  Lay-
offs and discharges are involuntary separations initiated by the em-
ployer and include layoffs with no intent to rehire, formal layoffs
lasting or expected to last more than 7 days, discharges resulting
from mergers, downsizing, or closings, firings or other discharges
for cause, terminations of permanent or short-term employees, and
terminations of seasonal employees.  Other separations include re-
tirements, transfers to other locations, deaths, and separations
due to disability.  Separations do not include transfers within the
same location or employees on strike.

   The separations rate is computed by dividing the number of separa-
tions by employment and multiplying that quotient by 100.  The quits,
layoffs and discharges, and other separations rates are computed simi-
larly, dividing the number by employment and multiplying by 100.

   Annual estimates.  Annual estimates of rates and levels of hires,
quits, layoffs and discharges, other separations, and total separations
are released with the January news release each year.

   The JOLTS annual level estimates for hires, quits, layoffs and dis-
charges, other separations, and total separations are the sum of the
12 published monthly levels.  The annual rate estimates are computed by
dividing the annual level by the Current Employment Statistics (CES)
annual average employment level, and multiplying that quotient by 100.
This figure will be approximately equal to the sum of the 12 monthly
rates.  Note that both the JOLTS and CES annual levels are rounded to
the nearest thousand before the annual estimates are calculated.  Con-
sistent with BLS practices, annual estimates will be published only for
not seasonally adjusted data.

   Annual estimates are not calculated for job openings because job
openings are a stock, or point-in-time, measurement for the last busi-
ness day of each month.  Only jobs still open on the last day of the
month are counted.  For the same reason job openings cannot be cumulated
throughout each month, annual figures for job openings cannot be created
by summing the monthly estimates.  Hires and separations are flow mea-
sures and are cumulated over the month with a total reported for the
month.  Therefore, the annual figures can be created by summing the
monthly estimates.


                                  - 7 -

Sample methodology

   The JOLTS sample design is a random sample of 16,000 nonfarm business
establishments, including factories, offices, and stores, as well as
federal, state, and local governments in the 50 states and the District
of Columbia.  The establishments are drawn from a universe of over
eight million establishments compiled as part of the operations of the
Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, or QCEW, program.  This program
includes all employers subject to state Unemployment Insurance (UI) laws
and federal agencies subject to Unemployment Compensation for Federal
Employees (UCFE).

   The sampling frame is stratified by ownership, region, industry sector,
and size class.  Large firms fall into the sample with virtual certainty.
JOLTS total employment estimates are controlled to the employment esti-
mates of the Current Employment Statistics (CES) survey.  A ratio of CES 
to JOLTS employment is used to adjust the levels for all other JOLTS data
elements.  Rates are then computed from the adjusted levels.

Using JOLTS data

   The JOLTS data series on job openings, hires, and separations are rel-
atively new.  The full sample is divided into panels, with one panel en-
rolled each month.  A full complement of panels for the original data
series based on the 1987 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system
was not completely enrolled in the survey until January 2002.  The sup-
plemental panels of establishments needed to create NAICS estimates were
not completely enrolled until May 2003.  The data collected up until
those points are from less than a full sample.  Therefore, estimates from
earlier months should be used with caution, as fewer sampled units were
reporting data at that time.

   In March 2002, BLS procedures for collecting hires and separations data
were revised to address possible underreporting.  As a result, JOLTS hires
and separations estimates for months prior to March 2002 may not be compar-
able with estimates for March 2002 and later.

   The federal government reorganization that involved transferring approx-
imately 180,000 employees to the new Department of Homeland Security is not
reflected in the JOLTS hires and separations estimates for the federal gov-
ernment.  The Office of Personnel Management's record shows these transfers
were completed in March 2003.  The inclusion of transfers in the JOLTS defi-
nitions of hires and separations is intended to cover ongoing movements of
workers between establishments.  The Department of Homeland Security reor-
ganization was a massive one-time event, and the inclusion of these inter-
governmental transfers would distort the federal government time series.

Seasonal adjustment

   BLS seasonally adjusts several JOLTS series using the X-12-ARIMA seasonal
adjustment program.  Seasonal adjustment is the process of estimating and
removing periodic fluctuations caused by events such as weather, holidays,
and the beginning and ending of the school year.  Seasonal adjustment makes
it easier to observe fundamental changes in the level of the series, par-
ticularly those associated with general economic expansions and contrac-
tions.  A concurrent seasonal adjustment methodology is used in which new
seasonal adjustment factors are calculated each month, using all relevant
data, up to and including the data for the current month.


                                  - 8 -

  Prior to the January  2007 benchmark release in March 2007, seasonal adjust-
ment of the JOLTS series was conducted using the stable seasonal filter option
since there were not enough data observations available for the standard use
of moving averages as seasonal filters.  Although the seasonal adjustment of
the JOLTS series is conducted with fewer data observations than is customary,
the number of observations is now above the minimum required by  X-12-ARIMA to
use the normal seasonal filters.  Therefore, the standard use of moving aver-
ages as seasonal filter is now in place for JOLTS seasonal adjustment.  JOLTS
seasonal adjustment now includes both additive and multiplicative seasonal
adjustment models  and REGARIMA (regression  with autocorrelated errors)
modeling to improve the  seasonal adjustment factors at the beginning and end
of the series and to detect and adjust for outliers in the series.

Reliability of the estimates

   JOLTS estimates are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error.  When
a sample rather than the entire population is surveyed, there is a chance
that the sample estimates may differ from the "true" population values they
represent.  The exact difference, or sampling error, varies depending on the
particular sample selected, and this variability is measured by the standard
error of the estimate.  BLS analysis is generally conducted at the 90-percent
level of confidence.  That means that there is a 90-percent chance, or level
of confidence, that an estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than
1.6 standard errors from the "true" population value because of sampling
error.  Estimates of sampling errors are available upon request.

   The JOLTS estimates also are affected by nonsampling error.  Nonsampling
error can occur for many reasons, including the failure to include a seg-
ment of the population, the inability to obtain data from all units in the
sample, the inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide data on a
timely basis, mistakes made by respondents, errors made in the collection
or processing of the data, and errors from the employment benchmark data
used in estimation.

   JOLTS hires and separations estimates cannot be used to exactly explain net
changes in nonfarm payroll employment.  Some reasons why it is problematic to 
compare changes in payroll employment with JOLTS hires and separations, espe-
cially on a monthly basis, are:  1) the reference period for payroll employment
is the pay period including the 12th of the month, while the reference period
for hires and separations is the calendar month; and 2) payroll employment can
vary from month to month simply because part-time and on-call workers may not
always work during the pay period that includes the 12th of the month.  Addi-
tionally, research has found that some reporters systematically underreport
separations relative to hires due to a number of factors, including the nature
of their payroll systems and practices.  The shortfall appears to be about
2 percent or less over a 12-month period.

Other information

   Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired
individuals upon request.  Voice phone: 202-691-5200; TDD message referral
phone: 1-800-877-8339.







Table 1.  Job openings levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Aug.   Mar.   Apr.   May    June   July   Aug.   Aug.  Mar.  Apr.  May   June  July  Aug.
                                            2007   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008p  2007  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008p

Total(4).................................  4,162  3,672  3,612  3,631  3,497  3,492  3,278    2.9   2.6   2.6   2.6   2.5   2.5   2.3

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  3,717  3,225  3,192  3,185  3,073  3,046  2,857    3.1   2.7   2.7   2.7   2.6   2.6   2.4
  Construction...........................    144    102     99    130    100     94     87    1.9   1.4   1.3   1.8   1.4   1.3   1.2
  Manufacturing..........................    324    251    244    249    241    229    252    2.3   1.8   1.8   1.8   1.7   1.7   1.8
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    735    562    550    572    539    569    567    2.7   2.1   2.0   2.1   2.0   2.1   2.1
   Retail trade..........................    377    344    338    363    322    346    356    2.4   2.2   2.2   2.3   2.1   2.2   2.3
  Professional and business services.....    689    714    676    649    670    696    540    3.7   3.8   3.6   3.5   3.6   3.7   2.9
  Education and health services..........    700    696    684    648    682    687    648    3.7   3.6   3.5   3.3   3.5   3.5   3.3
  Leisure and hospitality(6).............    578    501    491    503    452    432    361    4.1   3.5   3.5   3.5   3.2   3.1   2.6
   Accommodation and food services.......    509    450    433    438    406    388    301    4.2   3.7   3.6   3.6   3.4   3.2   2.5
 Government(7)...........................    444    441    422    451    417    412    420    2.0   1.9   1.8   2.0   1.8   1.8   1.8
  State and local government.............    402    389    395    407    361    362    363    2.0   1.9   2.0   2.0   1.8   1.8   1.8


                 REGION(8)

  Northeast..............................    695    602    618    600    608    615    588    2.6   2.3   2.3   2.3   2.3   2.3   2.2
  South..................................  1,675  1,386  1,364  1,386  1,440  1,384  1,274    3.3   2.7   2.7   2.7   2.8   2.7   2.5
  Midwest................................    773    781    752    721    676    638    679    2.4   2.4   2.3   2.2   2.1   2.0   2.1
  West...................................  1,035    918    883    937    789    847    729    3.2   2.9   2.8   2.9   2.5   2.7   2.3


  1 Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
  2 The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a percent of total employment plus
job openings.
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series.
  4 Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes arts, entertainment, and recreation, not shown separately.
  7 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  8 The States (including the District of Columbia) that comprise the regions are: Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts,
New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of
Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas,
Virginia, and West Virginia; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio,
South Dakota, and Wisconsin; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah,
Washington, and Wyoming.
  p = preliminary.



Table 2.  Hires levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Aug.   Mar.   Apr.   May    June   July   Aug.   Aug.  Mar.  Apr.  May   June  July  Aug.
                                            2007   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008p  2007  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008p

Total(4).................................  4,796  4,569  4,715  4,123  4,438  4,026  4,070    3.5   3.3   3.4   3.0   3.2   2.9   3.0

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  4,371  4,147  4,311  3,871  4,136  3,751  3,826    3.8   3.6   3.7   3.4   3.6   3.3   3.3
  Construction...........................    367    350    385    286    354    242    332    4.8   4.8   5.3   3.9   4.9   3.4   4.6
  Manufacturing..........................    350    309    300    274    285    249    256    2.5   2.3   2.2   2.0   2.1   1.8   1.9
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    924    884    943    828    906    858    859    3.5   3.3   3.6   3.1   3.4   3.3   3.3
   Retail trade..........................    677    598    642    585    608    585    585    4.4   3.9   4.2   3.8   4.0   3.8   3.8
  Professional and business services.....    776    893    858    770    889    748    719    4.3   5.0   4.8   4.3   5.0   4.2   4.0
  Education and health services..........    504    501    510    479    485    474    499    2.7   2.7   2.7   2.5   2.6   2.5   2.6
  Leisure and hospitality(6).............    898    801    841    847    741    798    762    6.7   5.9   6.1   6.2   5.4   5.8   5.6
   Accommodation and food services.......    753    654    719    731    645    683    615    6.5   5.6   6.2   6.3   5.5   5.9   5.3
 Government(7)...........................    393    429    407    329    340    321    316    1.8   1.9   1.8   1.5   1.5   1.4   1.4
  State and local government.............    319    315    315    304    309    300    290    1.6   1.6   1.6   1.5   1.6   1.5   1.5


                 REGION(8)

  Northeast..............................    753    715    743    646    761    657    665    2.9   2.8   2.9   2.5   3.0   2.6   2.6
  South..................................  1,835  1,703  1,725  1,538  1,666  1,512  1,490    3.7   3.4   3.5   3.1   3.4   3.0   3.0
  Midwest................................  1,053    986    986    914    966    934    946    3.3   3.1   3.1   2.9   3.1   3.0   3.0
  West...................................  1,157  1,170  1,246  1,111  1,084    979  1,064    3.7   3.8   4.0   3.6   3.5   3.2   3.4


  1 Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
  2 The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series.
  4 Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes arts, entertainment, and recreation, not shown separately.
  7 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  8 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 3.  Total separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Aug.   Mar.   Apr.   May    June   July   Aug.   Aug.  Mar.  Apr.  May   June  July  Aug.
                                            2007   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008p  2007  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008p

Total(4).................................  4,502  4,390  4,404  4,313  4,368  4,359  4,391    3.3   3.2   3.2   3.1   3.2   3.2   3.2

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  4,166  4,100  4,112  4,046  4,115  4,128  4,141    3.6   3.6   3.6   3.5   3.6   3.6   3.6
  Construction...........................    365    367    378    393    409    473    406    4.8   5.0   5.2   5.4   5.7   6.6   5.7
  Manufacturing..........................    377    304    390    359    353    324    332    2.7   2.2   2.9   2.6   2.6   2.4   2.5
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    957    941  1,003    868  1,003  1,013    931    3.6   3.5   3.8   3.3   3.8   3.8   3.5
   Retail trade..........................    674    688    716    605    679    692    642    4.3   4.5   4.7   3.9   4.4   4.5   4.2
  Professional and business services.....    756    806    739    741    799    694    880    4.2   4.5   4.1   4.1   4.5   3.9   4.9
  Education and health services..........    432    449    429    434    417    464    406    2.3   2.4   2.3   2.3   2.2   2.4   2.1
  Leisure and hospitality(6).............    797    776    722    801    749    741    771    5.9   5.7   5.3   5.8   5.5   5.4   5.6
   Accommodation and food services.......    697    656    619    675    641    629    640    6.0   5.6   5.3   5.8   5.5   5.4   5.5
 Government(7)...........................    326    291    295    269    259    244    252    1.5   1.3   1.3   1.2   1.1   1.1   1.1
  State and local government.............    259    228    248    240    233    222    228    1.3   1.2   1.3   1.2   1.2   1.1   1.2


                 REGION(8)

  Northeast..............................    683    737    709    685    658    745    687    2.7   2.9   2.8   2.7   2.6   2.9   2.7
  South..................................  1,720  1,617  1,666  1,614  1,681  1,629  1,585    3.5   3.3   3.4   3.3   3.4   3.3   3.2
  Midwest................................  1,006    918    949    915    954    912    939    3.2   2.9   3.0   2.9   3.0   2.9   3.0
  West...................................  1,076  1,101  1,094  1,096  1,089  1,099  1,142    3.5   3.6   3.5   3.5   3.5   3.6   3.7


  1 Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
  2 The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series.
  4 Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes arts, entertainment, and recreation, not shown separately.
  7 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  8 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 4.  Quits levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, seasonally adjusted

                                                      Levels(3) (in thousands)                              Rates

           Industry and region              Aug.   Mar.   Apr.   May    June   July   Aug.   Aug.  Mar.  Apr.  May   June  July  Aug.
                                            2007   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008   2008p  2007  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008  2008p

Total(4).................................  2,553  2,375  2,444  2,336  2,365  2,314  2,279    1.9   1.7   1.8   1.7   1.7   1.7   1.7

                INDUSTRY

 Total private(4)........................  2,407  2,258  2,301  2,210  2,242  2,209  2,165    2.1   2.0   2.0   1.9   1.9   1.9   1.9
  Construction...........................    141    111    127    124    139    157    154    1.9   1.5   1.7   1.7   1.9   2.2   2.2
  Manufacturing..........................    199    157    182    163    154    134    149    1.4   1.2   1.3   1.2   1.1   1.0   1.1
  Trade, transportation, and utilities(5)    556    535    550    495    545    545    506    2.1   2.0   2.1   1.9   2.1   2.1   1.9
   Retail trade..........................    403    399    404    352    391    405    371    2.6   2.6   2.6   2.3   2.6   2.6   2.4
  Professional and business services.....    394    386    385    391    413    363    390    2.2   2.1   2.1   2.2   2.3   2.0   2.2
  Education and health services..........    273    279    270    229    246    268    221    1.5   1.5   1.4   1.2   1.3   1.4   1.2
  Leisure and hospitality(6).............    542    529    516    547    525    499    468    4.0   3.9   3.8   4.0   3.8   3.7   3.4
   Accommodation and food services.......    496    494    473    500    481    452    434    4.3   4.2   4.1   4.3   4.1   3.9   3.7
 Government(7)...........................    145    126    144    126    123    111    121     .7    .6    .6    .6    .5    .5    .5
  State and local government.............    125    101    129    117    114    104    113     .6    .5    .7    .6    .6    .5    .6


                 REGION(8)

  Northeast..............................    331    334    368    327    344    341    299    1.3   1.3   1.4   1.3   1.3   1.3   1.2
  South..................................  1,069    996  1,001    937    969    930    897    2.2   2.0   2.0   1.9   2.0   1.9   1.8
  Midwest................................    535    491    500    485    515    504    542    1.7   1.6   1.6   1.5   1.6   1.6   1.7
  West...................................    618    568    575    584    539    541    533    2.0   1.8   1.9   1.9   1.7   1.8   1.7


  1 Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
  2 The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 Detail will not necessarily add to totals because of the independent seasonal adjustment of the various series.
  4 Includes natural resources and mining, information, financial activities, and other services, not shown separately.
  5 Includes wholesale trade and transportation, warehousing, and utilities, not shown separately.
  6 Includes arts, entertainment, and recreation, not shown separately.
  7 Includes federal government, not shown separately.
  8 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 5.  Job openings levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Aug.     July     Aug.          Aug.     July     Aug.
                                                   2007     2008     2008p         2007     2008     2008p

Total...........................................  4,485    3,631    3,496           3.2      2.6      2.5

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  4,001    3,186    3,038           3.3      2.7      2.6
  Natural resources and mining..................     10       17       18           1.4      2.1      2.1
  Construction..................................    159      108       92           2.0      1.4      1.2
  Manufacturing.................................    336      234      265           2.4      1.7      1.9
   Durable goods................................    215      127      136           2.4      1.5      1.6
   Nondurable goods.............................    122      108      130           2.3      2.1      2.5
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    811      588      641           3.0      2.2      2.4
   Wholesale trade..............................    214      126      118           3.4      2.0      1.9
   Retail trade.................................    425      361      410           2.7      2.3      2.6
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    171      100      113           3.3      2.0      2.2
  Information...................................    110       53       66           3.5      1.7      2.2
  Financial activities..........................    309      204      179           3.6      2.4      2.1
   Finance and insurance........................    248      162      140           3.9      2.6      2.3
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     61       42       38           2.7      1.9      1.7
  Professional and business services............    717      706      551           3.8      3.8      3.0
  Education and health services.................    740      694      673           3.9      3.6      3.5
   Educational services.........................     71       68       66           2.6      2.4      2.3
   Health care and social assistance............    669      626      607           4.2      3.8      3.7
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    629      466      382           4.3      3.1      2.6
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     75       50       67           3.2      2.1      2.9
   Accommodation and food services.............     554      415      316           4.5      3.3      2.6
  Other services................................    180      116      171           3.1      2.0      3.0

 Government.....................................    485      446      458           2.2      2.1      2.1
  Federal.......................................     49       53       68           1.8      1.9      2.4
  State and local...............................    435      392      390           2.3      2.1      2.1

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    777      662      656           3.0      2.5      2.5
  South.........................................  1,740    1,435    1,304           3.4      2.8      2.6
  Midwest.......................................    849      663      743           2.6      2.1      2.3
  West..........................................  1,120      872      794           3.5      2.7      2.5


  1 Job openings are the number of job openings on the last business day of the month.
  2 The job openings rate is the number of job openings on the last business day of the month as a
percent of total employment plus job openings.
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 6.  Hires levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Aug.     July     Aug.          Aug.     July     Aug.
                                                   2007     2008     2008p         2007     2008     2008p

Total...........................................  5,543    4,256    4,750           4.0      3.1      3.5

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  4,880    3,919    4,228           4.2      3.4      3.7
  Natural resources and mining..................     28       27       32           3.8      3.5      3.9
  Construction..................................    395      268      351           5.0      3.6      4.7
  Manufacturing.................................    401      265      289           2.9      2.0      2.1
   Durable goods................................    227      144      161           2.6      1.7      1.9
   Nondurable goods.............................    174      121      128           3.4      2.4      2.6
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........  1,031      821      955           3.9      3.1      3.6
   Wholesale trade..............................    151      149      132           2.5      2.5      2.2
   Retail trade.................................    739      543      639           4.8      3.6      4.2
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    140      129      184           2.8      2.6      3.7
  Information...................................     82       43       40           2.7      1.4      1.4
  Financial activities..........................    240      202      199           2.9      2.4      2.4
   Finance and insurance........................    169      155      132           2.7      2.5      2.2
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     72       46       67           3.2      2.1      3.1
  Professional and business services............    855      777      726           4.7      4.3      4.0
  Education and health services.................    632      508      626           3.5      2.7      3.4
   Educational services.........................    107       76      136           4.0      2.7      4.9
   Health care and social assistance............    525      433      491           3.4      2.7      3.1
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    996      843      831           7.1      5.9      5.8
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........    124      122      137           5.6      5.3      6.1
   Accommodation and food services.............     872      721      694           7.3      6.0      5.8
  Other services................................    220      165      178           4.0      3.0      3.2

 Government.....................................    663      337      522           3.1      1.6      2.4
  Federal.......................................    105       26       24           3.8       .9       .9
  State and local...............................    558      311      498           3.0      1.7      2.7

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    824      732      721           3.2      2.9      2.8
  South.........................................  2,180    1,552    1,731           4.4      3.1      3.5
  Midwest.......................................  1,184      908    1,060           3.8      2.9      3.4
  West..........................................  1,355    1,063    1,238           4.4      3.4      4.0


  1 Hires are the number of hires during the entire month.
  2 The hires rate is the number of hires during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 7.  Total separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Aug.     July     Aug.          Aug.     July     Aug.
                                                   2007     2008     2008p         2007     2008     2008p

Total...........................................  5,735    4,562    5,580           4.2      3.3      4.1

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  5,223    4,244    5,175           4.5      3.7      4.5
  Natural resources and mining..................     33       18       30           4.5      2.3      3.7
  Construction..................................    455      476      500           5.7      6.4      6.7
  Manufacturing.................................    464      328      403           3.3      2.4      3.0
   Durable goods................................    281      215      266           3.2      2.5      3.1
   Nondurable goods.............................    183      113      137           3.6      2.3      2.7
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........  1,136    1,004    1,075           4.3      3.8      4.1
   Wholesale trade..............................    193      142      179           3.2      2.3      3.0
   Retail trade.................................    798      677      742           5.2      4.4      4.9
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...    145      185      154           2.9      3.7      3.1
  Information...................................     85       56       66           2.8      1.9      2.2
  Financial activities..........................    315      188      251           3.8      2.3      3.0
   Finance and insurance........................    228      111      172           3.7      1.8      2.8
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     87       76       79           3.9      3.5      3.6
  Professional and business services............    883      722    1,002           4.9      4.0      5.6
  Education and health services.................    591      516      545           3.3      2.8      2.9
   Educational services.........................    110       84      118           4.2      3.0      4.2
   Health care and social assistance............    481      432      427           3.1      2.7      2.7
  Leisure and hospitality.......................  1,031      746    1,001           7.3      5.2      7.0
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........    149       85      198           6.7      3.7      8.7
   Accommodation and food services.............     882      661      803           7.4      5.5      6.7
  Other services................................    229      190      301           4.1      3.4      5.4

 Government.....................................    512      318      405           2.4      1.5      1.9
  Federal.......................................     94       21       28           3.4       .8      1.0
  State and local...............................    418      297      378           2.3      1.6      2.0

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    940      752      918           3.7      2.9      3.6
  South.........................................  2,188    1,747    2,029           4.4      3.5      4.1
  Midwest.......................................  1,304      928    1,230           4.2      3.0      3.9
  West..........................................  1,303    1,135    1,403           4.2      3.7      4.5


  1 Total separations are the number of total separations during the entire month.
  2 The total separations rate is the number of total separations during the entire month as a percent of
total employment.
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 8.  Quits levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Aug.     July     Aug.          Aug.     July     Aug.
                                                   2007     2008     2008p         2007     2008     2008p

Total...........................................  3,505    2,531    3,103           2.5      1.8      2.3

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  3,268    2,394    2,907           2.8      2.1      2.5
  Natural resources and mining..................     21       12       21           2.9      1.5      2.6
  Construction..................................    204      215      236           2.6      2.9      3.2
  Manufacturing.................................    279      148      206           2.0      1.1      1.5
   Durable goods................................    165       82      122           1.9      1.0      1.4
   Nondurable goods.............................    114       66       84           2.2      1.3      1.7
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    742      558      664           2.8      2.1      2.5
   Wholesale trade..............................    116       83       87           1.9      1.4      1.4
   Retail trade.................................    544      404      488           3.5      2.6      3.2
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     81       71       89           1.6      1.4      1.8
  Information...................................     48       35       51           1.6      1.2      1.7
  Financial activities..........................    200       85      113           2.4      1.0      1.4
   Finance and insurance........................    143       50       84           2.3       .8      1.4
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     57       35       29           2.6      1.6      1.4
  Professional and business services............    527      391      516           2.9      2.2      2.9
  Education and health services.................    382      297      304           2.1      1.6      1.6
   Educational services.........................     39       35       46           1.5      1.3      1.6
   Health care and social assistance............    342      262      259           2.2      1.7      1.6
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    743      558      621           5.3      3.9      4.4
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     89       60       57           4.0      2.6      2.5
   Accommodation and food services.............     654      499      564           5.5      4.1      4.7
  Other services................................    123       97      176           2.2      1.7      3.2

 Government.....................................    237      137      196           1.1       .6       .9
  Federal.......................................     34        7       12           1.3       .3       .4
  State and local...............................    202      129      185           1.1       .7      1.0

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    481      373      420           1.9      1.5      1.6
  South.........................................  1,434    1,031    1,181           2.9      2.1      2.4
  Midwest.......................................    781      513      811           2.5      1.6      2.6
  West..........................................    809      614      691           2.6      2.0      2.2


  1 Quits are the number of quits during the entire month.
  2 The quits rate is the number of quits during the entire month as a percent of total employment. 
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 9.  Layoffs and discharges levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Aug.     July     Aug.          Aug.     July     Aug.
                                                   2007     2008     2008p         2007     2008     2008p

Total...........................................  1,884    1,737    2,137           1.4      1.3      1.6

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................  1,702    1,617    1,984           1.5      1.4      1.7
  Natural resources and mining..................      9        5        7           1.2       .6       .8
  Construction..................................    241      247      248           3.0      3.3      3.3
  Manufacturing.................................    159      156      175           1.1      1.2      1.3
   Durable goods................................     97      117      129           1.1      1.4      1.5
   Nondurable goods.............................     62       39       46           1.2       .8       .9
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........    324      364      333           1.2      1.4      1.3
   Wholesale trade..............................     70       50       78           1.2       .8      1.3
   Retail trade.................................    211      227      206           1.4      1.5      1.3
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     43       87       49            .8      1.7      1.0
  Information...................................     26       16       14            .9       .5       .5
  Financial activities..........................     99       84      115           1.2      1.0      1.4
   Finance and insurance........................     73       48       72           1.2       .8      1.2
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........     26       36       44           1.2      1.6      2.0
  Professional and business services............    309      298      410           1.7      1.7      2.3
  Education and health services.................    181      196      203           1.0      1.1      1.1
   Educational services.........................     66       47       67           2.5      1.7      2.4
   Health care and social assistance............    115      148      136            .7       .9       .9
  Leisure and hospitality.......................    250      160      356           1.8      1.1      2.5
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........     53       22      136           2.4      1.0      6.0
   Accommodation and food services.............     197      138      220           1.7      1.1      1.8
  Other services................................    104       92      123           1.9      1.6      2.2

 Government.....................................    182      120      153            .9       .6       .7
  Federal.......................................     25        7        9            .9       .2       .3
  State and local...............................    157      113      144            .9       .6       .8

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................    401      303      451           1.6      1.2      1.8
  South.........................................    643      616      703           1.3      1.2      1.4
  Midwest.......................................    437      360      350           1.4      1.2      1.1
  West..........................................    403      458      634           1.3      1.5      2.1


  1 Layoffs and discharges are the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month.
  2 The layoffs and discharges rate is the number of layoffs and discharges during the entire month as a
percent of total employment.
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  p = preliminary.



Table 10.  Other separations levels(1) and rates(2) by industry and region, not seasonally adjusted

                                                    Levels (in thousands)                  Rates

              Industry and region                  Aug.     July     Aug.          Aug.     July     Aug.
                                                   2007     2008     2008p         2007     2008     2008p

Total...........................................    346      294      340           0.3      0.2      0.2

                   INDUSTRY

 Total private..................................    253      232      283            .2       .2       .2
  Natural resources and mining..................      3        2        2            .4       .2       .3
  Construction..................................     10       13       17            .1       .2       .2
  Manufacturing.................................     26       24       22            .2       .2       .2
   Durable goods................................     19       16       15            .2       .2       .2
   Nondurable goods.............................      7        8        7            .1       .2       .1
  Trade, transportation, and utilities..........     71       82       78            .3       .3       .3
   Wholesale trade..............................      7        9       14            .1       .1       .2
   Retail trade.................................     43       46       49            .3       .3       .3
   Transportation, warehousing, and utilities...     21       27       15            .4       .5       .3
  Information...................................     11        6        2            .4       .2       .1
  Financial activities..........................     15       19       22            .2       .2       .3
   Finance and insurance........................     11       13       17            .2       .2       .3
   Real estate and rental and leasing...........      4        6        6            .2       .3       .3
  Professional and business services............     47       34       76            .3       .2       .4
  Education and health services.................     28       23       37            .2       .1       .2
   Educational services.........................      5        2        5            .2       .1       .2
   Health care and social assistance............     24       21       32            .2       .1       .2
  Leisure and hospitality.......................     38       27       24            .3       .2       .2
   Arts, entertainment, and recreation..........      8        3        5            .3       .1       .2
   Accommodation and food services.............      31       24       19            .3       .2       .2
  Other services................................      3        2        2           (4)      (4)      (4)

 Government.....................................     93       62       56            .4       .3       .3
  Federal.......................................     34        7        7           1.2       .3       .3
  State and local...............................     59       55       49            .3       .3       .3

                    REGION (3)

  Northeast.....................................     57       76       48            .2       .3       .2
  South.........................................    112      100      145            .2       .2       .3
  Midwest.......................................     86       54       69            .3       .2       .2
  West..........................................     90       64       78            .3       .2       .3


  1 Other separations are the number of other separations during the entire month.
  2 The other separations rate is the number of other separations during the entire month as a percent of
total employment.
  3 See footnote 8, table 1.
  4 Data round to zero.
  p = preliminary.


Last Modified Date: October 07, 2008
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